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Darwinoriginallydefinedevolutionas_____.

a)

Overview)

thepassingofacquiredcharacteristicstooffspring

b) anindividual'sabilitytoadapttoitsenvironment

c)

descentwithmodification

d) awaytoclassifyorganismsbasedonmorphologicalsimilarities

e)

Noneofthelistedresponsesiscorrect.

Whichofthefollowingisakeyobservationthatmustbeexplainedinaunifying
theoryaboutlife?(

a)

Overview)

Alllivingthingsrequireoxygentosurvive.

b) Manybasiccharacteristicsaresharedbyalllivingthings.

c)

Evolutionisbasedondescentwithmodification.

d) TheEarthisveryold.

e)

Organismsarerarelywellsuitedtotheirenvironments.

Whichofthefollowingisanexampleoftheprocessofevolution?(
and

Concept22.3)

Overview

a)

theexistenceofhomologoustraitssuchastheforelimbsofmammals

b) thelargenumberanddiversityofspeciesofmarsupialsinAustralia

c)

thechangesinorganismsovertimeobservedinthefossilrecord

d) herbivory

e)

theobservedmatchbetweenorganismsandtheirenvironments

Thescalanaturae,orscaleofnature,isbasedontheideasof_____.(
22.1)

a)

Concept

Darwin

b) Lamarck

c)

Aristotle

d) Linnaeus

e)

Lyell

AtthetimeDarwinvoyagedontheHMSBeagle,thepopularlyacceptedtheoryin
WesternculturethatexplainedtheoriginofEarth'splantsandanimalsheldthatthe
variousspecies_____.(

a)

Concept22.1)

arosecontinuallyfromnonlivingmaterialsbyspontaneousgeneration

b) hadbeencreatedbydivineinterventionafewthousandyearsbefore

c)

hadevolvedfromnowextinctorganisms

d) arosefromasinglespeciesthathadsurvivedthebiblicalflood

e)

areallrelatedtooneanother

CarolusLinnaeusisconsideredtobethefounderof_____,andhe_____.(
Concept22.1)

a)

paleontology...believedincatastrophism

b) uniformitarianism...believedthesamegeologicforcesareoperating
todaythatoccurredinthepast

c)

genetics...describedthemechanismfordescentwithmodification

d) evolution...firstproposedthatacquiredcharacteristicsareinherited

e)

thebinomialclassificationsystem...thoughtthatresemblancesamong
differentspeciesreflectedthepatternoftheircreation

ThemodernideaofextinctionasacommonoccurrenceinEarth'shistorywasfirst
proposedintheearly19thcenturywritingsof_____.(

a)

Concept22.1)

Cuvier

b) Lamarck
c)

Aristotle

d) Wallace
e)

Lyell

Lyell'sprincipleofuniformitarianism_____.(

Concept22.1)

a)

wasrejectedbyDarwininfavorofcatastrophism

b) wascompatiblewiththeideaoftheEarthbeingonlyafewthousand
yearsold
c)

wassimilartoLamarck'stheoryofinheritanceofacquiredcharacteristics

d) statesthatcurrentgeologicprocessesareverydifferentfromthosethat
operatedinthepast
e)

stronglyinfluencedDarwin'sviewofhowlivingorganismscouldchange
overtime

WhichofthefollowingisatruestatementaboutCharlesDarwin?(
22.2)

a)

Concept

Hewasthefirsttodiscoverthatlivingthingscanchange,orevolve.

b) Hebasedhistheoryontheinheritanceofacquiredcharacteristics.

c)

Heworkedouttheprinciplesofpopulationgenetics.

d) Heproposednaturalselectionasthemechanismofevolution.

e)

HewasthefirsttoconcludethatEarthisbillionsofyearsold.

AtthetimeCharlesDarwinsailedontheHMSBeagle,_____.(

a)

Concept22.1)

theideathatanimalsandplantsmightchangeovertimewasabsentfrom
Westernscience

b) severalbiologistshadproposedthatspeciesmightchangeovertime,but
nonehadsuggestedaconvincingmechanismthatmightcausethechange
c)

theideaofevolutionwaswidelyacceptedbecauseitcouldfitintothe
biblicalstoryofcreation

d) theideaofevolutionwaswidelyacceptedbyscientists,butDarwin's
greatimpactwastopopularizeitforthelayperson
e)

Noneofthelistedresponsesiscorrect.

Becausehewaswellawareoftheeffecthistheoryofevolutionwouldhaveonthe
publicandontheChurchofEngland,Darwindelayedpublishinghisworkfor
severaldecadeswhilehegatheredadditionalevidence.Afterinvokingselective
breedingofdomesticatedspeciesasevidencethatgroupsoforganismsarecapable
ofchange,hethenproposedthatnaturalpopulationscanchangeaswell.Onwhich
twolinesofevidencedidhebasethisproposal?(

a)

Concept22.2)

Individualswithinapopulationvary,yetislandspeciesaroundtheworld
allappeartoberelatedtoeachother.

b) Organismsproducemoreoffspringthancanbesupportedbytheir
environment,andadaptationstospecificenvironmentsincreasean
organism'sabilitytosurviveandreproduce.
c) Organismswithinapopulationvary,andallpopulationsproducemore
offspringthancanbesupportedbytheenvironment,resultingin
competitionforsurvivalwithinthepopulation.
d) Someindividualsleavemoredescendantsthanotherindividuals,butthe
individualsinapopulationareessentiallyidenticaltoeachother.
e)

Someindividualswithinapopulationhavegreatersurvivabilityand
reproductivesuccessthanothers,andfavorabletraitswithinapopulation
willaccumulateovergenerations.

Duringhisvoyagearoundtheworld,Darwinwasinspiredtothinkaboutevolution
by_____.(

a)

Concept22.2)

theworksofotherssuchasLamarck

b) fossilshecollected

c)

studyingadaptationsoforganismstotheirenvironments

d) theuniqueorganismshesawintheGlapagosIslands

e)

Allofthelistedresponsesarecorrect.

InDarwin'sviewofdescentwithmodification_____.(

a)

Concept22.2)

anorganism'straitsonlyaffectitsownsurvival

b) naturalselectioncanimprovethematchbetweenanorganismandits
environment
c)

individualscanevolve

d) environmentalchangeshavenoeffectontheorganismslivinginthat
environment
e)

naturalselectiononlyoperateswhenanorganismneedstoevolve

WhatinsightdidDarwingainfromreadingThomasMalthus'sessayonhuman
suffering?(

a)

Concept22.2)

Organismshavethecapacitytooverreproduce.

b) Naturalselectionshouldbecapableofconsiderablemodificationsover
hundredsofthousandsofgenerations.
c)

Populationsizeusuallyremainsrelativelystable.

d) Favorablecharacteristicsofapopulationaccumulateovertime.

e)

Allofthelistedresponsesarecorrect.

Thebreedingofplantsandanimalsforparticulartraitsbyhumansiscalled_____.(
Concept22.2)

a)

naturalselection

b) sexualrecombination
c)

paleontology

d) artificialselection
e)

homology

Duringperiodsofrapidenvironmentalchange,whatmayhappentoaspeciesthat
waswellsuitedtotheformerenvironment?(

a)

Concept22.2)

Thespeciesmaygoextinct.

b) Individualswithparticulartraitsthatprovideanadvantageinthenew
environmentwillhavehigherreproductivesuccess.
c)

d) Traitsthatwerefavorableintheoriginalenvironmentmaybedetrimental
inthenewenvironment.
e)

Thepopulationmaychangesomuchinadaptingtothenewenvironment
thatitisconsideredanewspecies.

Allofthelistedresponsesarecorrect.

Thesmallestunitthatcanevolveisa(n)_____.(

a)

Concept22.2)

species

b) genotype

c)

individual

d) population

e)

morph

Accordingtothetheoryofevolution,anatomicalandmolecularhomologiesshould
_____.(

a)

Concept22.3)

becompletelyindependentofeachother

b) producesimilarpatternsofevolutionaryrelatedness

c)

yieldverydifferenthierarchicalpatterns

d) linkallofthespeciescurrentlypresentonEarth

e)

beunderstoodtohavecomeaboutbychancealone

Whentheywerefirstsold,aerosolinsecticideswerehighlyeffectiveinkillingflies
andmosquitoes.Now,severaldecadeslater,amuchsmallerproportionofthese
insectsdiewhensprayed.Thereasonfewerinsectsdiewhentheyaresprayedisthat
_____.(

a)

Concept22.3)
mosquitoesthatsurvivesprayingdevelopanimmunitytotheinsecticide

b) manymosquitoestodayaredescendantsofmosquitoeswithinsecticide
resistantcharacteristics

c)

mosquitoesaredeliberatelyadaptingthemselvestothismanmade
changeintheenvironment

d) theoriginalsprayinghascausedapermanentmutation,givingtheinsects
geneticresistancetothespray
e)

Noneofthelistedresponsesiscorrect.

Apopulationofzooplanktonisexposedtoasmallnumberofpredatoryfishthat
feedonthelargersized(adult)zooplankton.Whichofthefollowingpredictions
wouldmostlikelyoccurbasedontheprinciplesofnaturalselection?(
22.3)

a)

Concept

Thepredatoryfishwillevolvesmallermouthssothattheydonotdrive
theirpreytoextinction.

b) Thezooplanktonwillbecomesexuallymatureatlargersizes.

c)

Thepredatoryfishwillevolvepooreyesightsoastopreservetheirfood
supply.

d) Adultzooplanktonwillstarttoreachsexualmaturitywhentheyarestill
relativelysmall.
e)

Thefirstandthethirdlistedresponsesarebothgoodpredictions.

HowdidsomestrainsofStaphylococcusaureusbecomeresistanttoantibiotic
drugs?(

a)

Concept22.3)

Thedrugdidnotworkinthewaythatthedevelopersintended.

b) Patientsdidnottakethedrugasitwasprescribed.

c)

Thebacteriummutatedinresponsetothedrug.

d) Somemembersofthebacteriapopulationmusthavehadagenetic


e)

variationthatmadethemresistanttoantibiotics.
Noneofthelistedresponsesiscorrect.

Animportantchallengetotraditional(pre1860)ideasaboutspecieswasthe
observationthatseeminglydissimilarorganismssuchashummingbirds,humans,
andwhaleshavesimilarskeletalstructures.Thismostdirectlysuggestedto
biologiststhat_____.(

a)

Concept22.3)

onlythebestadaptedorganismscansurvive

b) advantageouschangescanbepassedalongtooffspring

c)

mostevolutionoccursrapidlyfollowingamassextinction

d) dissimilarorganismsmighthaveevolvedfromadistant,common
ancestor
e)

Allofthelistedresponsesarecorrect.

Animalsthatpossesshomologousstructuresprobably_____.(

a)

Concept22.3)

areheadedforextinction

b) evolvedfromthesameancestor

c)

haveincreasedgeneticdiversity

d) bychancehadsimilarmutationsindependentlyinthepast

e)

arenotrelated

Onanevolutionarytree_____.(

a)

Concept22.3)

organismsthatarepositionedclosetoeachotherarecloselyrelated

b) homologouscharacteristicsformanestedpattern

c)

scientistsaresureofthecorrectplacementandrelationshipsofall
organisms

d) theconceptofdescentwithmodificationisnotwellrepresented

e)

Noneofthelistedresponsesiscorrect.

Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofconvergentevolution?(

a)

Concept22.3)

Humanembryosandfishembryosbothhavepharyngealpouches.

b) Dolphinsandsharkshaveasimilarfusiform(streamlined)bodyshape.

c)

Catsandbatshavesimilarskeletalconfigurationsintheirforelimbs.

d) Bothgymnosperms(conebearingplants)andangiosperms(flowering
plants)produceseeds.
e)

Blindcavefishpossessremnantsofeyestructuresundertheirscales.

Vestigialorgansare_____.(

a)

Concept22.3)

evidenceforLamarck'stheoryofuseanddisuse

b) remnantsofstructuresthatwereusefultoanorganism'sancestors

c)

onepieceofevidencethatdoesnotsupportthetheoryofevolution

d) examplesofanatomicalimperfectionssuchasthehumanknee

e)

homologiesthatcanonlybeobservedinembryos

Allknownorganismstranscribegeneticinformationtoproteinmoleculesviathe
samegeneticcode.Thisfindingstronglysupportsthehypothesisthat_____.(
Concept22.3)

a)

there'sonlyonepossiblewaytoencodeinformationinamacromolecule

b) theearliestmacromoleculesprobablyarosewhenlightningstruckan
oxygenfreeatmosphere
c)

allorganismsaredescendedfromasinglecommonancestor

d) thegeneticcodewillneverbebroken

e)

Noneofthelistedresponsesiscorrect.

Evidencefrommolecularbiologysupportsthetheoryofevolutionbydemonstrating
that_____.(

Concept22.3)

a)

homologousproteinshavearisenindependentlyinmanydifferentanimal
groups

b) closelyrelatedanimalspecieshavesimilargeographicdistributions

c)

closelyrelatedorganismshavemoresimilarDNAandproteins

d) closelyrelatedorganismshavesimilarstagesofdevelopment

e)

Noneofthelistedresponsesiscorrect.

WhatdidDarwinobserveaboutspeciesonislands?(

a)

Concept22.3)

Theyarerarelyendemic.

b) Theyareoftencloselyrelatedtospeciesfromsimilarecologicalniches
allovertheworld.
c)

Theyareoftencloselyrelatedtospeciesfromthenearestmainlandor
neighboringislands.

d) DarwinonlystudiedtheGlapagosand,therefore,couldnotdevelop
manyinsightsaboutspeciesonislands.
e)

Noneoftheaboveiscorrect.

Todescribeevolutionasa"scientifictheory"meansthat_____.(

a)

itisanuntestedidea

b) itisnotfactual

Concept22.3)

c)

itisamatterofopinion

d) itisabroadmodelthatissupportedbymanyobservationsandmuch
experimentalevidence
e)

itcanbeconsidereddogma