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O U T B R E A K P R O J E C T

CHOLERA
B R O C H U R E

What is Cholera ?
Cholera is a bacterial infection and is caused by drinking water
contaminated with vibrio cholerae bacteria .It is a acute
diarrrhoel illness caused by infection of intestine with bacteria
v. cholerae . Cholera is a waterborne disease and can spread
quickly in areas where sanitation is poor and access to clean
drinking water is limited.
Around 75% of people who are exposed to cholera bacteria
do not develop any symptoms. However, these people can
contaminate water by passing stools (faeces) that contain
bacteria into water, or pass on the disease through poor
food hygiene.
Every year, the disease kills an estimated 100,000120,000 people and 35 million others are infected,
according to the World Health Organisation .Any
contaminated water or foods washed in the water
can cause an infection. Cholera is rarely spread
directly from person to person.
Refugee camps, which are often very crowded, are at
very high risk of cholera outbreaks if minimum
requirements of clean water and sanitation are not
met.

The Outbreak of Cholera

What are
the symptoms?
Pain in the Abdomen
nausea
severe diarrhea
vomiting
watery diarrhea
Pain in the abdomen
shock and seizures may occur in severe cases
Dehydration
Muscle Cramps

How do you treat Cholera ?


Rehydration is the goal to replace lost fluids and electrolytes
using a simple rehydration solution, oral rehydration salts
(ORS), Without rehydration, approximately half the people
with cholera die.
Antibiotics,antibiotics are not a necessary part of cholera
treatment, some of these drugs may reduce both the amount
and duration of cholera-related diarrhea.. A single dose of
doxycycline (Monodox, Oracea, Vibramycin) or azithromycin
(Zithromax, Zmax) may be effective.
Zinc supplements. Research has shown that zinc may
decrease and shorten the duration of diarrhea in children
with cholera.
IV Fluids is used severely dehydrated people may also need
intravenous fluids.
If not treated, dehydration can lead to shock and death in a
matter of hours.

The graph represents the population that uses sanitation


faculties and how it has changed over time in different
countries .

How do you prevent yourself from getting Cholera?


Supply of clean and safe drinking water
Make sure to decontaminate the water (boiled
or chlorinated)
Wash fruits and vegetables properly with safe
water before eating and for preparing food
Wash your hands with soap and water after visiting
the toilet and before handling food

If you are traveling to a place known for having


Cholera , make sure to get the Vaccination

antibacterial treatment of general sewage by


chlorine , ozone , ultraviolet light

How does Cholera effect your body ?


The bacteria multiply rapidly
Toxin from bacteria penetrates cells of intestinal wall
Toxins prevents intestine from absorbing water from digested food
rapid loss in body fluids
Death can occur between 2-3 hours

How does Cholera affect the world ?


It affects 3-5 million people world wide
Causes 100,00-130,000 deaths a year
In the 1980's , death rates are believed to be
greater than 3 million per year
Cholera remains both epidemic and endemic
in many areas of the world
It makes it hard to find clean and safe water
in polluted areas

The green represents the places


with the most cases of Cholera.

Citation
"Cholera."Http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/general.CDC,5May2016.Web
"Cholera." Http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cholera-faq. 19 May 2016. Web.

"Cholera."Http://www.webmd.com/atozguides/cholerafaq.19May2016.Web.