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What is Active Directory ?

Active Directory is a Meta Data. Active Directory is a data base which store a data
base like your user information, computer information and also other network object
info. It has capabilities to manage and administor the complite Network which
connect with AD.
>What is domain ?
Windows NT and Windows 2000, a domain is a set of network resources
(applications, printers, and so forth) for a group of users. The user need only to log
in to the domain to gain access to the resources, which may be located on a number
of different servers in the network. The 'domain' is simply your computer address
not to confused with an URL. A domain address might look something like
>What is domain controller ?
A Domain controller (DC) is a server that responds to security authentication
requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc.) within the Windows Server
domain. A domain is a concept introduced in Windows NT whereby a user may be
granted access to a number of computer resources with the use of a single
username and password combination.
>What is LDAP ?
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP is the industry standard directory access
protocol, making Active Directory widely accessible to management and query
applications. Active Directory supports LDAPv3 and LDAPv2.
>What is KCC ?
KCC ( knowledge consistency checker ) is used to generate replication topology for
inter site replication and for intrasite replication.with in a site replication traffic is
done via remote procedure calls over IP while between site it is done through either
>Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD?
The AD data base is store in c:\windows\ntds\NTDS.DIT.
>What is the SYSVOL folder?
The sysVOL folder stores the server's copy of the domain's public files. The contents
such as group policy, users etc of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain
controllers in the domain.
>What are the Windows Server 2003 keyboard shortcuts ?
Winkey opens or closes the Start menu. Winkey + BREAK displays the System
Properties dialog box. Winkey + TAB moves the focus to the next application in the
taskbar. Winkey + SHIFT + TAB moves the focus to the previous application in the
taskbar. Winkey + B moves the focus to the notification area. Winkey + D shows the
desktop. Winkey + E opens Windows Explorer showing My Computer. Winkey + F

opens the Search panel. Winkey + CTRL + F opens the Search panel with Search for
Computers module selected. Winkey + F1 opens Help. Winkey + M minimizes all.
Winkey + SHIFT+ M undoes minimization. Winkey + R opens Run dialog. Winkey +
U opens the Utility Manager. Winkey + L locks the computer.
>Where are the Windows NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) and its
Backup Domain Controller (BDC) in Server 2003 ?
The Active Directory replaces them. Now all domain controllers share a multimaster
peer-to-peer read and write relationship that hosts copies of the Active Directory.
>I am trying to create a new universal user group. Why cant I ?
Universal groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003
environments. Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to
Windows Server 2003 Active Directory.
>What is LSDOU ?
Its group policy inheritance model, where the policies are applied toLocal
machines, Sites, Domains and Organizational Units.
>Why doesnt LSDOU work under Windows NT ?
If the NTConfig.pol file exist, it has the highest priority among the numerous
>Whats the number of permitted unsuccessful logons on Administrator
account? Unlimited. Remember, though, that its the Administrator account, not
any account thats part of the Administrators group.
> Whats the difference between guest accounts in Server 2003 and other
More restrictive in Windows Server 2003.
> How many passwords by default are remembered when you check
"Enforce Password History Remembered"?
Users last 6 passwords.
> Can GC Server and Infrastructure place in single server If not explain
No, As Infrastructure master does the same job as the GC. It does not work together.
> Which is service in your windows is responsible for replication of Domain
controller to another domain controller.
KCC generates the replication topology.
Use SMTP / RPC to replicate changes.
> What Intrasite and Intersite Replication ?
Intrasite is the replication with in the same site & intersite the replication between

> What is lost & found folder in ADS ?

Its the folder where you can find the objects missed due to conflict.
Ex: you created a user in OU which is deleted in other DC & when replication
happed ADS didnt find the OU then it will put that in Lost & Found Folder.
> What is Garbage collection?
Garbage collection is the process of the online defragmentation of active directory.
It happens every 12 Hours.
> What System State data contains?
Contains Startup files,
Com + Registration Database
Memory Page file
System files
AD information
Cluster Service information
What is the difference between Windows 2000 Active Directory and
Windows 2003 Active Directory? Is there any difference in 2000 Group
Polices and 2003 Group Polices? What is meant by ADS and ADS services
in Windows 2003?
Windows 2003 Active Directory introduced a number of new security features, as
well as convenience features such as the ability to rename a domain controller and
even an entire domain
Windows Server 2003 also introduced numerous changes to the default settings
that can be affected by Group Policy - you can see a detailed list of each available
setting and which OS is required to support it by downloading the Group Policy
Settings Reference.
ADS stands for Automated Deployment Services, and is used to quickly roll out
identically-configured servers in large-scale enterprise environments. You can get
more information from the ADS homepage.
>I want to setup a DNS server and Active Directory domain. What do I do
first? If I install the DNS service first and name the zone 'name.org' can I
name the AD domain 'name.org' too?
Not only can you have a DNS zone and an Active Directory domain with the same
name, it's actually the preferred way to go if at all possible. You can install and
configure DNS before installing Active Directory, or you can allow the Active
Directory Installation Wizard (dcpromo) itself install DNS on your server in the

>How do I determine if user accounts have local administrative access?

You can use the net localgroup administrators command on each workstation
(probably in a login script so that it records its information to a central file for later
review). This command will enumerate the members of the Administrators group on
each machine you run it on. Alternately, you can use the Restricted Groups feature
of Group Policy to restrict the membership of Administrators to only those users you
want to belong.
>Why am I having trouble printing with XP domain users?
In most cases, the inability to print or access resources in situations like this one will
boil down to an issue with name resolution, either DNS or WINS/NetBIOS. Be sure
that your Windows XP clients' wireless connections are configured with the correct
DNS and WINS name servers, as well as with the appropriate NetBIOS over
TCP/IP settings. Compare your wireless settings to your wired LAN settings and look
for any discrepancies that may indicate where the functional difference may lie.
>What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default?
Windows 2000 Domain controllers each create Active Directory Replication
connection objects representing inbound replication from intra-site replication
partners. For inter-site replication, one domain controller per site has the
responsibility of evaluating the inter-site replication topology and creating Active
Directory Replication Connection objects for appropriate bridgehead servers within
its site. The domain controller in each site that owns this role is referred to as the
Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG).

>What is difference between Server 2003 vs 2008?

1. Virtualization. (Windows Server 2008 introduces Hyper-V (V for Virtualization) but
only on 64bit versions. More and more companies are seeing this as a way of
reducing hardware costs by running several 'virtual' servers on one physical
2. Server Core (provides the minimum installation required to carry out a specific
server role, such as for a DHCP, DNS or print server)
3. Better security.
4. Role-based installation.
5. Read Only Domain Controllers (RODC).
6. Enhanced terminal services.
7. Network Access Protection - Microsoft's system for ensuring that clients
connecting to Server 2008 are patched, running a firewall and in compliance with
corporate security policies.
8. PowerShell - Microsoft's command line shell and scripting language has proved
popular with some server administrators.
9. IIS 7 .
10. Bitlocker - System drive encryption can be a sensible security measure for

servers located in remote branch offices. >br> The main difference between 2003
and 2008 is Virtualization, management. 2008 has more in-build components and
updated third party drivers.
11. Windows Aero.
>What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server?
1 The Domain structure.
2 The Domain Name .
3 storage location of the database and log file.
4 Location of the shared system volume folder.
5 DNS config Methode.
6 DNS configuration.
>What is LDP?
LDP : Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is often used to establish MPLS LSPs when
traffic engineering is not required. It establishes LSPs that follow the existing IP
routing, and is particularly well suited for establishing a full mesh of LSPs between
all of the routers on the network.