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Ancient Rome & Early Christianity 500 B.C. – A.D. 500

The Romans Create a Republic AIM: The early Romans established a republic, which grew powerful

The Romans Create a Republic

AIM: The early Romans established a republic, which grew powerful and spread it influence

The Beginnings of Rome

According to legend, Rome was founded by

in 753 B.C

In reality, Rome developed because of its strategic location & its fertile soil

The were native to Northern Italy (skilled metalworkers)

Romans were influenced by both Etruscans and Greeks

◆ The were native to Northern Italy (skilled metalworkers) ◆ Romans were influenced by both Etruscans
◆ The were native to Northern Italy (skilled metalworkers) ◆ Romans were influenced by both Etruscans
The Beginnings of Rome ◆ Romans borrowed religious ideas from the Greeks ∙ Example: Zeus

The Beginnings of Rome

The Beginnings of Rome ◆ Romans borrowed religious ideas from the Greeks ∙ Example: Zeus will

Romans borrowed religious ideas from the Greeks

Example: Zeus will become

Etruscans will strongly influence Roman civilization

Example:

from the Greeks ∙ Example: Zeus will become ◆ Etruscans will strongly influence Roman civilization ∙

The Early Republic

The Early Republic ◆ Under the Etruscans, Rome turned into a collection of hilltop villages ◆

Under the Etruscans, Rome turned into a collection of hilltop villages

Temples & public building started to appear

◆ Temples & public building started to appear = Heart of ∙ political life ◆ Rome

= Heart of

political life

Rome will eventually transform into a republic

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ Aristocratic landowners who held most of the power ∙ Inherited

The Early Republic

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ Aristocratic landowners who held most of the power ∙ Inherited power

Aristocratic landowners who held most of the power

Inherited power & social status

Held the most important gov’t positions

Common, farmers, artisans, & merchants

Were citizens who could vote

Could not hold gov’t positions

The Early Republic ◆ In time the Senate will allow the plebeians to form their

The Early Republic

The Early Republic ◆ In time the Senate will allow the plebeians to form their own
The Early Republic ◆ In time the Senate will allow the plebeians to form their own

In time the Senate will allow the plebeians to form their own assembly known as a

Tribunes protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials

More rights were given under the ( )

The Early Republic ◆   ∙ Taken best features of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy ∙

The Early Republic

The Early Republic ◆   ∙ Taken best features of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy ∙ Two

 

Taken best features of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy

Two officials who commanded the army & directed the gov’t

One consul could always override the other’s decisions

commanded the army & directed the gov’t ∙ ∙ One consul could always override the other’s
The Early Republic ◆   ∙ Aristocratic branch of Rome’s gov’t ∙ 300 Members chosen

The Early Republic

The Early Republic ◆   ∙ Aristocratic branch of Rome’s gov’t ∙ 300 Members chosen from
The Early Republic ◆   ∙ Aristocratic branch of Rome’s gov’t ∙ 300 Members chosen from

 

Aristocratic branch of Rome’s gov’t

300 Members chosen from the upper class

Membership for life

 

Citizen-soldiers, selects consuls & makes laws

Elects tribunes and makes laws

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ Would be appointed in times of crisis ∙ Leader who

The Early Republic

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ Would be appointed in times of crisis ∙ Leader who had
The Early Republic ◆ ∙ Would be appointed in times of crisis ∙ Leader who had

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ Would be appointed in times of crisis ∙ Leader who had

Would be appointed in times of crisis

Leader who had absolute power to make laws & command the army

Lasted for

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ All citizens who owned land were required to serve in

The Early Republic

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the

The Early Republic ◆ ∙ All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the

All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the army

Organized into units called

Rome Spreads Its Power

Rome dominated Italy by the fourth century B.C Rome had different laws & treatment for its conquered territory

Conquered peoples were granted (some could vote) or were considered (left alone as long as they did not sign treaties with others)

peoples were granted (some could vote) or were considered (left alone as long as they did

Rome Spreads Its Power

Rome Spreads Its Power ◆ ∙ Three wars between Rome & (city in Northern Africa) ∙

Three wars between Rome &

(city in Northern Africa)

Both wanted complete control of the Mediterranean

◆ ∙ Three wars between Rome & (city in Northern Africa) ∙ Both wanted complete control

Rome Spreads Its Power

Rome Spreads Its Power ◆ First Punic War ∙ 23 year fight over Sicily & Western

First Punic War

23 year fight over Sicily & Western Mediterranean in which the Romans won

Second Punic War

(from Carthage) wanted to avenge Carthage’s earlier defeat

Rome Spreads Its Power

Rome Spreads Its Power ◆ Hannibal attempted to attack Rome by going to Spain, trekking across

Hannibal attempted to attack Rome by going to Spain, trekking across France & the alps

Hannibal will eventually invade N. Italy, but will not be able to capture Rome

Rome Spreads Its Power

Rome Spreads Its Power ◆ The Roman general planned to attack Carthage, which forced Hannibal to

The Roman general

planned to attack Carthage, which forced Hannibal to return home & was finally defeated by the Romans at

Roman general planned to attack Carthage, which forced Hannibal to return home & was finally defeated

Rome Spreads Its Power

Rome Spreads Its Power ◆ Third Punic War ∙ After the Second Punic War, Carthage was
Rome Spreads Its Power ◆ Third Punic War ∙ After the Second Punic War, Carthage was

Third Punic War

After the Second Punic War, Carthage was no

longer a threat so

In 149 B.C. Rome laid siege to Carthage, set the city on fire, sold its inhabitants into slavery

The Roman Empire Brings Change

AIM: The creation of the Roman Empire transformed Roman government, society, economy, and culture

Expansion Creates Problems

There was a widening gap between the rich and the poor

– Huge estates where rich landowners lived

There was a huge slave population

Returning soldiers were homeless & jobless

These factors caused the republic to collapse

population ◆ Returning soldiers were homeless & jobless ◆ These factors caused the republic to collapse

The Republic Collapses ◆   made attempts at helping Rome’s poor ◆ They wanted to

The Republic Collapses

 

made attempts at helping Rome’s poor

They wanted to limit the size of the estates & give land to the poor

Their death was met with a

◆ They wanted to limit the size of the estates & give land to the poor

◆ ◆ The Republic Collapses Generals were now recruiting soldiers from the poor promising them land

The Republic Collapses

Generals were now recruiting soldiers from the poor promising them land in exchange for their allegiance

will eventually emerge to bring order to Rome

soldiers from the poor promising them land in exchange for their allegiance will eventually emerge to

The Republic Collapses

The Republic Collapses ◆ Caesar enlisted (wealthy Roman), & (general) to help him become a consul
The Republic Collapses ◆ Caesar enlisted (wealthy Roman), & (general) to help him become a consul
The Republic Collapses ◆ Caesar enlisted (wealthy Roman), & (general) to help him become a consul

Caesar enlisted

(wealthy

The Republic Collapses ◆ Caesar enlisted (wealthy Roman), & (general) to help him become a consul

Roman), & (general) to help him become a consul

For the next 10 years they dominated as a

(group of three leaders)

The Republic Collapses

The Republic Collapses Caesar was a strong leader & genius at military strategy Caesar appointed himself

Caesar was a strong leader & genius at military strategy

Caesar appointed himself governor of (France) = conquering all of Gaul

With growing popularity = Pompey tries to stop Caesar in a civil war, but eventually is defeated

The Republic Collapses

The Republic Collapses ◆ Caesar will be appointed dictator by the Senate in ◆ By Caesar

Caesar will be appointed dictator by the Senate in

By Caesar will be declared dictator for life

Caesar governed as an

(one who has total power)

The Republic Collapses

Caesar granted citizenship to people in the provinces, expanded the Senate with friends & supporters

He created jobs through construction programs, gave land to the poor through colonies & increased the pay for soldiers

He created jobs through construction programs, gave land to the poor through colonies & increased the

The Republic Collapses

The Republic Collapses ◆ Fearful of his growing power a number of important senators led by
The Republic Collapses ◆ Fearful of his growing power a number of important senators led by

Fearful of his growing power a number of important senators led by

plotted his death

(Ides of March) – Caesar is stabbed to death in the Senate Chamber

◆ ◆ The Republic Collapses Civil war broke out again after the death of Caesar ∙

The Republic Collapses

Civil war broke out again after the death of Caesar

This will ultimately end in jealousy & violence

Octavian will eventually come out victorious

of Caesar ∙ ∙ ∙ This will ultimately end in jealousy & violence Octavian will eventually
The Republic Collapses the emperor (supreme military commander) or ◆ Octavian will take the title

The Republic Collapses

the

emperor (supreme military commander)

or

Octavian will take the title of or “exalted one”

He will also become

(supreme military commander) or ◆ Octavian will take the title of or “exalted one” ◆ He

A Vast and Powerful Empire

A Vast and Powerful Empire ◆ or Roman peace when Rome was at its peak ◆

or Roman peace when Rome was at its peak

The empire will house a population of about 60 to 80 million

Rome has about

people

A Vast and Powerful Empire

A Vast and Powerful Empire Agriculture was the most important industry in the empire ◆ •

Agriculture was the most important industry in the empire

In Augustus’ time a silver coin ( was used. Common money made trade easier

)

A Vast and Powerful Empire ◆ Rome also had a vast trading network and complex

A Vast and Powerful Empire

A Vast and Powerful Empire ◆ Rome also had a vast trading network and complex network

Rome also had a vast trading network and complex network of roads used for trade & the military

Rome used men from its provinces for military service & then granted them citizenship

A Vast and Powerful Empire ◆ Augustus stabilized the Roman frontier, built impressive buildings, &

A Vast and Powerful Empire

A Vast and Powerful Empire ◆ Augustus stabilized the Roman frontier, built impressive buildings, & created

Augustus stabilized the Roman frontier, built impressive buildings, & created a system of gov’t that will last for centuries

He also set up a

The Pax Romana will end with the death of

Life in Imperial Rome

Rome emphasized the virtue of (dignity, seriousness,

and duty)

The eldest man controlled all property & authority

Women were nearly equal to men

Ran the household, could own property, testify in court; could not vote

◆ Women were nearly equal to men ∙ Ran the household, could own property, testify in
Life in Imperial Rome ◆ Romans favored boys over girls ◆ Daughters received the feminine

Life in Imperial Rome

Life in Imperial Rome ◆ Romans favored boys over girls ◆ Daughters received the feminine form
Life in Imperial Rome ◆ Romans favored boys over girls ◆ Daughters received the feminine form

Romans favored boys over girls

Daughters received the feminine form of their father’s name

Only wealthy boys

went to school until

16 when they became

adults

Girls were educated at home & usually

married at the age of

12 to 15

Life in Imperial Rome ◆ Slavery was significant to Roman life ◆ Slaves were usually

Life in Imperial Rome

Life in Imperial Rome ◆ Slavery was significant to Roman life ◆ Slaves were usually conquered
Life in Imperial Rome ◆ Slavery was significant to Roman life ◆ Slaves were usually conquered

Slavery was significant to Roman life

Slaves were usually conquered peoples

Some males will become who

will fight to the death

With all the problems of the empire, the Colesseum provided free games, chariot races, mock battles & gladiator contests

Life in Imperial Rome ◆ The Romans adopted the Greek form of the Gods &

Life in Imperial Rome

Life in Imperial Rome ◆ The Romans adopted the Greek form of the Gods & Goddesses

The Romans adopted the Greek form of the Gods & Goddesses who were worshiped through various rituals

Religion & government were linked

Worship of the emperor also became part of the official religion of Rome

Decline of the Roman Empire

AIM: Internal problems and nomadic invasions spurred the division and decline of the Roman Empire

A Century of Crisis Trade ∙ Gold & silver resources were drained ∙ No new

A Century of Crisis

Trade

Gold & silver resources were drained

No new sources for precious metals

Gov’t raised taxes & printed more coins with less silver in it which caused Agriculture

Overworked soil lost its fertility

Farmland destroyed by warfare

Farmland abandoned

No improvements in farming technology

lost its fertility ∙ Farmland destroyed by warfare ∙ Farmland abandoned ∙ No improvements in farming
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis

A Century of Crisis

A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis
A Century of Crisis ◆ Outside Germanic tribes began to weaken the Roman legions ◆ Soldiers

Outside Germanic tribes began to weaken the Roman legions

Soldiers began to give loyalty to their commanders & not Rome

Rome began to recruit , foreign soldiers who fought for money

Loyalty to Rome was no longer there

Emperors Attempt Reform ◆ ∙ Will restore the empire & increase its strength ∙ He

Emperors Attempt Reform

Emperors Attempt Reform ◆ ∙ Will restore the empire & increase its strength ∙ He claimed

Will restore the empire & increase its strength

He claimed descent from the Roman Gods

He split the empire in two ( )

His retirement will result in civil war

◆ Emperors Attempt Reform will be victorious & will move the capital from Rome to which

Emperors Attempt Reform

will be victorious & will move the capital from Rome to

which he renamed

◆ Emperors Attempt Reform will be victorious & will move the capital from Rome to which
Invaders Overrun the Western Empire ◆ From 376 to 476 A. D. huge numbers of

Invaders Overrun the Western Empire

Invaders Overrun the Western Empire ◆ From 376 to 476 A. D. huge numbers of poured

From 376 to 476 A. D. huge numbers of

Western Empire ◆ From 376 to 476 A. D. huge numbers of poured into Roman territory

poured into Roman territory & drove the emperors from their throne

Invaders Overrun the Western Empire

The main reason for the Germanic invasions of the Empire was the movement into Europe by the

They forced the other groups to move into the Roman Empire

of the Empire was the movement into Europe by the ◆ They forced the other groups

Invaders Overrun the Western Empire

Invaders Overrun the Western Empire ◆ ∙ United the Huns & attacked both halves of the

United the Huns & attacked both halves of the empire

Famine & disease weakened Attila’s forces

will negotiate their withdrawal

both halves of the empire ∙ Famine & disease weakened Attila’s forces ∙ will negotiate their
Rome’s Last Emperor ◆ emperor ◆ the last was deposed by a German general West

Rome’s Last Emperor

◆ emperor ◆
emperor

the last

was deposed by a German general

West – empire disappears

last was deposed by a German general West – empire disappears ◆ East – Byzantine Empire

East – Byzantine Empire will flourish until 1453

Rome & the Roots of Western

Civilization

AIM: The Romans developed many ideas and institutions that became fundamental to Western civilization

Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization

Romans acknowledged the importance of Greek culture

Combination of Greek, Hellenistic, Roman Culture

Romans acknowledged the importance of Greek culture ∙ Combination of Greek, Hellenistic, Roman Culture ◆ ◆
Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization ◆ Roman art was practical, intended for education ◆ Roman artists

Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization

Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization ◆ Roman art was practical, intended for education ◆ Roman artists created

Roman art was practical, intended for education

Roman artists created

Best example of Roman art are in

◆ Roman art was practical, intended for education ◆ Roman artists created ◆ Best example of

Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization

Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization ◆ Romans borrowed their philosophy & literature influence from the Greeks ◆

Romans borrowed their philosophy & literature influence from the Greeks

Roman poet

Wrote the Aeneid

Roman historian

Notable for his accurate facts

Roman Achievements

◆ ∙ ∙

Official language of the Catholic Church

French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian & Romanian (

◆ ∙ ∙ Official language of the Catholic Church French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian & Romanian (

)

Roman Achievements

Roman Achievements Great architecture as well ∙ ◆
Roman Achievements Great architecture as well ∙ ◆
Great architecture as well ∙
Great architecture as well

Roman Law Achievements

.

All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law

.

Innocent until proven guilty

.

Burden of proof rested on the accuser

.

Punished for actions, not thoughts

.

Unfair laws could be set aside

Burden of proof rested on the accuser . Punished for actions, not thoughts . Unfair laws
Burden of proof rested on the accuser . Punished for actions, not thoughts . Unfair laws