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ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

DR. K.K. MALHOTRA

EARTH FORMATION
THEORIES:
1.NEBULA AS THE STARTING POINT
1. ATOMIC CLOUD PERTURBED BY A
PASSING STAR CAUSING SPINNING
FOLLOWED BY COOLING.

2.BIG BANG
1. TWO STARS STRIKING CAUSING
DISINTEGRATION AND THE SPIN
FOLLOWED BY COOLING.

COOLING
SOLIDIFICATION RESULTED IN
FORMATION OF:
1.INNER HOT CORE
2.PLATES
COVERING
THE
CORE
3.UPPER
FORMING
THE
MANTLE

DYNAMIC CORE-PERTURBATIONS
CAUSES:
1.VARYING THICKNESS OF THE PLATULAR
STRUCTURE RESULTING FROM DIFFERENTIAL
COOLING.
2.VARYING THICKNESS OF THE MANTLE.
3.VARYING STRENGTH OF THE FORMATIONS IN
THE MANTLE.

EFFECTS:
1.VARYING CENTRE OF GRAVITY
2.VARYING LOCATIONS FOR RELEASE OF
ACCUMULATED STRESSES WITHIN.
3.EFFECT OF OTHER EXTRA-TERRESTIAL
PERTUBATIONS.

GEOLOGY-RELEVANCE
NO ACTION OF RAISING A SUPERSTRUCTURE
CAN BE TAKEN UP WITHOUT CONSIDERING
ALL THE ASPECTS OF STABILITY DURING
LIFE SPAN OF THE STRUCTURE TAKING
INTO ACCOUNT ALL THE VARIABLES OF:
STATIC AND DYNAMIC LOADING OF THE
STRUCTURES.
STABILITY AND VARIABILITY OF SOIL
STRUCTURES.
STABILITY AND VARIABILITY OF THE SOIL
CONDITIONS.

RELEVANCE TO CIVIL
ENGINEERING
ASPECTS THAT NEED TO BE ADDRESSED ARE:
BEARING PRESSURE OF THE STRUCTURES.
BEARING STRENGTH OF THE SOIL.
VARIATIONS IN THE CLIMATIC FACTORS:

TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS.
VARIATIONS OF RAINFALL.
VARIATIONS OF THE GROUND WATER CONDITIONS.
PRONENESS OF THE AREA TO EARTHQUAKES.
WIND CONDITIONS.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS OF ENERGY USE AND
EFFICIENCY.
WASTE DISPOSAL ASPECTS.

Divisions of Geology

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY
GEO-MORPHOLOGY
GEO-HYDROLOGY

GEOPHYSICS
ORIGIN:
ATOMIC LEVEL GASES RESULTING FROM BIG BANG OR THE
NEBULA COOLING RESULTING IN FORMATION OF THE
OUTER HARD MANTLE WITH THE INNER CORE AT A HIGH
TEMPERATURE . THE PROCESS OF DIFFERENTIAL COOLING
WITHIN THE MANTLE CAUSED HIGH STRESSES IMPOSED ON
THE PHYSICAL FEATURES BOTH ON THE SURFACE AS WELL
DOWN TO THE CORE. THE EARTH SURFACE WAS UNSTABLE
AND MADE SO FURTHER BECAUSE OF EXTREME CLIMATIC
CONDITIONS. EXTREMES IN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
PROVIDED FOR INTERMITTENT DEEP FREEZE, HEAVY
RAINS, THICK VEGETATION WHICH FURTHER STRESSED
THE EARTH MORE. VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS FURTHER
COMPLICATED THE CONDITIONS. THE TOTAL PRIMARY
IGNEOUS FORMATIONS RESULTED IN SECONDARY ROCK
FORMATIONS.

GEOPHYSICS-contd.
THE CONSOLIDATED LAND SURFACE
WAS SUBJECTED TO STRESS AND
STRAIN CAUSING THE FLOATING
PLATULAR FORMATIONS TO BE IN
TURMOIL AND IN CONTINUAL STATE
OF
COMPLEX
INTERACTION
CAUSING
CHANGES
IN
THE
STRUCTURES OF THE FORMATIONS
MANIFESTING IN FAULTS/ FOLDS AND
OTHER PERCEPTIBLE IMPACTS ON
THE LAND SURFACE.

GEOPHYSICS-contd.
PLATULAR STRUCTURES UNDER DIFFERENT
STRESSES CAUSED VARIETY OF
CONDITIONS IN DEVELOPING SITUATIONS
OF STRATA SUBJECTED TO TENSILE,
COMPRESSIVE AND SHEARING FORCES TO
ACT UPON THE ORIGINAL COOLING
ROCKS CAUSING EQUALLY COMPLEX
STRUCTURES IN THE FORMATIONS WHICH
ARE NOT KNOWN AND ARE NOT EASILY
PREDICTABLE.

FORMATIONS
IGNEOUS: LAVA INTRUSIONS/
EXTRUSIONS.
SEDIMENTARIES: FORMED AT THE BED
OF OCEAN/ LAKES.
TECTONIC MOVEMENTS: CAUSING
FAULTS/ FOLDS/ UNCONFORMITIES/
DISCONFORMITIES.
PETROLOGY: DETAILED STUDY OF
THE FORMATIONS VIS--VIS THEIR
RELEVANCE TO DEVELOPMENTS.

PETROLOGY
IS THE STUDY OF ROCKS FOR
PURPOSES OF CO-RELATION OF AGE/
SEQUENCING:
ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
LATERAL CONTINUITY
STRATIGRAPHIC SUPERPOSITION
CROSS CUTTINGRELATIONS
LAW OF INCLUSION
LAW OF FAUNAL SUCCESSION

EARTH-PATTERN

ROCK FORMATION-CYCLE

ROCK FORMATIONPATTERN

ROCK FORMATIONSEQUENCE

ROCK CHARACTERISATION
PARAMETERS
TO
BE
STUDIED:
1. COLOUR
2. HARDNESS
3. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
4. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

ROCK CHARACTERISATION
-CONTD.
COLOUR:
1. MINERAL COMPOSITION
2. TRANSFORMATION AFTER DEPOSITION/
METAMORPHOSIS
3. WEATHERING AND CONTACT WITH
OTHER MINERALS/ ROCKS.
i. CHEMICAL
ii. PHYSICAL
iii. BIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION

ROCK CHARACTERISATION
-CONTD.
HARDNESS SCALE:

Talc
Gypsum
Calcite
Fluorite
Apatite
Feldspar
Quartz
Topaz
Corborundum
Diamond

ROCK CHARACTERISATION
-CONTD.
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE:

GEO-MORPHOLOGY
STRUCTURES:
THE COOLING GASES RESULTING INTO
SOLIDIFICATION CAUSED DEPOSITS OF
ROCK MASSES WITH IMBALANCES IN
TEMPERATURES CONTINUING TO EXERT
PRESSURES WITHIN AND AGAINST THE
DIFFERENT COMPONENTS BOTH
VERTICALLY AND HORIZONTALLY. SUCH
PRESSURES MANIFESTING IN TECTONIC
MOVEMENTS CAUSING CHANGES IN
STRUCTURES OF THE ROCK FORMATIONS.

EXAMPLES- MORPHOSIS
IMPACT OF PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE
ON THE FORMATIONS:
LIMESTONE TO TALC TO MARBLE
CLAY TO MUDSTONE/ SHALE/ SLATE
CARBON TO GRAPHITE TO
DIAMONDS
NATURAL COKE FROM COAL

GEO-HYDROLOGY
WATER:
FORMING PART OF THE GASES
DEPOSITED ON THE SURFACE OF THE
LAND MASS CONTINUED TO EXERT
INFLUENCE ON STRUCTURES ON THE
SURFACE TRIGGERING STRATA
MOVEMENTS BELOW THE LAND.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE WATER CYCLE
PLAYING A BIG ROLE IN THE HYDROGEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY OF THE
AREAS.

WATER FLOWSEDIMENTARIES

WATER IN SEDIMENTARIES

WATER FLOW-CYCLE

WATER FLOW CHANNELS

WATER RESOURCES
FLOW PATTERNS DETERMINE
CHARACTERISTICS
NATURAL CLEANING TAKES PLACE
THROUGH CHEMICAL/ PHYSICAL/
BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS
WATER TABLES (MULTIPLE) ENABLE
SOURCES TO BE TAPPED/ RECHARGED
FLUCTUATIONS RELEVANT.

WATER FLOW PATTERN

WATER RESOURCES

WATER TABLE

WHY ENGINEERING IN
GEOLOGY?
HUMAN:
EXPANDING HORIZONS OF HUMAN MIND
CAUSED HIM TO EXPLORE USES OF HIS
SURROUNDINGS TO DERIVE BENEFITS
FOR HIMSELF NOT ONLY FOR HIS
SUBSISTENCE BUT FOR SATISFYING
OTHER NEEDS. THIS CAUSED HIM TO
EXPLORE AND EXAMINE SOILS, ROCKS
AND WATER IN ALL THEIR
RAMIFICATIONS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE
IN HIS PURSUITS.

WHY GEOLOGY IN
ENGINEERING?
SOIL: FOR RAISING FOOD CROPS, SUSTAINING
STRUCTURES, TRANSFORMATION AND AS A
SUSTAINING FORCE FOR GEO-PHYSICOCHEMICAL CYCLES. SOLVENT FOR REACTIVE
AND NON-REACTIVE MATERIALS.
ROCKS: FOR MAKING TOOLS, BUILDING
MATERIALS, SOURCES OF WATER AND
SUSTAINING FORCE FOR THE CYCLES AND AS
CLEANSING AGENTS.
WATER/ AIR: ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS FOR
SUSTENANCE AND MEDIUM OF SUPPORT FOR
THE CYCLES.

GEOLOGY FOR CIVIL


ENGINEERS
SOIL: BRICK MAKING, FOUNDATIONS OF
STRUCTURES, WATER PERMEABILITY,
CHEMICAL ACTIVITY AND TO PROVIDE
FOR FLEXIBILITY UNDER VARYING LOAD
CONDITIONS. IMPORTANT PARAMETERS:
PHYSICAL/ CHEMICAL/ BIOLOGICAL
COMPOSITION.
BEARING STRENGTH.
SHEAR STRENGTH.
PERMEABILITY TO AIR /WATER.

GEOLOGY FOR CIVIL


ENGINEERS-Cont.
ROCKS: FOR SUPPORTING STRUCTURES
AND AS BUILDING MATERIALS IN SIZES/
SHAPES. IMPORTANT PARAMETERS:
WATER PERMEABILITY
STRUCTURAL CONTINUITY
WEATHERING CHARACTERISTICS
BEARING PRESSURES.
COMPRESSIVE/ SHEARING STRENGTH.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION.

GEOLOGY FOR CIVIL


ENGINEERS-Cont.
WATER: MEANS OF CONSOLIDATION,
CHEMICAL REACTION AND CURING.
IMPORTANT PARAMETERS:
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
REACTIVITY WITH SOIL, PHYSICAL
AND CHEMICAL
INFLUENCE OF BACTERIAL
INTERVENTION
FLOW PATTERNS, BOTH SURFACE AND
SUBSURFACE

GEOLOGY FOR CIVIL


ENGINEERS-Cont.
INVESTIGATIONS REQUIRED:
STABILITY OF THE GROUND UNDER
PROPOSED LOADING, AUGMENTING LOAD
BEARING CHARACTERISTICS WHERE
REQUIRED.
CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS
UNDER VARYING CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
TOXICITY TRANSMITTED BY LANDFILLS OR
OTHER RELEASES BOTH ON SURFACE AND
IN SUBSOIL REGIME.
LANDFIILS PROPOSED TO ADDRESS BOTH
SOIL AND SUB-SURFACE CONDITIONS.

WEATHERING
DETERIORATION IN THE PHYSICAL AND/ OR
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE
MATERIALS/ ROCKS ON THE SURFACE
ARISING FROM CHANGES IN THE CLIMATIC
CONDITIONS. EFFECTS MAY VARY FROM
MINOR CHANGES IN CASE OF IGNEOUS
FORMATIONS TO HIGHLY DELITERIOUS
EFFECTS IN CASE OF SEDIMENTARIES
UNDER HIGH MOISTURE CONDITIONS.
OCCURS ALONG THE WEAK PLANES OR
FORMATION PLANES FROM PENETRATION
OF WEATHERING AGENTS LIKE WATER
UNDER STRONG THERMAL VARIATIONS.

WEATHERING AGENTS
PHYSICAL FACTORS:
WIND
GLACIERS
WATER: OCEAN, RIVER, RAINS
HEAT: EXTREME CLIMATIC FACTORS.
CHEMICAL/ BIO-CHEMICAL FACTORS
BREAKDOWN OF THE CHEMICAL
CONSTITUENTS WITH OR WITHOUT
INTERVENTION OF BACTERIAL ACTIVITY.
PROCESS:
BREAKDOWN ALONG THE PLANES OF
WEAKNESS, SHEET/ SPHEROIDAL.

WEATHERING RESULTS
HIGH POROSITY/ HIGH WATER
PERMEABILITY/ SUBSIDENCE.
LOW BEARING STRENGTH.
HIGHER REACTIVITY UNDER SOME
CIRCUMSTANCES.
SITUATIONS CRITICAL UNDER VARYING
WATER TABLE.
GROUNDWATER MOBILITY CAN
AGGRAVATE THE CONDITIONS.

WEATHERING RESULTS-Cont.
WEATHERING OF THE FORMATIONS
IMPART HIGHER MOBILITY TO THE
ROCK MATERIALS CAUSING THIS TO BE
DISLODGED FROM THE POINT OF
OCCURRENCE TO PLACES OF THEIR
DEPOSIT AS CAN ALTER THE PHYSIOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF THE AREA.
MATERIALS CAN BE TRANSPORTED
OVER LONG DISTANCES FROM THE SITE
THROUGH WIND, RAINS, RIVERS AND
OCEANS.

ROCK FORMATIONS
ORIGINAL ROCK FORMATIONS
WERE THE RESULT OF
SOLIDIFICATION OF THE
VOLATILE MATTER ON
COOLING. WEATHERING TOOK
OVER FROM THE RAINS/
VEGETATION OVER LONG
PERIODS OF TIME CAUSING
MOVEMENT OF THE
WEATHERED MATERIAL
DOWNSTREAM FOR DEPOSIT
AT THE BASINS OF LAKES/
OCEAN TERMED
SEDIMENTARIES.

IGNEOUS ROCKS
IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE FORMED
ON SOLIDIFICATION OF THE
MOLTEN LAVA ON REACHING
THE LAND SURFACE. BECAUSE
OF THEIR POOR WEATHERING
CHARACTERISTICS THESE
ROCKS STAND OUT IN
CONTRAST TO OTHERS. THESE
MAY PENETRATE THE
SEDIMENTARIES AND MOVE
VERTICALLY, CALLED DYKES,
AND HORIZONTALLY AS SILLS.
IN THE PROCESS OF FLOWS
THESE METAMORPHOSE OTHER
ROCKS BECAUSE OF THE HEAT
AND THE PRESSURE.

USE OF ROCKS
ROCKS ARE CLASSIFIED
ACCORDING TO THEIR
STRENGTH AS RELEVANT
FOR THE JOBS IN HAND.
FOR THE PURPOSE OF
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
THE ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS, BOTH SURFACE
AND SUBSURFACE, NEED
TO BE ANALYSED BEFORE
CHOSING THE SITE AND
THE DESIGN OF THE
STRUCTURE. SURFACE
AND SUBSURFACE
HYDROLOGY NEEDS TO BE
ANALYSED.

Rock Quality Designation (RQD)


TOTAL CORE RECOVERY (TCR) AND, IF
REQUIRED, SOLID CORE RECOVERY (SCR)
AND ROCK QUALITY DESIGNATION (RQD)
FORM THE BASIS OF DESIGN OF THE
STRUCTURES. INFORMATION IS BASED ON
THE IN-SITU RECOVERY OF THE CORE FROM
THE CORING DRILLS AND INDICATE THE
STRENGTH AND INTEGRITY OF THE ROCK
FORMATION. WEEK LINKS PROVIDE FOR
POOR CORE RECOVERY AND HENCE ALSO
POOR RQD, IMPROPER DRILLING TO BE
EXCLUDED.

DESIGNATION

RELEVANCE
ORIGINALLY DEVELOPED FOR PREDICTING
TUNNELING CONDITIONS SUPPORT
REQUIREMENTS WAS EXTENDED TO
COVER THE IN-SITU CONDITIONS
RELEVANT FOR DEVELOPMENTAL
PROJECTS, ENGINEERING STRUCTURES,
DAM FOUNDATIONS, TUNNEL PORTALS,
UNDERGROUND CAVERNS, POWER
FACILITIES ETC.

STANDARDS
ROCK QUALITY DESIGNATION (%)

DESCRIPTION

0-25

VERY POOR

25-50

POOR

50-75

FAIR

75-90

GOOD

90-100

EXCELLENT

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
WITH THE ORIGINAL IGNEOUS ROCKS FORMING THE BASE
FOR SEDIMENTARY ROCKS WHICH UNDERGO MORPHOSIS
BY THE HEAT AND PRESSURE OF SUBSEQUENT IGNEOUS
INTRUSIONS CHANGE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
ROCK FORMATIONS. TECTONIC FORCES CONTINUE TO
EXERT PRESSURE CAUSING CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE
OF SUCH FORMATIONS. STRUCTURES RESULT OF SUCH
INTERVENTIONS CAN BE:
INCLINED DEPOSITS AGAINST THE EARLIER
HORIZONTAL DEPOSITION AT THE BED OF LAKES/
OCEAN.
STRUCTURAL CHANGES CAUSING HORIZONTAL/
VERTICAL SHIFTS IN THE FORMATIONS RESULTING IN
DEFORMATIONS WHICH MAY FURTHER CONTINUE TO BE
UNDER STRESS AND REMAIN UNSTABLE.

STRATIFICATION
THE ORIGINAL DEPOSITIONS UNDERGO
CHANGE AND GET SIMPLY INCLINED
UNIFORMLY. BUT WHERE PRESSURES ARE
EXERTED ON THE ROCK FORMATIONS
FROM BOTH SIDES THESE ACQUIRE
COMPLEX SHAPES AND FURTHER
DEPENDING UPON THE PRESSURES MAY
EVEN CAUSE BREAKS IN THE
STRUCTURES. INCLINATION IS DESCRIBED
AS PERCENTAGE OR IN TERMS OF A
NUMBER OF HORIZONTALS AGAINST ONE
VERTICLE, THE DIRECTION OF
INCLINATION WHERE SUCH PERCENTAGE
OR NUMBER IS THE HIGHEST AND THAT IS
THE DIRECTION IT IS INCLINED IN TERMS
OF GEOGRAPHICAL DIRECTIONS.

PROPERTIES OF MINERALS
ROCKS AND FORMATIONS CONTAIN MINERALS
HAVING DIFFERENT PHYSICAL
CHARACTERISTICS DEPENDING UPON THE
PROCESSES THESE UNDERGO IN THE EARTH
CRUST. SOURCE, HEAT, PRESSURE,
INTERACTION WITH SOIL WATER AND
CHEMICAL REACTIONS DETERMINE THE
SHAPE, SIZE, COLOUR, STRENGTH Etc. OF THE
MINERALS. SOME OF THE MINERALS ARE
AVAILABLE IN THEIR NATIVE FORM LIKE
GOLD, CARBON AS GRAPHITE OR DIAMOND.

MINERALS
COAL: CARBON WITH EXTRANEOUS
MATERIAL CO-DEPOSITED OR
OTHERWISE.
LIMESTONE: AS SEDIMENTARY OR
MORPHOSED INTO MARBLE.
IRON: AS OXIDE.
GOLD: AS NATIVE GOLD.
DIAMOND: IN PIPE INTRUSIONS FROM
THE MOLTEN MAGMA.

UNCONFORMITIES/
DISCONFORMITIES
CHANGES THE ROCKS UNDERGO
AFTER THESE ARE ESTABLISHED IN
PLACE. CAUSES OF SUCH
UNCONFORMITIES ARE:
TECTONIC FORCES.
WEATHERING
DEPOSITIONS ON DIFFERENT TIME
SCALES.

UNCONFORMITIES
Principles of original horizontality, cross-cutting
relations, & superposition.

UNCONFORMITIES- TYPES
UNCONFORMITY-SEDIMENTARIES OVER
IGNEOUS

UNCONFORMITIES- Contd.
DISCONFORMITY-SEDIMENTARIES OVER
SEDIMENTARIES

UNCONFORMITIES- Contd.
ANGULAR
UNCONFORMITYSEDIMENTARIES OVER
SEDIMENTARIES

UNCONFORMITY-Contd.
ANGULAR UNCONFORMITY

TECTONIC FORCES
RIGHT FROM THE STAGE OF SOLIDIFICATION
OF THE EARTH CRUST AND SURFACE
COOLING THE PRESSURES DEVELOPED
CONTINUE TO PLAY A PART RESULTING
FROM SUCH COOLING. PRESSURE
DEVELOPMENTS AND RELEASE THROUGH
PLAIN MOVEMENTS OR THE VOLCANIC
ACTIVITY CAUSE THE STRATA MOVEMENTS
TO TAKE DIFFERENT SHAPES DEPENDING
ON INTENSITY AND CONTRAINTS.

WEATHERING
NORMAL WEATHERING OR FLOWING RIVERS
OVER THE FORMATIONS CAUSE
DISCONTINUITY TO BECOME APPARENT WHERE
THE DEPOSITIONS WERE ON DIFFERENT TIME
SCALE. IN CASE OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS THE
CONTINUITY OF THE FORMATIONS MAY RESULT
IN COMPLETE WASHOUTS. WATERFALLS ARE
THE RESULT OF DIFFERENTIAL WEATHERING
WHERE THE SOFTER FORMATIONS ARE
WASHED AWAY LEAVING HARD FORMATIONS
PROVIDING FOR THE HEAD OF A WATERFALL.

DEPOSITION-TIME
TWO FORMATIONS ESTABLISHED AT
DIFFERENT TIMES SHOW DISCONTINUITY
BECAUSE OF THE SECOND DEPOSIT IS
AFTER THE FIRST HAVING BEEN
SUBJECTED TO TECTONIC FORCES
BEFORE THE SECOND IS DEPOSITED.
THERE IS NO UNIFORMITY EITHER IN
THE TYPES OF THE FORMATIONS, THEIR
SEQUENCING OR THE COMPOSITION.

FOLDS
FOLDS IN SEDIMENTARIES RESULT FROM
PRESSURES EXERTED FROM ONE SIDE
WITH CONTRAINTS ON THE OTHER OR
FROM BOTH THE SIDES. ALTERNATE
PEAKS AND VALLEYS ARE FORMED IN
DIFFERENT SHAPES. IN EXTREME CASES
OF PRESSURES THESE CAN RESULT INTO
THRUST FAULTS. MOUNTAINS FORMED OF
SEDIMENTARY ROCK FORMATIONS ARE
THE RESULTS OF THESE PRESSURES.

FOLDS

FOLDS-Cont.

FOLDS-Cont.

FOLDS-Cont.

FAULTS
DIFFERENTIAL UPWARD/ DOWNWARD
MOVEMENTS OF THE FORMATIONS WITH A
CLEARCUT PLANE ALONGWITH WHICH
SUCH MOVEMENT TAKES PLACE. THE
DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF THE
FORMATION ON THE TWO ENDS SUBJECTS
THE FORMATION TO DIFFERENTIAL
WEATHERING CAUSING WASHOUT OF PART
OF THE FORMATIONS. THERE MAY BE
REPTITION OF SUCH FAULTS.

FAULTS

FAULTS-Cont.

FAULTS-Cont.

JOINTS
DISCONTINUITIES IN THE FORMATIONS
WHERE NO MOVEMENT ACROSS THE
PLANE HAS TAKEN PLACE. THIS IS
INDICATED BY ONLY BROKEN FORMATION
AND FORMS A PLANE OF PHYSICAL
WEAKNESS AND PROVIDES HIGH
PERMEABILITY TO WATER AND GASES.
THESE FORM THE CONDUITS FOR
MOVEMENT OF MAGMATIC DEPOSITS
METAMORPHOSING THE STRATA AROUND
UPTO A DISTANCE.

JOINTS-PLANES OF
WEAKNESSES

DESIGN-GEOLOGICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
DIFFERENT INSTALLATIONS THAT ARE
REQUIRED TO BE ESTABLISHED INCLUDE
BOTH SURFACE AND SUB-SURFACE
STRUCTURES INCLUDING TUNNELS,
HIGHWAYS, FOUNDATIONS OF RESIDENTIAL/
INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES, DAMS,
RESERVOIRS, LANDFILLS, COASTAL
STRUCTURES Etc. WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES
DEPENDING UPON GROUND WATER.
MULTIPLE WATER BASINS TO BE
CONTENDED.

DESIGN PARAMETERS
PHYSICAL: COMPRESSIVE, TENSILE AND
SHEAR STRENGTH OF THE FOUNDATIONS
vis--vis LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
STRUCTURES. PERMEABILITY TO WATER/
AIR.
SOIL: COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE.
CHARACTERISTICS AS TO REACTIVITY
UNDER VARYING CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
GROUND WATER: FLOW DIRECTION AND
VARIATIONS.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSDAMS
CATCHMENT vis--vis VARIATIONS OF INFLOWS, WATER
LEVEL, BOTH PEAK AND BASE FLOWS.
POTENTIAL OF THE WATERSHED TO SLIDES.
STRENGTH OF THE ANCHORS FOR THE DAM.
AVAILABILITY OF ACQUIFERS/ ACQUICLUDES.
SILTATION RATES AND PATTERN TO ASSESS THE LOADING
AND IMPACT OF DESILTATION TO BE CARRIED OUT.
EFFECT ON GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS RESULTING FROM
THE ABOVE FACTORS:
FAULTS
PROPENSITY TO EARTHQUAKES.
UNCONFORMITIES AND POSSIBLE IMPACTS FROM
VARIATIONS OF THE FACTORS.

WATER REGIME-DAM

WATER MOVEMENT

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSTUNNELS
GEOLOGICALLY VERY ACTIVE ZONE:
STRATA PRESSURES AND MOVEMENTS.
PROJECTIONS FROM THE OPENINGS.
IMPACT OF WATER PERCOLATION/ PERMEATION
FROM THE FORMATIONS, ABOVE OR BELOW.
SUPPORT STRUCTURES:
LOAD CHARACTERISTICS.
PROVISIONS FOR SOME YIELD/ MOVEMENT.
HIGH YIELDING ACQUIFERS.
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER.
STRENGTHENING MOUTH/ SIDES OF THE TUNNELS.

WATER REGIME

WATER MOVEMENT
WATER MOVEMENT THROUGH THE STRATA
NEEDS TO BE KNOWN SO THAT NOT ONLY
MOVEMENTS OF POLLUTANTS ARE
KNOWN BUT THEIR DIRECTIONS CAN BE
CONTROLLED FOR LIQUIDATION. THERE
MAY BE MULTIPLE BASINS AND INTERBASINAL TRANSFERS HAS TO BE
ANTICIPATED AND ADDRESSED IN
PLANNING ANY STRUCTURES.

SOIL WATER PATTERN

WATER REGIME-CHANGES

HIGHWAYS
HIGHWAYS NORMALLY COMPRISE
OPERATIONS OF CUTS AND FILLS. THE
PARAMETERS OF IMPORTANCE ARE:
LOAD BEARING CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE SOIL AND THE FORMATIONS.
SHEARING STRENGTH
SUBSOIL WATER REGIME
STABILITY OF THE SIDE WALLS.
LOCATION IN RELATION TO GEOLOGICAL
STABILITY.

FORMATIONS BELOW
HIGHWAY

BUILDINGS
LOAD BEARING CHARACTERISTICS COMBINED
WITH SOIL WATER REGIME DETERMINE THE
IMPACT ON FOUNDATIONS AND THE
REINFORCEMENTS USED FOR
CONSTRUCTIONS. IMPORTANT PARAMETERS
ARE:
STABILITY OF THE FORMATIONS BELOW.
CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF SOIL
HEAVY TAPPING OF UNDERLYING
ACQUIFERS.

BUILDINGS

LANDFILLS
LANDFILLS HAVE BECOME A NECESSITY
PARTICULARLY IN THE URBAN SETUP. SOIL
WATER REGIME AND RELEASE OF GASES
NEED TO BE ADDRESSED. AREAS OF
IMPORTANCE ARE:
VICINITY OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS
CLOSEBY.
TOXICITY OF THE LEACHATES.
WIND DIRECTION.
EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS.

LANDFILLS

GEOLOGICAL
EXPLORATIONS
Objective of the explorations is to ensure that the
structures planned will be stable over the lifetime
taking into account all the climatic factors and
soil water regime. Extremes in the climate need
to be addressed. Explorations for the desired
criteria have to be carried through a variety of
means available depending upon requirements in
each case knowing the static and dynamic
loading of the geological formations.

MEANS OF EXPLORATIONS
IN SITU STUDIES: STUDIES ON HARDNESS OF
ROCK FORMATIONS THROUGH
INSTRUMENTATION THROUGH BOREHOLES.
REMOTE SENSING: GROUND PENETRATING
RADARS, SEISMIC STUDIES, SATELLITE/
AERIAL IMAGERY.
LAB STUDIES: PHYSICAL TESTS OF
BOREHOLE SAMPLES. CHEMICAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMATIONS UNDER
FIELD CONDITIONS.

PROCESSES
PROCESS OF EXPLORING THE DEPOSITS OF
THE MINERAL THROUGH GEOLOGICAL,
GEO-PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS
AND INCLUDING THE QUALITY/ QUANTITY
CONSIDERATIONS PROVIDING FOR THE
BASED OF EXPLOITATION OF THE
MINERAL. MEANS ADOPTED:

DRILLING
TRENCHING
PITTING
ADITING
SEISMIC

DRILLING
VERTICAL/ DIRECTIONAL DRILLING WITH
PROVISION FOR COLLECTION OF CORE.
INSTRUMENTATION FOR HARDNESS,
ELECTRIC/ MAGNETIC CONDUCTIVITY AND
DENSITY PROVIDE DETAILS OF THEIR
CHARACTERISTICS. CORES COLLECTED CAN
BE ANALYSED AS TO THEIR PHYSICAL AND
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS. LYSIMETERS
PROVIDE DETAILS ABOUT THE CHEMICAL
CHANGES TAKING PLACE UNDER GROUND
CONDITIONS CAN BE KNOWN.

REMOTE SENSING/ GIS


REMOTE SENSING THROUGH MULTISPECTRAL SCANNERS PROVIDE
INFORMATION OVER A WIDE AREA WITH
A FAILY HIGH LEVEL PRECISION.
GEOPHYSICAL CONDITIONS COMBINED
WITH STUDIES ON VEGETATION PATTERN
PRIVIDE SOME DEGREE OF
INFORMATION WHICH HAS TO BE
SUPPORTED BY GROUND TRUTH
SURVEYING FOR ACCURACY.

GIS
ANALYTICAL TOOL FOR CORRELATION OF
DATA ON DIFFERENT PLANES FOR
MANIPULATION AS NEEDED SPECIFICALLY
FOR A PROJECT. MULTIPLE LAYERS OF DATA
ENABLE DIFFERENT INTER-RELATED
ASPECTS TO BE STUDIED ON A SINGLE
PLATFOR. DATABASE, WITH MANIPULATION
AS REQUIRED, CAN PROVIDE DATA ON A
VERY WIDE VARIETY OF AREAS FOR
STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING.

EARTHQUAKES
ROCK FORMATIONS ARE UNDER HEAVY STRESS
UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS OR AS CAUSED BY
ACTIVE VOLCANOES. SUCH STRESSES TEND TO
BE RELIEVED THROUGH STRATA MOVEMENTS
AS TO RESTORE THE BALANCE, MAY BE
TEMPORARILY. SUCH RELEASE OF STRESSES
CAUSE MOVEMENTS OF THE STRATA. SUCH
MOVEMENTS HAVE BEEN DESCRIBED IN TERMS
OF THEIR INTENSITY AND THE FOCAL POINT OF
RELIEF OF SUCH STRESSES TERMED NUMBER
ON THE RICHTER SCALE AND THE EPICENTRE.

EARTHQUAKES-IMPACTS
RELIEF OF THE STRESSES CAUSE A
VARIETY OF MOVEMENTS RESULTING
FROM WHETHER THESE CAUSE
COMPRESSIVE, TENSILE OR SHEAR
FORCES AT ANY PARTICULAR POINT.
DEFORMATIONS RESULTING
ACCORDINGLY ARE UPHEAVALS, CRACKS
OR RELATIVE SINKING/ RISING OF THE
GROUND SURFACE/ FORMATIONS.

EARTHQUAKES-DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
DEPENDING UPON THE CATEGORY OF THE
AREA DESIGNATED FROM THE POINT OF
VIEW PROPENSITY TO EARTHQUAKES
STRUCTURES HAVE TO TAKE INTO
ACCOUNT POSSIBLE IMPACTS.
FOUNDATIONS OF SUCH STRUCTURES
WITH APPROPRIATE STRUCTURAL
BALANCING AND FLEXIBILITY CAN TAKE
CARE OF THE POSSIBLE ADVERSE IMPACTS
WITHOUT VERY SERIOUS DAMAGE.

EARTHQUAKES

EARTHQUAKE ZONATION

EARTHQUAKE-IMPACTS

EARTHQUAKE-IMPACTS

EARTHQUAKE-IMPACTS

LANDSLIDES
LANDSLIDES OCCUR WHERE WATER OR
SNOW LUBRICATES THE ZONES OF
WEAKNESS TO CAUSE MOVEMENTS OF
EARTH OR MUD, THE LATTER WHERE THE
SOIL HAS BECOME SATURATED ENOUGH
TO BE PRACTICALLY IN A FLUID STATE.
ROCK FORMATIONS WITH FISSURES
CREATED BY CLIMATIC CHANGES OR
HEAVY RAIN/ SNOWFALL TRIGGER SUCH
MOVEMENTS.

LANDSLIDES

LANDSLIDES

LANDSLIDES