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RJIL Network

LTE and IMS Basic Literature

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Voice over LTE


 LTE and IMS network architecture  NNI Inter-operability (2G, 3G <-> 4G)
 Bearer Binding, Session binding
 Voice/Video Call establishment and
 QoS policy and enforcement
maintenance
 Security, Charging (Online/Offline)
 Roaming, Handover, Mobility

 Supplementary services

Call Forwarding
Call On Hold
Call Barring
Applications

...
TAS

RCS

IMS AS

IMS
MGW

MRF

IMS
Core

UAG

HSS

...

LTE
eNB

MME

DRA

PCRF
(SPR)

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MBMS

...

2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

LTE reference model


eNB
MME
S-GW
networks
P-GW
PCRF
OCS
OFCS

Radio interface and radio resource management


Signaling and media control function
Anchoring point for intra-LTE and with other
Interconnection point to external IP networks
Policy and Charging Rules Function
Online Charging Function
Offline Charging Function

(signalin
g)

EPC
(Evolved Packet Core)

SAEGW
(media)

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e.g., IMS, Internet

2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

LTE reference model


NODE

DESCRIPTIONS

eNB

Radio interfaces and radio resource management.


Radio bearer control/radio admission control/scheduling of uplink & downlink/
IP header compression and encryption of the user plane data/eNB handover(X2)/pooling
between MMEs and eNBs(S1, many-to-many relations)

MME

LTE related control plane signaling


Mobility and security functions for devices attaching over the LTE RAN/Management of all the
terminals in idle mode including Tracking Area management and paging.

S-GW

Anchoring point for intra-LTE and between GSM/GPRS, WCDMA/HSPA and LTE/ Accounting
functions for inter-operator charging and billing settlements.

P-GW

Interconnection point to external IP networks. IP address allocation/charging/packet


filtering/policy-based control of user-specific IP flows

PCRF

Policy and Charging Rules Function Flow based charging, including e.g., online credit control and
policy control including service authorization and QoS management.

OCS/OFCS

Online Charging System / Offline Charging System

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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

IMS reference model


IP Multimedia Networks
Izi

CS Network

Mm

Ici, Mm

Mm

Mm

Legacy mobile
signalling Networks

Ix

TrGW
Mb

IBCF Mx
CS

Ma

BGCF

Mb

I-CSCF

Mk

CS

Mx
Mx

BGCF
Mj

MRFP
Mb
Mb

Mg

Mp

MRFC

Mb

PCRF

Cx

S-CSCF

Ut Dx

P-CSCF
Gm

HSS
Dh

Rc

Mw
Cr, Mr

C, D,
Gc, Gr

Cx

Mi

MRB
Mr

Sh

Mw

Mg

IM
MGCF
MGW Mn
ISC
Mb

AS
ISC

SLF

UE

IMS Subsystem
Rx

Gm(SGi)
Gx

<Source: 3GPP TS23.228>

EPC

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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

IMS reference model


NODE

DESCRIPTIONS

P-CSCF
(Proxy)

Provides the Interface with a UE via EPC, maintains SIP connections, provides the
Security functionalities(e.g., IP Sec, TLS), resolve the routing path for SIP singling by
querying the I-CSCF.

I-CSCF
(Interrogating)

Queries the HSS to obtain the appropriate S-CSCF address and forwards the SIP
messages.

S-CSCF
(Serving)

Provides the interface with an Application Server(i.e., ISC) and routes the SIP
messages towards the appropriate ones.
- SIP registration and maintenance of user status.
- iFC triggering
- Policy enforcement

BGCF
(Breakout gateway)

Handlin of SIP signaling for PSTN/CS breakout

MRF
(Media Resource
Function)

Processes the media stream for such as floor control, mixing media, prompting, etc.

MG
(Media Gateway)

Interworks the media stream between the IMS network and the legacy network.

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Protocol Stack
NAS

GTPv2-C

GTPv2-C

Daimeter

RRC

RRC

RRC

UDP

UDP

TCP

PDCP

PDCP

PDCP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

RLC
L1

RLC
L1

L2
L1

L2

L2

L1

L1

NAS

RLC
L1

RLC
L1

RLC
L1

Daimeter
TCP

Daimeter
TCP

NAS
S1AP

MME

S-11

Gx

(GTP-C)

PCRF

Rx

E-RAB

UE

LTE-Uu

eNB

GTP-C
GTP-U

SAE-GW

RTP

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L2

L1

L1

L1

Sgi/Gm

UAG

SIP

SIP

SIP

SIP

SIP

TCP/UDP

TCP/UDP

TCP/UDP

TCP/UDP

IP

IP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L2

L2

L1

L1

L1

L1

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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

RJIL Network Architecture(LTE)

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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

RJIL Network Architecture(IMS)

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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

QCI table

Dedicate
d
bearer

Persistent
Dedicated
bearer

Default
bearer

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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

10

Sample Issues of Core Side

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11

TCP establishment failure ( UAG Issue)


UE

EPC

UAG/IM
C

DRA/HS
S

QCI=9/IMS
APN
TCP SYN
TCP 3-way
handshaking

TCP
SYN/ACK
TCP ACK
REGISTER
401 UnAuthorized
REGISTER
200 OK

Ripple effect:
TCP establishment failure leads
to the failure of QCI=5 bearer.
NOTE
TCP establishment failure could
happen anytime. Not necessarily
for IMS registration.

QCI=5/IMS
APN
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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

12

Failure to send AAR ( PCRF Issue )


UE

UAG/IM
C

EPC

DRA/HS
S

QCI=9/IMS
APN
REGISTER
401 UnAuthorized
REGISTER
200 OK
PCRF
AAR
RAR
RAA

AAA

Failure of sending AAR leads to


the failure of EPS bearer.

QCI=5/IMS
APN
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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

13

Registration Failure(DRA/HSS Issue )


UE

EPC

UAG/IM
C

DRA/HS
S

QCI=1/IMS
APN

SIP
REGISTER

UAR
UAA

403 Forbidden

QCI=5/IMS
APN
Samsung Confidential Information Official Commitment will be made in a formal form. Up to the best of Samsung's knowledge

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2011 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

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