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Civil Rights Movement

Jim Crow Laws
o Statutes or laws created to enforce segregation
Jackie Robinson
o Breaks the color barrier in MLB in 1947
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education (1954)
Earl Warren- US Supreme Court Chief Justice.
Supreme Court decision - Public schools could not be separated by race
Reversed the separate but equal clause of Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Dec. 1, 1955- Montgomery Alabama - Rosa Parks would not give up her seat to a white
Martin Luther King Jr.- Preached to blacks in Mont. to stop using the buses
Supreme Court Ruling: Segregation on buses was illegal
Little Rock Arkansas
The south resisted integration (in schools).
Little Rock - National Guard prevented schools from opening/integrating
Federal Judge- Forced Nat. Guard to be removed
Ike- Sent 1000 paratroopers and opened the schools. First black students - The little
Rock Nine
Civil Rights Act, 1957
First Civil Rights Act since Reconstruction
The Justice Department file suits on behalf of blacks who were denied the right to vote
Significance - It passed and was bipartisan

Race riots broke out throughout the US in the 1960s

Watts, Los Angeles - 1965
1967 saw the worst rioting - Detroit - 48 died, 5000 homeless
Many African Americans were frustrated with the lack of progress towards equality
Black Leaders
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr - Fought for African American rights
o Used non-violent protests
1967- Thurgood Marshall- First African American appointed to the supreme court
Malcolm X- Malcolm Little - Black power movement
o Influenced African Americans to take pride in their cultures and believe in their

1963 March on Washington D.C.

Organized to pressure Congress into passing a civil rights bill
More than 200,000 Freedom Marchers gather before the Lincoln Memorial
King delivered his I have a Dream speech
Civil Rights Strategy
Sit ins- Used in an effort to help integrate restaurants

Freedom riders- Used to help draw attention to the South's refusal to integrate buses
and bus terminals
Southern Manifesto-1956- 19 Senators and 77 members of the House of
Representatives- Signed a resolution condemning the 1954 Supreme Court decision in
Brown vs. Board of Education
Selma to Montgomery March
King was attempting to register black voters in the South
o Will help lead to the Voting Rights Act (1965)
The freedom march began March 21, 1965
Marchers were protected by federal marshals, FBI, and Alabama National Guard - Seen
on TV
Martin Luther Kings Assassination
April 4th, 1968 - King assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee
o Rioting broke out across the nation

James Earl Ray- Arrested and convicted for the crime