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ANDBOOK

Assaciation of Struct

gheers of the Philippines, Inc.

Unit T-10, New Manila Condominium


21 N. Domingo St.. Quezon City

Steel Flat Products 6-47

Table 6-49: Tolerance on Width and Length


I

Unit:mm
7

Division

I
I

Width

I
I

Length

---

I
I

Tolerance
+10

t15
0

Mote: The actual length of coils must not be less than the nominal length.

ASEP Steel wandbook


-27.

I
I
1
I
I
J

FOREWORD

PART 1

. . . .. . .......... .

Built-Up Shapes

PART 2
Cold-Formed Plate Shapes

....

PART 3
Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes
PART 4
Rolled Shapes

......

PART 5
Metal Decks . . . . . . .
PART 6

Steel Fiat Products


PART 7
Design Examples

PART 8
Welded Joints .

. .. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 to
. ..

1-52

. . . . . . . . . . 2-1to 2-20

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 to 3-40

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 1 to 4-80

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 to 5-22

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 to 6-48
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 7- 1 to 7-42

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 t o 8-26

PART 9
Miscetlaneous Tahtes and Data

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3

to 3.430

el0
cm
am*
sxct.
&GI.

ila

kefm
klJ

m .
mex

mtn
mm

WIPa
N
Be
psi

rad
sq.m.

temp As
TYP
W

PNS

--

center t o center
centimeter
cubi~
meter
exclusive
inclusive
kilogram
kilogram per meter
kiloNewton
meter
maximum
minimum
millimeter
megapascal
Newton
Pascal
pounds per square inch
radians
square meter
temperature steel
typical
weight

American Concrete Institute


American Institute of Steel Construction
Arnerlcan Iron and Steel lnstitute
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Welding Society
British Standards
Japanese Industrial Standards, 1991
National Structural Code of the Philippines, Vol. 1, Fourth
Edition, 7992
Philippine National Standards

---

ASEP Steel Hmdbook


."iij .

GENERAL.
This @EP Steel Handbookis intended primarily to serve as a guide En the
se1ec.tict1and use of locatiy available structurat steel products. These products
are divided into five classes based o n tho method of,manufact~lrr: and/or
maximum thickness of the section, The first five parts of this handhook
corresponrt t o t!lesct classes as follows:
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4

Part 5

Built-Up Shapes
Cold-Formed Plate Shapes
Cold-Formed Light Gagc Shapes
Rol!ec! Shapes
Metal Decks

Each o f these parts presents a series of tables of computed and/or


compiled data. These data consist of sectional dimensions and properties
chosen and arranged to enable rapid and convenient selection o f structilral steel
members. For increased usefulness, several other tables, formulas, and design
information are presented in Parts 6 t o 9 o f this handbook.
A s an updated edition of the ASE-P Handbook of Steel Shapes and
Sections, this handbook has considerably been expanded and contains several
major revisions. The major revisions include the following:

1.

The thickness of steel piates for the built-up and bent plate have
been modified. The thickness adopted corresponds to the bar
sizes of reinforcing steel bars primarily t o facilitate recollecr;on.
This adaptation eliminates thickness w i t h fractions o f millimeters.
The maximum thickness adopted for built-up sections was also
increased from 44 to 45 millimeters. The maximum thicltness usad
for b e n t shapes has been reduced from 25 t o 20 millimeters.

2.

The thickness of steel sheets for light gage sectiorrs have heen
modified. The adopted thickness range f r o m 2.0 to 6.0 millimeters
in increments of 0.5 millimetix. This compares witit the thicl~ness
used in the first edition which range from 1.2 t o 4.7 miili~neiers
w i t h varying incren~entso f 0.2 or 0.3 miliirnetcr

The range of overali depths of built-up BW and BH sections has


been modified. The overall depths of BW sections adopted range
from 200 to 1,000 mitfimeters in increments of 50 or 100
mitlimetets from the previous range of 100 lo 920 millimeters
with variable increments. The overail depths of BH sections
sdopred from 200 to 700 millimeters compared to the prevlous
195 ro 425 millimeters.
BuUt-up wide flrnga Tee, ~WT,$ectionproperties has been added.
The rolled shapes and sections has considerably been expanded
with the adoption of sections from the AtSC Manual of Steel
Consttuction, 93h edition, except for the angle sections. Although
the standard AtSC designations were adopted, the tabulated
section properties are in SI units.
Part 5, presenting two metal deck shapes has bean added to the
hendtrook. Metal decks are cold-formed light gage shapes and
norn~affyvary with the manufacturer. The handbook limited the
shapes to those shapes tocally available.
The discussion on steel frat products, originally incorporated
within the rolted shapes, has been considerably expanded to
include excerpts from standard specifications. his expansion
mftriteri the separation of the discussion to a new Part 6 uf the
handbook.
Design examples has bean added in the new Part 7 of the
handbook. Each of the five design exampies include detaiiod
discussions and references to the differen1 parts of this handbooit
a s wall as if)@ NSCP.
The discussion on welded ]oints. pteviously presented with the
miscell~neaustabtes and &ate, is presented in a seaerated Part 8
af this handbook. An expanded misceftaneoos tables and data is
presented in Part 9.

ASEP Steel tianrievok


- 8 -

Foreword

CU\SSIFICATION AND DESIGNATIONS

The folfowing classifications and designations are used for the different
structural shapes presented in this handbook.

--

Shape

Designation

Wide-Flange

BW

H x W

BH

H x W

- Heavy Column

I BWT H x W
1 BC H x B x t

Wide Flange-Tee
Channel

Stiffened Cee

LC

HxBxCxt

Stiffened Zee

LZ

HxBxCxt

LR

HxBxt

Rectangular Tube

---.

Square Tube

LS

Wide Fianae

H x B x --t

d x w

S-Shape

d x w

dxw

WT

d x w

HxBxt

PS

PE

PD

f
I
f

Channel
Structural Tee
Angfe
Pipe - standard
Pioe - Extra Strona

Pipe Double-Extra

ASEP Ste

Handbook

-.

I
1
I

Where:

is the aange width of the section; shorter leg


of angles; shorter side of tubular sections, in
mm.
is the overalt depth of lip of tight gage
sections, in mm.
Is the depth of rolled sections, in inches.
#s the depth of the section; tonger leg of
angles; longer side of tubular section, in mm.
is tho ovoratf widths of ineta8 decks, in mm.
is the base metal thickneaur of the section, in
mm.
is the nominal weight p w unit ien@th,in kgtm.
is tho naminat weight per unit Ienipth of rolled
sections, in ibslft.

The sectfons and shapes ptessnted in the first three parts of this
handbook may be refarred t o as fabricated sttapes as they are made from rolled
flat products. These sections are timited therefore by the availability of these
fkt products, and the availabiiity and limitations of the equipment required in
tha fabrication of these shapes and sections.
There are t w o generai methods af producing structural shapes from flat
m e t products. On$ is by welding together plates into the desired shape, and
the other is by cold-formine plates, coils sheets, or strips.
Shapes produced by weldrnents are referred here as 'flultt-Up' shapes
an8 are limited t o the use of plates having a thickness greater than or equal t o
6.0 milfimoters.
Shapes may also be cold-formed by passing the Rat steel products in roils
the desired shape is attained, or by press brake bending. For consistency
with common practice, however, these shapes are divided into two classes
ckybtrnding on the thickness of the base metal used. Cold-fot .ad piate shapes
are produced from plates with thickness greatef than ar equal $6.0millimeter.
Cold-formed tight gage shapes, on the other hand, are prod^ ad from coifs,
sheets, or strips with thicknessless than or eq nl to 6.0 mlllit: \tw.

ASEP Steel Handbook


xii

Foreword

For plates, the following thickness, in millimeters, were adopted: 6,8, 10, 12.
16, 20,25, 28. 32,40,45,For light gage sections the following thickness, in
millimeters, were adopted: 2.0,2.5,3.0, 3.5,4.0,4.5,5.0. 5.5,6.0.
Because of the general flexibility of the fabrication methods, an infinite
variation of shapes and sections can b e produced. The shapes presented have
been limited t o those con~monlyused for each classification.
For the sections, the dimensions were chosen such that the optimum
utilization of the available flat products is attained. Furthermore, the dimensions
were chosen such that certain limits given in the provisions of applicable codes
and specificatioi~sare n o t exceeded. These limits are discussed more fully in
the text accompar!ving each part of this handbook.
Note that the f a b r i ~ a t e dsections presented are n o t standard stock
sections. The designer is also in no way limited t o the tabulated shapes and
sections. Use of special shapes and sections may be advantageous in somfa
cases where substantial economy may be derived from its use. Furthermore,
special shapes and sections may also be required to meet requirements
particular t o a given problem.

ROLLED SHAPES
Rolled shapes are defined here as those produced b y passina red-hot
blooms or billet steel through rolls until the desired shape is attained. Except f ~ r
the angles. the shapes and sections adopted are those from the 9 t h edition of
the AlSC Manual of Steel Construction. The AlSC sections adopted include the
W, S, C, W T and pipe sections.
A s stated above, the designation used in this handbook is identical to
those used i n the AlSC Manual, although the section dimensions and properties
are presented in the SI units.

SECTION AND PROPERTIES


The sectional properties tabulated were calculated based o n generally
accepted engineering principles and were generated using micro-computers.
Simplifications and/or assumptions particular for each class of shapes arc
discussed in the descriptive material pieceeding each part of this handbook.

ASCP Steel UC~wJbook


~ 8 i 1

in calculating the theoretical weight of the sreei sections, a mass density


of 7850 kglrn3 was used'
RKMANSHIP AMD TOLERANCES
The dimensions and proparries shown on the rables are theoretical values
and rhose of the finished prodtrcis will be subjected to the usual variatia:is.

Ibkrrrances not covered shall he based on applicable specificatloos felating to


the designer with proper ragard ra
f&bication and erection requirements.

each cfaslr and shalt be specified by

STEEL FLAT PRODUCTS

Flat structural steei ~roduetsare locaiiy avsifable a s hot-rolled plates,


csih and sheets. in addition, cold-rolled coils and sheets are also montdfactured
tecdy. The detailed discussion on flat products and available sizes can be
found in Part 6. The fabricated shapes are based on these products.

ASEP :hoe! Har~rlbo:k


xiv

BUILT-UP SHAPES

ASEP

'tee1 H a n d b o o k
-1-

CONTENTS

................................................
General ......................................................
Scope and Classifioation ..................................... 1-5
mterialg .................................................... 1-6

Nomenclature

......................................... 1-6
Sectional Cimensi~ns

.........................................1-8
Welds ........................................................ 1-8
Comments on the Design Tables ................................1-4
Dimensiolial Tolerances .......................................1-10
Sectional Properties

Tables of Dimensions and Properties

BW
BH

............................................. 1-14
Shapes ............................................. 1-24
Shapes

BWT- Shapes

Beam Selection

............................................. 1-34

able ........................................ - 1 - 4 4

.......................................... 1-48
Compressive Stress Table ........................... 1-49

Values of C, Table
Allowable

AS;

Steel Handbc k
.3 .

NOmNCLATURE

Definition

crass-sectional aree
Area of cowresstan f l m s e
Ftange width
Slenderness ratio of compression elements ae
defi~t3i n Appendix A of 1992 NSCP, Chapter 4.
Axial cmapriissivs stress paraittad in a pritmatic
matbar in the abrsence of bending inolwnt
specifid nrinlmw yield stress of structural steel
Depth of tb section
Clear aiatarmce Mtwemn f3augss
Moaasnt of iwrtita about tha i t 4 axis
mmmnt of izmztia abatlt the Y-Y axis
EffeCtiv@ Langth factor for prismatic amber
zlcwsr mtbrac& P
W i m m mibraceid
of tba aapressioo fl8age
at which the alloapabla baading stress may lm takeucl
aa 0.6QTp based on NSCP Gact. 4.5.1.4.1
Maxi
mBraeat3 length of the compression flange
at which the allowable bending stress may be taken

as 0.60PY
B%an raolsting moment
Ratio of effective profile area of an axiafly
r to its total profile area,
Appendix A, 1992 NSCP
First mnuant of area of the beam flange about
the neutral axis
Axial stress reduction factor where wiaththicknsaa ratio of unsttdfened elements exceeas
flirniting value given i n Sect. 4.9.12,
Appenaix x o f 1992 NSCP
Radius of gyration of a section coaprising the
comprcsisaion flange plus I f 3 of the comprel~sion
web area, taken about an axis in the plane af
the web
Radius of gyrstiora ahout the X-x axis
Radius of gyration about the Y-Y axis
Elastic sectmn modulus about X - X hxis

Built-up Shapes 1-3

s~
T
tf
t"

w
W

2,

z~

Elastic section modulus about Y-Y axis


Height of web excluding weid thickness
Flange thickness
Web thickness
Minimum fillet weld size
Weight of the section per unit length
Plastic section modulus about the X-X axis
Plastic section modulus about the Y-Y axils

ASEP Steel H a book


-5-

Bui l t - U p Shapes 1 - 5

BUILT-UP SHAPES

Built-up 8hapc.s are herein defined as structural steel


sections made up of steel platas with thicknesi* ranging from 5 . 0
nun to 45.0 mm, welded together to form
structural ohapas.
Considering that locally produced rolled shapes are normally
limited to depths of about 200 mm, built-up sections are fre-quently used as a substitute for rolled sections.
Soma fabricators use modern equipment, such as multiple head
gas cutting amchines and automatic welding machines, needed in
the production of built-up shapes. These modern equipment have
considerably increased the economy and efficiency of production
of built-up sections. With the tables presented in this Part 2
of the Steel Handbook, designers may dlrectly select and speclfy
a built-up section, Alternatively, the tables may be used to
facilitate the substitution of built-up becrions for rolled
sect ions.

Scope and Classification


As defined above, there is an infinite number of posslble
shapes which could be presented. For simplicity, however, this
Steel Handbook is limited to the most corrronly used built-up
shapes. i-e. the bi-symmetric I shape and the wide flange Tee
shape.
Three specific built-up shapes are presented in this Steel
Handbook, the BW, BH, and BWT shapes. The BW sections are intended primarily for use as becam members, while the BH sections
are normally intended for use as columns. The BWT sections are
intended for use as truss top and bottom nhord elements.
The
classification and designation relating to tZ?eseshapes are given
below.

1-5 DuiJt-Up Shapes

I
I
i
I

-- -7

Class

Shapa

Oesignaticn

Bur lt-Up

Wide Flanne
Heavy CQ11ma
Wide Flange Tee

-4

BW
BH

HxW
HxU

BWT HxW

i
1
1

The designation of built-up sections arm based on outside


depth
weight per meter length rather than on a21 dimensions
of the buikt-up section as is used in other standards. The adopted form i s tisimpler and is one which is familiar to local desiwers

The BW and BH sections are distinguished by the ratio,


tx/r y e
of the radius of gyration about the %-X and Y-Y axes,
rosplctively.
EU sectiona have r,/ry ratios gtraater h a or
equal to 3.0, while BH sections have r,/ry ratios less than 3.0.
The grouping, however, doe8 not imply that tne EW aectiom
are to be used only as beams, and BH sections aa columns.
Pap
ticular loading or lateral support conditions or other requireabents m y dictate the shape o f a given memb%r.
The built-up tee (BWT) sections presented are assumed to be
obtained by cutting BW sections similar to rolled tee sections.
The depth df BWT soctione are therefore half Of those correapon&.
Lng Btt sections,

A total of 255 built-up sections are presented in this st-1


Bandbook. Of these, 8 8 are SU sections with depths ranging frw
200 1 ~ 1to 1000 m. There are 81 BH sections with depths ranging from 206 am to 700 m.. There are 86 BW-sections with depthp
ranging tram 100 am to 500 mmn.
Materials
The m~nimumquality reqairement for built-cp shape fabrrca..
tion is structural steel coxktoxining to ASTR A36 and/or J f S ~ 3 1 0 1
SS 400 (formerly JTS C3101 SS 41).

3.

'St

1 f?andbook

Locally rolled plates are available for these grades oi


mtructural steel which have minimum specified yield stresses, I".,
of 248 Wtj aad 245 MPa, respectively. The sectional propertief5
and limits of built-up shapes and sections are based on thcse
values. Further information regarding materials for built-up
ahapes i s given in Part 6.
Sectional Dimensions
A major consideration in the choice of dimensions of the
sections is the optimum utilization of locally available plates.
Again, to facilitate easy recall in detailing and deslgn and to
simplify splices between connections, out-to-out" depth at predlctable increments is adopted in this Steel Handbook.

With the "out-to-out" depth, the clear distance between


flanges will vary depending on the flange thickness resulting in
a lower .yield of the web plates. This situation is unlike the
case of rolled wide-flange and S-shapes whose clear distances
between flanges are kept constant for each family of the nominal
depths.
The constant clear distance between flanges of rolled
sections is due to the roiling equipment used in its manutact:?.rre
where sectional differences within a family are achie>*ed by
vdifying the flange dimensions and the web thicknesses.
Built-up sections, however, are not subject to these limitations. ff: I s believed that the use of a constant "or.!t-tc-ont"
dapth would provide
ease in detailing, fabrication a i d
erection. Fi:rthermore, it is'believed that the cited ut i l iz;lticn
of
plates could still be improved by choosing a proper cutting
layout or by using the remaining plate materials for sec:ondar.y
structural elements such as gussets and stiffeners.
Asids from the utii-izationof available plates, the dimensions of the flanges of both BW and RH sections were proportioned
to satisfy the limit on the width to thickness ratio for unatiffened elements of the compression flange according to NSCP Sect.
4.5.1.4.1. This limiting ratio, of 170/JFg, equals to 10.8 for
structural steel coaforming.to ASTM A 3 6 .

1-8 Built.-ilp Shapes

For the web dimensions of BW sections, the thicknesses were


lFaited such that the allwnbls shear stress ray be taken as
Q.40Fg without. the use of stiffeners. The maximum ratio of the.
cl~asr distance between flanges to web thickness h/t, equal to
]1000/lF
For a yield stress of 248 MPa, this ratio has a value
of 63.5.
Note that stiffeners should still be provided as requirad by o t b r provisions of the code, particularly NSCP Sects.
4.10.5 and 4.10.10.

For ttm ueb dimensions of BH aections, the thickneases were


limited so that the depth to thickness ratio of the web, h/t;,
This
Qar not exceed the value specified by NSCP forxala 4.5-4b.
limiting ratio, 675/JFy, has a value of 42.8 for Fy equal to 248

NRa.
ti%ctional Properties

The

properties, ratios, and weights of the sections were


aemputed cansidering the diQ+amions of the flange and web plates
anly.
The weld aatarial was excluded. Ifi a competitive design
r*nd constmctien environment, some besigners would include the
capacity o f the weld nmterial.
For built-up tees, values of Q , and C', for Steel with minimum yield oltrese, Fy equal to 248 MFa are also tabulated. For
gections with width to thickness ratio of unstiffened projecting
eleaants of comgreesion flange exceeds 330/JFy as specified ip,
lPSCP Sect. 4.9.1.2,
the allowable stress is governed by the
~ S O V ~ S ~ of
O ~ Appendix
S
A, Section A 2 , A5 and A6 of Chapter 4,
Part 2 of the MBCP. Where no values of 9, and C', are shown, the
krullt-up tee conforms to NSCP Sect. 4.9.b.2 and is considered as
fully effective.

The dtmansion " w " given in the tables of dimensions


properties is the minimum Leg size of fillet weld& as Specified
The actual size of fillet welds must be
in NSCP Table 4 . 1 7 . 2 A .
specified by the designer. To facilitate this calculation, the
quantity Qf/Ix are tabulated for each BW and BH oectio~~s.Qi i s
ASEP

' eel
I'

,andbook

Duilt-Up Shapes 1-9

the first moment of area of a flange about the X - X axis.


Groove welds may also be used to connect the flanges to the
web plate. If required, groove welds shall be as specified by
the designer.

Co-nts

an the Design Tables

Aside ftom the tables of dimensions and properties, a Beam


Selaction Table for the BW sections is included to facilitate the
sslect2.on of flexural members dtlslgned on the basis of NSC? Sect.
4.5.1.4.1.
For ease of use, the quantities required to check the
compact section criteria are included, together with the limiting values of the unbraced lengths.
For the design of compression members, a table of the allowable stress as a function with the slenderness ratio, Kl/r, is
also included.

AS1

Stes

Handbook

1
1

I
i
I

{B/lOO, but aoti


I leas than 6 ruJ

a H is maeured patulle1 to the web a t the ueb center l i n e .


F is the laaximwa o f f s e t a t the toe of the flange fron, r
f i n e noma1 t o the plane o f the web through the tntessection o f the web center l i n e and tb
flange.

outside face c "

the

Built-up Shapes :-.I1

B. STIWIGHTMESS TOLERANCE

---

I-----7
- 1Member
I
Length
1
Permissible Variations in

-t
+-1
I
columns

Beams w/o
!specified
(Camber or
1 Sweep

1
I
I
I

- I- 1
1

Less than 9,100


9,100 to 13,700
Over 13,700

1
I

1 mm x (total length in m)
10 mm
10 mm + 1 mm x (total length
in m
13.7 m)

I
I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I
I

I
I

Straightness, mm

rrrm

I
1

All

I
I

1 mm x (total length in m )

C . CAMBER AND SWEEP TOLERANCES

i~arlable

Member

lBeams except ( 2 raa, x (test length in m), but not


1 below a
I less than 6 mn

+--i
(Camber
I
I
I

1
I
1 Sweep

"

/Beams with
ltopflange
lembedded in
( concrete

I
1 Beams

IPermissible Variations from Specified


I
C a m b e r or Sweep, IMI

--I

I
I
I
1
I
I
I

I
I

0.5 mm x (total length in m), but


not less than 6 mm
1 mm x (total length in m)

Tolerance over specified camber of beams need not exceed


the greater of 1 m x (length to the nearest end in m ) or
19 m. The toierarice under tho specifted camber is 0 KUII.
Flust ~ n have
i
a designed concrete haunch. c':,ecified
tolerance is for over and U P X ~ U Kspecified camber.

I
I

Built-Up Shapes 1-13

TABLES
OF
DtMENSlO S AND PROPERTIES

ht kr

IgrmMon
HxW

km

HI4

A
mm2

llmm

Rrn

ASEP

'%?

mdhoo!;

B u r l t - . U p Shapes 1-15

BW SHAPES
Dlmenalonr
Proputlor
8opwkiea
7
Axis Y-Y

I
I

Plmtte Modulus

7
Dwgnrtion
HxW
BW 1COOx 518
x 457

x 373
BW

mx

496

x 444
x 4'93
x 370
x 357

x 333
x 334
x 2e3
BW 900x M7
x 315
x 264
x 2%
x 225
x

ASEP Steel Iiandh ,k


-17.

ASEP steel Handbar.


-18.

Built-up Shapes 1-17

Deaignat~on
HxW

-BW

6 0 0 x It%

x
x
x
x

13
'9
150
133
1113

BW mx

\Ff
x 1%
;< 123
x 13?

RW

mr

$3

13

BW Wx 181
x

:m

x 115
l$Q

<;

x l(XI

BW 450 x

1C.1
x %

x s.3

ASE

itee

Handbook

Built-IJp Shapes 1 - 2 5

ASEP Steel Handbook


"7

Rullt-Up Shapes 1-27

BH SHAPES
Dimensions
Proputirs

xll

AXIS X-X

heignatinn
HxW

S
x10:

mm-

;m

*YSEP Stee 1 Handbook


-29.

ASF2 S

i War

.ocrk

R u i l t - U p Shapes 1 29

BH SHAPES
Dlmonrlonr
Propertler
-

Plastr
Axis Y-Y
Deeignation

:I@ xl03
nm4 rnm3

HxW

mm

ASEP Steel Handbi


-31-

mrn3

1-35 Built-Up Shapes.

BX S W E G

Dimensions
Proportier

Oeelgnabon
HxW
BH 2 X ) x :5
x 14

x 12
x i3
x 10
x 8

x 7
BH 250x 5
x 5
X

BH X O x %

x 6)
x 71
.x

x 6
x 5
x 4

BH

3
x 3
x 3:

2(10x

Dcr'lgnrtiien
HxW

Bti S W E S
Dimensions
Prupairiirs

A S C P S t ee i

3-1

ktnnrlbook

1-24 Builk-Up Shapes

:-X

Axis Y-Y

.- - - - - - - BWT 533 x 2 4
0.845 137
x 232
O M 137
x 214
0.845 137
x 197
0.845 137
x 187
!

0.951

0.951
0.703

0,7CQ

129 BWT
1 29
1%
'$3

4 5 0 x 1 4 3 iI

x 1411
X 1321
x :IS;
.x ?ti?!
x iiX/

1-36 Built-Up Shapes

BW SHAPES
Dlmonrlonr
Propwllor

Axie X-x

----

BWT

4CCx
x
x
x

14

:3

12t
:1t
x 1 C+

----

---

Where no value of C', w Q,to ohown, the mclun Mmp!!eO wtlh NGCP Sect 4.8.1.2
ASEP

.-

eel H"mdbook
-39-

1-38 Built-Up Shapes

Built-up Shapes 1-39

87
65

3e.S 0638
34.1 0.618

160 BWT
780

150 12

RO 213 MB

5x1 m ao zrs aia

Built-up Shapes 1 - 4 1

BWT SHAPES
Dlmenrions

Properties

,
-mm

1 1

brignation
tixw

--

128 BWT

41.1 O.B70
38.5 0.978

128

175x 2'
x 2,

41,7 0,654

156

x 2

Where no value o: G', cx 9,lo ohown, me uaclbn cornplleo wlth NGCP Sect. 4.8.1.2

PISEP S t e e l tlandboc

-13-

--

? ... 4 t B:rL 1-r.--Up Shapes

ASCP

?eel Iiandbnok
-44-

1
I

- Elsatlc Proprrtiee
Axis Y -Y

axia X-X

Whera no vaius 01 C' cx Q

IQ

- L A

--

ohown, the mctbn mrnplleo wtitr NSCP ~ s c t4.8.1


.
2

ASEE Steel Handbook

-45-

1-44 Built-up Shapes

BEAM SELECTION TABLE

ASCF St.eel Iartdbo


-46-

BEAM SELECTION TABLE

A. E P S t e e ~ kandbook
4,

1 - 4 6 Built-Up Shapes

BEAM SUECffON TABLE

ASEP Steel Handbook


-49-

1-46 Bui 1%-Up Shapes

PLLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS TABLE

F, = 248 MPa

Main and Swndsrv Mombus


Kl/r not

F,

F,
(MPa)

l38,8Q
136.40

11943
118 76
11809
117 41
11672

3 E L
1S.QO

1 S639
134,07

1 I6 03

134.35
133.82
133.29
132.75
132.21

11533
11463
113 93
113 22

1 31 ,ss
131,lO
130.54
12m?
129.39

112 50
1 1 1 78
1 1 1 05
11032
109 58

12t.01
128.23
l27,83
l27.Q4
128.43

1W04
108 09
10734
10658
10582

125.82
12521
1 23.96
123.33

10505
104 27
la49
102 71
101 92

122.69
122.05
121.40
120.75
-12m9

101.13
I W.33
98 52
68.71
. -37.90

124,59

ASEP

Steel Nandboo
-51-

1-50 Built-Up Shapes

&LOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS T A 9 E

Cold-Formed P1at.c Sbap-1s 2 -1

CONTENTS
Nomenclature ................................................
General .....................................................
Scope and Classificat~on....................................
Materials ...................................................
Sectional Dlmenslons ........................................

Sectional Properties ........................................


Tables of Dimensions and Properties
BA-Shapes (Equal Legs) .................................
BA-Shapes (Unequal Legs) ...............................
BC-shapes ..............................................

ASEP Str

1 Handbook
5 7-

2-2

Cold-Formed Plate SiiapeS

NOMENCLATURE

Definition
Cross-sectional area
Flange width of channel or length
of shorter leg of angle
Depth of the channel or length
of longer leg of angle
Specified minimum yield stress of structural steel
Moment of inertia about U-U axis
Moment of Inertia about V-V axis
Moment of inertia about X-X axis
Moment of inertia about Y-Y axis
Inside radius of bend
Radius of gyration about U-U axis
Radius of gyration about V-V axis
Radius of gyration about X-X axis
Radius of gyration about Y-Y axis
Elastic sectlon modulus about X-X axis
Elastic section modulus about Y-Y axis
Base metal thickness
Flat width of elements exclusive of fillets
Weight of the section per unit length
Distance from centroid to outer face of the
section along the X-X axis
Distance from centroid to outer
face of the section along the Y-Y axis
Angle between the X-X axis and the
principal U-U axis

ASEP Steel ifandboo6

Units
mm2

mm
mm
MPa

mm4
mm4

mm4
mm4

mm
mm
ntm

mm
m
mm3
m m3

m3

mm
mm

kg/m
mm
mm

rad

Cold-i'ormed 1'

1at.r.

Shapes 2--3

COLD-FORMED PLATE SHAPES

General
Cold-formed plate shapes are normally used as substitutes
for particular families of rolled shapes llke angles and channels
because .of the limited ranges of sections available for the
latter.
Cold-formed plate shapes are defined here as sections made
from steel plates with thickness ranging from 6.0 mm to 20.0 mm
formed by cold rolling or by press brake bending into the desired
shapes. Shapes cold-formed from thinner plates are designated as
light gage shapes and are covered in Part 3 of this handbook.
Compared to built-up sections which use plate thicknesses up
to 45.0 mm, a maximum plate thickness of 20.0 mm was adopted for
cold-formed plate sections. This maximum was adopted due to
concerns on possible material damage and the difficulty of fabrlcating shapes using thicker plates. Furthermore, because of t"o
relatively thicker steel material used compared to the light gape
shapes only. simple shapes requiring few bends are included i n
this handbook.
For the design of cold-formed plate sections, the pronlslons
of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Specificario~l
for the Deaign Of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members are recommended.

Scope of Classification
Only two families of simple structural shapes are given in
this Part 2: the angles and the channel. The classification and
designations relating to these shapes are given below.

ASE

Steel ilandbr 7k
-59-

i
- - - - , -I1

Class

Shape

Designation

i1 cold-~ormaei
Angle,
EA
Plate
Cmnnel
BC
II

--i

I
/I
i

NxBxt
NxBxt

i
i

A tatal o t 77 bent-plate sections are presented in this


statel Wandbgcik.
Of these, 23 are BA shapes having equal legs
witn deptha ranging front 50
to 200 m, and 27 are BA shams
w i n g unequal. iegs wkrn deptfu3 ranging from 75 m to 225 mi,
The remaining 1 7 sections are BC shapes with depths ranging froop
70 m to 390 m ~ n .

The miniquality rrzquirisanl: for cold-farmed plate fabrrcation is structural steel eonforming to ASTW A35 and/or 31.9
63103. 5S400 [farmerly 319 C3101 SSQl). Locally rolled plates are
avaifabls for these grades of rirtructurai steel, whicb have mlnrspecified yield stress, %, of 248 MPa and 245 MPa, xespecly, The aw.?kianal prcpertfera and listits of cold-formsd plate
s are W35o8 M these values. Further informatiozi regarding
ials of col8-forme4 plate shapes is given in Part 6 o f t h i s

R consideration in the chc?ice o f dimtlnsions i S "ihe util :.%ation o f fbcalXy-wai'lahle staa3 plates. Y i e l C t is Camputed 1 1 ? i r ~
1829 nun wide p l a t e s , equal ~ i d t hstrips, and an allowance o f 3 ale

gmr cut,

The sectional dimensions are also chosen such that the


maximum allowable compressive stress on the unstiffened elements
may be taken as 0.60Fy based on the AISI provisions. Thus, the
legs of the angles and the flanges of the channels were propor-.
tioned such that the flat width to thickness ratio, w/t, does not.
exceed 166/JF.. This limiting ratio has a value of 10.54 for F y
equal to 248 &pa.
In this Steel Handbook, the plate thicknesses of the hdse
metal now adopts metrlc dimensions and increments ranging from
6.0 mm to 20.0 mm as compared with 6.3 mm to 2 5 . 0 nun in the
Jst
Edition. Based on current observations of locally-produced material, this maximum limit of 20.0 mm is considered as the current
practical limit
because of the difficulty of bendlng thicker
plates to the required radius.
minimum
The radii of bends, R, given in the tables are
values and are measured from the inside face 3f the bends. In
coordination with the metal fabricators, the inside bend radius
of thcse cold-formed plate shapes are now uniformly made as 2.0
times the material thickness compared with the 1.5 times to 2.0
times the material thickness in the 1st Edrtion. These limits arc
imposed to avoid "necking" and micro-cracking of the material at
the bends during cold-forming.

Sectional Properties
Sectional properties used in this Steel Handbook are now
computed utilizing selected metric dimensions and increments
based on ASTM A36M-87 steel plates as compared wlth the 1st
Edition which were done using selected ASTM A 3 6
st.eel plates
with "English" dimensions and increments.
The properties, ratios, and weights of these cold-formed
plate shapes are computed using the so-called "area m.,thodw based
on the actual dimensions of the section taking into consideration
the effect of the bend. The so-called "linear method" normally
used for light gage sections is not used for the determination of
the sectional properties of tbese shapes.

ASEP :;tee1 H a r

-61

book

2 - 6 Cold-Formed Plate Shapes

For the angles, the moments af inertia and the radii o t


gyration about the principal centroidal axes are
given.
tangent Q the angles maae by the. X-X a x i s and t h e U-U axis are
also given in the tables.

ASEP 5

,el Uandb, ok
-E:!-

Cold-Formed Plate Shapes 2-7

TABLES
OF
ENSIQNS AND PROPERTIES

ASEP i *eel "';mcibook


6-

2-8 Cold-Formed Plate SRapes

rid
Yc
mm

807
58.5
s>
3
52.4
51.1
48 6

424

40.0
37.7

38.6
s3.g
31.5
30.4
29.2

a.4
24,2

23.I
21.9

ASEP Ctee X Etar.dboc k

.w

Colcl-Formed P l a t e Shapc:s 2 - 3

Xld
mm'

XI

mm'
-

27,425

7,425

22,882

1,882
7,848

17,648
1 6,225
13,640
10,732

625

5,874
5,046
4,051
44 s

5,874
3046
4,051
8 48s

z406

2 408
1,972
1,714
1,429

1,972
1,714
1,429

3,640
0,732

884
761
673

894
761

570

570
432

432

673

3-10 Cold-Fotnrsd Plate Shapes

ist

abldiw

Y,
rnm

24.0
m.0
16.0
320

I$*$
38.2
17.0

rnrn

1s.e

2-12 Gold-Formed Plate Shams

-tan

a
a258
4251

0.24B
a342
0.333

0,324
0412
0 401
A399

0.306
0 526
RSl4

0 508

a 504

0880
R6@

Q@M
0.6s

BA SHAPES
D~rneneione
PropMt~es
Unequal Anglm

.I

XI

o3

T14

a,202
Z,913

'0,940
17,491

14,920
11,887
1 2.741
10,925

8,740
7,511

6,977
5,610
4,043
4,003

4,575
3.709
3,207
2, ass

2-14 Cold-Forated P l a t t ? Shapfts

AGRP

Stsel Handbook
--70-

2-1;6 Cold-Formed Plate Shapes

ASEP S

631

Handbook

<.

Cold-Formed Plate Shapes 2-17

BC Shapr

Dknrnrlons
Propriles

2-18 Cald-Fofrew3 Plate Shapes

ASEP Steel H a ~ d i m o k
-74-

Cold Formed Plate S h d p e s 2 - 1 9

r
rnm

433
44.5
45 7

330
38.3

37,s
23.2
24 5
258

PART 3
COLD- FORMED
LIGHT 6

Cold-Formed L i g h t Gage Shapes 3- 1

CONTENTS

Nomenclature ................................................. 3 - 1

......................................................
3-3
Scope and Classification .....................................3-4
Materials .................................................... 3-55
Methods of Cold-Forming ...................................... 3-5
Sectional Dimensions ......................................... 3-6
S~ctionalProperties ......................................... 3-6

General

Slitting Guide For Lip Sections ..............................

3-7

Dimensional Tolerances ....................................... 3-10


Tables of Dimensions and Properties

............................................... 3 - 1 4
LZ-Shapes ...............................................3-24

LC-Shapes

LR-Shapes

...............................................

LS-shapes...........

3-34

....................................3-38

ASEP S t e e l H.

Jbook

3-2 Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes

NOMENCLATURE
Units

Definition
Cross-sectional area
Flange width of section or shorter leg
of .tubular section
Effective design width of element
Overall depth of stiffening lip
Depth of section or longer leg of tubular
sect ion
Clear distance between flanges
Basic design stress
Specified minimum yield stress of structural steel
Moment of inertia about the X-X axis
Moment of inertia about the Y-Y axis
Inside radius of bend
Radius of gyration about X-X axis
Radius of gyration about Y-Y axis
Radius of gyration about 2 - 2 axis
Elastic section modulus about X-X axis
Elastic section modulus about Y-Y axrs
Base metal thickness of section
Flat w$dth of element exclusive of fillets
Nominal weight per unit length
Distance from centroid to outer face of the
section along the X-X axis
Distance from centroid to outer face of the
section along the Y-Y axis
Angle between the X-X axis and the
Principal Z-Z axis

"

ASEP Stee 1 Hand1 ?k


nn

mm2

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
MPa
MPa
mm4
mm4
mm
mm

mm
mm
mm3
mm 3
mm

mm
kg/m

mm
mm

rad

Cold-Formed Light Gage Sha~x?s3 - 3

COLD-FORMED LIGHT GAGE SHAPES

General
This part of the Steel Handbook deals with light gage structural steel shapes cold-formed from coils or sheets which thicknesses ranging from 2.0 mm to 6.0 mm. Shapes bent from plates
with thicknesses from 6.0 mm to 20.0 mm are designated as coldformed plate shapes and covered in Part 2 of this Steel Handbook.
The use of conventional built-up shapes is uneconomical in
some cases bscause of the very low stress developed even for the
lightest available section. In such situation, light gage sections are normally used.

The performance of light gage shapes under load, however,


differs in several significant respects from that of heavy rolled
sections. Because of its slender flat elements, light gage sections tend to buckle at stress levels lower than the yield point
when subjected to compressive. bending, shear, and bearing
stresses.
This local buckling does not, however, neceasariiy
mean failure as additional loads may still be carried even by the
"buckled" member.
The design criteria for these sectlons *re
therefore based on the post-buckling strength ~f the members
after local buckling has occurred. Furthermore, as these are
normally open sections, torsional buckling or torsion-flexural
buckling may be significant depending on the relationship of the
shear center to the centroid of the section.
Light gage steel construction also differs from that of
heavy steel in the shapes of the sections used, connections, and
fabrication practices. As a result, design specifications for
heavy hot-rolled and built-up steel construction do not apply.
The provisions of the American Iran and Steel Institute's Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
are
recommended for use in conjunction with the analysis and
design of light gage steel sections.

ASEP Steel Handbook


0.

3-4 Cold-For@&

Light Gage Shapes

9wp and Clalaapiification

cold-formd light gage atructural steel me-rs


can be
Uivibed into two product categories: fraraing members and nurface rpsmbars.
The latter are generally used for roof decks,
floor decks, wall panels, and siding material.
Due to the relative ease of producing a great variety of
cold-fornred sections, several shapes have been developed and
us&.
These include cees, zeee, angles, hats, tubes. tees, and
I-oactLone.
Frequently, these sections are stiffened with lips
or other edge atiffenem to inhibit premature local buckling.
Because of their wide popularity and usage in the Country,
this Steel HdndWak presents only four of the simpler light gage
shapes.
Two
of the lour shaves, the lip-cee and the lip-me
shapes are primarily used as flexural members.
The remaining
two, the square tube and the rectangular tube s W t i 0 n s are esaentially utilized as compression members. The latter closed seetions, however, may also be uned as flexural members. The classifications and designations relating to these shapes are given
tm(IDI0w.

1 Class

Shape

Designation

C-----------

i[Gold-Formed
ltight Gage

I
IL-

4
HXBXCX~

HxBxCxt
HxBxt
HxBxt

1I
I

L i p-Cee
Lip-Zee
Rectangular Tubing
Square Tubing

LC
LZ
LR
LS

-------J

A total of 281 light gage sections are given in this Steel


Handbook. Of these, 107 are LC sections with depths ranging from
(5%
m to 255 r m . There are 107 LZ sections with depths ranging
from 65 mnt to 200 mm. For the tubular sections, 34 are LR sections and 33 ara LS sections, The LR sections have depths ranginq
from 2 5 mm t o 1 7 5 m while the LS sections have depths ranging
The latter two closed sections are based
from 24 mm to I D 3 ma.
on the nixes a v , ~li able from local manufacturers.

ASEP Steel Handbook


-82-

Materials
The minimum quality requirement for light-gage structural
framing members is structural' steel conforming to JIS G3101
SS400.
Light gage shapes are normally manufactured from hotrolled coils which are locally available in 930 mm widths and
thicknesses ranging from 1.2 mm to 9.0 mm. However, to minimize
corrosiqn problems and to insure structural durability, light
gage sections used as s-tructuralmembers should not be thinner
than 2.0 m. On the other side, to avoid inefficient structural
properties when inside radius of pressed light gage sections are
fabricated, light gage section plate thickness should not be
thicker than 6.0 mm. To minimize "necking" and micro-cracking at
the bend radius and prevent change of properties in the affected
zone of the bent'portion, the inside radius (in coordination with
Steel fabricators in the country) are made equal to 2.0 times the
plate material thickness.
When strength is not of prime consideration, or for nonstructural members, the minimum requirement is commercial qrlality (CQ) hot-rolled conforming to JIS G3131 SPHC and JIS G3141
SPCC (or PNS 127 Class I), respectively. Further information is
given in Part 6 of this Steel Handbook.
The specified yield strength, Fy, of SS 400 steel is taken
as 245 MPa. For the SPHC and SPCC (or PNS 127 Class 1) steels,
the specified yield stress, Fy is taken as 170 MPa.

Mthods of Cold-Forming
There are two methods generally used in the manufacture
cold-farmed sections. These are:

of

(1) By roll rolling, and


( 2 ) By press brake bending.

Roll

forming is uaualiy confined to a

limited number of
If the
shapes because of the cost of the rolling equipment.
special Set of rolls needed for each shape is available, the
production of large quantities of identical shapes is best accorcplish@d by roll forming.
ASEP St el Handbook
.Q?.

Forming in press brakes, is however, more economical fox


maderate production runs of limited quantities of a given shape,
Thta is so because, in the semi-manual use of the gresa brakes,
mPy a minimum change of tooling i s needed to accommodate t h ~
f&arication of a great variety of shapes. Its mdjor drawbacks
a m the lower dimensional quality control and the higher susceptibility to micro-cracking of the marerials at the corner bends
which may affect the structural integrity of the shapes.

Sectional Dimensions
As with the other fabsicated shapes, one of the major consiaarations in the choice of sectional dimensions is the optimun,
utilization of locally manufactured sheets or coils.The adopted
anetions could result in an average 93% coil utilization (with a
ra%ximum of about 98% and a minimum of about 88%). These percentages may, however, will differ because of existing current coil
width8 and could be improved by proper planning of fabrication
procedures.
Other considerations in the choice of the sectional dimensions are based on the provisions of the AISI Specifications.
For one, the lip stiffeners of the LC and LZ sections mgst
satisfy a minimum overall depth to be considered effect~veas a
* l i p stiffener." The lip dimeneions were so chosen that they are
effective for stresses not exceeding 0.60Fy, however, under theee
stresses the full dimensions of the lip may or may not be fully
effective in the computation of the effective section properties.
Note that the full unreduced section properties are also
used in the calculation of deflections.

Sectional Properties
The calculation of areas, n~omentsof inertia and other
sectf.onal properties are usually done using appropridtc? simp1 i f i cations.

The section properties of thin-walled shapes are


computed
using the so-called "line3r method." In this method, the varlous
area elements which compose the. section are replaced by stralqhtline or curved-line elements. Calculating the total lengtn,
moments of inertia, etc., of these line elements, the appropriat-e
section properties of the actual sectlon can be obtained by
This procedure
multiplying these quantities by the thickness.
was followed in this Part 7 of the Steel Handbook.
It should be noted that the actual area o f thln elements
under compressive stresses must frequently be replaced by a
reduced effective area for calculating the effective crosssectional properties as required by the AISI, and thus should be
computed and considered in the design. The computed deslgn
stresses based on the effective section properties shall not
exceed the basic allowable stresses specified

Slitting Guide For Lip Sections


The following discussion is intended primarily as a guide to
fabricators and manufacturers of light gage sections in the
vlitting of locally available coil products. Two
tables are
herein presented giving the theoretical width of strips and the
recommehded slitting schedule.
Table 3-1 gives the theoretical blank width required for
each particular LC or LZ section. Note that the width of the
strips increases as the thickness of the steel decreases.
This
table is useful in determining the combination of sections whict
would optimize utilization of coils.
Table 3-2 presents the recommended slitting scheclulc? for
coil widths assuming uniform blank wigths are to be produced.
The table gives the number of identical strips to be cut iron the
coil and the expected yield in percent. As shown, the yield
could be as high as 98%. Note that further economy may be attained by combining sections and the use of Tahl.6 3. 1 as 11o.Led
above.

ASEF

Steel Handbcok
.YE

Dimensional Tolerances
The tabulated dimensions and properties are theoretical
values and the finished product will normally have some slight
variations from these tabulations. To guide the designer and
fabricator, a set of recommended dimensional tolerances are given
below.

Table 3-1
Theoreticel Width aC Strips

( S i ~ e ap
.

I KxBtC

C , Ttilekness,

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

mm
3.5

3.0

2.5

T O

I
1

Table 3-2
Recommended Slitting Schedule

Coil
Width,m
930
1.220
1.220
1,220
1,055
1.2'10
1.210
1.220
1.220
1,220
1.220
1.220
1.220
930
1.220
1,220
930
1.220
930
930
1.220

930

Number of
Strip8
2
3
3
3
3
4

4
4
4

4
5

Yield
X

94
91
91
91
98
91
91
98
95
90
98

98

5
4

90
94
94
93
89
95
93
93
97
89

5
6

4
6
5
6
7
7

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES
C o l d - F o m d l L i g h t Gage Shapes
FORMING TOLERANCES
-.

I
-

_
Permissible Variations Over and Under
Specified DJmensiona
H. Depth

mm

I
I

-8 , Flange Width

!Under 151) ou, excl 1.51


1150 to 300 om, eicl 2.01
1300 as and over
3.01

i
i

Length
mm

1.5

I
I

-1

I
1

C, Lip
mu,

2.0

I
I
I

Out-of-Squareness
of Corners
mm/mm

I
I
1

.. .-

0.076

Permissible Variation Over Specified


Length, mma

a
-.

(7,000and over
lover 7,000

40
+ 5 an x (total length in m

--

40
- 7)
I
.
7
-- -- ..

- --

Permissible variation under specified length is (I m for all lengths.

STRAIGHTNESS TOGFX?NCE

OF
DlMENSlO S AND PROPERPIES

A S E P "tee1

andbnok

M E P Stael Piandhoak
-07..

LC SHAPES
Full Swtion

Propratlrr

x103
mm4

'

xl@
n3r.

r
rnm

xtd
nm4

ASEP Steel Handbook


I 4

LC $WAPEIZ
Full Swon
.FPropwtb*

ASZP Steal Handbook

95

LC SHAPES
Fuil Section
Proportior

ASEP S t e e l H i
96-

dbook

LC SHAPES
Full Seotion

Propwticl,

LC SHhPES
Full SraUon
Proputbr

LC 8HMES
Full W
o
n
Proportlor
kdr X-X
I

Axis Y-Y

RSEP St.

1. Han
4-

xxok

LC SHAPES
Full S d o n
Pro~utirs
Radius

R
mm

LC SHAPES

Full $&Ion
Proporties

3 - 2 4 Ca1.d-Fnrntad 1 , i y h t :;aye

Shapes

LZ SHAPES
Full Sao!ion
Prapatier

Area
A
mm2
Inm

1,035
1,537
1,418
1.295
1,167

1,038
900
761
61 7
1,250
1,127
1,001
070
736
597
1,801
1,674
1,543
1,741
16'9
1,493
1 352
5.45
----"

rnrn

U SHAPES
Full Swtlon

Properties
Radiun
A

Axis 2-2
tan

Coin-Fo~mect Light Gage Shapes 3-27

R S E P Steel I'
10'

iribook

3- Z R Cold-Formod tight Gage Shapef*

Pvea
A

Radium
R

ASEP S1 el Handbook
lic

Axir 2-2
tan
i r

Cold-Formed L l g t ~ tGage Shapes 3-29

U SHAPES
Full Saotlon
PropwtlrH

rnm4

rims

mrn

Ms
6
80.5
9.1

58.7
57.I

51.3

57,Q
58.3
58.7

46.2
407
34.0

tja.1

.s.4

35.I

53,Q

53%
I

54 4

32.2
53.7

581)

40.4

45.7

30.2

48.2

544

*.7

ST.0

47.1
47.5
47.9
4.3

34.2
31.8
28.7

93.7
47.2
47.6

21).

n.a

28,6

35,7
32.Q
29.8

mrn3 ]

mm4

ASEP S"e1

TI'

I0

ndbooh

mrn

1
1

3-30 Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes

U BHAPES
Full Sootion

ASEP S+ ,-eL Handbook


OR-

Cotb-Formed Lr ght Gage St~apes ' - 3 1

ASEP Steel Handbook

,nn

3 - 3 2 Cold-k'orared Light Gage Sxnapcs

lei

~ o l ( t - ~m. eor ir Light C a g e Shaves 3- 13

3-34 Cold-For

~ i g h tGage Shapes

iA SHAPES
Full Sootlen
Prop#tir8

74!
1574

%B)t

St r
42t

34
538
2%
l2E
llt
I&

R
81
18

I@
#I
#1

24
21

14

12
ASEP S t t

'

Eiandhook

12-

Cold-Formed Light G a q e S h a p w 3 - 3 5

!A SHAPES
~ u lSwtlon
i
Prowtmr

--

Radiur of Gmtron

Dlssignatt~n

3 - 3 6 Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes

LP SHAPES
Full SIL7tlon

Wright

h r

Radius

ASEP Steel Ifandbook

Moment ol l n ~ r t r

Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes 3-13.!

LR SMAPES
Full Srckion
Frop8rtirs
1

8,
1

Rud~tinof C

SIction Modulus

s,

xlo9

XI

rnm3

mm3

fx
I

rnm

ASEP Steel Handbook


-115-

Radius
R

mrn
8.1

7.c
6.t
5,
4.t

7.[
6.t
5.I
4.(

71

6.C
5.C
4' C

--

PART 4
ROLLED SHAPES

CONTENTS
Nomenclature ................................................ 'L -2

...................................4-3
Materials .................................................. 4-4
Sectlanal Dimensions and Properties ......................... 4-4
Dimensional Tolerances...................................... 4-5
Scope and Classificat~on

Tables of Dimensions and Properties


W-Shapes ...............,.,,..+.......................

4-12

............................................... 4-38
Channels ...............................................4-42
Structural Tees ........................................ 4-46
Angles ................................................. 4-66
.................................................. 4-76
S-Shapes

ASEP Steel Nandbo

.l ? t

Nomenclature ............................................... 4 - l
General .....................................................4 - 3

..................................
Materials .....................................+............
4-4
Sect~onalDimensions and Properties .........................4-4
Scope and Classification

Diatensionai Tolerances

...................................... 4-5

Tables of Dimensions and Properties

..............................................
4-12
S-Shapes ............................................... 4-38
channels ...............................................4-42
W-Shapes

........................................ 4-46
Angles ................................................. 4-66
Structural Tees

Pipes

.................................................. 4-76

&SRP Steel Nannbo


-121

4-2 Rolled Shapes

NOMENCLATURE
Units

Definition
Cross-sectional area
Width of the flange section or the
length of shorter leg of the angle
Flange width of the rolled section
Nominal diameter of the rolled section
Nominal depth of section: or length
longer leg of angle
Moment of inertia
Designation for standard welght pipe
Designation for double-extra strong pipe
Designation for extra strong plpe
Radius of gyration
Radius of gyration of a section comprising
the compression flange plus 1/3 of the
compression web area, taken about an axis
in the plane of the web
Elastic section modulus
Base metal thickness of the rolled section
Base metal thickness of the section
Flange thickness
Web thickness
Nominal weight of the section per unit length
Nominal weight of the rolled section per
unit length
Distance from the outer face of channel web
or angle leg to the centroid along the
X-X axis
Distance from the outer face of channel
flanges or angle leg to the centroid along
the Y-Y axis
Angle of 2-Z axis with respect to Y-Y axis

ASEP Sts 1 Handbook


2-

m
inches
inches

mEl
mm3

inches
m
s

mnl
mm

kg/m
lbS/ft

mra

mm
rad

ROLLED SHAPES

Rolled steel shapes are herein defined to inslude s t r u c t u r a l


steel sections produced by passing red-hot blooms (for larger
sections) or billets (for smaller sections) through rolls until
tke desired shape is attained.

The available shapes and sizes of locally produced rolled


shapes are limited. These include channel sections up to a depth
of 150 m, f l a t bass up to a maximum s i z e of LOO mm, angle sections up to n.naximun of 100 aun, square bars up to a maximum o f
25 m. A s a result, the number of sections presented in the 1st
gaition was linitad as they were based on locally produced seetiwns.
To increase the usefulness of the handbook, Part 4 has keen
considerably expanded to include the angles (which can be produced locally up to 100 mm) and the AISC Standard W shapes, WT
shapes, 8 shagws, and pipea. ALL designations are identical to
thm AAXSC Manual of Steel Construction, 9th Edition hut the dinzeneions/elastic properties and weight are converted to 8.1. units
Scope and Classification
The following
structural steel rolled shapes normally
produced abroad and imported in the country are: wide Flange, WT,
R, channel, angle and pipe sections.

The classification and designations relating t > these nhapes


are given below,

4-4 Ilolled Shapes

) Class

Shape

Designation

Wide Flange
S Shapes
Channe1s
Structural Tees
Angles
Pipes-standard strength
Pipes-extra strength
Pipes-double extra strength

W
S
C
WT
L
PS
PE
PD

t---------

I
1 Rolled
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

dxw
dxw
dxw
dxw
HxBxt
d
d
d

I
--j
1
I
I

I
I
I

A total of 674 steel sections are presented in this Steel


Handbook.
Of these, 291 are W shapes, 31 are S shapes, 29 are
channels, 206 are WT shapes. 80 are angles and 37 are pipes. W
shapes have depths ranging from 105.7 nun to 1,016.0 mm. S shapes
have depths ranging from 76.2 mm to 622.3 nun. Channels have
depths ranging from 76.2 mm to 381.0 mm. WT shapes have depths
ranging from 52.8 mm to 475.0 nun. Angles have depths ranging from
20.0 nun to 200.0 nun. Pipe sections have depths ranging from 12.7
nun to 304.8 mm.

Materials
The minimum quality requirement for rolled shapes is

struc-

tural ateel conforming to the billet specifications for PNS 49


Grade 230 (structural Grade, formerly PTS 230). Locally produced
rolled shapes are available only for structural steel whose
minimum specified yield stress, Fy, is 230 MPa.

Sectional Dimensions and Properties


Except for the angles which can be locally produced up to a
maximum depth of 100 nun, the shapes, dimensions, and Properties
of steel sections presented in this Part 4 of the Steel Handbook
are based on the data compiled from AISC, Manual of Steel Construction, 9th Edition but converted to S.I. units.

ASEP ' ' eel Handbook


-124

For the locally produced angles, the adopted sec:tions have


leg dimensions which axe i,n increments of 25 mm. The increment of
the angles' thicknesses were made to be similar to that of the
plate thicknesses of the built-up shapes to facilitate easy
recall in detailing and design.

Dimensional Tolerances
The tabulated dlmennions and properties dre theoretical
values and the finished product will. normally have some slight
variations.
To guide the deslgner and fabricator, a summdry a i
the dimensional tolerances as given by the ASTM Specifications A 6
i s also given below. Such close tolerances are adopted to avoid
overlaps in angle legs and thickness dimensions in keeping with
internationally accepted standards as can be found say in ASTM.
For a detailed discussion on these tolerances as well as other
fabrication requirements reference to the ASTM A6 specifications
and AISC Manual of Steel Construction, 9th Edition is hereby
suggested.

4-6 1 7 ~ led
~1
Shapes

DfMENSXONAt TOLERANCES
Rolled Shapes

ba(le/Homiaal S h e ,

I
i

1-

?a:iationr fros Specitin4 Yeb j


Pef#isibi) Y a t i a i i o r ~ ~r~ ji F'i ~ , ' ~ e! b t . ~ a i
--,.
loat-01-1 o f f ioepth aver /Thickness, Over and Under, i n /
/ Dm
1bqnareb! centac Specified, 1
---.__.___i
]Over Uader/aar, aej aar,api /
#R
1 land 1 Over 5 i Over 10 1

-.-.-

jllp to 318
175-l80,inti
!over 180-360
i t 3 and under
1we1 10.15,

eat:

i%-1BQ, incl
lover 180-369
115 tnd nodes

/ever 25-50,
I incl

0.8
1.2

0,s
1.1

j 9.8
; i.?

0.8

0.026;

i , E / 0.02.5i

-----

jver 50-75,
i excl
lover 75-106,
j inel
jcver i33-l5d,

inc:

/at;
iyJ

ASEP Steel Nan ~ o u k


. I <fi.

under

1
.t-

Rolled Shapes 4-7

a W is neasured at center iine of web for W and S shapes; at the back or


web for C and L shapes, Xeasurement,isoverall for C shapes under 75
mm. 0 is oaeaaured parallel to flange. G is measured parallel to web.

F + F 1 applies when channel flanges are toed in or out. For channels


16 mi and under in depth, the permissible out-of-square is 0.047 mm
/m
o f depth. Tolerance is given per ~ n nof flange width for S and C shapes.

For unequal angles, the longer leg determines the nominal size classification. Out-of-square tolerance is per mm of leg length.

CUTTING T O L E M C E S

--

r-

Variation Iros Speciized Gi?en teagth, a#

l ~ b a ~ j ~ e m i nsitea:
al

I I n a
j

I
/
I

I
!

75 and

over

--r

* 500 to 3,600 13,000 t o 6,060, i 6,800 t o 9,000, / Y,O@

I
1

411

I
I

Over

Bnder

13

ex1

1 O w

1
1

13

Under

inci
O w

Undei

I1

Over

i
I

19

--t o ll,F88
iocl

........
i.i,CM to 15,0?1
inc~

U ~ d e r I Over

i
i
I

25

BnCci

a Nominal size pertains to greatest: sectional dimension.


W shapes with a nominal size of 610 mm and under w i t h lengths over
9.000 map, permissible variation over opecifled length = 10 ma plus 7 WII
for each additional 1,500 mm or fraction tt~ereof.
W ahapee used as columns with lengths over 9,000 mut perntissihfe
variation over specified length 13 mm p l u s 2 ~ B I for each addittomi
1,500 mm or fraction thereof.
4

ASEP S t e
Har'
-1% I-

;uok

4-8

I.

Rolled Shapes

I'
1 7 :

Shpc8

-1

Pernissible Variation f o r Ends Out-of-Square

nmim

o f Depth

a For W shapes, permissible variation is mm/nm of d e p t h o r T i

h~,!th

whichever is greater.
For angles, permissible variation is mm/mm ot t h e l o n i r t r

ASEPStc

H
-1G

dbook

1t.i.

Lt'ngth.

Rolled Shapes 4-9

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES
-

S4ape

-l-

1
I

Variable

I Canoer and

/
I

Sweep

Sections with flange wiOth


less thal 150 mn

Length over 13,120 nu

t
1 Camber
I

I
I
1

Z nm

Sections with a flange u ~ d t h


appro:. equal to depth and
specified on order as coiunns
Length of 13,710om and under 1 m

,C,L

Permissible Variations

Section or
Noninal Size a mn

(total length in m . j

(total,leogth in n.), but over 10 am

(total length in n - 13.71 0 . ) )


I

(tot.length in I.

1 GIP x (total le~gthin 1 . 1

Due to the extrene variations in flexibility


,f these shapes, tolerances for sweep are
subject to negotiations betmeen aanufacturer
m d purchaser lor the indi'~idua1 sections

--a

(1 mm

6 01 in any 1,500 ma, or 4 rm


15 and over

Sueep

I0 am

For L shapes, nominal size pertains to longer leg.

ASEP Stec? Handbook

i
!

I
!

-_--__.A

TABLES

OF
DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES

4-14

Rolled Shapes

W SHAPES
Dimensions
Properties

Weight
W
kg/m

Area
A
mm2

Flange
Wdth

"

mm

4eo 5

458.8
451.5
446 4
4420
437.4
434.5
4a3
427.5
424.Q
422.4
423.0

421.5
420.4
419.4
410.3
310,3
307.8
309.4

307.7
306.7
3m.6
304 B

3W.2
303.5
-R S E P Steel Handbook
-134

Flange
rhldcness

tr

mm

Rolled Shapes 4-15

ASEP Steel liandbook


'35-

4-16 Rolled Shapes

W SHAPES
Dimendons
Proprtlrs

Wnb
'hldtnrss
tw

in m

50.0
46.0
41.9
38.6
35.1

320
29.5
26.4
24.4
22 1
21.1
19.7
18.2
17.0
16.1
15.4
14.7
14.6
50.0
45.5
41.4
38.1

34 5
31.5
--29.0
ASEP S t e c l Handbook

136

Flange
Width
bi

mm

429.5
4255
421.4
418.0
414.4
411.5
408.9
408.0
4 M .0
401.4
4G2.8
401.4
388.9
262.1.
2a.8
293.0
292.4

291.6
411.5
406.9
403.0
399.4
396.0
392 9
3 % .a
-----

Ihldcnnl/
Flangn

4-18 Rolled Shapes

W SHAPES
Dimenrioncl
Proputir

Flanp
'hldcnocls

mm

47.0
41.9
38 1
3a4
30.1
27,1
30.0
25,4
23 6
21.6
19.3
17.0
15.5
89,9
83 1
75.9
69.1
63 0
57 9
53.1

49,W
45.0
40.9
38 1
34 0

ASEP S t c - 1 dandhook
i-

4-20

Rolled Shapes

Arm

Dwth

Fbnqr
Width

H
mrn

mrn

md

bf

367.8
3%,1
354.7
254.3
255.8
2W,4
233.7
233 0

3m3
354.5

3%. 5
$47.0
343.4

3411.5
337.8
334.4
333.0
330'5
328.9
327.4

32%1
38.7

326,s
323 1
323 9
---ASEP Steel Nandhook
-140-

Rolled Shapes 4-21

Elastlo Praprrtlr,

MSX-X
I

AXISY-Y
i

-1

i-2

4-22 Holtea Shapes

ASEP Steel Hmdbc


142

Rolled Shapes 4 - 2 3

ASEP Steel Handbook


3%

W BWAPEB
Dimenaionr

Pro

Rolled Shapes 4 - 2 5

W 6HAPES
Dimensions
Praprrtisr

Elastic Prepsrtllr,
Axis Y-Y

Mr X-X

3m,904
2$3,027

26*,393
2@,257
203,202

183,142
162,746
144,432
1 448
115,712

a,

ASEP Steel haadhc


.

2,im.e
1,@40.C

1,748.4
1,SBF)E
1,3983
1,258.7
1,126 7
f,W6.5
908.4

816.3

Designation

ASEP S tee1 J1~~~3t>rtttk


-146-

IS,?
1?,7
taa

NO4
4%-

145

48.28

t5.4
133
toe

SB ll!
3861
$7 3785

8
I

+-nono
crnrnom
U)

X X X X X

.--

aai-*

~ -n- 4
o tn o $ j g ~
n

m a n

g w b r n

X X X X X X X

T-

v-

3:

r-

X X X X

T W O

X X X X

E %mma

X X X
(0

rD

a,

4-28 Rolled %hapals

Flange
Width

wt4xm

x4 s
x 428
X

x $90
x $42
~$11

xaea

x 257

xm

x211
x leg
x 176
x 156

x 143
Wl4xf
k 120
x loo
x w
x BO
W 1 4 x $2
Y 'P4
x 68

RSEP Stee

-,

Handbook
2-

Fkngs
Thldnnm

W SHAPES
D~mensions

Proportlrr

---

"

AXISX-X

I
.
.
.

Eiastic PI

ASEP Sta

Pandbuok
.5(1

No1 l e d Shapus 4-32

RSEP Steel Han&book


-15%-

Dorignation

I
i

Flange
Width
b,

mm

-254.3
253.9
205.2
204 3
203.3
188.6
165.6

164.8
102.4
101.7
101.3
100.8
2M.5
282.0
280.7
259.8
257.3
256 0
2540
254.0
203.7
202.8
202 2
14T6

-146.6

4-34

Rolled Shapes

me.s
mi
23,6

T553,7
2S,7

m.
e
2228
215.6
206.1

m.
:

203,i
w.7
201.d

210.1

me.c
208.(
2112. $

rn~
182'
1m
1%'
ilS,!
159:

RSEP Steel Handb ,k


-151-

--

web
'hkkmu

Fkngr
width

bf

mm

mm

8.9

1n.e

61

7.1

1a3.1

n,o

-ASEP S t o e l Handbook
-1Sli-

Rolled Shapes 4-37

W SHAPES
Dimonrionr

Proporllu
Ela8t;oProportlo8

M a X-X

Axlr Y-Y

A S E P Steel Handbook
15/

ASEP Steel Handbook


-1s

Rolled Shapes 4-39

ASEP Steel ~&;tbook


t

cn

k#
A
mn?

6,645
4,813

1256
118,4

4,w

106.9

3,*

101.6

3,794
2,m

980

3,271
2,w

90.8
84.6

2,WQ
1,887

83.4
7a 3

1,QIO

1,456

71.0
67 8

1,426
1,077

8a 7
569.2

aao

ASEP Steel Nandb, k


-160-

Rolled Shaws 4-41

ASEP Si'ecll Handbook


161-

4-42 Rolled Shapes

ASEP Steel H a n hook


-162-

Rolled Shapes 4-43

CHANNELS
Dimrnsiane
Properties
Etaetlo Proprrtir

M e X-X
I

221 8
21,t e?i7
.t@,B? 171.4

P
I

Rl.74

@me

Bas

1,007
LKW
731

/
1133

arw
85.95

574
487

99 7

6&19

404

in*$

ASEP Steel Handbook


-163-

4-44 Rolled Shapets

ASEP steel Handbook


-164-

Rolled Shapes 4-45

El&

Axis X-X
I

xtd

mid

Proper
I

xtd

xr d

mm4

mrr?
I

7,242
@,a7
$48

3,704

3,FM
3,811

f ,802
770
&St

ASEP Stuef Handbook


-165-

4-45 Rolled Shapes

STRUCNRK TEEe
Oinrensionr
Proputhe
Cut horn W S h m

ASEP

:eel Handbook
-166-

Rolled Shapes 4-47

8fRUCTURAL TEE5
bimrions

it

PropMrn
Cut from W Shbprr

980%
07,CIS

$7'36

08.M
$3.84
35,$2
94.72

ASEP Steel Handbook


161

WT18x17Q.5x 164
x 150
x 140
xt30

x tns

xi15

BTRUCTURPL TEE8
Dimmiom
Propwtiw
Cut ham W $ h r w

&n

Depth

mmi

mm

ASEP S tee1 Handbook

-160-

Ekntlo Propwtlr

MJd
X-X
,
I

AX!, Y-Y

xld
rnm4
270,134
94,409

gpo,
ma,m7
I#,as

m1540

~ a o i

mart
#I

1m,w

n,w
1s,m
1
lM,W
148,288

101,MI

i9,8365
1 30,954

ASEP Steel Handbook


-169-

m,
e
'346.7
344.2

941.9
339,t

325.5
3173
314.2
310.9

m,t
'

805.8
311.4

am.e

m*f
31K3,0
301.2
301.5

289.8

ASEP Steel Handbook

-170-

E l r m Propertin

Axlr X-X

i-

e& Ir

30,377

6607

S%MS

eaao

128970

as? awoa

#39

2f,g77

me0

00,w

tH

891,@7
61,185

6758
87.31

70,738

M55
@5,7@

@OlS

?a45
7585
5

24$43
22M5
if@%%
17,190
14,851

?a20
77,72

e m

a00

y11c

7,159

6,

tm

ASEP Steel Ear book


-171-

Rolled Shapes 4-53

DerlgnrUon
dxw

xl 0'

md
M,oae

W9lt
711,338

69,094
02,435
54 1Sl
59,837
52861
43 785
42,872

30,043
31,027
34 423
29,(5234

sq1os
52,eet
4q $32
44 2%m
a043
34, a87

ASEP Steel Wmdbaok


-173.

14,8

ras

1.1'8
10.0

ASEP Steel Randbook


-174-

284.8
2ea 3
m15
280 0

Rollea Shapes 4-55

STRUCTURAL TEE8

Dlmrnaiona
PrOprrUr
Cut horn W S h a p ~

Y$

Eiraklo Prbprrllw
X-X

Axlr Y-Y
8

Designation

STRUCTURAL TEES
Dimcnaionc
Propartbe
Cut kern W S h r m

m*

Web
'hldtnrrr

nrn

mm

tv

-284.7
2744
285 7
257.0

65.9
80,5

ma

241.8
237.0

$1'2
47.8
480
42 0
89.1
36,8
828
Hi,l)
27.2
24-9
2516,
21.1

212.8
2m.o
2m.7
1B . 8

IS$.%
1 W.3
1 90.2
$87.7

fa2
103.9
181.9
179.8
1 79.1

' qndbook

176-

7r.g

24s 0
232.4
227'8
2P.8
217.4

ASEP Steel

70.0

a.

189
If 3
184

15,o
13 3

$23
11.2

Rolled Shapes 4-57

xtd

md
4323,5
2,4
3469.1
3105,B
2774.2

241 ,@
2318.2
2153.3
1977,2
1B08.2

1%29,0
1321.5
1188.1
1 084,2
972.3
877 5

7u.4
6W1.9

5514
50D 4
4% 2
408 8

aq
arg

213 6
m3
80t.2

lii,B7l

1
1Qi.O

3l,6"H

aqen

ma@

44895

I867

lQ000

182.15

r4r2~

t7ix-i
174,c

14,452
ASEP Steel

Iimdt-178-

rk

Rolled Shapcs 4-59

K~V
mm'

XI@

mw?

mm

Y
mm

XI

mm'

XI

o3

mm'

ASEP Steel Handbook


-179-

STRUCTURK TEE8

Dimrnsion
F'roprtkr
Cut tom W Bhapau

20.1
1a0

155
140

rat
11.1)

1au
9.8
0.1
8.8

8.4
8.5

7.5
7.8
6.6
50

6.6
8.0

5.6
5,t

ASEP Steel H a - ibook


-180-

RoXled Shapes 4-61

liTRUCTURM TEE8
Dimendona
Propwtlw
Cut kom W Shprr

Y
mm

rnm
1

xrd
mm'

82,831:
71,592

34.29
a251
3a2a
m70
27.1.94

eqew
56,193
48,94@

2682
25.~1
25.02

44,~5:!
40,sea
36,298

aare

wm

2531

1qQ37

28.72
2R70
27.43

11,730
10,406
9,157

$a02

5,078
4,246
3,605

3228
31.75
41.40
41.91
44.20
44.70

970
783
587
491

ASEP Steel

-1

landbook

4-52 Rolled

ASBP Steel Handbook


-18%-

Rolled Shapes 4-63

ASEP Stc r IIandbook

183

4-64

Rolled Shapes

STRUCTURAL TEES

Dirnsnrion~
Propwtkr
Cut from W S h a p

Depth
H

rn m

Web
'hlcknecr

mrn
91
79
72
72
62

64
58
62
58
43

8.1
66
5.8
68
58
43

s9
61

--7 1
ASEP Seeel Handbc

-Flange
Thlcknwa

rnm

Rolled Shapes 4-65

STRUCTURAL TEE8
Dimonlions
Proputla
Cut tam W 8hapor

M r Y-Y
8

ASEP Steel Handbook


-185-

ASEP Steel 't nabnok


-I35

Roi led Shapes 4-67

x
mm

r
mm

tan
a

ao
80
0.0

16.0
16.0
18,O
16.0
t6A

BO
B0

t6.O

90

&O

tao

ASEP Steel
.lC

andbook

Rolled Shapos 4-73

4-74

gWll&

Shapes

ASEP

S tee1

-1r

:aridbook

Rolled Shame

ASEP Steel. Handbook


-195-

4-.lt;

4-'76 MoJ.l e d Shapes

21 3

aat

3a4
422
4a3

00.3
7ao

me
101.6
114,3
141.3
1aar,a

219.1
273.1
323.8

21.3
a7
38 4
422
48 3

64 3
73 0
Be B
101,8
114.3

ASEP Steel H a n d b o o k
-196-

Rolled Shapes 4-

ASEP Steel HanP jook


-197-

No.

PIPES
Dimrtuionr
Propath8

ASEP Steel Hand1 ok


-198-

Rolled Shapes 4 - 7 9

Sohedula
No.

ASEP Steel Harlbook


-199-

PART 5
METAL DECKS

Metal Decks 5-1

CONTENTS

.................................................5-2
-era1
......................................................5-3
mtsrial .....................................................5-4
D.pip ....................................................... 5-5
Fireproofing .................................................5-5
nanclat

urO

Wrrosion

....................................................5-6

SD Dtteign Data

...............................................5-8

.................................. 5-9
BD Concrete Volumes and Weighta .............................. 5-9
Allowable Lateral Loads for BD Composite Slab ................5. 10
SD Panel Section Properties

9D Colmpcsite Slab Allowable Superimposed Load

................5-11

.......................................... 5-13
CQ Panel ReactLon Data .......................................5-13
Colqpsrbite Slab Propertlee.................................... 5-14
CD Panel ~ropartica

ASEP Steel Handbook


-203-

NOMENCLATURE
D.f inition

Crosa-mectionrl area
Concrsts strength at 28 days
Rblnforci'ng bsr yield ettength
SpecifFe8 y i e l d stress of structural ateal
Coapoeita section mowmt: of inertia
Positive bending rorant of inertia
Uegativa bending momant of inertia
Second mofent of orea for
negativs moment regime (Strength)
Second au3aent of orea tor
poeitivs rtoPent regiono (Strength)
Owarning lrawnt capacity of
section in the negative S m e
Governing moment capacity of
section in the positlv~%one
Overall width of the metal deck
Inside radius of bend
Positive &ancling section modulus
Negative -ding
section modulus
Base metal thickness of thta metal decks
Cmtpo8ite eection raodulua for concrete
Elastic modulus for nwative
moment tone (Compression flange)
Elastic modulus for negative
84wurt some (Tension flange)
Elastic mdulus for gositive
aooant zona (Compression flange)
&laatic modulus for positive
moment eona (Tension flange)
Coapasite aection modulus for steel deck
Perimster of embedded metal deck

ASEP Steel
-2C

mdborrk

Units

mm2
MPa
MPa
NP a
m4.

ma4
ma4

Metal Decks 5-3

METAL DECKS

Metal decks or panels, generally considered as part of the


family of cald-fornned structural steel members, are categorized
under the classification of surface members. Roofing, siding or
wall and floor panels of various profiles, coating and base
waterials, belong to this classification. Materials used are
normally steel, aluminum and sometimes stainless steel (for special application)
"h

This Part 5 of the Steel Handbook deals with steel floor


panels, normally referred to as floor deck, steel deck, metal
decking or aimply metal deck. Metal decks may be used structurally, as a composite alternative to conventional wood or metal
formworks.
However, unlike conventional formworks, metal decks
are permanent and therefore not reusable.
For composite systems, the metal decks have positive bond
enhancements between the concrete and the metal profile to preserve the integrity of the composite action.
For "trapezoidal
profile" metal decks used in composite slabs, indentations along
the longitudinal elements are provided. For "othern profiles,
vertical folds or stiffened webs are totally embedded in the
concrete to provide the necessary grip for composite action.
Similar to cold-formed light gage frame members, metal decks
are manufactured from galvanized-coated continuous coils or cut
sheeta.
Cold-forming may be done using press brakiog/bending
Rathods in the manufacture of "special" profiles.
Generally,
bowaver, roll forming is employed by most manufacturers for mass
production.
Regarding the architectural aspect, metal decks are availabla either in "ribbedn profiles or with "flatn soffits. In the
absence of a ceiling, metal decks with flat soffits are desirable
over the ribbed type. Metal deck products are mostly proprietary
in nature.
The manufacturer usually holds a patent for each
particular metal deck profile being produced.

ASEP Steel I mdbook


-20

The metal deck profiles featured in this Part 5 of the Steel


Blur.dbk ara only those available locally. The "trapezoidaln or
."rilpb&"
profile is .available from Philmetal Products while the
* s l a t n or *soffitm profile is produced by Condeck lnternatioaal.
;bletal decks under the brand names Steeldeck and Condeck, are
l.l#otifieQ in this Steel Usndbook as SD panels and CD panelm,
~llprctively. llirtal decks aay be ordered in s~acific length.
rer, for efficiency in drsifm, lengths should cover a minillwr of three
apanm. Very long apana may be limited by transport
limitations. Metal decks lass than three spans shall be check4
for both bending stresses and deflections-

The basa metal quality requirement for metal (floor) decks


be colg-rolled steel having a minimum yield point of 206
a , conforming to the requireraents of JIS G3141 SPCC-8 and/or
PWS 127 Class 1-8. Specified ID deClDKIls and very seldom in wire
end sheet metal gages, thicknesses of metal decks range from 0.75
m to 3.20 nm (wherein 0.75 RMI to 1.60 nun are locally avallabla)
ir 914
and 1219 lea\ widths. Metal decks floor slab systems are
rWar locally available in specified minimum yield strengths, F
of 275 Wa and 550 MPa, and whose choice is norafilly dictated
~ ~ t ~ n ~considerations.
l i c
gh.11

rj;

Pot hot-rolled varieties, the minimmi quality requirement is


mtmel conforming to JIS 63101 SS 400, with a minimlu
yield stress. Fy, of 245 MPa.
-lfied

gtwtural

:i
'
?or gatvaniaed steel varietiee. the minimum quality r-irerrwt ia physical (structural) quality zinc-coated steel c o n f o w
t9y t o the requirements of ASW A446 Grades A to F or c o r r e s m +
lag tWS 6 7 squiwalsnt.

Par atmospheric corrosion-resistant steels, the minimu


quality requirement is high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) st-1
conforming to the requirements of JIS G3125 SPA-C or SPA-H, with
minimum yield atress. Fy, of 314 MPa and 343 MPa, respectively.

ASEP Steel Handbook


-206-

Metal Decks 5-5

Currently, only the galvanized cold-rolled steel of minimum


yield strengths. Fy, of 275 MPa and 550 MPa are locally a v a l l able.

The

structural propertias for each particular profile were


supplied by the manuf aoturers. However, calculation of proper t i a s of special configurations follow the method specified in
the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, AISI 1986 Edition.

When a metal deck i a primarily used as permanent form for ii


concrete slab, its design is straight forward similar to the
ecasign of an ordinary floxuzal member. As a component of a
composite slab system, however, where it is considered as a posit i v e moment zeinforcament, the design calculations for metal
becks are more complicated.
The NSCP and its referral codes, the AISC fox steel, Ameri can Concrete Institute (ACI) for concrete and AlSX for coldformed members are silent on this aspect of design involving
natal decks. Furthermore, each manufacturer has its o m carnposlte
dasign method usually based on Allowable Stress Design
or
Strength Design
The basic principles used
are usually the
X I Code or the British Standard (BS) Code of practice for trie
dmaign of reinforced concr~teflexural members. Design examples
o f each Particular metal deck profile are available free from the
ra8peCtiVe manufacturers' brochures.

Fireproofing
Fireproofing is a very critical aspect of metal decks especially if metal decks are used entirely or partially as reinforcement for concrete slabs. The respective nrtinufacturers claim
that their metal decks are "fire-rated" from one to two
hours,
depending on the concrete slab thickness. the
concrete type
(whether normal-weight or light-weight ) used, and rhe presence ar
absence Of positive. fire.-resistivepaints or coatings.
Regardless of this claim, ASEP requires that for metal decks used as
total or partial reinforcement for composite sections, they must

ha provided with a permanent effective fireproofing.

all composite concretcr and metal decks slab system,


rsquiras the inetallatiOn of positive and permanent methods
eP fire protaction.
For

,&W!P

Corrosion

Another very important aspect of nbatal decks if used


structural reinforcement tor concrete slabs is the corrosion
factor.
For structures built in corrosive environments (lika
s a r i n r off-ahor6 structures, and structuree at or near
b b o t e s ) , and structures having acidic or abrasive
enviranmnts
( l i k e , manufacturing plants), astal decks should at best be used
wily as a rrsplacentant to fonaiorks.

ASEP Steel Hanctbook


-208-

Metal Decks 5-7

TABLES
OF
DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES

ASEP Steel

Handbook

-7nq-

SD PANEL SECTIOPJ, PROFILE AND DIMEWSlONS

SD PANEL SECTION PROPERTIES


( PeR W3"i'R WIDTH f

POSITIVE BENDING MOMENT

NEGATIVE BEPI'DING YOYEKT

SUB DEPTH O W TOP OF 41), mm

unm

SO

NOTE3 : 1 WEIGHTS FOR CONCRETE ONLY

03.6

- NO METAL

--

76

W:ICIlTS C h E N INCLUDE ALLOWANCE FOR DEFLECTION

ASEP S t a d Handbook
-211-

ALLOWABLE LATERAL LOADS


FOR SD COMPOSITE SLAB

LATERAL LOADS f N/m2 f

UWABLE
'COUL SIM

PwIx, mm

I
f

MKiNAnON

SPAN

NwX L

C/C OF SUPPORTS, mill

1.W

2,100

2,400

2,700

3,000

3,300

3,600

@ Oil0 X 0.80

26.120

25,240

24.510

23.950

23.490

223.200

22;910

58 SW X 1.00

26.990

25.820

24.950

24,370

23,780

25.360

23.0%

LW VALUES ARE o o r * ~ oBY s 8 sum *NO ~ S K I A KOF


S LOS ANCKLK u u r o ~ N uw o o m
COMLJNEU IN RESEARCH RECOMMENDATION No 2757 OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF BUILDING OfFlilliLS

1. UTW

2. NO KICRWE IN VPLUES %OWN S PERMIXED FOR W!ND OR SEiSMiC FORCES.

3. WELDS TO SUPPORTING MEMBERS S W L HAM

A FUSION A R M '.?UIVALENT TO 1 2 7 m m EFfECTlVE DIAMETER

(COMMONLYREFERRED TO A3 PUDDLE WELD)

ASEP Steel Ha? .book


-212-

II

Metal D e c k s 5-11

DESIGNATION

N,, x

i
!

(\VOMING S T I ~ K S SD E S I G N )

....

COMI'OSI'I'I~ SLAB

AI,L.OIVI\I<LI:, SUI'iIH1MI'OSl~:I) I.OAL)

OFPIH
~

DTAL SLAB
EPTH, mrn

$1)

.-

~~

...

NO. OF
SPANS

SPAN-C/C

--

01.'SI!I'f'ORTS.

7
i
&
l

- .
lorn
--

~~~~

1~-1.1100 j~Y3.i;";

-~--

3.800

NOTES :
1 ONE ROW OF SHORING IS RLOUIRED AT MIOSI'AN FOR VALUE$ ON StihDED AREAS

2. PRCIWDE WELDED WIRE MESH OR EQUIVALENT FOR SHRINKAGE CONTROL


3. BUTTON PUNCH SIDE M E AT 9UOrnm O C
4. f'c = 21 MPa B 28 r)nvs. FY = 275 MPO
5 . VALUES ARE BASED ON 960 Pa CONSTRUCTION LOAD.
6. STEELDEK COMPOSITE SW.3 CAN SP4N MORE THAN 36311rnm ABC
TABLE DID NOT W O W ALLOWABLE LOAO #A!CkS
ABOVE 3.600rnm DlJE TO SPACE COhlSTRAlNT.

ASEP Steel Hand1 ok


-213-

CD PANEL
PROPERTIES
( PER METER rmx )

CD PANEL
REACTION DATA

ASEP Steel Iianiibook


.21%

CONCRETE SLAB

CD COMPOSITE SLAB
PROPERTIES
PER METER WIDTH
(I'c = 20 N/mm 2)

ASEP S t c

.fam~dhook
.

CD COMPOSITE SLAB

PROPERTIES

PER METER WIDTH


(rSc = 20 N/mm 2,

CD COMPOSITE SLAB
PROPERTIES
PER METER XfBYB
(2%

ASEP St, -1 Elandbook


218-

25 N/rma2)

Metal Decks 5-17

91n

CONCRSTE SUB

CD COMPOSITE SLAB

PROPERTIES
PER METER WIDTH
(I'c = 25 N/mm2)

STEEL BASED
IrZeXURAL PROPERTIES

BOND DATA (U
I

\I

0.5 N/mm2)
I

DESIGNATION

ca couposrm

SLAB
PROPERTIES

ASEP Steef Handha k


.%.%A

Metal Decks 5-19

CD COMPOSITE SIAB
PROPEKTIES
PER METER WIDTH
(f'c = 30 N/mm 2 )

ABBP ytrel Handbook


-222-

CD COMPOSITE SLAB
PROPERTIES
PER HEXER WtDTfl
ff'c = 40 N/mm 2,

PART 6
STEEL FLAT PRODUCTS

ASEP Steel ' mdbook

---

Steel Flat Products 6-1

CONTENTS

N m n c l a t u r e ................................................. 6-2

re via ti on^ ................................................ 6-2

....................................................... 6 - 3
Scope and Classification..................................... 6-3
mtariale .................................................... 6 - 4
ASTM A36M-87 ............................................ 6-7
JIS G3101-87 ............. ................................ 6-15
JIS G3131.90 ............................................6-24
JIS G3141.90 ............................................ 6-31
PNS 127.88 ..............................................6-38
ASTM A446M-87 ........................................... 6-43
6.nmral

PNS 67-86

............................................... 6-46

ASEP Steel Handhnok


-227-

Units
MPa

h r i c c m Society for Te6ting and Materials


C
rcial quallty
mid-rolx~acoil
Cold-rolled sheet
srclusiv.
me-roll& coil
Rot-rolletl plate
%at-rotTu4. s h M t
PigQ-rtreWtb l~-.llOy st-1
i
J
Xn&mtri a1 itltriatEards
Pkilipgpiaa Hatianal Staedarde
$twtilra1. quality btrosphsrlc corrosion-resistaat
osSb-&Wl*d s t m l u plr a161 6312
gtrocturrl quality aOaosghsric corrosion-re8istult
~
s
r318 63125
h$-mllod st-1 as p
Carrrcial qmalfty arrl&rolled stksl r s per JKS 63141
Braniq qurlity cold-relled steel a6 par JIS G3141
dlr&wfng qyalitp cold-rolled steel as mr 31s G314l
)Ilea-aqming. 6.rp drllrinp quality cold rolled steel as
per JI$ 63141
C m r e i a l quality cold-rolled steel, tension and
f o ~ i l i ~
valuaa
y
guaranteed, as per 31s 63141
Btructural quality
Structural steel

ASEP

Steel Wglr8'xtok
930

Steel Flat Products 6-3

STEEL FLAT PRODUCTS

Flat rolling or processing may be considered to involve


those operations in steel plants associated with the conver~lon
of slabs, either continuously or ingot-cast, into finished
plates, sheeta, an8 strip products, including hot-rolled, coldrolled and/or coated sheets. Conveniently, it is classified into
hot-rolling and cold-rolling operations which results to a final
product with a width to thickness ratio which is usually fairly
large.

The process of hot rolling consists of passing xed-hot


ductile steel slabs between two large, cylindrical steel rolls
( i n Contrast with the grooved rolls used in the production of
tShapeS, such as structural beams) revolving in opposite directlonrr but at the ease peripheral speed.
Commercial (CQ) or
structural ( S Q ) plates, strip, or sheet are the resulting endproducts.

In cold rolling operations, on the other hand, the hotrolled strip is processed to final ordered thickness without any
further heating except for annealing or heat treating purposes.
CQ or E+Q strip, or sheet are the resulting end-proaucts.
Steel flat products are Locally available in the form of
hot-rolled plates (HRP), hot-rolled ccils/sheets (HRC/HRS), and
cold-rolled coils/sheet (CRC/CRS). Likewise, coated (or finished
steel) flats which predominantly use CRC/CRS as base material.,
are also available in the form of hot-dipped zinc-coated (or
galvanized) steel. The product standards to which these are
manufactured are listed in Table 6-1.
Scoge and Classification
Thls Part 6 of the Steel Handbook specifies the characteris-

tics of plate and sheet (hot-an6 cold-rolled) products which arrl


differentiated one from the other as follaws (based from ASTM A6M
and ASTM A56824 definitions):

ABEP Steel Hm' dok


-229-

(1) Plate, flat,hot-roll96 steel classified as over 200 mm


in
width and over 6.0 mm in thickness: or over 1,200
las in width ernd over 4.5 lam in thickness.

sheet
flat, hot-rolled steel classified as
over 300 m to 1,200 mm, incl. in width and 1.2 aua
to 6 . 0 m, excl. in thickness: or over 1,200 mm in
width and 1.2 nuu to 4.5 mm, excl. in thickness.

( 1 ) Not-rollaa

Note:

minimum thickness for


S t a x (HSLA) ia 1.8 w.

High-Strength

Low-Alley

(3) Cold-rolled sheet


flat, cold-rolled Steel c h ~ s i f i e d
&a 50 8* to 300 ma, incl. in width and 0.35
to 2.0
am, incl. in thickneea; or over 300 mrn in width and 0.35
a and over in thiclmsas.

For the fabrication of &wilt-UD ShaDCIg enumerated in (Part


1) of thia Steel. Handbook and cold-formed plate shames tabulated
i a (Part 2) of this Steel Handbook. the minimum quality steel for
Ivemtural Pleabers shall conform to ASTM A36M and/or JIS 63101
(foramrly designated as JIS G3101 SS41). These steels have
alnimtm s-cified yield .trees, Fy, of 250 MPa and 245 MPa,
m6saectiV.l Y .

Fat tlm fabrication af


&#at$

ia (pert 3 ) of this St::

d-f

orawl Jiaht-a

pre-

Handbook, the s e r i a l n q u i n -

lunte involve the following:


siiniaw quality steel for structural members shall
conform to ASTM A36M and/or JIS G3101 SS400.

(1) ThQ

(2) The minimum quality steel for the non-structural mmbsrg

shall conform to (2.1) JIS 63131 SPHC and/or ASTM A569M for the hotrolled steel varieties. These steels have a
minimum specified yield stress, Fy, taken as 170
MPa.
The basic allowable stress shall be taken
as 0.60F
Y'

ASEP

Stcte 1 Handbook

-230-

Steel Flat Products 6-5

( 2 . 2 ) JIS G3141 SPCC, ASTM A366M

and/or PNS 127 Class


1 for the cold-rolled varieties. These steels
have a minimum specified yield stress, Fy, taken
as 170 MPa. ~he'basicallowable stress shall be
taken as 0.60Fy.

For the fabrication of the metal decks (Part 5) of


Steel Handbook:

this

(1) The base metal quality requirement for floor decks shall
be cold-rolled steel having a minimum yield point of 206
MPa, conforming to the requirements of JIS G3141 SPCC-8
and/or PNS 127 Class 1-8. Steel of this variety is
locally available in thic)messes from 0 . 7 5 mrn to 1.60
m, in widths of 914 mm and 1,219 m, and specified
yield strengths Fy, of 2 7 5 MPa or 5 5 0 MPa.

(2) The minimum quality for hot-rolled varieties is structural steal conforming to the requirelnents of JIS G3101
SS400, with a specified minimum yield stress, Fy, of 245
MPa

(3) The minimum specification for galvanized varieties is


physical (structural) quality steel conforming to the
requirements of ASTM A446 Grades A to F (with minimum
yield stress, Fy, ranging from 226 MPa to 550 MPa) or
the corresponding PNS 67 equivalent.
(4)

The minimum quality for atmospheric corrosion-resistant


varieties Is high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel conforming to the requirements of JIS G3125 SPA-C or SPA-H.
with minimure yield stress, F,, of 314 M P a and 343 MPa,
respectively.

Steel

conforming to other material specifications can also

be rolled Locally. However, this is limited by the capabilities


of the local manufacturer of flat steel products. The designer

should consult with the flat steel manufacturer before specifying


any type of Locally manufactured structural or high-strength
steel not listea here in the Steel Handbook. Current mill capabilities limit these grades of steel from 1.50 nun up to 12.30 mm
in thickness and widths from 660 mm to 1 , 5 2 4 nun, conforming to
ASEP Steel Handbook
-2 i

6-6

S t e e l Flat Products

~ p d f i c a t i o n s such as JIS G3106, JLS '3125, JIS G3114, J L S


G9113, AWI'Pl A607.8Rd their corresponding "near grade equivalentstc
F o r reference purposes, a listing of currently laanufacturad
t h t stsel products a r e listed in T a b l e 6-1: Locally Available
l W 4 S t - 1 ProQucts.

Teblr 6-1: Locally Available Flat Steel Products


I

Product Form

I (m@)
I

I
I

ASTH A36R-87
JIS G3101-87

I
I

It=)

1
JIS G3141-90
PNS 127-88

I
1

I
1

ASTM A446-87
PNS 67-86

Sheets and Strip


Cold-Rolled Steel Sheets and Strip
Cold-Rolled Carbon Steel Sheets and Strip

(Oslvanized Steel

Structural Steel
Rolled Steel for General Structures

( JIS G3131-90 ) Hot-Rolled Mild Steel Plates,

Titles

IMt-Rolled Coil

I
I
(Cold-Rolled Coil 1
(
I (cw)

Standard

INot-Rolled Plate

1
1

1
I
!

i
I

1 Structural Quality Galvanized Steel Sheets/

Galvanized Steel Sheets and Coils

?or convmnience, excerpts from these relevant standards


i n Tabla8 6-2 t o 6-49.

ASEP Steel Handbook


-232-

are

Steel F l a t Products 6-7

A S T M A36M-87

Table 6-2: P r e f e r r e d S p e c i f i e d T h i c k n e s s
1

Unit:mm
1

5.0

) 16.0
( 40.0

5.5
18.0
45.0

7.0
22.0

6.0
20.0
50.0

8.0
25.0

10.0
30.0

9.0
28.0

11.0
32.0

12.0
35.0

14.0

38.0 1

Table 6-3: Chemical and M e c h a n i c a l Property Requirements


7
I
I Tensile Test (Transverse Direction)
Chemical Composition.% 1'

-+--7---1

I
t
1 Thick- I
(neesCema) 1
I
I

C
max.

1 trZO

10.25

I
1
i

S i

HI?

I Yield 1 Elongation,% min.*'(


[Tensile I Point I-,--+
[Strength( (MPa) [GL-200 mJG1.=50mm

rnax. max.

>40-50 10.26 0.15 0.80


1
-0.40-1.20

0.04

0.051

I
I

0.04

0.051

(MPa)

min.

1
I
1

lor 8 in. [or 2 in.

i-------t------ I

I
I
I

II

* I . When coppet steel is specified, the minimum Cu shall be 0.20%.


'2. For plates wider than 610 m ~ the
,
elongation requirement is reduced 2%.
'3. ?or uteri;rl under 8 mm in thickneaa, a deduction from the percentage of
elongation in 203 mm of 1.25% shall be made for each decrease of 0.80 mm
o f the awcified thickness below 8 mm.

ASEP Steel
-2:

mdbook

6-8

T&Le

Steel Fiat Products

6-4a: Permiselble Variatxons in Thickness

Unit: am
1

Tolerance Over Specified Thickness for Widths

1,200

and
Under

Over
1,200 to
1,500,
excl

I
i

1.500 to
1,800,
excl

1,800 to
2.100,
excl

2.100 to
2,400,
ucl

i
i

I-Permissible variation under specified thickness, 0.3 m.


WOTI1 %Thickness to be measured a t 10 arsa to 20 lam from the longitudinal edge.
NOTC 3-For specified thickness other than Chose s h o w , the next h i g h e r thicknear will apply.
NOTE &-For thickness
meas*~redat any Location other than that specified in
Note 2 , the peraissrble maximum over tolerance shall be increased by
75% rotmded to the nearest 0.1 am.
IK)TI1

ASEP Steel K;andboo)r


234-

Steel F l a t P r o d u c t s 6-9

T a b l e 6-4b: P e r m i s s i b l e Variations i n T h i c k n e s s ( C o n t ' d . ) U n i t : lorn


I
7

M
ISpecified 1
(Thicknesa, 1
mm
1
1
1
I

T o l e r a n c e Over S p e c i f i e d T h i c k n e s s f o r W i d t h s

2,400 t o
2,700.

2,700 t o
3,000,

3,000 t o 3,300 t o 3,600 to


3,300,
3,600,
4,200,

excl

excl

excl

excl

excl

tWrE 1 - P e m i s r i b l e v a r i a t i o n under s p e c i f i e d thickness, 0.3 m .


NOTI4 2-Thickness t o be measured a t 10 rn t o 20 cm from the l o n g i t u d i n a l edge,
M?TE 3-For

r p e c i f i e d thickness o t h e r than those shown, t h e next higher thickneon will apply.


MOTE 4-For
thickness measured a t any l o c a t i o n o t h e r than t h a t s p e c i f i e d i n
Note 2 , the permissible naximura over t o l e r a n c e s h a l l b e increased
by
75% rounded t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 mm.

ASEP Steel Handbook


9QC

Steel Flat Products 6 - 4 1

Unit: nun

Table 6 - 3 7 : Width Tolerance A

Division by Nominal width

Under 1,250

1,250 and over

I
I

+7
0

410

I
I
Unit: mm

Table 6-38: Width Tolerance B


I

t
I

Division by Nominal Width


I

Under 1,250

Table 6-39: Length Tolerance A

1
t
I

Division by Nominal Length

Unit: m
m

i
i
I

Under 2 , 0 0 0

4,000 t o 6 , 0 0 0 , e x c l .

1,250 and over

i
I

ASEP Steel liand' w k


3267-

Tolerance

+ 10

--

I
I

6-34 Steel Flat Proolucts

T e l e 6-5a: Paraiesible Variations in Width and Length for


Sheered Plates s 40 pa thick; length only of Universal Hill Plate s 50 mm thick
I

Ik.cified Riraulaions

Width

I-.

t
I -+
4-

I
&QM, 1
1
1
1

I
TO 1;500.
UC1.

1,560 to 2,100,

ucl.

I 1,lM

to 2,780.1

UCl.

2,700 a d
ever

I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I

Variations Over Specified Width


and ~ength*for Thickness, nu,
and ~quivalentMasses, kg/m2
To 10.5 excl.
To 78.5,excl.

10.5 to 16,excl.l
78.50 to 125.6, 1
excl
I
Width
Length I

Width

Length

10

13

11

l6

11

16

13

l8

13

19

16

22

16

22

19

25

ASEP Steel Handbook


.-236-

I
I
I

I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I

Steel Flat Products 6-11

Table 6-5b: Permissible Variations in Width and Length


Sheared Plates 5 40 mm thick: length only of
Universal Mill Plate s 50 mm thick (Cont'd.)
I

I
I
I
1I

Specified Dimensions

Length

I
I
I
I
C
-------t-------IT0 3,000, 1
I

I UC'.
I

I
1

I
I

13,000 to

If1.000,

icucl.

I
I

I
I
I

Variations Over Specified Width


and ~ength*for Thickness, nun
and Equivalent Masses, kg/m2

Width

To 1,500,

16 to 25, excl.
1 125.6 to 196.2,
1 excl.
I Width
Length

excl.
I
I 1,500 20 2,100,l
1 excl.
I
I 2,100 to 2 , 7 0 0 , )
I 6.~1.
I
( 2,700 and
I over

1
1
1

To 1,500,

25 to 50, incl.
196.2 to 392.5,
excl
Length
Width

13

19

16

25

16

22

19

25

19

25

25

29

22

29

29

32

I
i
1
1
I
1

I
I

I
I
I

I
I
I

axcl.
1,500 to 2,100, 1
excl.
1
( 2,100 to 2,700,)
I sxc1.
I
1 2,700 and
I
1 over
I

lor

16

25

19

29

19

25

22

32

21

29

25

35

22

32

29

35

A Permisrible variations under specified width and length. 6


1.

ASEP Str 11'Aandbook


-2%-

I
I
i

I
I
I
I

Steel P l a t Products

T a b l e 6-6a: P e r m i s s i b l e V a r i a t i o n s f r o m Flatness
the longer dimension is under 900 m, the pemissible variation
.hculd nat exceed 6 ao. When the longer dimension is from 900 8. to
1
m ,I
incl., tho peraiasible variation should not exceed 75% of the
tabular w u r t for the specified width, but in no case lees than 6 nm.
Wta 2-Thara variations
apply
to plates that have a specified minimum
or conparable chemical corpotenmile mtrangth of not more than 400 ,.'IM
rition or hardnes8. The limits in the table are increased 50% for
plater specified t o a higher minimum tensile strength or coapatible
chemirtry or hardness.
3-16
t&le
and these notas caver the permissible variations
far flatness of ctreular and sketch plates, bared on the maximtun diwnriwlr of those plates.

, k t e l-men

I
I
4
I
1i)p.cifi.d
I Specified
I P J ~ l c k n m ~ sI, Maom,
1"
1 ro/r2

+-+

I'ZO 6,
I "el.
16 to 10,
(ucl.
I S O to 12,
IUac1.
( l a t o 20,
mc1.
l@ t o 25,

( TO 47.1,

( mxcl.

1
1
1
1

94.2 t o

I
I

157.0, axcl.1
157.0 to
L l
196.2, excl.1 I
131 to 50,
196.2 to
I
I"1c1.
( 392.5, excl. 1

* Flatness Variations

( s u r f a c e f o r specified widths, m a A*"


) To
900 to 1 2 0 0 to 1500 to 1800 to (
( 900. 1200. 1509,
1800,
2100
I
1 ercl. excl. excl. excl. excl. I

) 47.1 to
1
( 78.5, excl. )
( 78.5 to
i
1 94.2, excl. 1

P e r m i e ~ i b l eVariations fron a Flat

l4

19

24

32

35

13

16

19

24

29

13

14

16

16

19

11

13

14

16

16

13

14

16

16

13

13

14

14

l1
lo

i
f

I
I

I
I
I
I

I
II
I
I

for Length - The longer dimension specified is considered the length. and peraiasible variations in flatr~cssalong the length
ahould not exceed the tabular a w u n t for the specified width in plates up
to 6.000
in length, or in any 4,000 mm of longer p l a b e e .
Flatness Variatfons for Width - The flatness variations across the width
should not exceed the tabular mount for the specified wl!th.

ASEP Steel H-lndbook


-238

Steel Flat Products 6-13

Table 6-6b: Permissible Variatians trom Flatness (Cont'd.)


the longer dimension is under 900 m, the permissible variation
should not exceed 6 mm. When ;he longer dimension is from 900 mm to
1800 r,incl., the permimsiblc variation should not exceed 75% of the
tabular aount for the npecifiad width, but in no case less than 6 m.
Note 2-Them variations
apply
to
plates t h a t have a specified minimum
tensile 8trongth Of not more than 400 MPa or comparable chemical cmposition or herdnese, The limits in t h e table are increased 50% for
plates specified to a t.igher minimum tensile strength or compatible
chemirtry or hardness.
Iete 3-Thin
tabla
and these notes
cover
the permissible variations
for flatness of circular and sketch plates, based on the maximum dimennionr of thora plates.

, lote 1-When

I
I
Specified /Specified
Thickness, 1 Mans,
( kg/m2

I
I

Parmieslble Variations from a Flat


Surface for Specified Widths, mm A * B
12100to 2400to 2700to 3000to 3600to 4200
12400, 2700, 3000, 3600, 4200, and
lexcl. excL, excl. excl. exc1. over

t----------

t-

l
1
I

38

41

44

48

...

...

1 32
(78.5, excl. 1
110 to 12, ( 7 8 . 5 to
1 22
(ucl.
194.2. axcl. I
(12 to 2 0 , (94.2 to
1 l9
I"cl
1157.0, 8 x 1 . 1
120 to 25, 1157.0 to
1 l6

35

38

41

..-

...

25

29

32

48

54

25

25

29

38

51

i$

22

25

35

44

16

16

18

29

38,

ITO

IT0 6 .

.
16 to 10,

.
147.1 to

1excl
excl

47.1,

1 axcl

) oscl.

1196.2, excl.1

125 to 50, 1196.2 t o


l6
Iucl.
1392.5, excl.1

A Flatness Variations for Length

The longer dimension specified is conaidared the length, and permissible variations in flatness along the length
should not exceed the tabular amount for the specified width in plates up
to 4,000 mm in length, or in any 4.000 m of longer plates.
The flatness var~iations across the w i d t h
Platnese Variations for width
Should not excped the tabular amount for the specified width.

ASEP Steel Handbook


.710.

ASEP Steel 1 ~ d b o o k
-74

Steel F l a t Products 6-15

Unit: nm

Table 6-8: Preferred Standard Thicknesses


-I
11.2

3 . 6

Jll.0
122.0

1.4
4.0
12.5
25.0

( 2 . 6 ) 2.8
6.3
7.0
8.0
16.0 (17.0) 18.0
36.0 38.0 40.0

2.5

1.8
2.0
2.3
5.0
5.6
6.0
12.7 13.0 14.0 15.0
25.4 28.0 (30.0) 32.0
1.6

4.5

(2.9)
9.0

3.2{
10.0)

19.0

20.0)

45.0

50.0)
J

Rssark:

The
standard
be used.

thicknesa

not

i n parentheses

Table 6-9: Preferred Standard Widths

should

preferably

Unit: m

-1

Ramark: For

p l a t e , the standard widths of 914 mm, 1.219 mm and


mu or over s h a l l be applied.
steel

T a l e 6-10: Preferred Standard Lengths

1,400

6-16

St-1

B1.t

Products

'fable 6-11: Chemical P r o p s t y Rapuir-nta

0.050 mu.

0.050 max.

0.050

0.050 mar.

0.050

0.30 rex. 1.60 max. 0.010 l a x .

Wto:

0.050 max.

I
I
max. 1
I
I
max. 1

0.040 nax.

I
1
I

Allgiw e l n a n t a other than in above table can be added to SS540 acc o d & q to r ~ u i r e m n t a .

ASEP Steel Handbc ~k


-242-

Steel F l a t Products 6-17

Table 6-12a: Mechanical Property Requirements


T e n s i l e Test
1

Yield.
Point or / T e n s i l e
Yield
1Strength
Strength /
*/m2I ~ / m m ~
2 0 5 min.

I-"-1 330-630
1
I

I
f

Elongation
I

Dimensions .of
Rolled S t e e l , =

Test

Piece

t--4
1

. S t e e l s h e e t or s t r i p
has a thickness of
n o t more than 5 mm
+Steel plate o r s t r i p
has a thickness of
over 5 to 16 i n c l .

N0.5

/ 26

No.5

f 19 min.

sin.

* S t e e l sheet or s t r i p
haa a thickness of
n o t sore than 5 mu
@ S t e e lp l a t e or s t r i p
h a s a thickness o f
over 5 to 16 i n c l .

* S t e e l a h e a t or s t k i p
has a thicttalhdO tr*
n o t more than 9 am
* S t e e l p l a t e or s t r i p
has a thickness o f
over 5 t o 16 i n c l .

1
I
1

* S t e e l s h e e t or s t r i p
ha8 a thicknese o f
R o t more than 5 mm
*Steel p l a t e o r s t r i p
has a thickne&s of
over 5 t o 1 6 f n s l .

No.5

[ Ilo.XA

15 mtn.

Po.LA

I
1

I
i

] 16 Bin.

f 13 min.

8-18

Steel F l a t Products

TgLlo 6-12b: mechanical Propslrty R6quirement.s (Cont'd.)


I

4"

:I
S

I
1

I
I
I

Bcqding Test
I

I
I
Ihr&ms

Angle

Inner Diameter

1
I
I

Test Piece

I
__C____i

NO. 1

I
I
I
I
I

NO. 1

I
I

NO. 1

,I

ASEP Steel Handbook


A.

Steel Flat Pxoducts 6-19

Unit: ma

Table 6-13a: Tolerance on Thickness


I

I
I(Thickness

1 , 6 0 0 or

Width

ovar to and
excl. 2,000

1
2,000 or
1

over t o and
e x c l . 2,500

1
1

--14.00 or over
I t o L . p C 1 * 5.00
(5.00 or over
I t o & excl. 6 . 3 0
14.30 or over
( to 6 ucl. 10.0

~0.55

110.0 or over
1 to L ercl. 16.0
116.0 or over

*0.65

iO.60
20.65

10.75

to C mxcl. 25.0

*o. 80

125.0 o r ovar

to L rxcl.
(40.0 or over
I to &. excl
163.0 o r over
( to C u c l .
1100 0s ova*
1 t o G ercl.
(160 or over
) to C exu1.
1108 ot over
I to C u e l .
(250 or avrr
1 t o 6 ucl.
1300 or w a r
( t o O iacl.

40.0

t0.95

. 63.0

il. 1

100

11.5
160
il.8

200
*1.9

250
22.1
300
22.3
350

L u r k a 1. Lither plur aide or minus aide of the thickness tolerances given in


tha above Tabla m y ba lhited on request. The total tolerances, in
thi8 cane shall be equal to those given in Table.
2. Thicknes~ shall be
measured at any point inward the scheduled
cutting lfaa concerning width for the as-rolled steel plate (with
untrimed edge), and at any point not less than 15 am from the
aforementioned line for the cut edge p l a t e .

ASEP Gteol :landbook


-7dF-

6-20

Steel F l a t Products

Table, 6-13b: Tolersncs on Thickneee (Cont'd.)


I

Unit:

2,50;39 or

1 3,150 or
1
I
over
to
and
1
over
to
and
(
I
I
f Phiekneosr
I arcl. 3,150 / axcl. 4,000 f
1 t - - - . - i F - i
t 0 . 65
I
1
Mi%tIth

4,0000s
over t o and
excl. 5,003

I
1

Ramarks 1. Either plus s i d e or ninus aide o f the t h i c h e r r tolardnces g i v e n in


the above Table lay be l i a i t e d en request. The total toierances, i n
t h i a case s h a l l be equal t o those given i n Table.
2. Thiclrnesa
shall
be
measured a t any Ipoint inVIlrd the scheduled
W t i n g l i n e concerning width for the as-rolled steel plate [with
untrimed edge), and at any polnt not less than 15 p. from the
aforementioned l i n e for the cut etlge p l a t e .

ASEP Steel H a n mok


-246-

Steel F l a t Products 6-21

Length

I
1
I
I

Thickness

------+

i-i

26300

uni t: mm

Tolerance on Length

Table 6-14:

I
1
I
I

<6

26

I
I
I

Tolerance

---I

+0.5%
0

+0.5%
0

.$-I-

---------+10
I
0
I
I
+15
I
I
0
I
I
1

I r u r k : Toler*nca 8 doas not apply t o thickneas of 220 m.

ASEP Steel Handbook

6-22

Steel F l a t Products

Unit: mm

Table 6-15a: Tolerance on Width


I

,&i 1
,.

$..k.
1
1

:I

]Width )

I II

1
1

:I..

i
!
'

I
p h r
6 0

I
I

I
'

1 .

(as rolled
((with

Juntri-d

Resheared \Slitted \
or fine
i edge 1

(length8 1
(therefrom1

cut edge

I
\

I
I
I
I

& e x e l . 6.00 !
6 . 0 0 o r rjver t o

20.0 or over

I
I

0
+ Not

specified

i2

1630

I s
I

10

2.0

3.0
0

2.0
3.0

1
1

t0.4
e0.5

4.0 0

1
1

15

I
I
I

io.5

4.0 0

t-0.3

-___(

I
I
I

2.n

I s

3.0

1
I

I 10

i-____I(I
I
I
1
I h s x c i . 6.00 I
0
1
16.00 or over t o I + Not
1
( h excl. 20.0 I specified I
120.0 or over
I
I
L

/ m r
L
tesC1.

i__l_f-

(sfrip and\ Normal


1 cut
I cut edge

4-+___1-___(

1160 or13.15 or over t o


J m r
& e r c l , 6.00 I
(.to C (6.00 or over t o
c
. 1 L crcl. 20.0
, 1190
120.0 or over
!

Iedge )
+
I4-------I
(Under 3.,15
I
I
1 5
13.15 o r over t o I
1
I S
I
I
6 ezcl. 6.00 I
1 t2
1 10
1 b .00 or over to' I
I
I
1 c e ~ c l .20.0.I
I
I
I 10
120.0 or over

C----i
1
/Under 3.15

,.

.I

( S t e e l pLateIStee1

II

Cut edge

Mill edge
I

Thickness

Tolerance

Ii s

I
I

.,.)

is

I
+20
0

15

I
4.0 0

3.0

lo

3.0

l5

5.0 0

-24a

idbook

I
1

I
1
1
I

I
I
I

ASEP Steel r'

t0.5 1
i0.5 1

. -1

0
'

110

I
1

~ 0 . 5

i0.5

I
1

1
I

I
I
I

Steel Flat Products 6-23

Unit: raa

T a b l e 6-15b: Tolerance on Width (Cont'd.)

iI

1
1
1-1

Tolerance

Thickness

I
t-------~-----l
[Steel plate(Stee1
I
1

iJwidth I(
I

Ira rolled
(with

luntrilrwd
edge)

(rttip m d l
(cut

A
Normal
cut edge

I
(lengths I
lthereftoml

+25
0

----------I
---------1 -------I
I
I
1 lo
I
1 lo

(Under 3.15
1630 or13.15 or over to1
Iwer
& axcl. 6.00 1
0
(to L 16.00 or over to1 + Not
(excl. ( h excl. 20.0 f specified
11.000 I20.0or over
(

Cut edge

Hilt edge

Resheared ISlitted
or fine
edge

I
cut edge I
+
- 1

C---

I
I
II
I

4.0
4.0

I
1
I

6.0 0
I
10
0
I
I
I 15
I
i-t
---------.1
-------i
-(1,000 (Under 3.15
1
I
I'-----------A
lo
4.0
I
(or
13.15 or over to]
4.0
I
1 10
I
lwer 1 & excl. 6.00 1
0
I +30 1
I
(to.& (6.00orovartol + N o t
I 0 (15 0
6.0 0
1 J e x ~ l .I & excl. 20.0 ( specified (
I
I
J1.250 120.0 or over
I
I
I l5
I
H
-----------1
-------+
------I
-----i-(1.250 (Under 3.15
I
I
1 lo
4.0
I
lor
13-15 or over t o )
4.0
1
1
lo
I
lover I & excl. 6.00 1
0
I +35 I
(to & (6.00or over to1 + Not
I 0 1 15 0 6.0 0 II Iercl. 1 & 8 x 1 . 20.0 1 specified I
I
I
11.600 120.0 or over
I

H
-'-------I
I
(Under 3.15

----+

I
1
---A
1
1

13.15 or over to1


11.800 1 & excl. 6.00 (
0
(or
~ 6 . 0 0 o r o v e r t o ~+ N o t
lover 1 & excl. 20.0 1 specified

~20.0orcver

11

------------A

1
+40
0

15

lo

lo

(1.2% 0

1.2%

ASEP Steel Handboo!

4.0
4.0
6.0

I
I
I
1
I

6-24

Steel Flat Products

rl

6-16:

Prfb.sEerrab T h i c k ~ o ~ a(for
s
SPHC)

Unit:

lp

Eeoarkr: 1. 'fha

thickncrr not

otandard

be u d .
2. Per tha

in parenthercr

should preferably

clte<I strip M cut loncthr therefrom, the rtandard


12.70 r ~r under shall k r ~ 1 i . Q .

thicbarror af
V d & a 6-17:

Proirrr.d Stamlard Width.

Unit: r

steel strip and cut lrwythr therefrom. the rtuul.rd widths of


2.000 m 0r urrd.r rh.11 h a@licd.

m r k : Par

ASEP Steel Ha ibook


-2517-

Steel Plat Products 6-25

Table 6-18a: Chemical and Jfechanical Property Requirements

(Strength

--t

(MPa)

/
(
1

IS

I max.1 max.1

I
I

JBPHD 10,040)0.040( 270 rain.[


IIB?RE I10.03010.0351
mx.1Pia;c. I
270 min.1
I
I max.1 max.)
I

-I

Elongation %

----I

Thickness
1.6 nun to
2 . 0 nun
excl

Thickness
2 . 0 mm to
2.5 nun

I
1
I

mln.

29 min.

29 min.

i
1

30 m i n .

32 min.

33 min.

II

31 min.

33 m i n .

35 rnin.

Thickness
1.2 mm to
1 . 6 mm
excl.

I
I
H
4
-------I
JSPHC )0.05010.0501 270 min.1
27
I

I/Tensile I1

Deeig-1 Chemical
nation( Compo1
. mition,%
I

Tenslle Test

excl .

I
_
I
J

Raarke: 1. The C and tin contents are not specified, but SPHC i s manufactured
f r w carbon ateel having a C content of 0.152 or below and an Mn
content of 0.60% or below. SPHD and SPHE are manufactured from
carbon rtael having r C cantent of 0.10% or below and an Un content of 0.50% or below.
2. Nechanical test values do not apply to abnormal parts of at both
M a ateel atrip (coflii).

ASEP Steel Handbook


-251-

6-26 Steel Plat Products

TsPale 6-lab: Chemical and


(Cont'd.)

Mechmical

Property

Requirements

Tensile Test

Elongation %

ch.ntioal
C W -

( Thickna8s Thickness Thickness

8ition.8

1-

2 . 5 ap to
3 . 2 aun

3.2 mm to
4.0
excl

( excl.

__(I
0.05010.0501 29 nin.
31 nin.
==.I
WU.1
0.040~0.040) 35 min.
37 rin.
uu.Iaw. I
0.03OJb.0351 37 min.

u*.Iur.
.IO.EQ.

39 min.

4.0 aa and

and
over

--

31 min.

No. 5

39 min.

Rolling

41 min.

Direction

eonteats are not specified, but SFHC is manufactured


arbst
stanl
havia( r C content of 0.15% 0s helor and an ibr
frcm
cansul: of 0 . m or b l o w . SNU) and S W are ~ ~ u f ~ t u r ferda
carhen rtoel havisyl r C centant of 0.10% or below and an ih contQ4tt 0 Z 0 . a or b.10~.
2 . kmcbmical teat values Qs not apply to abnorul part8 of at both
1.

C a d Ibi

.atk steel mtrip (coils);

ASEP Steel
.2E

mdbook

Steel F l a t Products 6-27

Unit: mm
Table 6-19: Thickness Tolerance
_
I
71,600 to
1
2,000 t o
Under
WiCth
I
2,000 excl. 1 2,500 excl.
1,600
I
) Thickness
I
______)
I--/ U n d e r 1.25
I
( 1 . 2 5 to 1.60 ~ x c l .
I
*0.23
I
1 1.60 to 2.00 excl.
20.25
1 2.00 to 2.50 excl.
I
k0.29
i0.29
1 2.50 to 3.15 excl.
I
to. 34
1
20.34
1 3.15 to 4.00 excl.
to. 55
I
i0.55
1 4.00 to 5.00 excl.
i0.60
1
t0.60
1 5.00 to 6.30 excl.
20.65
I
k0.65
1 6.30 to 10.0 e x c l .
1
*O. 65
i0.65
( 10.00 t o 16.0 e x c l .

-tee:

X . The
values of tolerance in the table are unchangeable on plus or
minus side provided that the overall tolerance range is left unchanged.
2. The position of thickness measurement shall be taken on an arbitrary
point inside not l e a 8 than 25 ma away from the edge for mill edged
steel atrip and cut plate therefrom of not less 50 mm in width. the
central position for less than 50 mm in width, an arbitrary point
inaide not less than 15 rpm away from the edge fcr cut edged strip
and cut plate from it of not less than 30 nuu in width and the central position for Law? than 30 mm in width. It shall be an arbitrary
point inside of the aeeumed cutting line for as-rolled steel plate
having r i m and an arbitrary point not less than 15 n m inside of the
edge for cut edged steel plate.

ASEP Steel "xndbook


-2~

6-28

Steel Flat Products

--

Table 6-20: Length Tolerance


"

ib
EL W

Unit: mm
I

t h

#!
lk.

I Th'ickneas
I

/Under 6.00

[Undcr 6,300

I
I

I
I

16.00 and over

I
I

IUndNr 6 .OO

I
(6,300 and over 1

A (Ordinary
Cutting)

lB (Re-cutting or1
]Precise Cuttingjl

------------4
P
t25
1
+5
I
0
0
I
I
I
!
I
1
+25
+10
I
I
I
0
I
0
I
-------------1
-----1
I

+0.5%
0

' 16.00 and over

-I

Tolerances

+0.5%
0

.andbook
-

I
I

ASEP Ste

+10
0
+15
0

I
I

S t e e l F l a t Products 6-29

Unit: mm

Table 6-2la: Tolerance on Width

r'

I
I

Ititth

1
I
i
t
I

I
I

Hill Edged

plate# s t t a ~s t t i p
i s Rolled
136 Cut Plate
(Raving R i l ) tbcrefror

.)(IYu

+ - - - - - t 9tetl
I
I
I- -]
I

3.15 to 6.00 8rcl.l

1 1.00 Lo 20.0 c1c1.l


1 10.00 uld ovrr /
I
I
I
I
1
under
3.15
1
1
(110 ( 3.15 to 6.00 excl. 1
Jtc 150 1 6.00 to 20.0 t r c l .
lucl. ) 10.0 and over
I
I
I
I
I
I tneer 3.15
1
(250
1 1.15 t o L O O rrcl. i

t2

!2

) ~ l 1. 10.0 and over

I
(
1

15

1
I
I
l&r
3.15
1
I
168 to I 3.15 to 6.90 excl, 1
11,000 1 6.00 to 20.0 ercl, I
pel. 1 10.0 ud ore1
J
I
I
I

i1

I1

l5
lo

rpeclflbd

1
1
I

Not
epocltlcd

t30

1
I

I
J

lo
lo
15

1
I
I

lo
10

lo
'5

I
I

/
1

Hanabook
;5-

2.0

3.0

1.0

'
I

I
1

ta.4

1
0

3.0
4.0

4.0

6.0

1
4

;
j

I
I

t0.5

!o,5

I
1

1.0

j0.5

1
/

t0.3

4.0

I
---1

3.0

1
I

I
I

I I
1 3.0
1 3.0
1 5.6
1 I
1 4.0

ASEP Ster

1 4.0
I -

lo
15

10

420

llrecls~Cutting\ /(Slitting1 1

10

0
t Not

I
I

1 '

lo

NO^

1
1
I
1
I

specifled

- - - - - - t i
5
1

1
I

Under 3.15
1400
3.15 t o 6.00 crcl.
) t o 630 ) 9.00 to 20.0 exel. I
1
( 10.0 lad over
1

I ~ C ~ O6.00
O to 20.0 ~ Y C I .

Cut Edged
L(Ord1nary
Cuttlag)

I
I

)1b0

I
1
H
I Dm1 3.15
I

1-r

Tolerance8

I
0

1
1
1
1

I
0

I
I
!
I

f0.5

I
'

II

!0.5
tO.3

1
1

1
1
II

I
I
I

S-m

Steel F l a t Products

Unit:

T a b l e 6-21b: Tolerance on Width (Cont'd.)

Cut Edged

Hill Kdptd

$tee1 ~lites S t d Strip


a$ Rolltd
ad Cat Plat6

(Baring Ria) ?barefro8

0
t lot
c p c i f ied

A(0rdlnarg
Cutting)

s\ra

)(Re-totting or /
C
rtclsa Cutting) /(Slitting)

il

Fb. %+lermuaoa steal a t r i p sill W and cut platdm therefrom loan


than 400 r tr width u i l l B. allorad t o l i m i t t h rims aide o t toloraeu te mro. In tbne c i n e , the tolermcar on plun ni& #lull bs
twiee tke WLW #ivm i n above table.

ASEP Stet

IanBbook
6-

Steel Flat Products 6-31

J I S G3141-90

Table 6-22: Preferred Standard Thickness

Unit: mm
t

0.40
11.60

0.50
1.80

0.60
2.00

0.70
2.30

0.80
2.50

1.20
1.40 J
(2.90) 3.201

0.90
1.00
(2.60) 2.80

Note: The standard thickness not in parentheses should preferably be used.

Tabla 6-23: Chemical Composition ( % )


I

Quality

+
I

Mn

_I__j

1
I
I

SPCC

SPCD
SPCE

[Informative reference]

I
1
I
0.10 max. 1
I
0.08 max. 1
0.12 mar.

P
-.____I

0.50 max.

0.040 nex.

0.45 max.

0.035

0.40 max.

0.030 max.

I
MX.

s
0.045 max.
0.035 max.
0.030 max.

I
1
1
I
1

I
1

I
I

Rearrk: For steel sheets and coils of grade 1/8 hard, 1/4 hard, 1/2 hard and
full hard, increase in hardness is achieved by sometimes changing
their chemical composition instead of by temper rolling.

ASEP Steel Handbook


-157

pmla 6-24a: mcwical Properties


I

reasion test

Elonqatioo Win, Vaiee (t1

1.

t o 10.10 t o 10.60 tb j ~ . o . t o j1.i to j


I
W)' j[@.Blil lit-OZl) /(1,03+) 118.863) / 2 , 5 & i
rd/O.lOuel/l.Oerel 11.6 azcl 12.3 u c l I(0.091)
li) l ( o , t ~ j(Q.039) [i@,otli I(@.PW l w e i ,I

34

IWltf

I,

lPrsrl4I%fep 1 ' s

'I

; w mI

'1*1m I
1,

'1 S
i
(
1

1
1
I
/

I
1

- I1 '27%I
-

1
I'
ILZU

1
'I

/
I

I
1.

1 .

34

I
j

36

I
I
3/

1
,!

36

f
/
I

38

40

38

1.

,-+;J-.

I
I

/
I

I
1.
1

'1

37

39

1
39

I
/

40

I
I
41

1
I

,I.

!2

1
I
i
I
I
I

36

1
1

11

13

I
I

I
I

-1

, r i ~ ) ~ l p l e tension
,
twt value8 r h r l l not apply to STCC, but
v b a r*i~ei$ by the cwt-t
tba valuer i n the prarratharis ahall

1 1

*rJ.
t e e a i m t e a t vrlrwa o r Erichsan valusr or h t h are yaraotm$ fog U)DC i n eaepli.sca with a customer's rectutrt, t&c 8 u f f i r
T *If.
& sivwr to th* *i#KuItioIl:
SPCn:
3. In prineipla, tSro u n 8 i a b test r h a l l be m t t t d f o r tbicImer8 lass
tk8n e.BO m.
4. For FOB#,
non-ming shall be guaranteed f o r a period of mix
mearks from thc date of ahipsent from the works. Ron-agutim
fadieatas p e r f o t u n c e i n which s t r e t c h e r s t r a i n does not occur
during Working proceurr. The bending test s h a l l be w i t t e d f o r
standard tempering.
2. Ilhem

Steel Flat Products 6-33

Table 6-24b: Mechanical Properties (Cont'd.)


Tens!os test

Eesdicg ?e:!

----

-4-

ensile

trength j
in
{ W a ) itppe an3
A ~ i r c c t i e of
n
japticirjens

:Bending anq!e /Inside radios


i
!
IType 326
/lending aagle tinside radios IDirecticn of
!

lsperinens

,25 and 1

:I

0.0iO)
ver

------i-.
(rU0j

'
I

i
I

I
1-

2270

2218

Roiling
/direction

18b'

--.---I-------

-'

,i Closing
I

Tiqhtly

Remarks: 1. In principle, tension test values shall not apply to SPCC. but
whm rr~uiredby the customer the values in the parenthesis ahall
apply.
2. When tension test values or Erichsen values or ~ o t hare guaranteed for SPCC in compliance with a customer's request, the suffix
'f shall be given to the designation: SPGCT
3. Xn principle, the tension test shall be omitted for thickness leas
than 0.60 m e .
4. For SFCEN, non-ageing shall be guaranteed for a period of six
mnths from the date of shipment from the works. Nan-ageisg
~ndfcatea performance in which stretcher strain does not occur
during warking processi. The bending test shall be omitted for
standard tempering.

Table 6-25.:
r

blschanical Properties, SPCC, Temper-Designated


I

Hardness

Bending test

Inside
radius

I
I

tightly

Cloaing tightly

I
I

Closing

Ii//Hazd

2 r

I
1
I

IltarQ

I
1

T-lm

2
1

1
I

I
1
I

65-80
74-89

85 rin

6-25b: Mechanical
(Cont 'd. )

1
I

1
1

135-185

1
I
1

180'

170 min

I
I

1115-150

1 *emmr
1

Propclrtles,

SPCC,

Tsnsile Strength

294-412

-dl1

I
I

iI

373-490
441-588
550 mln.

ASEP Steel Handbook


-260-

iI
I
I
1
I

I
Tamper-Designated
I

270 min.

0.5 time. the


thickness
1.0 t i m e the
thicknems

180'

Elongation,%

i----32 min.
I
I
1
I

25 min.

10 min.

1
I

i
I

I
I

II
1

I
I

S t e e l F l a t Products 6-35

Tolerance on Thickness
Table 6 - 2 6 : Thickness. Tolerances A
1

Nominal
f
Width
I
[Mominal Thickness

I
1

Unit: mm

Under
630

630 to
1000 to
1250 to
1600
1
1000, excl. 1250, excl. 1600. excl. and over(

[Lees than 0.25


10.25 to 0.40, exci.
10.40 to 0.60, ercl.
10.60 to 0.80, excl.
10.80 to 1.00, excl.
(1.00 to 1.25, excl.
(1.25 to 1.60, excl.
11.60 to 2.00, excl.
/2.00 to 2.50. excl.
12.50 to 3.65, ercl.
15.15 and over
L

Remarks: 1. Tolerance on thickness. width and length are usually in accordance with Table A.
2. When tolerances stricter than those in Table A are specified, the
tolerances shall comply w i t h Table 8.

ASEP Steel Haridbook


-9Rl.'

6-36

Steel Flat Products

Tabla 6-27: Thickness ~olerancesB


k

Unit: mm

Nominal
Width
I
jhainal ~htclrnaes

j h s s than 0.lO
10.10 to 0.16. sxcl.
(8.16 to 0.25. excl.

19.25 to 0.40.
1O.u) to 0.60,
10.60 to 0.80,
10.00 to 1.00.
) l . W to 1.25,
11.25 to 1.60,
14.to 2.00.
12.00 to 2.50,
j2.W to 3.15.
19.15 ancl over

axcl.
excl.
excl.
excl.
~xcl.
encl.
axel
excl.
escl.

Under
160

/
i

160 to
250, excl.

tO.010
t0.015
20.020
t0.025
~0.035
rO.040
t0.04
t0.05
tO.05
t5.W
t0.07
t0.M
:0.09

I
I
I
1
(

I
I
I

*O .020
t0.020
t0.025
to. 030
SO.040
t0.045
20.05
to. 05

iO.06

:0. 07
+a-0s
to. 09
to. 10

250 to
400, excl.

400 to
630. excl.

t0.030
to.035
t0.040
to.045
tO.05
*O .06
t0.06
t0.08

to .030

t0.035
to.040
r0.045
t0.05
to.05
to.06
tO.08
t0.08

to .09

tO.09
20.10

tO.10
tO.ll

-1

M ~ s k s :1. Tolcrmeo on thickmaan, width and length are usually in


mace with Table A.
2. When tolerances stricter than those in Table A are 6-Nrd,

accordthe

tolerancer shall ccap1.1 with Table 6 .

1"' .larimel width

/
I

Length
Tolerances A

Length
Tolerances R

1 @riaor1,250

+7

+3

-0

-0

II

+I0

+4

I
1

j;;;,r

I
I
(
I

Unit: mm

: Tolerance oar width

@#I$* ;.

1,250 and

~terial

wer

-0

ASEP 5 eel Handbook


-262-

-0

I
I
I

Steel Flat Products 6-37

Unit: mm

T a b l e , 6-29: T o l e r a n c e on Length

I'

Length
Tolerances A

Material

IWominal Length

Length

Tolerances B

I
IUnder 1,000

I11,000

II

t o 2,000, excl.

I2,OOO t o 3,000, excl.

(3,000 td 4 , 0 0 0 , e x c l .

14,000 t o 6,000, excl.

IL

+3

-0

-0

+15

+6

+15

-0
+8
-0

-0

+ 10

I
I
I
1
I
I
I

-0

+10

+4

-0

-0

*20
-0

28ble 6-30; T o l e r a n c e pn Flatnerrs


I

U n ~ t :mm

--1

I
1
Xind of
----,--1{--INominal
Strain 1 Bow
I Wavy I Center I Bow I Wavy I Center
IWidth
1
I Edge 1 Buckle I
( Edge I Buckle
------I
------I
-----i
4------I
/under 1,000
1 1 2 1
$ 1
6
I
2
1
2
1
~ i , o o o t o 1 , 2 s o , e r c i . 1 15
1 9
8
j 3 1 2 1 2
~1,250ta1,600.e1cl.( 15
1 1 1
1 8 1 4 1
3
1
2
Flatness A

Flatness B

------+

11.600
I

and over

1
I

I
I

Ih..rka: The specification shall apply to cold-rolled steel sheets 500 mm or


more in width of standard temper grade. Unless otherwise specified,
Flatnear A shall apply.

ASEP Steel Handbook


-263-

6-38

Steel Flat Prociucts

PNS 127-88

Unit: m

tabla 6-31: Preferred Standard ~hickness

Table 6-32: Chemical Propertiem,%, m x .

1 class
[---------I
1
I
I

c
I
m
--------I
0.12
1
0.50
I
0.10
0
.45
I
I
0.08
0.40
I
I

0.030

I
s
I
--I ---------I
0.040
1 0.045
I
1 0.035
0.035
I
I
1

0.030

Table 6-33: Tensile Strength and Elongation of Tempers 1, 2 , 4


aada

I
I
I

P*rgar

r---------I1

4
2
1

I
t
1
1
1
I

Tension Test
Tsneilo Strength, MPa
294-412

I
I

373-490
441-588

549 =in.

ASEP f t c

j
I

1.

Handbook
'64-

Elongation,%
25 min.
10 rain.

I
i
I

--I

1
I
I
I
A

Steel Flat Products 6-39

Table 6-34: Tensile Strength and long at ion of Tempere A and S


I

I
I
I
I

7
;

bylTensile

t------4
1 0.25

I Class

over

t----------1
I 1
1

275

275

Tension Test

1
1
I

275

&

1
1
I
I
1
1
1

I
I

Elongation.%, min.

NominallStrength
Thickness,(SPa, sin.\

I
t------4
1
Division

0.25 to

0.40 to

0.60 to

1.00 to 1.60 to

0.40,
excl.

0.60.
excl.

1 .OO.
excl.

1.60.
excl.

ercl.

37
39
41

38
40
42

32
34
36

34
36
38

36

38
40

2.50.

I
-I

2.5 & (
over I

39

41
A3

I
I
i

Notes: 1. The tension teat values do not usually apply to Class 1 , unless
specified by the purchaser.
2. Table 6-34 applies to steel sheets and strips 30 mm or more in width
but does not apply to those less than 0.60 mm in thickness.
3. For teuper S, Class S where non-ageing of the aheet/strip is
designated. the material shall have a six-month guarantee after
delivery by the manufacturer.

ASEP Steol Handb >k


-265-

6-40

S t e e l F l a t Products

Unit:

able 6-35: Thickness Tolerance A

Division by/

I1Ttivtrrien
mminal
by

width1

~NetnlnalTbicknesa

lVlldar 0.25
10.25 to 0.40,
10.40 to 0.60,
10.60 t o 0.80,
10.80 ta 1.00,
11.00 to 1.20,
fl.20 to 1.60,
11.60 to 2.00,
/2-00 to 2.50,
12.50 t o 3.20,
13.20 and over

exc1.j
6xcl.l

excl.1
excl.1
excl.1
exel,/
sxcl.1
exc1.1
axcl

inn

660 to

1,000 t o
1,250,
excl

1,000,
sxcl.

x0.03
$0.04
i0.05
t0.06
r0.07
fO.08
~0.10

20.03
10.04
*0,05
*O .06
rO.08

k0.09
iO.ll
k0.12
t0.14
~0.16
10.19

kO.ll

tO.13
20.15
r0.17

1,250 to
1,600,
excl

1,600
and
over

t C 37
10. 09
10.10
tO.12
k0.11
10.16
LO. 18
to. 20

iO.08
10.70

i0.06

r o . 12

Under
160

160 t o
250,
BxCf.

Unaar 0.10
0.10
0.16
0.25
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.60
2.00
2-50
3.20

to 0.16, e x c l .
to 0.25, e x c l .
t o 0.46, e x c l .
to 0.60, excl.
t o 0.80, e x c l
t o 1.00, e x c l .
t o 1.20, e x c l .
to 1.60, e x c l .
t o 2.00, e x c l .
t o 2.50, e x c l .
t o 3.20, e x c ~ .
and over

ASEP Steel Hand >ok


-266-

250 to
400.
exc1.

I
I

t
f
1
1

t0.14 ]
r0.16 I
10.18 (
~0.20 1

Table 6-36: Thickness Toleraacs B


Divl.sion by
Naainal iJidth
Division by
Nominal Thickness

1
I
1
1

400 t c
630,
exc1.

6-42

Steel Plat Products

Unit:mm

?awl. 6-40: Length Tolerance B

Ff_

Division by Worinal Length

Tolerance

+3

I1

Wk 5-41: F h t a u o Tolrranm

I
Clu~iiicetionl Pucklf8wd

Io-8:
'.

Unit: u

1. Buckling

wave

is

I Elongation I Elongation I

the warpage of the entire width o f the sheet or

strip.
9 . L l ~ s t i o nof edge is the uarpage o f edges of the5 aheet or atrip.

3. dlosgaticxa of
strip.

center

i r the warpage of the center of the Sheet or

ASEP Steel Handbook

-268-

Steel F l a t Products 6-43

ASTM A446M-87

iI - -

--

--

Rec6.y1ended

Recamended

Thicknesses, nun

Widths, m

ASEP Steel Yandbook


-269-

Recommended
Lengths, nun

1
1
1

i d a r b , mas.

aphorus, M x .

(Sulfur,

MX.

when copper
1
steal is ipecified, mint

{So--par.

Grade

0.20
0.04
0.04
0.20

0.20
0.10
0.04
0.20

0.25
0.10
0.04
0.20

0.40
0.20
0.04
0.20

0.20
0.04
0.04
0.20

0.50
0.04
0.04

I
1
1
1

0.20 (

t
I

A Class 1 and 2 .

table 6-41: Machsnical Rsquirements, Base Metal


I

I
Grade

Yield Point, win


MPa (ksi)

Tansils, Strength, Elongation in 501


ain MFa (kai)
as (2 in.) min, I

I
I

1
1

li
in
l C.

f3118

.....

$1
?1
\

230 (33)
255 (37)
275 (40)
34 5 ( 50 )
343 ( 5 0 )
!KMS(.@0)

310
360
380
450

(45)
(52)

20
18

(55)

16

(65)

12
12

...

570 (82)
460 6 7 0 )

...
12

I
I
I
I
I
1
I

ff the lodsrrll 6 reeult is 85 or k1lh.r. no tensiaa t e a t i; required.


~lu
sir14 miat apgworck.~ttm w i l e mtr-th
and sire*
tkmw i a so *rlt in the g y r er &rap in tha be-, the yield point s k f d
h taken PI tRe strrres at 0.5% elengation, under load.

ASEP Stan1 landbook


1-

Steel Flat Products 6-45

Table 6-45a: Thickness Tolerances of Hot-Dip Galvanized Sheet


'

Thickness Tolerance, Plus and Minus, nun

I For Spacif fed Thickness, mB

I
I

Over 0.4
Through 1.0

S m c i f i o d Width, mm

Over

Through

Through 0.4

Over 1.0
Through 1.5

1
1
i
I
1

Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 10 mm
from a side edge.
Regardlela o f whether total thickness tolerance is specified equally

' or unequally, o w r and under, the total tolerance

should be equal to twice

the tabular tolerances.


Fable 6-45b: Thicknees Tolerances of Hot-Dip Galvanizad Sheet
(ContId. )
I

1 Thickness Tolerance, Plus and Minus. mm 1


I
1 For Specified Thickness, nunB
f
M
-1
1 Over 1.5
Over 2.0
Over 2.5
I
I
Through
1
Through
2.0
Through
2.5
Through 5.0 I
I -=
i
I ...
1.500
I
0.15
0.20
0.23
I
1 1,500
... I
0.15
0.23
0.23
I
Specified Width, mm

Thiclulcar is measured at any point across the width not less than 10 mm
from r side edge.
Regardless of whether total thickness tolerance is specifled equally or
unequally, over and under, the total tolerance should be equal to twice
the tabular talerancee.

a
$eta:

The nominal thicknem of sheets and coils is the thickness of the base
metal in millimeter measured prior to galvanizing.

Unit: nun

T a l e 6-47: Standard Width and Length

18tandard Width

.i

Standard Length

T a b l e 6-481 l$ickne8s Tolereace


t

Width 1

Unit:

UnQcr 1,000

1,000 to1,220

?&mtaal

*afekoesl

[@Mar 0.25
18.25 to 0.40,
10.40 t o 0.60,
jQ.60 to 1.00,
11.00 to 1.60,

11.60

II
1
I

excl.
eacl.
axcl. 1
excl. (

I
I

II
20.04
e0.05
t0.06
* O . 07
*O. 09
20.12

I
1
I

i0.04
20.05
20.06
r0.07
iO.10
t0.13
J

Ilote: 1. Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 50
m from the side edges.

ASEP S t e e l F
-272

ndbook