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# CHAPTER 7

PROBLEM 7.2
For the given state of stress, determine the normal and shearing stresses
exerted on the oblique face of the shaded triangular element shown. Use a
method of analysis based on the equilibrium of that element, as was done in the
derivations of Sec. 7.2.

SOLUTION

Stresses

Areas

Forces

F = 0:

## A 80 A cos 55 cos55 + 40 A sin 55 sin 55 = 0

= 80 cos 2 55 40sin 2 55

= 0.521 MPa

F = 0:

## A 80 A cos 55 sin 55 40 A sin 55 cos 55

= 120 cos 55 sin 55

= 56.4 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.5
For the given state of stress, determine (a) the principal planes, (b) the principal
stresses.

SOLUTION

(a)

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

(2) (35)
= 3.50
60 + 40

2 p = 74.05

(b)

max, min =

x +y
2

p = 37.0, 53.0
2

x y
2

+ xy
2

60 40
60 + 40
2

+ (35)
2
2

= 50 36.4 MPa
=

## max = 13.60 MPa

min = 86.4 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.12
For the given state of stress, determine (a) the orientation of the planes of maximum
in-plane shearing stress, (b) the maximum in-plane shearing stress, (c) the
corresponding normal stress.

SOLUTION

(a)

tan 2 s =

x y
8 12
=
= + 2.0
2 xy
2(5)

2 s = 63.435

s = 31.7, 121.7
2

(b)

x y
2
+ xy
2

max =

8 12
2

+ (5)
2

(c)

= ave =
=

## max = 11.18 ksi

x + y
2
8 + 12
2

= 2.00 ksi

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PROBLEM 7.16
For the given state of stress, determine the normal and shearing stresses after the element
shown has been rotated through (a) 25 clockwise, (b) 10 counterclockwise.

SOLUTION

x = 0 y = 80 MPa xy = 50 MPa
x +y
2

= 40 MPa

x =

x +y
2

xy =
y =
(a)

x y
2

x +y
2

x y
2
x y
2

cos 2 + xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

x y
2

cos 2 xy sin 2

= 25 2 = 50
x = 40 + 40 cos ( 50) 50 sin (50)
xy = 40 sin ( 50) 50 cos ( 50)
y = 40 40 cos (50) + 50 sin (50)

(b)

= 40 MPa

x = 24.0 MPa
xy = 1.5 MPa
y = 104.0 MPa

= 10 2 = 20
x = 40 + 40 cos (20) 50 sin (20)
xy = 40 sin (20) 50 cos (20)
y = 40 40 cos (20) + 50 sin (20)

x = 19.5 MPa
xy = 60.7 MPa
y = 60.5 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.20
Two members of uniform cross section 50 80 mm are glued together along
plane a-a that forms an angle of 25 with the horizontal. Knowing that the allowable
stresses for the glued joint are = 800 kPa and = 600 kPa, determine the largest
centric load P that can be applied.

SOLUTION
For plane a-a, = 65.

x = 0, xy = 0, y =

P
A

## = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos = 0 +

P 2
sin 65 + 0
A

A
(50 103 )(80 103 )(800 103 )
=
= 3.90 103 N
sin 2 65
sin 2 65
P
= ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos2 sin 2 ) = sin 65 cos 65 + 0
A
A
(50 103 )(80 103 )(600 103 )
P=
=
= 6.27 103 N
sin 65 cos 65
sin 65 cos 65
P=

## Allowable value of P is the smaller one.

P = 3.90 kN

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PROBLEM 7.26
The axle of an automobile is acted upon by the forces and couple
shown. Knowing that the diameter of the solid axle is 32 mm,
determine (a) the principal planes and principal stresses at point H
located on top of the axle, (b) the maximum shearing stress at the
same point.

SOLUTION
c=

Torsion:

Bending:

I =

1
1
d = (32) = 16 mm = 16 103 m
2
2

Tc
2T
2(350 N m)
=
=
= 54.399 106 Pa = 54.399 MPa
3
3
3
J
c
(16 10 m)

c4 =

## M = (0.15 m)(3 103 N) = 450 N m

My
(450)(16 103 )
=
= 139.882 106 Pa = 139.882 MPa
I
51.472 109

Top view:

Stresses:

x = 139.882 MPa
ave =

y = 0

xy = 54.399 MPa

1
1
( x + y ) = (139.882 + 0) = 69.941 MPa
2
2
2

R=

(a)

x y
2

+ xy =
2

## min = 158.5 MPa

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tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

(2)(54.399)
= 0.77778
139.882

2 p = 37.88

(b)

## max = 88.6 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.32
Solve Probs 7.7 and 7.11, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.5 through 7.8 For the given state of stress, determine (a) the
principal planes, (b) the principal stresses.
PROBLEM 7.9 through 7.12 For the given state of stress, determine (a) the
orientation of the planes of maximum in-plane shearing stress, (b) the maximum inplane shearing stress, (c) the corresponding normal stress.

SOLUTION

x = 4 ksi,
y = 12 ksi,
xy = 15 ksi
ave =

x +y
2

= 4 ksi

## Plotted points for Mohrs circle:

X : ( x , xy ) = (4 ksi, 15 ksi)
Y : ( y , xy ) = (12 ksi, 15 ksi)
C : ( ave , 0) = ( 4 ksi, 0)

(a)

tan =

FX 15
=
= 1.875
CF
8

= 61.93
1
2
= 180 = 118.07
1
b = = 59.04
2

a = = 30.96

a = 31.0

b = 59.0

## R = (CF ) 2 + ( FX ) 2 = (8)2 + (15) 2 = 17 ksi

(b)

(a)

a = max = ave + R = 4 + 17

## min = 21.0 ksi

d = a + 45 = 14.04

d = 14.0

e = b + 45 = 104.04

e = 104.0

max = R
(b)

= ave

## max = 17.00 ksi

= 4.00 ksi

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PROBLEM 7.41
Solve Prob. 7.19, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.19 A steel pipe of 12-in. outer diameter is fabricated from
1
-in.-thick plate by welding along a helix which forms an angle of 22.5 with
4
a plane perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that a 40-kip axial force
P and an 80-kip in. torque T, each directed as shown, are applied to the pipe,
determine and in directions, respectively, normal and tangential to the
weld.

SOLUTION
1
d 2 = 6 in., t = 0.25 in.
2
c1 = c2 t = 5.75 in.

d 2 = 12 in. c2 =

J = (c
2

c ) = (6
2

## A = c22 c12 = (62 5.752 ) = 9.2284 in 2

4
2

4
1

5.754 ) = 318.67 in 4

Stresses:
P
40
=
= 4.3344 ksi
A
9.2284
Tc
(80)(6)
= 2 =
= 1.5063 ksi
J
318.67
x = 0, y = 4.3344 ksi, xy = 1.5063 ksi

## Draw the Mohrs circle.

X : (0, 1.5063 ksi)
Y : ( 4.3344 ksi, 1.5063 ksi)
C : (2.1672 ksi, 0)
1.5063
= 0.69504 = 34.8
2.1672
= (2)(22.5) = 10.8

tan =

## w = 2.1672 2.6393 cos 10.8

w = 2.6393sin10.2

w = 4.76 ksi
w = 0.467 ksi

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PROBLEM 7.44
Solve Prob. 7.22, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.22 Two steel plates of uniform cross section 10 80 mm
are welded together as shown. Knowing that centric 100-kN forces are
applied to the welded plates and that the in-plane shearing stress parallel
to the weld is 30 MPa, determine (a) the angle , (b) the corresponding
normal stress perpendicular to the weld.

SOLUTION

x =

P
100 103
=
= 125 106 Pa = 125 MPa
A (10 103 )(80 103 )

y = 0

xy = 0

## From Mohrs circle:

30
= 0.48
62.5

(a)

sin 2 =

(b)

= 62.5 + 62.5cos 2

= 14.3

= 117.3 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.45
Solve Prob. 7.23, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.23 A 400-lb vertical force is applied at D to a gear
attached to the solid 1-in.-diameter shaft AB. Determine the principal
stresses and the maximum shearing stress at point H located as shown
on top of the shaft.

SOLUTION
Equivalent force-couple system at center of shaft in section at point H:
V = 400 lb

M = (400)(6) = 2400 lb in

T = (400)(2) = 800 lb in

## Shaft cross section

d = 1 in.
J =

c=

1
d = 0.5 in.
2

c 4 = 0.098175 in 4

1
J = 0.049087 in 4
2

Tc (800)(0.5)
=
= 4.074 103 psi = 4.074 ksi
0.098175
J

Torsion:

Bending:

Transverse shear:

## Stress at point H is zero.

Resultant stresses:

x = 24.446 ksi,
ave =

I =

Mc (2400)(0.5)
=
= 24.446 103 psi = 24.446 ksi
0.049087
I

y = 0,

xy = 4.074 ksi

1
( x + y ) = 12.223 ksi
2
2

R=

x y
2

+ xy
2

a = ave + R

a = 25.107 ksi

b = ave R

b = 0.661 ksi

max = R

## max = 12.88 ksi

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PROBLEM 7.47
Solve Prob. 7.25, using Mohrs circle.
PROBLEM 7.25 The steel pipe AB has a 102-mm outer diameter
and a 6-mm wall thickness. Knowing that arm CD is rigidly
attached to the pipe, determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shearing stress at point K.

SOLUTION
do 102
=
= 51 mm
2
2

ro =
J =
I =

(r

4
o

ri = ro t = 45 mm

## ri4 = 4.1855 106 mm 4 = 4.1855 106 m 4

1
J = 2.0927 106 m 4
2

## Force-couple system at center of tube in the plane containing points H and K:

Fx = 10 103 N
M y = (10 103 )(200 103 ) = 2000 N m
M z = (10 103 )(150 103 ) = 1500 N m

Torsion:

T = M y = 2000 N m
c = ro = 51 103 m

xy =

Tc
(2000)(51 103 )
=
= 24.37 MPa
J
4.1855 106

Note that the local x-axis is taken along a negative global z-direction.
Transverse shear:

Bending:

y =

Mz c
(1500)(51 103 )
=
= 36.56 MPa
I
2.0927 106

## Point K lies on compression side of neutral axis.

y = 36.56 MPa

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## Total stresses at point K:

x = 0,

y = 36.56 MPa,

ave =

1
( x + y ) = 18.28 MPa
2

xy = 24.37 MPa

R=

x y
2

+ xy = 30.46 MPa
2

max = 12.18 MPa

min = 48.74 MPa
max = R

## max = 30.46 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.61
For the element shown, determine the range of values of xy for which the
maximum tensile stress is equal to or less than 60 MPa.

SOLUTION

## x = 20 MPa y = 120 MPa

1
2

ave = ( x + y ) = 70 MPa
Set

## max = 60 MPa = ave + R

R = max ave = 130 MPa

But
2

x
2
+ xy
R= x

x x

xy = R 2

= 1302 502
= 120 MPa
Range of xy :

## 120 MPa xy 120 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.66
For the state of plane stress shown, determine the maximum shearing
stress when (a) x = 6 ksi and y = 18 ksi , (b) x = 14 ksi and
y = 2 ksi . (Hint: Consider both in-plane and out-of-plane shearing
stresses.)

SOLUTION
(a)

## x = 6 ksi, y = 18 ksi, xy = 8 ksi

ave =

1
( x + y ) = 12 ksi
2
2

x y
2

+ xy
2

R=

= 62 + 82 = 10 ksi
a = ave + R = 12 + 10 = 22 ksi (max)

b = ave R = 12 10 = 2 ksi
c = 0
max(in-plane) = R = 10 ksi

1
( max min )
2
x = 14 ksi, y = 2 ksi, xy = 8 ksi

max =

(b)

(min)

a =

1
( x + y ) = 8 ksi
2

R=

x y
2

+ xy
2

62 + 82 = 10 ksi

max = 11 ksi

## a = ave + R = 18 ksi (max)

b = ave R = 2 ksi (min)
c = 0
max = 18 ksi
min = 2 ksi
max =

1
( max min )
2

max = 10 ksi

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PROBLEM 7.72
For the state of stress shown, determine the maximum shearing stress
when (a) z = 0, (b) z = +45 MPa, (c) z = 45 MPa.

SOLUTION

x = 100 MPa,

y = 20 MPa,

xy = 75 MPa

1
2

ave = ( x + y ) = 60 MPa
2

x y
2
R=
+ xy
2

## = 402 + 752 = 85 MPa

a = ave + R = 145 MPa

b = ave R = 25 MPa
(a)

1
2

(b)

1
2

(c)

max = 85 MPa

max = 85 MPa

max = 145 MPa,

1
2

## min = 45 MPa, max = ( max min )

max = 95 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.83
The state of plane stress shown occurs in a machine component made of a steel with
Y = 45 ksi. Using the maximum-distortion-energy criterion, determine whether
yield will occur when (a) xy = 9 ksi, (b) xy = 18 ksi, (c) xy = 20 ksi. If yield
does not occur, determine the corresponding factor of safety.

SOLUTION

x = 36 ksi, y = 21 ksi, z = 0
For stresses in xy-plane, ave =

x y
2

1
( x + y ) = 28.5 ksi
2

= 7.5 ksi

(a)

xy = 9 ksi

x y
2

+ xy =
2

R=

## a = ave + R = 40.215 ksi, b = ave R = 16.875 ksi

a2 + b2 a b = 34.977 ksi < 45 ksi
F .S . =

(No yielding)

45
39.977

F .S . = 1.287
2

(b)

x y
2
+ xy =
2

xy = 18 ksi R =

## a = ave + R = 48 ksi, b = ave R = 9 ksi

a2 + b2 a b = 44.193 ksi < 45 ksi
F .S . =

(No yielding)

45
44.193

F .S . = 1.018
2

(c)

xy = 20 ksi

R=

x y
2

+ xy =
2

## a = ave + R = 49.86 ksi, b = ave R = 7.14 ksi

a2 + b2 a b = 46.732 ksi > 45 ksi

(Yielding occurs)

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PROBLEM 7.84
Solve Prob. 7.83, using the maximum-shearing-stress criterion.
PROBLEM 7.83 The state of plane stress shown occurs in a machine component
made of a steel with Y = 45 ksi. Using the maximum-distortion-energy criterion,
determine whether yield will occur when (a) xy = 9 ksi, (b) xy = 18 ksi, (c)
xy = 20 ksi. If yield does not occur, determine the corresponding factor of safety.

SOLUTION

x = 36 ksi, y = 21 ksi, z = 0
ave =

## For stress in xy-plane,

1
( x + y ) = 28.5 ksi
2

x y
2

= 7.5 ksi

(a)

xy = 9 ksi

x y
2

+ xy = 11.715 ksi
2

R=

## a = ave + R = 40.215 ksi, b = ave R = 16.875 ksi

max = 34.977 ksi, min = 0

F .S . =

45
40.215

(No yielding)
F .S . = 1.119

(b)

x y
2
+ xy = 19.5 ksi
2

xy = 18 ksi R =

## a = ave + R = 48 ksi, b = ave R = 9 ksi

max = 48 ksi min = 0
2 max = max min = 48 ksi > 45 ksi

(Yielding occurs)

(c)

xy = 20 ksi R =

x y
2

+ xy = 21.36 ksi
2

## a = ave + R = 49.86 ksi b = ave R = 7.14 ksi

max = 49.86 ksi min = 0

## 2 max = max min = 49.86 ksi > 45 ksi

(Yielding occurs)

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PROBLEM 7.85
The 36-mm-diameter shaft is made of a grade of steel with a 250-MPa tensile yield
stress. Using the maximum-shearing-stress criterion, determine the magnitude of the
torque T for which yield occurs when P = 200 kN.

SOLUTION
P = 200 kN = 200 103 N

c=

1
d = 18 mm = 18 103 m
2

## A = c 2 = (18 103 ) 2 = 1.01788 103 m 2

P
200 103
=
= 196.488 106 Pa
A
1.01788 103
= 196.488 MPa

y =

x = 0

ave =

1
1
( x + y ) = y = 98.244 MPa
2
2
2

R=

x y
2

+ xy =
2

2
(98.244)2 + xy

a = ave + R (positive)
b = ave R (negative)
a b = 2R

a b > a

a b > b

## Maximum shear stress criterion under the above conditions:

a b = 2R = Y = 250 MPa

R = 125 MPa

125 =

2
(98.244)2 + xy

Torsion:

J =

c4 =

## (18 103 ) 4 = 164.896 109 m 4

2
2
Tc
xy =
J
J xy
(164.846 109 )(77.286 106 )
=
T =
c
18 103
= 708 N m

T = 708 N m

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PROBLEM 7.86
Solve Prob. 7.85, using the maximum-distortion-energy criterion.
PROBLEM 7.85 The 36-mm-diameter shaft is made of a grade of steel with a
250-MPa tensile yield stress. Using the maximum-shearing-stress criterion,
determine the magnitude of the torque T for which yield occurs when P = 200 kN.

SOLUTION
1
d = 18 mm = 18 103 m
2
A = c 2 = (18 103 ) 2 = 1.01788 103 m 2

c=

P
200 103
=
= 196.488 106 Pa
3
A
1.01788 10
= 196.448 MPa

y =

1
2

x = 0

1
2

## ave = ( x + y ) = y = 98.244 MPa

x y
R=
2

a = ave + R

2
2
2
+ xy = (98.244) + xy

b = ave R

## Distortion energy criterion:

a2 + b2 a b = Y2
( ave + R )2 + ( ave R )2 ( ave + R )( ave R ) = Y2
2
ave
+ 3R 2 = Y2
2
(98.244) 2 + (3)[(98.244)2 + xy
] = (250) 2

xy = 89.242 MPa
Torsion:

J=

xy

c4 =

2
Tc
=
J

J xy

## (164.846 109 )(89.242 106 )

c
18 103
= 818 N m

T=

T = 818 N m

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PROBLEM 7.98
A spherical gas container made of steel has a 5-m outer diameter and a wall thickness of 6 mm. Knowing that
the internal pressure is 350 kPa, determine the maximum normal stress and the maximum shearing stress in
the container.

SOLUTION
d = 5 m t = 6 mm = 0.006 m, r =

d
t = 2.494 m
2

pr
(350 103 Pa)(2.494 m)
=
= 72.742 106 Pa
2t
2(0.006 m)

= 72.7 MPa
max = 72.742 MPa
min 0 (Neglecting small radialstress)
max =

1
( max min )
2

## max = 36.4 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.104
A steel penstock has a 750-mm outer diameter, a 12-mm wall
thickness, and connects a reservoir at A with a generating station
at B. Knowing that the density of water is 1000 kg/m3 , determine
the maximum normal stress and the maximum shearing stress in
the penstock under static conditions.

SOLUTION
1
1
d t = (750) 12 = 363 mm = 363 103 m
2
2
t = 12 mm = 12 103 m

r=

= 2.943 106 Pa

1 =

=
= 89.0 106 Pa
t
12 103

max = 1

min = p 0
1
2

## max = 44.5 MPa

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PROBLEM 7.114
For the tank of Prob. 7.112, determine the range of values of that can be
used if the shearing stress parallel to the weld is not to exceed 12 MPa
when the gage pressure is 600 kPa.
PROBLEM 7.112 The pressure tank shown has a 8-mm wall thickness
and butt-welded seams forming an angle = 20 with a transverse plane.
For a gage pressure of 600 kPa, determine (a) the normal stress
perpendicular to the weld, (b) the shearing stress parallel to the weld.

SOLUTION
d = 1.6 m t = 8 103 mm r =

1
d t = 0.792 m
2

## pr (600 103 )(0.792)

=
t
8 103
= 59.4 106 Pa = 59.4 MPa
pr
2 =
= 29.7 MPa
2t
2
R= 1
= 14.85 MPa
2
w = R |sin 2 |

1 =

|sin 2 a | =

N
R

12
= 0.80808
14.85

2 a = 53.91

a = +27.0

2 b = + 53.91

b = 27.0

c = 63.0

d = 117.0

## Let the total range of values for be

Safe ranges for :

22.0 27.0

## and 63.0 117.0

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PROBLEM 7.116
The pressurized tank shown was fabricated by welding strips of plate along a
helix forming an angle with a transverse plane. Determine the largest
value of that can be used if the normal stress perpendicular to the weld is
not to be larger than 85 percent of the maximum stress in the tank.

SOLUTION

1 =

pr
t

2 =

pr
2t

1
2

3 pr
4 t
1 2 1 pr
=
R=
2
4 t
w = ave R cos 2

ave = (1 + 2 ) =

0.85

pr 3 1
pr
= cos 2
t
4 4
t

## cos 2 = 4 0.85 = 0.4

4

2 = 113.6

= 56.8

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PROBLEM 7.124
A pressure vessel of 10-in. inner diameter and 0.25-in. wall thickness is
fabricated from a 4-ft section of spirally-welded pipe AB and is equipped
with two rigid end plates. The gage pressure inside the vessel is 300 psi
and 10-kip centric axial forces P and P are applied to the end plates.
Determine (a) the normal stress perpendicular to the weld, (b) the
shearing stress parallel to the weld.

SOLUTION
1
1
d = (10) = 5 in.
t = 0.25 in.
2
2
pr (300) (5)
=
= 6000 psi = 6 ksi
1 =
t
0.25
pr (300)(5)
=
= 3000 psi = 3 ksi
2 =
2t (2)(0.25)
r0 = r + t = 5 + 0.25 = 5.25 in.
r=

## A = r02 r 2 = (5.252 5.002 ) = 8.0503 in 2

=
Total stresses.

Longitudinal:

P
10 103
=
= 1242 psi = 1.242 ksi
A
8.0803

## x = 3 1.242 = 1.758 ksi

Circumferential: y = 6 ksi
Shear:

xy = 0

X : (1.758, 0)
Y : (6, 0)
C : (3.879)
1
2

2

x y
2
R=
+ xy
2

(1.758 6)
=
+ 0 = 2.121 ksi
2

(a)

(b)

## | xy | = R sin 70 = 2.121 sin 70

x = 3.15 ksi
| xy | = 1.993 ksi

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PROBLEM 7.128
For the given state of plane strain, use the method of Sec. 7.10 to
determine the state of plane strain associated with axes x and y
rotated through the given angle .

x = 500 , y = +250 , xy = 0, = 15

SOLUTION

= +15
x + y
2

x y

= 125

x =

x + y

2
+

x y

cos 2 +

x + y

x y

cos 2

xy

2
2
2
= 125 + (375 ) cos 30 + 0

y =

xy

= 375

xy

2
2
2
= 125 (375 ) cos 30 0

=0

sin 2

x = 450
sin 2

y = 200

xy = ( x y ) sin 2 + xy cos 2
= (500 250 ) sin 30 + 0

xy = 375

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PROBLEM 7.136
The following state of strain has been measured on the surface of a thin plate. Knowing that the surface of the
plate is unstressed, determine (a) the direction and magnitude of the principal strains, (b) the maximum inplane shearing strain, (c) the maximum shearing strain. (Use v = 13 . )

x = 260 , y = 60 , xy = +480

SOLUTION
For Mohrs circle of strain, plot points:
X : (260 , 240 )
Y : (60 , 240 )
C : (160 , 0)
tan 2 p =

xy
x y

480
= 2.4
260 + 60

2 p = 67.38

b = 33.67
a = 56.31

R = (100 )2 + (240 )2
R = 260

(a)

(b)

a = 100

## b = ave R = 160 260

b = 420

1
max (in-plane) = R max (in-plane) = 2 R
2
v
v
1/3
c =
( a + b ) =
( x + y ) =
(260 60)
1 v
1 v
2/3
= 160

(c)

## max = max min = 160 + 420

max = 580

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PROBLEM 7.140
For the given state of plane strain, use Mohrs circle to determine (a) the orientation and magnitude of the
principal strains, (b) the maximum in-plane shearing strain, (c) the maximum shearing strain.

x = +60 , y = +240 , xy = 50

SOLUTION
Plotted points:
X : (60 , 25 )
Y : (240 , 25 )
C : (150 , 0)
tan 2 p =

xy
x y

50
= 0.277778
60 240

2 p = 15.52

a = 97.76
b = 7.76

(a)

a = 243.4

## b = ave R = 150 93.4

b = 56.6

(b)

max (in-plane) = 2R

(c)

max = max min

## max (in-plane) = 186.8

max = 243.4

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PROBLEM 7.147
The strains determined by the use of the rosette attached as shown during the test of a
machine element are

## 1 = 93.1 106 in./in.

2 = +385 106 in./in.
3 = +210 106 in./in.
Determine (a) the orientation and magnitude of the principal strains in the plane of the
rosette, (b) the maximum in-plane shearing strain.

SOLUTION
Use x =

xy
1
1
( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 2 +
sin 2
2
2
2

where
and

= 75

for gage 1,

=0

for gage 2,

= +75

for gage 3.

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1 = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos (150) +
2 = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 0 +

xy
2

xy
2

sin (150)

sin 0

3 = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos (150) +

xy
2

sin (150)

(1)
(2)
(3)

## From Eq. (2),

Adding Eqs. (1) and (3),

1 + 3 = ( x + y ) + ( x y ) cos 150
= x (1 + cos 150) + y (1 cos 150)
+ (1 + cos 150)
y = 1 3 x
(1 cos 150)

1 cos 150

## = 35.0 106 in/in

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3 1 = xy sin 150
xy =

3 1
sin 150

sin 150

tan 2 p =

xy
x y

606.2 106
= 1.732
385 106 35.0 106

1
1
2
2
6
= 210 10 in/in

x y xy
R=
+

2 2

=
2

(b)

max (in-plane)
2

606.2 2
6
+
= 350.0 10
2

## max (in-plane) = 700 106 in/in

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PROBLEM 7.150
A single strain gage is cemented to a solid 4-in.-diameter steel shaft at an
angle = 25 with a line parallel to the axis of the shaft. Knowing that
G = 11.5 106 psi, determine the torque T indicated by a gage reading of
300 106 in./in.

SOLUTION
For torsion,

x = y = 0, = 0
1
( x v y ) = 0
E
1
y = ( y v x ) = 0
E
0 1

xy =
xy = 0
G 2
2G

x =

## Draw the Mohrs circle for strain.

R=

0
2G

x = R sin 2 =
But

0 =
T=
=

0
2G

sin 2

2G x
Tc 2T
= 3 =
J c
sin 2

c3G x
sin 2
(2)3 (11.5 106 )(300 106 )
sin 50

= 113.2 103 lb in

T = 113.2 kip in

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PROBLEM 7.157
Solve Prob. 7.156, assuming that the rosette at point A indicates the
following strains:

1 = 30 106 in./in.
2 = +250 106 in./in.
3 = +100 106 in./in.
PROBLEM 7.156 A centric axial force P and a horizontal force Qx are both
applied at point C of the rectangular bar shown. A 45 strain rosette on the
surface of the bar at point A indicates the following strains:

1 = 60 106 in./in.
2 = +240 106 in./in.
3 = +200 106 in./in.
Knowing that E = 29 106 psi and v = 0.30, determine the magnitudes of
P and Qx.

SOLUTION

x = 1 = 30 106
y = 3 = +100 106
xy = 2 2 1 3 = 430 106
E
29
( x + v y ) =
[ 30 + (0.3)(100)]
2
1 v
1 (0.3) 2
=0
E
29
y =
( y + v x ) =
[100 + (0.3)(30)]
2
1 v
1 (0.3) 2

x =

## = 2.9 103 psi

P
=y
A

P = A y = (2)(6)(2.9 103 )
= 34.8 103 lb

P = 34.8 kips

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## PROBLEM 7.157 (Continued)

G=

E
29 106
=
= 11.1538 106 psi
2(1 + v) (2)(1.30)

## xy = G xy = (11.1538)(430) = 4.7962 103 psi

1 3 1
bh = (2)(6)3 = 36 in 4
12
12

Q = A y = (2)(3)(1.5) = 9 in 3
t = 2 in.
VQ
xy =
It
It xy (36)(2)(4.7962 103 )
V=
=
= 38.37 103 lb

9
Q
I=

Q =V

Q = 38.4 kips

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