Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 35

EG-112

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES


DESCRIPTION
1KD-FTV TOYOTA D-4D (Direct injection 4-stroke common-rail Diesel engine) and 2KD-FTV
TOYOTA D-4D are 3.0/2.5 liter, in-line 4-cylinder, 16-valve DOHC with turbocharged diesel engine.
These engines uses direct injection system and common-rail system to realize higher performance, clean
emission, low noise and low vibration.
A 2KD-FTV High Version, which has a higher power output than the normal 2KD-FTV engine, is also
available. The 2KD-FTV and 2KD-FTV High Version engines are equipped with engine ECUs
containing engine control programs that differ from each other. However, both engine models share the
same mechanical components.
An intercooler is provided on all 1KD-FTV engine models and the 2KD-FTV High Version engine for
Thailand. This lowers the intake air temperature and improves power output.
The basic construction and operation of both the 1KD-FTV and 2KD-FTV engines are the same. For
details, see "Major Difference" on page EG-114.
1KD-FTV Engine

271EG97

2KD-FTV Engine without Inter Cooler

271EG98

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-113

Engine Specifications
1KD-FTV

2KD-FTV

2KD-FTV
High Version

No. of Cyls. & Arrangement

4-Cylinder, In-line

Valve Mechanism

16-Valve DOHC,
Belt & Gear Drive

Direct Injection Type

Cross-flow

Common-Rail Type

2,982 (182.0)

2,494 (152.2)

96.0 103.0
(3.78 4.06)
17.9 : 1

92.0 93.8
(3.62 3.69)
18.5 : 1

Engine Type

Combustion Chamber
Manifolds
Fuel System
3

Displacement

cm (cu. in.)

Bore Stroke

mm (in.)

Compression Ratio

75 kW @ 3,600 rpm

Max. Output

[SAE-NET]

120 kW @ 3,400 rpm

75 kW @ 3,600 rpm

Max. Torque

[SAE-NET]

343 Nm @
1,400 ~ 3,200 rpm

200 Nm @
1,400 ~ 3,200 rpm

Open

2 BTDC

Close

37 ABDC

31 ABDC

Open

45 BBDC

30 BBDC

Close

0 ATDC

1-3-4-2

50 or higher

CF-4, 10W-30

EURO III*5

EURO III*8

EURO I*3

EURO I*6

EURO I*9

Tier 1*4

*7

*10

260 (573)

223 (492)

222 (489)

Intake
Valve
Timing
Exhaust
Firing Order
Fuel Cetan Number
Oil Grade

EURO III*
Emission Regulation
Engine Service Mass*1
(Reference)
(lb)

kg

88 kW @ 3,600 rpm*5
260 Nm @
1,600 ~ 2,400 rpm
320 Nm @
2,000 rpm*5

*1: Weight shows the figure with the oil and water fully filled.
*2: for Thai, Australian, and Central and South American Models
*3: for Philippine, and Central and South American Models (only for export package models)
*4: for Central and South American Models (only for Brazilian-spec models)
*5: for Thai Models
*6: for Philippine Models
*7: for General Countries Models
*8: for Thai, and Central and South American Models
*9: for Malaysian Models
*10: for General Countries, and Central and South American Models (only for export package models)

EG-114

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

MAJOR DIFFERENCE
The table below lists the major differences between the 1KD-FTV and 2KD-FTV engines.

Item

1KD
-FTV

2KD
-FTV

2KD
-FTV
High
Version

A SIRM (Sintered Iron Reinforced Material) ring carrier is


used in the top ring groove of the piston.

The piston skirt has been coated with resin.


An Ni-resist cast iron ring carrier is used in the top ring
groove of the piston.
A PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) coating has been
applied on the surface of the No. 1 compression ring
2 balance shafts are used.

*1

*1

A swirl control valve is used

A variable nozzle vane type turbocharger is used.

Air cooled type turbocharger is used.

An inter cooler is used.

*2

An oxidation catalytic converter is used.

*3

*3

*2

Fuel cooler is used.

*2

A segment conductor type alternator is used.

*4

*4

Planetary reduction type with interpolar magnet is used.

*5

*5

An EGR valve position sensor is used.

*6

*6

An air flow meter is used.

Swirl control system is used.

Turbocharger control system is used.

Section

Engine Proper

Intake and
Exhaust System

Fuel System
Charging
System
Starting System

Engine Control
System

*1: Only for emission regulation non-compliance models


*2: Only for Thai Models
*3: Only for EURO III or Tier 1 Compliance Models
*4: except Central and South American Models
*5: Only for Central and South American Models
*6: Only for Models with EGR System

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-115

FEATURES OF 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES


The 1KD-FTV and 2KD-FTV engines have achieved the following performance through the adoption of
the items listed below.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

High performance and reliability


Low noise and vibration
Lightweight and compact design
Good serviceability
Clean emission and fuel economy
Item

Engine
Proper

(2)

(3)

A cylinder head cover made of plastic is used.

2 balance shaft is used.

Piston provided with combustion chamber is used in


conjunction with the adoption of direct injection.

(1)

Intake and
Exhaust
System

A shim-less type valve lifter is used.

A pressurized reservoir tank is used.

An intake shutter valve (throttle valve), which is actuated by


a torque motor (rotary solenoid type), and an airflow meter
are used.

Swirl control valve is used.

A variable nozzle vane type turbocharger is used.

Air cooled type turbocharger is used.


An inter cooler is used.

Oxidation catalytic converter is used.

Fuel
System

HP3 type supply pump is used.

A common rail type fuel injection system is used.

Injector is provided in the bore center.

Compensation value and QR code printed injector is used.

Fuel cooler has been adopted.

A fuel filter, in which the fuel filter element alone can be


replaced, has been adopted.
A fuel filter warning switch that detects the clogging of the
fuel filter has been adopted.
Charging
System

A segment conductor type alternator is used.

Starting
System

Planetary reduction type with interpolar magnet is used.

An EGR valve position sensor is used.


Engine
Control
System

(5)

The passage for the EGR is provided in the cylinder head.


Valve
Mechanism
Cooling
System

(4)

The no-contact sensor is used in the accelerator pedal


position sensor and intake shutter valve position sensor.

A pilot injection control system is used.

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-116

ENGINE PROPER
1. Cylinder Head Cover
The cylinder head cover is made of plastic to
reduce weight and noise.
A baffle plate is provided on the inside of the
cylinder head cover to reduce the consumption
of engine oil through blow-by gas.

Baffle Plate

271EG99

A-A Cross Section

2. Cylinder Head Gasket


A steel-laminate type cylinder head gasket has been adopted.
A shim has been added around the cylinder bore to increase the sealing surface, thus realizing excellent
sealing performance
A
Shim
A

Front

Cylinder
Outer
Bore Side
Side
A A Cross Section
271EG100

Service Tip
There are 5 sizes of new cylinder head gaskets,
marked A, B, C, D, or E according to
piston protrusion. For details, refer to Hilux
Repair Manual.

A
B
C
Rear
D
E

271EG101

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-117

3. Cylinder Head
The cylinder head is made of aluminum alloy. The injector has been located in the center of the
combustion chamber in order to improve engine performance and clean emission.
Two intake ports with different shapes have been combined to promote the mixture of fuel and air by
optimizing the swirl in the cylinder.
A vertical two-stage construction is used for the water jacket to improve cooling performance.
A glow plug is placed between the intake ports of each cylinder to ensure startability.
The passage for the EGR is provided in the cylinder head. By cooling the exhaust gas, this makes it
possible to re-circulate the great amount of exhaust gas.
The cylinder head bolt employs plastic region tightening bolts.
Injector Hole

EX

IN

EGR Passage

EX

IN

EX

IN

EX

IN

Water Jacket

Glow Plug Hole

195EG41

195EG42

4. Cylinder Block
The cylinder block is constructed of liner-less cast iron alloy.
A rib has been added to the block of the cylinder block to reduce engine vibration.

Rib

271EG102

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-118

5. Balance Shaft (for 1KD-FTV Engine)


For in-line 4 cylinder engines, the main cause of vibration is imbalanced inertial force of reciprocating
parts such as the pistons and connecting rods. The 1KD-FTV engine vibration has been reduced by
using 2 balance shafts to cancel the imbalanced inertial force, thereby reducing engine noise (booming
noise).
These balance shafts are built into the cylinder block. Driven by the timing gear, the balance shafts
rotate at twice the speed of the crankshaft and in the opposite direction of each other.

Balance shaft No.1


Supply Pump
Drive Gear
Oil Pump
Drive Gear

Crankshaft
Timing Gear
Balance Shaft No.2
Idle Gear

195EG47

6. Piston
In conjunction with the adoption of direct injection, piston provided with combustion chamber is used.
The piston is made of aluminum alloy.
A cooling channel has been provided to reduce the piston temperature.
To improve the wear resistance of the top ring groove, the 1KD-FTV engine has adopted an SIRM
(Sintered Iron Reinforced Metal) ring carrier and the 2KD-FTV engine has adopted an Ni-resist cast
iron ring carrier.
On 1KD-FTV engine models and emission regulation non-compliance 2KD-FTV engine models, a
PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) coating has been applied to the surface of the No.1 compression ring,
to improve its wear resistance.
The piston skirt portion of the 1KD-FTV engine has been coated with resin to reduce the friction loss.
Ni-resist Cast Iron
Ring Carrier

SIRM Ring Carrier

Resin
Coating

Cooling Channel
1KD-FTV Engine

271EG103

Cooling Channel
2KD-FTV Engine

271EG159

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-119

7. Connecting Rod and Connecting Rod Bearing


The connecting rods are made of high-strength material to ensure the proper strength.
Knock pins are used at the mating surfaces of the bearing caps of the connecting rod to minimize the
shifting of the bearing caps during assembly.
Plastic region tightening bolts are used.
An aluminum bearing is used for the connecting rod bearings.

Knock Pin

271EG104

Plastic Region
Tightening Bolt

8. Crankshaft and Crankshaft Bearing


The crankshaft has 5 journals and 8 balance weights.
All pin and journal fillets are roll-finished to maintain adequate strength.
The crankshaft bearing is made of aluminum alloy.
The lining surface of the crankshaft bearing has been micro-grooved to realize an optimal amount of oil
clearance. As a result, cold-engine cranking performance has been improved and engine vibrations have
been reduced.
The upper main bearing has an oil groove around its inside circumference.
Roll-Finished
Upper Main Bearing
Oil Hole

Oil Grooved

Micro-Grooved

Lower Main Bearing

271EG105

EG-120

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

9. Crankshaft Pulley
The rigidity of the torsional damper rubber has
been optimized to reduce noise.

Torsional Damper
Rubber

271EG106

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-121

VALVE MECHANISM
1. General
Each cylinder has 2 intake valves and 2 exhaust valves. Intake and exhaust efficiency is increased by
means of the larger total port areas.
The valves are directly opened and closed by 2 camshafts.
The intake camshaft is driven by a timing belt, while the exhaust camshaft is driven through gear on the
intake camshaft.
Small-diameter, and flat-teeth gears are used for driving the exhaust camshaft in order to reduce gear
noise.

Gears

Exhaust Camshaft

Intake Camshaft
Timing Belt

271EG107

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-122

2. Camshaft
The cam nose has been chill treated to increase its abrasion resistance.

: Chill Treated

Exhaust Camshaft
Camshaft Drive Gear

Intake Camshaft
Camshaft Drive Gear
224EG08

3. Intake and Exhaust Valves


Along with the increased amount of valve lift, shim-less valve lifters that provide a large cam contact
surface have been adopted.
The adjustment of the valve clearance is accomplished by selecting and replacing the appropriate valve
lifters.
Camshaft

Valve
Lifter

208EG69

Service Tip
The valve lifters must be replaced when it is necessary to adjust the valve clearance. For this
purpose, valve lifters with different thickness are available as service parts.
For details, refer to the Hilux Repair Manual.

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-123

4. Timing Gear Train


The supply pump, vacuum pump, oil pump and balance shafts* are driven by the crankshaft timing
gear.
The idle gear is constructed with a scissors gear on its front and back to reduce noise.

Camshaft Timing
Pulley No.1

Balance Shaft
Drive Gear*
Supply Pump
Drive Gear

Oil Pump
Drive Gear

Automatic
Tensioner

Camshaft Timing
Pulley No.1

*: Only for 1KD-FTV Engine

Vacuum Pump
Drive Gear
Crankshaft
Timing Gear

Idle Gear

271EG161

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-124

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
1. General
The lubrication circuit is fully pressurized and all oil passes through an oil cooler and oil filter.
A trochoid oil pump driven by a gear engaged with the crankshaft is used.
A water-cooled type engine oil cooler is enclosed in the cylinder block.
Piston oil jets that lubricate and cool the piston are provided.
1KD-FTV Engine

271EG108

Main Oil Hole


CHECK
VALVE

By-Pass
Valve

Oil
Filter

By-Pass
Valve

Oil
Cooler

Relief
Valve

Oil
Pump

Oil
Strainer

Crankshaft
Crankshaft
Journal No.1 Journal No.2-5

Connecting
Rod

Gear Idle Vacuum


Oil Jet Gear
Pump
Shaft

TurboCharger

Oil
Jet

Piston

No.1
Balance
Shaft
Journal

Drive
Gear
Thrust
Washer

No.2
Balance
Shaft
Journal

Orifice

Intake
Exhaust
Camshaft Camshaft
Journal
Journal

Drive
Gear
Thrust
Washer

Valve
Lifter

Valve
Lifter

Cam
Gear

Idle
Gear
Oil Pan
271EG109

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-125

2KD-FTV Engine

271EG110

Main Oil Hole


CHECK
VALVE

By-Pass
Valve

By-Pass
Valve

Oil Cooler

Relief
Valve

Oil Pump

Oil Strainer

TurboCharger

Crankshaft
Crankshaft
Journal No.1 Journal No.2-5

Oil Filter

Oil
Jet

Connecting
Rod

Gear
Oil Jet

Idle
Gear
Shaft

Vacuum
Pump

Piston

Valve
Lifter

Orifice

Intake
Camshaft
Journal

Exhaust
Camshaft
Journal

Valve
Lifter

Cam
Gear

Idle
Gear
Oil Pan
271EG111

Oil Capacity

Dry

liters (US qts, Imp. qts.)

2KD-FTV
2KD-FTV High Version
7.4 (7.8, 6.5)

With oil filter

liters (US qts, Imp. qts.)

6.9 (7.3, 6.1)

Without oil filter

liters (US qts, Imp. qts.)

6.6 (7.0, 5.8)

1KD-FTV

Engine Type

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-126

2. Piston Oil Jet


Piston oil jets are provided at the bottom of the cylinder block to spray oil to the pistons cooling
channel, thus further cooling and lubricating the piston.
These oil jets contain a check valve to prevent oil from being fed when the oil pressure is low. This
prevents the overall oil pressure in the engine from dropping.

Piston Oil Jet


Cooling Channel

Check
Valve
Oil

Back Side View

271EG112

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-127

COOLING SYSTEM
1. General
The cooling system uses a pressurized forced circulation system with pressurized reservoir tank.
A pressurized reservoir tank has been adopted to prevent the engine coolant deteriorating upon contact
with external air.
A thermostat with a bypass valve is located on the water inlet housing to maintain suitable temperature
distribution in the cooling system.
An aluminum radiator core is used for weight reduction.
A water-cooled type engine oil cooler is standard equipment.
A 3-stage temperature-controlled coupling fan, which uses the same bimetal that is used on the
conventional model, controls the fan speed in three stages to improve cooling performance and reduce
cooling fan noise.
The TOYOTA genuine Super Long Life Coolant (SLLC) has been adopted. As a result, the
maintenance interval has been extended.

Reservoir Tank

Radiator

Oil Cooler

271EG113

Thermostat

Specifications
Transmission Type
Type
Engine Coolant

Thermostat

Capacity liters
(US qts, Imp. qts)
Opening Temperature
C (F)

*1: Models with Heater


*2: Models without Heater

MT

AT

TOYOTA Genuine
Super Long Life Coolant (SLLC) or Equivalent
9.8 (10.4, 8.6)*1
11.1 (11.7, 9.8)*1
9.0 (9.5, 7.9)*2
10.3 (10.9, 9.1)*2
80-84 (176-183)

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-128
System Diagram

Radiator
Water Outlet

Cylinder Head

Turbocharger

Cylinder Block
Oil Cooler

Water
Pump

Heater
Core

Thermostat

Water
Inlet
Reservoir Tank

271EG114

Engine Coolant Specifications


Engine Coolant Type
Color
First Time
Maintenance
Intervals
Subsequent

TOYOTA Genuine
Super Long Life Coolant (SLLC)
or Equivalent

TOYOTA Genuine
Long Life Coolant (LLC)
or Equivalent

Pink

Red

160,000km (100,000miles)
Every 80,000 km (50,000 miles)

Every 40,000 km (24,000 miles) or


24 months whichever comes first

SLLC is pre-mixed (50% coolant and 50% deionized water), so no dilution is needed when adding or
replacing SLLC in the vehicle.
If LLC is mixed with SLLC, the interval for LLC (every 40,000 km / 24,000 miles or 24 months) should
be used.
You can also apply the new maintenance interval (every 80,000 km /50,000 miles) to vehicles initially
filled with LLC (red-colored), if you use SLLC (pink-colored) for the engine coolant change.

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-129

INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM


1. General
An intake shutter valve (throttle valve) equipped with a torque motor (rotary solenoid type) is used.
Swirl control valves are provided in the intake manifold of the 1KD-FTV engine.
A stainless steel exhaust pipe is used for weight reduction and improved rust resistance.
An air-cooled intercooler is provided on the 1KD-FTV engine and 2KD-FTV High Version engine for
Thailand.
An EGR system is provided on the models complying with the emission regulations (EURO III, EURO
I, and Tier 1). This system is designed to reduce and control NOx formation through a slight reduction
of peak temperature in the engine combustion chamber, which is accomplished by introducing a small
amount of inert gas into the intake manifold. For details on EGR control, see page EG-169.
A variable nozzle vane type turbocharger is used on the 1KD-FTV engine.
An air-cooled type turbocharger is used on the 2KD-FTV engine.
An oxidation catalytic converter is provided on the models complying with the EURO III or Tier 1
emission regulation.
Intake Shutter Assembly
Intake Shutter Valve
(Throttle Valve)

EGR Valve

Intercooler
Exhaust Manifold

Air Cleaner

Muffler
Turbocharger
Intake Manifold

Oxidation Catalytic
Converter

271EG115

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-130

2. Intake Shutter Assembly


The intake shutter valve (throttle valve) equipped with the torque motor (rotary solenoid type) is used to
improve EGR performance and to reduce the vibration and noise when stopping the engine. The torque
motor (rotary solenoid type) makes the intake shutter valve (throttle valve) respond quickly.
Intake Shutter Valve
Position Sensor

Torque Motor
(Rotary Solenoid type)

Intake Shutter Valve


(Throttle Valve)

271EG116

3. Intake Manifold
In conjunction with the adoption of the direct injection system, an intake manifold provided with an air
intake chamber is used in order to reduce the swirl variances between the cylinders.
On the 1KD-FTV engine, a vacuum-actuated swirl control valve is provided in one of the two intake
ports provided for each cylinder. A swirl control valve consists of a stainless steel shaft and an actuator,
which are integrated in the valve. For details, see page EG-164.
Air Intake Chamber

Actuator

271EG117

Swirl Control Valve


1KD-FTV Engine

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-131

4. Intercooler
An air-cooled intercooler is used in order to lower the intake air temperature, improve engine
performance, and to realize cleaner exhaust gas emissions. It is located directly on top of the engine.
The intercooler and the inlet tank are made of aluminum and the outlet tank is made of plastic for
weight reduction.
A dual construction, high-frequency cavity resonator is used for the pipe between the turbocharger and
the intercooler.
Outlet Tank

Hight-Frequency
Cavity Resonator

Intercooler

Inlet Tank
Front

271EG118

5. EGR Valve
An EGR valve is provided midstream in the intake air passage. By cooling the EGR valve in this
manner, a greater volume of exhaust gas can be processed.
On the 1KD-FTV engine, a vacuum port for a VSV (for EGR Valve Close) to cut off EGR is used to
improve valve closure response.
On the 2KD-FTV engine, an EGR valve position sensor has been provided in the EGR valve in order to
directly measure the actual amount of the valve opening. This measurement is then input into the
engine ECU in order to improve the precision of EGR control.
EGR Valve
Position Sensor
Vacuum Port
Vacuum Port

Intake
Air

to Intake
Manifold

EGR Gas
1KD-FTV Engine

271EG119

Intake
Air

to Intake
Manifold

EGR Gas
2KD-FTV Engine

271EG120

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-132

6. Turbocharger
General
A variable nozzle vane type turbocharger is used for 1KD-FTV engine. A water jacket is provided in
the bearing housing to improve the cooling performance of the turbocharger.
A lightweight and compact air cooled type turbocharger is used for 2KD-FTV engine. To control the
turbo pressure, this turbocharger is provided with a wastegate valve and an actuator that operates
mechanically in accordance with the turbo pressure.
1KD-FTV Engine
DC Motor

DC Motor

Water Jacket

Turbine
Wheel

Nozzle Vane
Position Sensor
Compressor
Wheel

271EG121

2KD-FTV Engine without Intercooler


Compressor
Wheel

Turbine Wheel

Wastegate Valve

271EG154

Service Tip
Only for 2KD-FTV Engine Models
The engine ECU determines altitude using the atmospheric pressure sensor. If the sensor indication
value is approx. 85kPa or less (Altitude: Higher than approx. 1,500 m), the engine ECU lowers the
preset maximum engine speed*, in order to prevent the turbine wheel from racing when the vehicle is
driven in high altitude areas (where the atmospheric pressure is low). Therefore, the preset maximum
engine speed is lower than standard. However, this is not an engine malfunction. For details, see the
Hilux Repair Manual.
*: Varies in accordance with altitude. As the altitude increases (the atmospheric pressure sensor
indication value decreases), the preset maximum engine speed is decreased.

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-133

Variable Nozzle Vane type Turbocharger


Variable nozzle vane type turbocharger consists primarily of an impeller, turbine, nozzle vane, unison
ring, DC motor and nozzle vane position sensor.
This turbocharger has realized great improvements in low-speed torque, maximum output, fuel
consumption, and emission reduction. These improvements have been accomplished through variable
control of the nozzle vane position, and an optimal velocity of the exhaust gas inflow to the turbine at
all times in response to the engine condition.
The engine ECU outputs a signal to the turbo motor driver, which actuates the DC motor, to control
the nozzle vane position. For details on the turbocharger control, see page EG-165.
DC Motor
Nozzle Vane
Position Sensor

Turbine Wheel

Linkage
271EG146

Nozzle Vane

Unison Ring

The exhaust gas from the exhaust manifold goes through the nozzle vane inside the turbo charger
housing, and flows to the exhaust pipe through the turbine. The speed of the turbine (supercharging
pressure) differs depending on the flow velocity of the exhaust gas going through the turbine and the
flow velocity of the exhaust gas is controlled by the opening. In such a time like idling, when the
exhaust gas is less, the nozzle vane is almost fully closed, but as there is a slight clearance between
the vanes, the exhaust gas flows through this clearance to the exhaust pipe. Therefore, there is no
bypass.

: Exhaust Gas
: Intake Air

Nozzle Vane
195EG72

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-134

7. Exhaust Pipe
A stainless steel exhaust pipe is used for weight reduction and rust resistance.
A ball joint is used to join the exhaust front pipe and exhaust manifold. As a result, a simple and
reliable construction for reducing vibration has been realized.
The oxidation catalytic converter is used to clean the exhaust gas particulates, HC and CO. The table
below describes the location of the converter (where equipped), in accordance with the engine type and
exhaust emission regulation compliance.
EURO III or Tier 1

Emission Regulation
Engine Type
Location of Oxidation
Catalytic Converter

1KD-FTV
2KD-FTV High Version
(with Intercooler)
Integrated with
Front Exhaust Pipe

EURO I or
Non-Compliance

2KD-FTV
2KD-FTV High Version
(without Intercooler)
Below
Exhaust Manifold

All

Gasket
Main Muffler

Oxidation Catalytic
Converter
1KD-FTV Engine and 2KD-FTV Engine with Intercooler

271EG122

Gasket
Main Muffler

Oxidation Catalytic
Converter
2KD-FTV Engine without Intercooler

271EG151

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-135

FUEL SYSTEM
1. General
A common-rail system is used in the fuel injection system.
HP3 type supply pump, which is compact and lightweight, is used.
An injector compensation value and a QR code are printed on the injector to realize high-precision
control.
A new type of fuel filter, in which the fuel filter element alone can be replaced, has been adopted.
A fuel filter warning switch, which turns ON/OFF when the internal vacuum of the filter increases, is
provided in the fuel filter.
A fuel cooler made of aluminum has been adopted on the model equipped with an intercooler.
A fuel tank made of single-layer plastic has been adopted.

Fuel Filter
Warning Switch

Fuel Cooler*

Common-Rail

Injector

Fuel Tank
Supply Pump
Fuel Filter
*: Only for Models with Intercooler

271EG123

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-136

2. Common-Rail System
General
In this system, the high pressurized fuel that is supplied by the supply pump is stored in the
common-rail, and the engine ECU sends signals to the injectors via the EDU (Electronic Driver Unit) in
order to control the injection timing and injection volume. For details of this control, see page EG-156.
System Diagram
Pressure Limiter

Fuel Pressure Sensor


Common-Rail

Fuel Temp. Sensor

Supply
Pump

SCV

Fuel Filter
Warning Light
Pressure
Switch
Fuel
Filter

Fuel Tank

Fuel
Cooler*

NE Signal
EDU
Engine ECU
G Signal
271EG124

*: Only for Models with Intercooler

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-137

Supply Pump
1) General
This supply pump (HP3 type) has been made shorter than the HP2 type that is used on other models.
This has been accomplished through the adoption of an opposing plunger configuration (and by
reducing the number of plungers from 4 to 2), resulting in a compact and lightweight supply pump.

271EG155

HP3

224EG21

HP2

Specifications
Model
Type

New Hilux
HP3 (Outer Cam)

Other Model
HP2 (Inner Cam)

Length

mm (in.)

190.2 (7.49)

252.0 (9.92)

Length

mm (in.)

129.0 (5.08)

182.1 (7.17)

8.52

7.04

3,800 (8.38)

6,040 (13.32)

Suction Control Valve


Plunger
Weight

g (lb.)

Service Tip
The engine ECU learns and memorizes the pump discharge volume variances associated with the
individual differences in the supply pumps. Therefore, make sure to perform the operation described
below after replacing the supply pump. For details, see the Hilux Repair Manual.
Connect an intelligent tester II to the DLC3 connector and use the tester to reset the learned value.
Alternatively, connect the SST (09843-18040) between the TC and CG terminals of the DLC3
connector, and leave the ignition switch ON for approximately 3 minutes to reset the learned value.
After resetting, start the engine, allow it to idle* for approximately 1 minute, and turn the ignition
switch OFF to enable the engine to memorize the learned value.
*: The engine coolant temperature should be 60C (140F) or more, and the fuel temperature
should be 20C (68F) or more.

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-138
2) Construction

The supply pump consists of an eccentric camshaft, ring cam, two plungers, four check valves, SCV
(Suction Control Valve), fuel temperature sensor, and a feed pump.
The two plungers are placed opposite each other outside of the ring cam.
to Fuel Tank
(for Return)

Check Valve
(for Suction)

Check Valve
(for Discharge)

Plunger

to Common-rail
from Fuel Tank
(for Suction)

Eccentric
Camshaft

Feed Pump
Fuel Temp.
Sensor

Ring Cam
Plunger

SCV

Check Valve
(for Suction)
271EG156

Check Valve
(for Suction)

Check Valve
(for Discharge)

Plunger
Eccentric
Camshaft

Eccentric Cam
Portion
Feed Pump
Ring Cam

Eccentric Cam
Portion
Plunger
Ring Cam
Check Valve
(for Suction)

271EG157

271EG158

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-139

3) Operation
Due to the rotation of the eccentric cam, the ring cam pushes plunger A upward as illustrated
below. The force of the spring pulls plunger B (which is located opposite plunger A) upward. As
a result, plunger B draws fuel in, and plunger A pumps fuel at the same time.
The SCV controls the volume of fuel that is drawn into the plungers in accordance with the signals
from the engine ECU.
Check Valve
(for Suction)

Eccentric
Cam

Check Valve
(for Discharge)

SCV

Ring Cam

Engine
ECU

Engine
ECU

Engine
ECU

Engine
ECU

245EG08

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-140
Common-Rail

The function of the common-rail is to store the fuel that has been pressurized by the supply pump. The
common-rail is provided with a fuel pressure sensor, which detects the fuel pressure in the
common-rail, and a pressure limiter that mechanically relieves the pressure in case the internal
pressure of the common-rail rises abnormally.
Internally, the common-rail contains a main hole and five branch holes that intersect the main hole.
Each branch hole functions as an orifice that dampens the fluctuation of the fuel pressure.
to Injectors

Pressure Limiter
Fuel Pressure
Sensor

from Supply
Pump
Branch Hole
Main Hole

Common-Rail Cross Section

271EG125

Service Tip
Fuel pressure sensor has its sealing portion plastic-deformed in order to keep sealing
performance, so do not reuse it after disassembling.
If parts that affect the alignment have been changed, make sure to replace the pipe with a new
one as well. The parts that require the replacement of a pipe are listed below.
Injection Pipe: Injector, Common-rail, and Cylinder Head
Fuel Inlet Pipe: Supply Pump, Common-rail, Cylinder Block, Water Pump, and Cylinder Head
For details, refer to the Hilux Repair Manual.

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-141

Injector
1) General
An injector consists of a nozzle needle, piston,
and solenoid valve.
An injector compensation value and QR (Quick
Response)
code
containing
encoded
characteristics of the injector are printed on
each injector.
The injector compensation value and QR code
contain various pieces of information regarding
the injector, such as model code, and injection
volume correction.

Solenoid Valve

Piston

Nozzle Needle

271EG152

Service Tip
If the engine ECU is replace, use the intelligent tester II and input the injector compensation
values of all 4 injectors. If the injector is replaced, input the injector compensation value of the
replaced injector. Then, the proper compensation will be made so that the injection volume
precision prior to the replacement will remain unchanged. For details, see the Hilux Repair
Manual.
The QR code, which requires a special scan tool, is not used at Toyota dealers.

Injector Compensation
Value

QR Code
271EG153

- REFERENCE What is QR (Quick Response) Code?


QR code, a matrix symbology consisting of an array of nominally square cells, allows
omni-directional, high-speed reading of large amounts of data.
QR code encodes many types of date such as numeric, alphanumeric, kanji, kana and binary
code. A maximum of 7,089 characters (numeric) can be encoded.
QR code (2D code) contains information in the vertical and horizontal direction, whereas a bar
code contains date in one direction only. QR code (2D code) holds a considerably greater
volume of information than a bar code.

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-142
2) Operation

(a) When electrical current is applied to the solenoid coil, it pulls the solenoid valve up.
(b) The orifice of the control chamber opens, allowing the fuel to flow out.
(c) The fuel pressure in the control chamber drops.
(d) Simultaneously, fuel flows from the orifice to the bottom of the piston and raises the piston up (to
enhance response).
(e) As a result, the piston raises the nozzle needle to inject fuel.

Solenoid Coil

(a)

Solenoid Valve

Fuel
Piston
Fuel

(b)

Fuel
(c)

Control
Chamber

(d)
Nozzle
Needle
(e)
271EG127

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-143

3. Fuel Filter
General
The conventional fuel filter consists of a fuel filter element integrated with the fuel filter housing. By
contrast, the new fuel filter consists of a separate fuel filter housing and a fuel filter element.
A paper filter element that offers high filtering efficiency and captures the minutest particles has been
adopted.
Fuel Filter
Warning Switch

Priming
Pump

Priming Pump

Filter
Element
Fuel Filter Assembly
Filter Element
Filter
Housing

Fuel Sedimenter
Level Warning
Switch
New

Fuel Sedimenter
Level Warning
Switch
Conventional

271EG128

Fuel Filter Warning Switch


A fuel filter warning switch, which turns ON/OFF when the internal vacuum of the filter increases, is
provided in the fuel filter. This switch, which turns OFF when the internal vacuum of the fuel filter
increases to a predetermined level, is connected by wire to the meter ECU.
When the meter ECU detects that the internal vacuum of the fuel filter has increased (by way of the
fuel filter warning switch OFF signal), it determines that the fuel filter has become clogged. Then, it
illuminates the fuel filter warning light on the combination meter to urge the driver to replace the fuel
filter. For details on fuel filter warning light control, see page BE-XX.
Combination Meter

Combination Meter
Fuel Filter
Warning Light

Meter ECU

Fuel Filter
Warning Switch

Meter ECU

Diaphragm
from
Fuel Tank

Negative Pressure
(Vacuum)

Filter
Element

to Supply Pump
Fuel Filter

Fuel Filter
271EG129

Normal Fuel Filter

Fuel Filter Clogged Up

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-144

4. Fuel Cooler
The fuel cooler, which is provided in the fuel return path, cools the return fuel that has reached a high
temperature as a result of the pumping of the supply pump. This prevents the reduction in fuel viscosity
that is caused by the rise in fuel temperature, and improves the reliability of the fuel system.

to
Fuel Tank
from
Common-Rail

A-A Cross Section


271EG130

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-145

CHARGING SYSTEM
As on the 2TR-FE engine model, a compact and
lightweight segment conductor type alternator
(SE08 type) that generates a high amperage
output in a highly efficient manner has been
adopted as standard equipment on models except
the Central and South American models. For
details on this alternator, see page EG-28.
The Central and South American models have
adopted the conventional (KCB1 type) alternator
made by Bosch.
A one-way clutch function has been provided in
the pulley of 2 type alternators to absorb the
fluctuations in the engine speed, thus
significantly reducing the damage sustained by
the drive belt.

One-way Clutch

Alternator Pulley
271EG165

Service Tip
SST (09820-63020) has been established due to the adoption of a pulley with the one-way clutch
function. For details, refer to the Hilux Repair Manual.

STARTING SYSTEM
As on the Central and South American 2TR-FE engine models, a planetary reduction type starter with an
interpolar magnet (DW2.2 type) has been adopted on the Central and South American models (except
KUN26L-PRPSYG). For details on the interpolar magnet, see page EG-32.
The models except those indicated above use a conventional reduction type starter (RA2.0, R2.2, or R2.7
type).

ENGINE 1KD-FTV AND 2KD-FTV ENGINES

EG-146

SERPENTINE BELT DRIVE SYSTEM


Accessory components are driven by a serpentine belt consisting of a single V-ribbed belt. It reduces the
overall engine length, weight and number of engine parts.
An automatic tensioner eliminates the need for tension adjustment.

Idler Pulley
Air Conditioner
Compressor Pulley*

Idler Pulley
Water Pump Pulley

Alternator Pulley

Automatic Tensioner

210EG34

Crankshaft Pulley
*: Only for Models with Air Conditioner