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-- c XB With The Permission O f AGMA Under Royalty Agreement AGMA911-A94 AMERICANGEARMANUFACTURERSASSOCIATION
--
c
XB
With The Permission O f AGMA
Under Royalty Agreement
AGMA911-A94
AMERICANGEARMANUFACTURERSASSOCIATION
Design Guidelines for Aerospace Gearing
AGMA
INFORMATION
SHEET
(This Information Sheetis NOT an AGMA S tandard)

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 91%A94, Design Guidelines for Aerospace Gearing CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA standards are subject to constant
AGMA 91%A94,
Design
Guidelines
for Aerospace
Gearing
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA standards are subject to constant improvement, revision, or withdrawal as
dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA Technical Publication should be sure that the
publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self-supporting sections may be quoted or extracted in their entirety. Credit lines should read:
Extracted from AGMA 911-A94, information Sheet - Design Guidelines for Aerospace Gearing, with the
permission of the publisher, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201,
Alexandria, Virginia 223141.
ABSTRACT:
This Information Sheet covers current gear design practices as they are applied to air vehicles and spacecraft.
The material included goes beyond the design of gear meshes and presents the broad spectrum of factors
which combine to produce a working gear system, whether it be a power transmission or special purpose
mechanism. Although a variety of gear types, such as wormgears, face gears and various proprietary tooth
forms are used in aerospace applications, this document covers only spur, helical, and bevel gears.
Copyright 0 1994 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
Published by
American
Gear Manufacturers
Association
1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria,
Virginia,
22314
ISBN:
l-55589-8294
ii
AGMA 911-A94 Contents F o r e w o r d 1 1.1 1.2 2

AGMA 911-A94

Contents

Foreword

1

1.1

1.2

2

3

3.1

3.2

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

5

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

6

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

.

Scope

.

.

.

.

.

.

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.

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.

.

Application

References

Application

Definitions and symbols Definitions Symbols

Designapproach Design requirements and goals Identify design criieria Preliminary design Detail design

Lubrication Cooling vs. lubrication requirements Lubricants

Distribution systems

Lubrication system design considerations

l

Filtration

Oiipumps

Lube system condition monitoring

Environmental issues

Ambient temperature effects

Ambient pressure effects Attitude effects

Contaminant effects (water, corrosives, dirt, dust, and sand)

Vibration/Shock effects

Fire resistance requirements

Electromagnetic effects Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) effects

.

.

.

.

.

.

*

7

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

8

8.1

8.2

8.3

9

9.1

9.2

Vibration and noise

Causes of gear vibration

Consequences of vibration

Design

Analyzing vibration problems

VibratiorYNoise reduction techniques

Load Capacity

Introduction

Spur, helical, and bevel gear tooth breakage and surface durability

Spur, helical, and bevel gear scuffing (scoring) -flash

Gear materials and heat treatment

temperature index

Class and grade definitions

Mechanical properties

Page

vi

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

5

5

6

8

12

15

15

5

18

19

21

21

23

24

24

25

25

26

26

29

29

29

30

30

31

32

35

37

39

3 9

41

45

47

47

47

AGMA 911-A94 Contents, continued   9.3 Cleanliness   4 8 9.4 Heat treatment  

AGMA

911-A94

Contents,

continued

 

9.3 Cleanliness

 

4

8

9.4 Heat treatment

 

48

9.5 Microstructure

48

9.6 Hardenability

48

9.7 Dimensional stability

48

9.8 Pm-machining stock removal

48

9.9 Ferrousgearing

48

9.10 Non-ferrous gearing

49

9.11 Material grades and heat treatment

 

49

9.12 Gear surface

hardening

 

49

9.13 Gear through

hardening

53

10

Surface treatment

54

10.1

Introduction

54

10.2

Shot peening

55

10.3

Surfacecoatings

6

0

10.4

Ion implantation of gears

61

11

Manufacturing considerations

63

11.1

Introduction

63

11.2

Spur and helical gears

63

11.3

Bevel gears

64

11.4

Stress relief treatment

67

12

Gear inspection

68

12.1

General

68

12.2

Spur and helical involute gears

 

68

12.3

Bevelgears

69

13

Rocket & space gearing

70

13.1

Introduction

70

13.2

Lubrication

71

13.3

Gear materials for space application

 

73

1

Symbols used in equations

2

Aerospace lu&icant viscosities

 

16

Aerospace

lubricant densities

16

Aerospace lubricant pressure/viscosity coefficients

 

16

Aerospace

lubricant specific heat values

17

Aerospacegreases

17

Aircraft dry lubricants

17

Advantages & disadvantages of a common engine & transmission lubrication system . 19

9

Particle size distribution by weight

 

26

10

Suggested functional test levels for propeller aircraft and turbine engine equipment

27

11

Suggested functional test peak levels for equipment installed on helicopters

28

12

Potential influence of design features on noise and vibration

35

13

Vibration testing

37

14

Sound and vibration reduction techniques

 

39

AGMA Qll-AQ4 Tables, continued 15 Typical aerospace gear materials 49 16 Surface coatingsusedin aerospacegearunits 62

AGMA Qll-AQ4

Tables, continued

15 Typical aerospace gear materials 49 16 Surface coatingsusedin aerospacegearunits 62 17 Candidate solid-film
15 Typical aerospace gear materials
49
16 Surface coatingsusedin aerospacegearunits
62
17 Candidate solid-film lubricants for space application
73
18 Candidate fluid lubricants for space application
74
19 Working fluid lubricants
74
Figures
1
Retative life as function of lambda
7
2
The general parallel-axis epicyclic gear train
9
3
Goodman diagram for combined load
11
Typical aerospace lubrication system schematic
Spur gear pump
Vane pump
Gerotor Pump
22
23
23
23
8
Typical gearbox attitude limits
25
9
Suggested vibration spectra for propeller aircraft and turbine engine equipment
27
10 Suggested vibration spectrum for equipment installed on helicopters
27
11 Terminal-peak sawtooth shock pulse configuration and its tolerance limits
28
12 Sound and vibration paths
30
13 Typical damping ring
38
14 Diierent methods for determining tooth root stress
40
15 Directions of crack propagation in gear teeth
40
16 Reliabilii versus number of standard deviations
46
17 Schematic
of
material
ground from a
gear tooth
distorted gear tooth
53
18 Schematic
of
material
ground from a
53
19 Fatigue strength in ground AISI 4349 (50 HRC)
54
20 Example of residual stress profile created by shot peening
55
21 Peening
1045 steel at 48
HRC with 330 shot
56
22 Peening
1045 steel at 62
HRC with
330 shot
56
23 Stress profile of carburized gear tooth root, ground and then shot peened
57
24 Increase in fatigue resistance of spiral
bevel gear
57
25 Fatigue
tests
on
rear axle shafts
57
26 Fatigue tests
on
notched shafts
57
27 Fatigue
life comparison
58
28 Correlation of Almen intensities as indicated by arc heights of peened strips
59
29 Heat treat coupon
68
Annexes
A Spur
gear geometry factor including internal meshes
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
75
B Gearbox test and missionrequirements
89
C References and bibliography
.
.
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97
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 911-A94 [The foreword, footnotes, and annexes are provided for informational purposes only and should not

[The foreword, footnotes, and annexes are provided for informational purposes only and should not be

construed as a part of AGMA 911-A94, information

This Information Sheet supersedes AGMA Standard 411.02, Design Procedure forAirm&Engine and Power

Its purpose is to provide guidance to the practicing aerospace gear

engineer in the design, manufacture, inspection, and assembly of aerospace gearing. In addition, it addresses the lubrication, environmental, and application conditions which impact the gearbox as a working system of components.

Material in the Information Sheet is supplemental to current AGMA Standards, but does not constitute a Standard itself. By definition, Standards reflect established industry practice. In contrast, some of the practices discussed here have not seen enough usage to be considered standard, but they do provide insight to design techniques used in stat-f-the-art aerospace equipment. It is expected that the user of this Information Sheet will have some general experience in gear and machine design, and some knowledge of current shop and inspection practices.

Suggestions for the improvement of this information sheet will be welcome. They should be sent to the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314.

Sheet

- Design

Guidelines

for Aerospace

Gearing,]

Take-OlT

Spur

and

Helical

Gears.

AGMA 911-A94

PERSONNEL

of the AGMA

. Vice Chairman: K. Buyukataman

.

Chairman: A. Meyer

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Committee

for Aerospace

.

.

.

.

.

.

Textron -

Lycoming

Pratt & Whitney

Gearing

ACTIVE MEMBERS

J.

Abrahamian

 

Pratt & Whitney

N.

Anderson

 

GM Technical Center

I.

Armitage

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

Spar Aerospace

E.

J. Bodensieck

. Bodensieck Engineering

.

.

M.

Brogiie

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

Dudley Technical Group

R.C. Bryant

.

.

.

.

.

General Electric

Ft.

Burdick

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Aero Gear

J.

Daly

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Metal Improvement Co.

R.

Dayton

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Wright Patterson A. F. 9.

ASSOCIATE

MEMBERS

 

G.

Belling

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

American Pfauter

J.

D. Black

.

.

.

.

.

.

General Motors

E.

R.

Braun

 

.

.

.

.

.

Eaton

C.

E. Breneman

 

. Advance Gear

A.

T. Brunet

 

Allied Signal Aerospace

J.

Cadisch

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

Reishauer

H.

S. Cheng

 

Academic Member

L.

Cloutier

 

Academic

Member

9. Cluff

 

American

Pfauter

F.

W. Cumbow

 

R.

J. Cunningham

 

P.

A. Deckowitz

 

J.

W.

Dern

.

.

.

.

.

.

K.

R.

Dirks

.

.

.

.

.

.

R.

DiRusso”

 

D.

W. Dudley*

 

R.

Durwin

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

W.

C. Emmerling

R.

L. Errichello

 

J.

A. Ferrett

 

.

.

D.

J. Fessett

 

H.

K. Frint

 

.

.

.

.

.

R.

Gefron

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

N.

L.

Grace

 

.

.

.

.

M.

J. Gustafson

 

D.

R. Houser

 

C.

lsabelle

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

D.

E. Kosal

 

.

.

.

.

.

C.

Layer

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

A.

J. Lemanski

 

A.

A. Lewis

 

.

.

.

:

:

M.

Lonergan

 

.

.

.

.

P.

Mangione

 

W.

Mark

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

*

M&M Precision

Boeing

ITWlllitron

SPECO Corporation

Allied-Signal,

R. Drago

Boeing Helicopters

B.

Dreher

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Kaiser Aerospace

R.

C. Ferguson

 

Taiga Group

W.

D. Glasow

 

.

.

.

.

Sikorsky

T.

Heiliger

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Sikorsky

M.

Howes

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

IIT Research

J.

G.

Kish

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Sikorsky

E.

A.

Lake

.

.

.

.

.

.

Wright Patterson A.F.B.

W.

Michaels

.

.

.

.

.

Sundstrand

W.

Marquadt *

 

Norwood Precision/Textron

D.

Merritt

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Lion Precision Gear

R.

Miller

 

Pratt &Whitney

J.

Mogul*

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Metal Improvement Co.

J.

O’Donnell

 

Naval Air Warfare Center

A.

E. Phillips

Emerson Power Transmission

T.

L. Porter

 

ITW/Spiroid

A.

K. Rakhit*

 

Solar Turbines

J.

R. Reed

 

Klingelnberg Soehne

T.

Riley

NWL Control System

E.

Ropac

Bachan Aerospace

S.S. Sachdev

 

Spar Aerospace

B.

Schneider

NASA, Johnson Space Center

D.

J. Schreiner

 

General Motors

A.

Seireg

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Academic Member

S.

V. Shebelski

 

Lion

Precision Gear

E.

E. Shipley

 

Mechanical Technology

G.

Skirtich

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

Lion

Precision Gear

L.

J. Smith

 

Invincible Gear

N.

Sonti

Academic Member

D.

A. Sylvester

 

Power-Tech

K.

Tower

 

Metal Improvement Company

D.

P.Townsend*

 

. NASA, Lewis

F.

Uherek

 

Flender

M.

Valori

Naval Air Propulsion Center

L.

Vesey

iTW/Spiroid

D.

A. Wagner

 

General MotorsIAGT

H.

Wagner

 

Advance Gear

R.

D. Wagner

 

National Broach

9. R. Walter

 

.

.

Liebherr Machine

Garrett Eng. Div.

Kaman

Honorary Member

.

Sikorsky

Naval Air Propulsion Center

Academic Member

National Broach

Lucas Western IncJATD

.

Sikorsky

.

Superior Gear

.

Gleason Works

. Kaman

Academic Member

Sikorsky

National Broach

Mmg

Academic Member

Pratt & Whitney, Canada

R.

F. Wasilewski

. Arrow Gear

National Broach

S.

R. Winters

General Motors

Naval Air Warfare Center

T.

J. Witheford

Teledyne Vasco

Academic Member

G.

I. Wyss

Reishauer

Contributed technical material to the document.

This page is intentionally blank. VIII
This page is intentionally blank. VIII

This page is intentionally blank.

This page is intentionally blank. VIII

Design Guidelines for

Aerospace

1

Scope

Gearing

This Information Sheet covers current gear design practices as they are applied to air vehicles and spacecraft. The material included goes beyond the design of gear meshes per se, and presents, for the consideration of the designer, the broad spectrum of factors which combine to produce a working gear system, whether it be a power transmission or spe- cial purpose mechanism. Although avariety of gear types, such as wormgears, face gears and various proprietary tooth forms are used inaerospaceappli- cations, this document covers only conventional spur, helical, and bevel gears.

1.l Application

The working environment of the aerospace gear has become so diverse that a single set of guide- lines will no longer suffice. The operating conditions imposed on a high speed, high powered, transmis- sion or actuator are quite different than those expe- rienced by the spacecraft mechanism which must function in a hard vacuum for long periods of time without maintenance. This Information Sheet ad- dresses these differences and provides guidanceto the designer for these demanding applications.

1.2 References

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in thii text, constitute provisions of this American Gear Manufacturers Information Sheet. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this American Gear Manufacturers lnfomration Sheet are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below.

1974, Surface Temper Inspection

AGMA 230.01 - Process.

AGMA 246.02A -

1983, Practice for Carburked

Aerospace Gearing.

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA91%A94

AGMA

Classification, Materials and Measuring Methods for Bevel, Hypoid, Fine Pitch Wormgearing and Racks Only as Unassembled Gears.

ANSVAGMA 110.04- Tooth Failure Modes.

ANSVAGMA 2000-A88, Gear Classification and inspection Handbook - Tolerances and Measuring Methods for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears (Including Metric Equivalents). ANSVAGMA 2001-988, Fundamental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and Helica/ Gear Teeth. ANSVAGMA 2003-A86, Rating the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of Generated straight Bevel, ZEROLB Bevel, and Spiral Bevel Gear Teeth.

Gear Materials and Heat

ANSVAGMA 20044389, Treatment Manual

1989, Nomenclature of Gear

Gear

390.03a, -

1980, Gear Handbook -

ANSVAGMA

6023-A88,

Design

Manual

for

Enclosed Epicyclic Gear Drives.

 

ANSVAGMA

6123-A88,

Design

Manual

for

Enclosed Epicyclic Metric

Module Gear Drives.

2 Application

A listing of aerospace geared applications by type of service or function performed is useful in segregat- ing the diverse gearing tasks into mechanism fami- lies which experience similar load and environ- mental spectra. Applications can be identified by general grouping as follows:

- Main propulsion

systems;

engine

speed to propeller speed;

- Fan gearboxes allow the use of optimum

turbine and fan ciency;

A system of

gearboxes and shafting to drive the helicopter rotors from the engine(s);

- Helicopter transmissions.

effi-

- Propeller

gearboxes

speeds

reduce

for

maximum

- Mechanical

engines allow for independent engine opera-

interconnection

between

tion on multiingine

systems;

AGMA 911-A94 - Accessory drive gearboxes driie accessory devices, such as generators, fuel pumps, hy-

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 911-A94 - Accessory drive gearboxes driie accessory devices, such as generators, fuel pumps, hy- draulic

- Accessory drive gearboxes driie accessory

devices, such as generators, fuel pumps, hy- draulic pumps, oil pressure and scavenge pumps, blowers, alternators, etc;

- Auxiliary/secondary power units (APU/ SPU) consist of an auxiliary turbine engine inte- grated with a gearbox to provide powerfor main engine starting, electrical services, emergency hydraulic power, cabin air conditioning, etc.;

- Actuators. A general class of geared devices

used to cause a position change of an object. The

objects may include aerodynamic control sur- faces, winch cables, doors, landing gear, or telerobotic arms. Actuators are distinguished from most aerospace gearing in that they only move on command;

- Space systems. A specialized grouping of power (as in rocket turbo-pump drives), and ac- tuatortype devices which have been designed to be compatible with the unique rigors of outer- space environments. These include the high power, short life rocket applications as well as the long life satelliie or space platform systems.

3

Definitions

3.1 Definitions.

and

symbols

Table 1 - Symbols

The terms used, wherever applicable, conform to the following standards:

ANSI

Used in Mechanics of Solids AGMA 1012-FQO, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols AGMA 904-689, Metric Usage

3.2 Symbols.

The symbols used in this information sheet are shown in table 1.

NOTE - The symbols and definitions used in this information sheet may differ from other AGMA publications. The user should not assume that fa- miliarsymbols can be used without a careful study of these definitions.

SI (metric) units of measure are shown in parenthe- ses in table 1 and in the text. Where equations re- quire a different format or constant for use with SI units, a second expression is shown after the first, indented, in smaller type, and with “M” included in the equation number. Example

for Quantities

Y10.3-1968,

Letter Symbok

S

wt

&

pd

Ks

%

KB

*=K,K,

J

(n)

St=--

w,Ka

K~K~

1 4

mF

KmKB

(llM)
J

The second expression uses SI units.

used in equations

Symbol

Name

Units

First

equation

Reference

paragraph

C

G

Cf

CH

CL

Gl

cp

Center distance

Application factor for pitting resistance

Surface condiiion factor for pitting resistance

in (mm)

----

--a-

-w--

9

8.2.2

12

8.2.2

12

8.2.2

18

8.2.8

18

8.2.8

12

8.2.2

12

8.2.2

18

8.2.8

12

8.2.2

Hardness ratio factor for pitting resistance

Life factor for pitting resistance

Load distribution factor for pitting resistance

Elastic coefficient

CR

G

Reliability factor for pitting resistance

Size factor for pitting resistance

pitting resistance Elastic coefficient CR G Reliability factor for pitting resistance Size factor for pitting resistance

AGMA 91%A94

AGMA 91%A94 Table 1 (coMwo” Symbol CT G c h d p E , F F

Table 1 (coMwo”

AGMA 91%A94 Table 1 (coMwo” Symbol CT G c h d p E , F F

Symbol

CT

G

ch

dp

E,

F

Fe

H

HG

&ill

I

J

K

Ka

KB

KL

Km

KR

%

KT

KY

KX

M

m

m

n

np

P

 

Name

Units

First

Reference

 

equation

paragraph

Temperature factor for pitting resistance

----

 

18

8.2.8

Dynamic factor for pitting resistance ----

12

8.2.2

Lubricant specific heat

BTlJ/lbm F

8

5.1.2

&J&l

K)

Pinion operating pitch diameter

in (mm)

 

10

8.1.2

Reduced modulus of elasticity

IWir?(N/mm2)

4

4.2.4

Face width

in (mm)

 

9

8.1.2

Effective or net face width

in (mm)

12

8.2.2

Oil film thickness

in (mm)

1

4.2.4

Heat generated at design point

BTU/min

8

5.1.2

(kJ/min)

 

Film thickness, minimum

----

 

4

4.2.4

Geometry factor for pitting resistance

----

12

8.2.2

Geometry factor for bending strength

----

11

8.2.1

Contact load factor for pitting resistance

lb/in* (MPa)

9

8.1.2

External application factor for bending strength

-

-

-

-

11

8.2.1

Rim thickness factor

.

----

 

11

8.2.1

Liie factor for bending strength

----

 

13

8.2.7

Load distribution factor for bending strength

-

-

-

-

11

8.2.1

Reliability factor for bending strength

----

13

8.2.7

Size factor for bending strength

----

11

8.2.1

Temperature factor for bending strength

----

13

8.2.7

Dynamic factor for bending strength

----

11

8.2.1

Lengthwise curvature factor for bevel gear

-

-

-

-

11

8.2.1

bending strength

Lubricant flow rate

Ibmlmin(kg/min)

8

5.1.2

Module ( = 25.4/pd )

(mm)

 

11 M

8.2.1

Gear ratio (never less than 1.O)

----

9

8.1.2

Number of standard deviations

----

14

8.2.7

Pinion speed

rpm

9

8.1.2

Transmitted power

hp NW)

9

8.1.2

7 Pinion speed r p m 9 8 . 1 . 2 Transmitted power h p

AGMA 91l-A94

Symbol

Table 1 (concluded)

Name

pd

%

Diametral pitch ( = 25.4/m )

Reliabilii constant

sac

sat

SC

St

%vc

swt

Till

T out

Allowable contact stress number

Allowable bending stress number

Contact stress number

Bending stress number

Working contact stress number

Working bending stress number

Inlet oil temperature

Outlet oil temperature

82 Contact temperature

tfl

Flash temperature

Bulk temperature

Speed parameter

Average rolling speed

tM

u

u’

Ve

W

W’ Unit tangential load

Entraining velocity

Load parameter

WVr

wt

Xl-

a

h

CL

PO

V

Pn

(Ja

Ul,(x

Normal unit load

Tangential tooth load

Load sharing factor

Pressure viscosity coefficient

Specific film thickness

Viscosity

Absolute viscosity

Coefficient of variation or standard deviation

Normal relative radius of curvature

Composite surface roughness

Surface roughness of pinion, gear

Unite

First

Reference

iquatior

paragraph

in-l

11

8.2.1

----

I4

8.2.7

lb/in* (MPa)

18

8.2.8

lb/in* (MPa)

13

8.2.7

lb/in* (MPa)

I2

8.2.2

lb/in* (MPa)

II

8.2.1

lb/in* (MPa)

I8

8.2.8

lb/in* (MPa)

I3

8.2.7

OF(“C)

8

5.1.2

OF(“C)

8

5.1.2

“F (“C)

I9

8.3.1

OF(“C)

I9

8.3.1

OF(“C)

I9

8.3.1

----

6

4.2.4

inlsec (mm&c)

1

4.2.4

in/s (m/s)

6

4.2.4

----

7

4.2.4

lb/in (N/mm)

I

4.2.4

lb/in (N/mm)

7

4.2.4

lb 0’4

I1

8.2.1

----

7

4.2.4

in*/lb (l/MPa)

5

4.2.4

inlin (mm/mm)

2

4.2.4

reyns (kPa s)

1

4.2.4

reyns (kPa s)

6

4.2.4

----

I4

8.2.7

in (mm)

I

4.2.4

tin @ml

2

4.2.4

crintw)

3

42.4

6 4.2.4 ---- I 4 8.2.7 in (mm) I 4.2.4 tin @ml 2 4.2.4 crintw) 3

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 911-A94 4 D e s i g n a p p r o a c

4 Design approach

4.1 Design requirements and goals

The design procedure begins with a definition of the application, requirements, and goalsforthe project.

It is sometimes diiicuft to clearly define all aspects

of

the project at the start, but a complete tabulation

of

the following parameters should be made to

provide a working definition of the project.

4.1.I Power/speed and torque/position

The complete range of power and speed or torque

and position (actuators) must be tabulated including

a definition of growth capabili. A duty cycle

definition is required for calculation of life. Within

these parameters a design point must be selected for sizing purposes.

4.1.2 Gear ratlo and direction of rotation

Gear ratio must be specified with an indication of

allowable deviation.

rotation are required and are important in selection

of the hand of helix or hand of spiral for thrust

direction and lubrication considerations.

4.1.3 Life

A clear definition of required gear and bearing

system life must be provided. Life is defined at a specified survival level.

4.1.4 Weight

System weight is criiical in aerospace applications.

A value for gear system weight should be specified

as dry gearbox weight or gearbox plus lubrication

system weight.

4.1.5 Size limita%ons

In most applications, gearbox location and maxi- mum envelope will be defined. These details must be made available to the designer.

4.1.6 Reliability

Reliability requirements are typically specified in terms of mean time between failure (MTBF). A historical data base of typical component reliability will permit calculation of system reliability. New products are more difficult to characterize. Tech-

Input and output directions of

nique&

quantifyreliabilitylevelsmustbe specified

for a new gearbox system.

4.1J

Maintainability

Guidelines for field service work, space require- ments, and tool limitations must be specified early in the project.

4.1.6 Cost

Aerospace gearing is generally more costly than commercial gearing because of the necessary performance, qualii and traceability requirements. Life cycle cost is often established at the start of the project as a goal or as a requirement. Life cycle cost is defined as the total cost of ownership of a system over its operating fife.

4.1.9 Efficiency

In most aerospace applications, gearbox efficiency is an important design consideration because it influences system weight and power requirements. Efficiency requirements and goals will provide the designer a clear indication of the project objectives and may affect key decisions in the design process.

4.1.I0 Altitude/attitude

requirements

Altitude and attitude specifications are required for lubrication system design, since oil pump and oil passage design are dependent on these parame- ters. In lieu of any specific application data MIL-E-3!593C provides general requirements for aerospace applications.

4.1.I1 Externally generated gearbox loads

External loads can be generated by rotor loads, flight maneuvers, gravity and gyroscopic effects, hard or crash landing requirements, or vibration, as applicable. All must be considered in the design of the gearbox housing, mounts and their effects on misalignment of bearings and gears within the gearbox. Typical loads are given in MIL-E-3593C.

4.1.I2 Mount locations

Mount locations must be specified to allow design and analysis of the housing and internal structure under external loading conditions. Mount location requirements may also affect maintainability con- siderations.

4.1.I3 Loss of lubricant

All military and some commercial aircraft have requirements for operation with loss of lubricant , typically specifying a time and power level of operation after loss of lubricant. These require-

loss of lubricant , typically specifying a time and power level of operation after loss of
loss of lubricant , typically specifying a time and power level of operation after loss of

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 911-A94 ments must be known to allow the design of a suitable lubrication system. 4.1.I4

ments must be known to allow the design of a suitable lubrication system.

4.1.I4 Test requirements

Test requirements are sometimes different than those used to design the gearbox. If an unusual test is required it can affect the gearbox design.

4.1.15 Noise requirements

The recent trend in air vehicle specification has been to require meeting specified internal noise levels in cabin and cockpit.

4.2 identify design criteria

It is sometimes difficult to clearly define design objectives or goals of a gearbox or gearset. Proper identification of design criteria requires application of many disciplines such as elastohydrodynamics, involutometry, geometry, stress analysis, system dynamics, materials, kinematics, vibration, heat transfer, processes, manufacturing, economics, etc. Each of the above disciplines requires that design limits be imposed such as:

- Stress limits;

- Scuffing (scoring);

- Minimum oil film thickness;

- Type of mounts, deflections and locations;

- Weight and Cost:

- Vibration;

- Noise.

The design criteria which have the largest influence on the final configuration are as follows.

4.2.1 Allowable contact stress

The tooth contact (Hertz) stress limit depends on the type of application, required service life, proper- ties of materials used, and the shape of the tooth surfaces near the point of contact before the load transfer begins.

4.2.1 .I Power transmission

In high pitch linevelocity gearsets, thedistribution of dynamic load is required for accurate determination of tooth contact stress. A method for calculation of contact stresses, along with allowable limits, is given in ANSI/AGMA 2001-888.

4.2.1.2 Actuator gearing

Actuator gears are subjectto “holding”loadswhich

are static loads. These loads occur in systems such

as aircraft flap drive systems, winches, and space- craft robotic manipulator arms. These loads are the highest loads specified for the gears, and are often two to three times higher than the maximum continuous operating loads. This is particularly true for low speed actuator gearing where there are no significant “dynamic”loads. To properly accommo- date these conditions, the designer must evaluate the gear design for maximum compressivestresses at the maximum holding loads.

Holding loads are usually specified as limit loads, where there may be no permanent deformation or yielding allowed, and ultimate loads, where de- formation is allowed but the gears may not fracture.

A value of 3.1 times the shear yield strength may be

usedas the allowable contact stress for most steels.

High strength, through hardened stainless gears, may also be utilized where environmental condi- tions warrant. The surface durability of these gears may be improved, if required, by nitriding.

4.2.2 Allowable bending stress

The allowable tooth root bending stress is a function

of

the hardness and residual stress near the surface

of

the root fillet and at the core.

4.2.2.1 Power transmission

Power transmission gears are usually case hard- ened by either nitriding or carburizing to obtain adequate high cycle bending and contact fatigue life.

A method for calculation of bending stress, along

with

2001-B88.

4.2.2.2 Actuator

Gears which are manufactured from high strength through hardening steels (260 ksi and above), and heat treated to through hardness in the Rockwell C 50+ range, have shown higher bending fatigue strength in the lower fatigue cycle range (i.e. less than lo6 tooth bending cycles) than conventional case hardened gears. Thus, a designer seeking optimum minimum weight gearing should consider the actual cycle life imposed prior to making a selection of either case hardened or high strength through hardened gears for a particular application.

Allowablebendingfatigue limits are given in ANSI/

AGMA 2001-B88.

allowable

limits,

is

given

in

ANSVAGMA

gearing

AGMA 911-A94 4.2.3 Surface temperature The mechanism of surface failure due to a sudden temperature

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 911-A94 4.2.3 Surface temperature The mechanism of surface failure due to a sudden temperature rise
AGMA 911-A94 4.2.3 Surface temperature The mechanism of surface failure due to a sudden temperature rise

4.2.3 Surface temperature

The mechanism of surface failure due to a sudden temperature rise is one of the major considerations in aircraft gearing.

Each oil has a characteristic criiical temperature in- dependent of gear design and operating conditions.

Appendix A of ANSVAGMA 2001-888 defines scuffing as related to the instantaneous tempera- ture rise on tooth surfaces caused by frictional heat.

The equations which define the surface tempera- ture rise have begun to adapt dynamic conditions and have become more representative of what happens at the gear mesh, including: constrained heat source on the tooth profile, sliding velocity variations, tooth surface conditions, load sharing, oil jet cooling, oil jet impingement depth and air/oil mist cooling.

Experiments have verified that minimum values of surface temperature occur at operating pitch diameters. A method of calculating surface temperature is presented in Appendix A of ANSVAGMA 2001-B88. Maximum values generally occur at or near the highest point of single tooth contact. Although the above procedure is currently in use, the method is only applicable under boundary lubrication conditions. Allowable scuffing temperature values should be based on the lubricant temperature at which lubricant breakdown occurs, the material tempering temperature, or the user’s experience whenever possible.

4.2.4 Lubricant

Lubricant film thickness has received ever-increas- ing attention since the time it was introduced by Martin in London Engineering in 1914.

film thickness

H=

4896

.

“h

d is unit tangential load, lb/in (N/mm).

The currently used lubricant film thickness analysis

is the extension of a bearing film thickness study by

Osborne Reynolds. Ertel, Gruben, Hamrock, Dow- son, and Higginson contributed to the equation in its current form.

The most influential parameter in the calculation of film thickness is the speed parameter U, which represents the average rolling speed and the surface condition of the point at which the EHD film thickness is calculated.

Surface geometry and finish are important to the EHD lubrication process. EHD theory is based on the assumption of perfectly smooth surfaces, that is, no interaction of surface asperities. In reality, this is

Therefore, the

not true for boundary lubrication. relative life chart was introduced.

h=+-

u

(2)

(31and 02 are the roughnesses of the two surfaces

in contact and his the ratio of EHD film thickness to

composite surface roughness. A plot of h vs. relative life is shown in figure 1. This figure assumes sufficient loading and otherwise satisfactory opera- tion of the gears.

NOTE-&

issupplantingrms as a way of describ-

ing roughness. Both terms are still in use but are not equivalent.

2.2 Aerospace gears

-i

g 5 a,

//

,A

Bkaririgs

/

H

=

,,,,g:”

W’

pn

where

4

-6

1

2

4

H

is oil film thickness, in (mm);

p

is viscosity, reyns (kPa s);

U’

is average rolling speed, inls (mm/s);

h

is normal relative radius of curvature, in (mm):

ecific film thickness, h

Danger of scuffing for carburized gears

Acceptable, assuming boundary layer lubrication

h < 0.4

li 5

0.4

Figure 1 - Relative life as a functio~~~&n@&

Acceptable, assuming boundary layer lubrication h < 0.4 li 5 0.4 Figure 1 - Relative life
Acceptable, assuming boundary layer lubrication h < 0.4 li 5 0.4 Figure 1 - Relative life
AGMA 911-A94 Further studies by NASA simplified the general equation to the form presented in

AGMA 911-A94

Further studies by NASA simplified the general equation to the form presented in Appendix A
Further studies by NASA simplified the general
equation to the form presented in Appendix A of
ANSVAGMA 2001-B88 for dimensionless mini-
accessory gears.
If equation 4 is used for power
gearing without the previously noted enhance-
ments, the definition of when boundary lubrication
mum film thickness: occurs may be as low as R = 0.2 to E.= 0.4.
GO54
uo.70
42.5 Structural
integrity
H mh
= 2.65
.* p-(4)
WO.13
where the following are dimensionless parameters:
materials parameter, G;
G=
a,?$
(5)
Structural integrity is achieved by the proper
definition of gear, bearing and gearbox mounts;
gear configuration and materials: selection of
bearings; type of bearings and bearing location;
seals and type of sealing surfaces.
speed parameter, V;
4.3 Preliminary design
PO
Ve
u=
-
The areas of concern during the preliminary phase
2w+a
of aerospace gearbox design consist primarily of
load parameter, W,
performance, cost, configuration and packaging.
e(7)
45.1 Configuration
study
where
In the preliminary design stage, it is generally
a is pressure-viscosity
(mm*/N);
coefficient, in2/lb
p. is absolute viscosity, reyns (kPa s);
is entraining velocity, in/s (m/s);
Ve
E, is reduced modulus of elasticity, lb/in2
(N/mm2);
p,,
normal relative radiusof curvature, in (mm);
necessary to lay out various gearbox configurations
which meet the basic speed, power, and ratio
requirements. These configurations can be com-
pared against design requirements and rated
against each other in terms of reliability, efficiency,
maintainability, cost, size, weight, and similarity to
past experience. From this process the most
suitable configuration for the particular application
is selected.
Xr
load sharing factor;
4.3.1.1 Gearing
wr
normal unit load, lb/in (N/mm).
A large number of gearbox configurations are
The following enhancements may be added to the
calculation as follows:
possible to achieve the desired design goal, some
of which are described below. The gearbox
- Transient squeeze film effects from change in
entrainment velocity, surface geometry and dy-
namic load;
-Actual
dynamic&ad
profile in place of average
tangential load;
envelope is generally set by the space available
plus the speed, power and ratio requirements.
However, the configuration may be further compli-
cated by pitch change mechanisms, accessories,
overrunning clutches, engine air intake, etc.
Possible configurations include:
- Equilibrium surface temperature and oil inlet
- Offset.
This refers to a gearbox in which the
temperature which defines the temperature of
the oil film;
input and output shafts have a parallel offset;
- Inline.
This refers to a gearbox axis in which
- Use of optimal, experimental heat transfer co-
the input shaft and output shafts are concentric;
efficients when oil jet cooling is used for minimi-
zation of surface temperature;
- Effects of oil entrapment on long face width
gears may be included and equations may be
separated from short face width gears.
-Angular. This refers to a gearbox in which the
input and output shaft are at an angle to each
other.
4.3.1.2 Epicyclic
The
relative film thickness,
as calculated using
equation 4 for ZYZ~has been derived and used
successfully using narrow face width gears such as
Inthe same sense that some gearformsare specific
cases of a more general configuration (example: A
spur gear is the special case of a helical gear with a
8

AGMA 911-A94

zero helix angle), a gear system can be general or specific. In the context discussed here, we will consider the parallel axis epicyclic rather than the more general bevel epicyclic. Refer to ANSVAGMA Standard 6028-A88 or 6128-A88 Metric.

Kinematically, the general case for the parallel axis epicyclic is an arrangement of six gears in two planes as shown infigure 2. By definition a sun gear is a gear element whose axis is coincident with the system axis. Thus, the system shown contains four sun gears; i.e., two external suns and two internal suns. Internal sun gears are sometimes called ring gears. The sun gears of each plane are meshed with an idler. If the two idlers are assumed to be mounted on a common shaft which is, in turn, supported by bearings to a rotatable structure we have the general parallel axis epicyclic system.

By controlling the location of the instant center of rotation in the above system of gears, the designer can produce 88 epicyclic variations, each with its own unique properties.

Some of the more important variations have been

given names and appear in countless transmission

systems.

- The simple epicyclic: If each of the corresponding gears in the general system are assigned identical tooth counts, then the gearing in one of the planes becomes redundant and may be eliminated, leaving a single external sun, a single internal sun, each meshed with a common idler which is finally supported by the rotatable structure usually called a “carrier’

In the general simple epicyclic, everything in theory can rotate. However, by controlling the location of the instant center of rotation, we can produce some very interesting and important gear systems. These include:

- The simple planetary: If we constrain the in-

ternal sun against rotation its pitch circle has zero angular velocity and the remaining three compo- nents, the external sun, the idler, and the carrier are free to rotate. As the idler rolls in mesh with the fixed internal sun it orbits about the system axis as it rotates about its own axis, thus the idler in a simple planetary has come to be called a “planer. The use of a single planet would place

tiple, equally spaced planets to assure a bal- anced system, and most importantly, provide multiple load paths for reduced weight.

11

T

parallel-axis

Figure 2 - The general

epicyclic

gear train

If the input to the simple planetary is to the external sun gear, the resulting gear box will be a speed reducer, and conversely if the input is to the carrier, the resulting gearbox will be a speed increaser. In application the practical usable reduction ratio will lie between 2.5 and 7 and the input and output shafts will have the same direction of rotation.

- The star gearbox: If we constrain the carrier against rotation, the system instant center of rotation is coincident with the axis of the idler and the rotating components become the central external sun, the idler, and the internal sun. Since the idler no longer orbiis about the system axis it is usually called a “star”. Again, for reasons of equilibrium and load division it is common practice to fit the stationary carrier with multiple, equally spaced stars. If the input to the star gearbox is to the central external sun, the resulting unit will be a speed reducer, and conversely if the input is to the internal sun, the resulting unit will be a speed increaser. In application the practical usable reduction ratio lies between 1.5 and 6 and the input and output shafts will have opposite directions of rotation.

The star gear system has found extensive use in the first reduction of high speed systems because it is

For example:

serious balance constraints on the gear system, so it is common practice to fit the carrier with mul-

it is For example: serious balance constraints on the gear system, so it is common practice
it is For example: serious balance constraints on the gear system, so it is common practice
AGMA 911-A94 free from high centrifugal bearing loading caused by orbiting planets. - The solar

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 911-A94 free from high centrifugal bearing loading caused by orbiting planets. - The solar gearbox:

free from high centrifugal bearing loading caused by orbiting planets.

- The solar gearbox: If we constrain the

external sun against rotation the system instant center of rotation is coincident with the pitch circle of the external sun, and the rotating components become the internal sun gear, the planet, and the carrier. Since, in this system, all components orbit about the central fiied mem- ber the name “solar” is quite descriptive.

cautioned however, that some compound planetary variations exhibit very poor transmission efficiency due to high effective pitch line velocity in the high torque meshes. A thorough analysis of each application is recommended before committing the design to detailing.

4.3.1.3 The parallel axis differential

This special case of the parallel axis epicyclic will be mentioned here because of its extensive use in spacecraft and other systems that require a redun- dant drive source. In such a system, use is made of two suns, and two planet pairs. Each planet pair is in mesh, and the first planet of each pair is in mesh with one of the sun gears while the second planet of each pair is in mesh with the other sun gear. The carrier is free to rotate and is usually assigned to be the output member. A motor/brake combination is fitted to each of the input suns. In service, either of the motors can be the system input, and the opposite brake can serve as the system reaction member. The reduction ratio of the differential is 2.

4.3.1.4 Accessory drive system

The accessory drive system is a drive train dedi- cated to drive accessories (i.e., lube and scavenge pumps, alternators, generators, etc.) which are requirements of the application. The size and location of the gearbox are dependent on the accessory requirement, positioning of these acces- sories and the position of the gearbox input drive. When positioning the accessory gearbox, consid- eration needs to be given to the overall configura- tion to ensure that a compact package is obtained.

Definition of an accessory drive system depends on the spaces and the location available to driie the accessories. One concern is the selection of gear and bearing diameters to fill the distance between the power input and available accessory mount locations. Another concern is to ensure that system life is compatible with the general requirements. Bothconcerns are equally essential for a successful drive train.

Of the simple epicyclics described so far, the solar system is the least popular since for a given reduction ratio it has higher mesh velocities and a lower transmission efficiency. Usable ratios lie in a narrow band between 1.14 and 1.5 with driving and driven shafts rotating in the same direction.

- The compound epicyclic: Referring once

again to figure 2, if the tooth counts of the gear elements on each end of the idler shaft are not

the same, then all elements in the system can be relevant to the creation of useful gear arrange- ments. A few of the possible arrangements are noteworthy and will be discussed further:

- The compound planetary. If either of the

internal suns is constrained against rotation its pitch circle has zero angular velocity and the remaining four components are free to rotate; i.e., the two external suns, the compound planet, and the other internal ring gear. In theory, the designer could produce a transmission with three output shafts, but it would be a rare system where such a configuration would be useful. There are numerous examples of flight systems with counter rotating propellers which use the concept of a compound planetary withtwooutput shafts. As with the simple epicyclics, it is usual practice to configure the gearbox with multiple equally spaced planets to assure a balanced drive, and multiple load paths.

In space robotic systems, extensive use is made of the compound planetary using a single driving external sun, one fixed internal sun and one output internal sun. In this latter case, the carrier and the second external sun of the general arrangement are not utilized, and are therefore discarded.

Usable ratios available from the compound plane tary cover a very wide range and can be found as low as 5 to values well over 1000. The user is

Refer

arrangements.

45.2 Gear sizes

There usually are two modes of operation which size gears as follows:

specific

to

ANSVAGMA

6123-A88

for

- Start up conditions;

are two modes of operation which size gears as follows: specific to ANSVAGMA 6123-A88 for -
AGMA 911-A94 - S p e c t r u m o f s p

AGMA 911-A94

AGMA 911-A94 - S p e c t r u m o f s p e

- Spectrum of speed and torque or torque and position operating conditions.

apply to a given material and number of cycles of operation, as shown in the note.

Gear tooth geometry definition plays an important role in optimization of design. In general, proper selection of tooth proportion, pressure angle, and spiral angle or helix angle are important to increase the overall contact ratio and to provide better balance between operational stresses. Most recent experience shows increased use of high transverse contact ratio spur and helical gears.

4.3.3 Loads

4.3.3.1 Dynamic loads

High power density gearing depends on designing gears to maximum load capacity. For high speed gears, a major requirement becomes the ability to accurately calculate dynamic loads so the essential performance and design characteristics can be accurately predicted.

Dynamic load consists of three parts. The first part is defined by the component or system resonance. The second part is defined by the gear tooth mesh transmission error, and the third part consists of inputtorquefluctuation. Resonancecondiiions may be controlled by changing gear and web configura- tion, by damping, or by changing gear ratio. The gear tooth mesh generated conditions can be controlled by changing the tooth form, contact ratio, and damping. Additional mass elastic analysis can also be performed to ascertain torsional dynamics.

4.3.3.2 Centrifugal

Centrifugal Loads in gearboxes result from compo- nent rotation. These loads impose steady stresses, for a given speed, on components such as gears, bearings, and gearbox mounts. The stresses are accounted for under combined loading.

4.3.3.3 Combined

For high speed gears the steady stress (centrifugal) should be combined with the alternating stress at the gear tooth root, as shown on a Goodman diagram in figure 3. Combined operating stresses such as point A fall within the area bounded by the endurance limit and yield strength and are accept-

able.

The same gear operating at a higher speed,

point B, might fail since the combined stress exceeds the allowable limit. Goodman diagrams

loads

loads (Goodman diagram)

Erduy

limit

Case carburized AMS6265 Material

Steady stress

Figure 3 - Goodman diagram loads

for combined

4.3.4 Rotating components

Preliminary design

is

not

complete

unless

all

rotating components such as splines, shafts, bear- ings and seals are defined along with the gears.

4.3.4.1 Splines

Splines are used to transmit torque between two parts with a common axis. In a gearbox, splines transmit torque between a shaft and a gear or a shaft and another shaft. In practice there are straight sided, serrated, and involute splines but in aerospace transmissions, involute splines are nor- mally used. Involute splines transmit torque through contact between external and internal spline mem- bers independent of the fii clearance. This high degree of contact reduces the wear and the length of spline required. The mating internal and external involutes provide a centering effect and the distribu- tion of force from top to bottom is also very good. Requirementsfor involute splines are usually speci- fied in one of the following standards:

-ANSI

B92.1, Involute Splines and Inspection;

-ANSI

B92.2M, Metric Module /nvo/ute Splines

and Inspection; - IS0 4156, Straight Cyl~ndricallnvolute Splines. Involute splines can be of the side bearing, major diameter, or minor diameter fii type. In the side bearing fit types of spline, which is the most widely used type, the mating members contact only on the driving sides of the teeth with clearance between the major and minor diameters. In the major diameter fit type of spline, the mating members

AGMA 911-A94

contact and are piloted by the major diameters with clearance on the minor diameters. Minor diameter fit splines are only used in situations where the diameter is too small for the cutter of the internal member.

The splines can be designed to act as fiied, non-working types or flexible, working types. Inthe fixed spline, the members are piloted on one or both

ends, so that the pilots, rather than the spline teeth, carry any radial load. The fiied type of splined joint

is often clamped in the axial direction. The objective

in the fiied spline design is to force the spline to

carry only torque while other elements carry radial and axial load. Fixed splines must have clearance because of non-concentricity between the spline pitch diameter and the mounting diameters. Without clearance, the internal and external mem- bers could bind, leading to increased operating stresses.

A flexible spline is not held radially by a diametral fit.

This permits both radial and angular misalignments

of the mating members. There is generally no axial

clamping in a flexible spline since this would tend to restrain angular or radial motion. The spline should have enough clearance to allow it to move in a

misaligned condition without binding. Splines which must accommodate excessive misalignment should be crowned along the flank to prevent end loading and keep the load toward the center of the tooth. Outside diameter crowning is also used to ensure adequate root clearance under misaligned conditions.

A spline subject to angular misalignment carries an

induced bending moment across mating members because friction at the spline teeth does not permit free angular motion. The magnitude of the induced moment is a function of torque, coefficient of friction,

angular misalignment, and component bending stiffnesses.

Lubrication is beneficial to fixed splines and is recommended for flexible splines, especially at high speeds where the teeth tend to have more sliding and wear. Filtered oil supplied to the spline joint provides cooling and also washes away abrasive particles. Grease packed splines are also used. However, they tend to trap the abrasive particles,

which can accelerate wear and thus will require

periodic

maintenance.

Flexible splines used as

accessory drives are sometimes designed with non-metallic muff inserts between spline members. These serve as an inexpensive compliant part which mitigates metallic spline wear.

4.3.4.2 Bearings

Bearings used in aerospace applications generally are one of the following types:

- Deep groove ball bearings;

- Cylindrical roller bearings;

- Needle bearings;

- Angular contact ball bearings;

- Angular contact ball bearings with split inner race;

- Tapered roller bearings;

-Journal

- Thrust bearings:

- Duplex bearings.

bearings;

As the bearing size increases, it is generally more difficult to obtain calculated life due to changes in preload caused by mounting, thermal and centrifu- gal load variations and deflections.

4.3.4.3. Seals

The gearbox design is required to minimize the number of static oil or grease seals to prevent lubricant loss. Experience has shown that the use of flat gaskets as static seals has been so poor that they should be used only if absolutely necessary. O-ring seals are generally used.

The dynamic seals can either be spring or magneti- cally loaded face seals, bore rubbing seals, laby- rinth seals, or lip seals. Efforts should be made to positively drain, and to provide pressure balance and damping for any dynamic seal system. Consideration should be given to the surface finish and lay of shafts and journals which have contact with seals. Either too fine or too coarse a surface finish could be detrimental.

4.3.5 Lube system requirements

Details of the lube systems are discussed in clause

5. Consideration should be given to cool, lubricate

and scavenge all rotating power transmission components.

4.4 Detail design

Detail design of a geared system requiresaccurate

evaluation of dynamic gear tooth loads caused by

AGMA 9ll-A94

AGMA 9ll-A94 l o a d t r a n s f e r f r
AGMA 9ll-A94 l o a d t r a n s f e r f r

load transfer from one mesh to another and momentary overloads caused by system reso- nance. In detail design, structural gear analysis requires an assessment of tooth load capacity, to select or calculate derating factors. The design process may be based on conventional AGMA or FE analysis.

Manufacturing tolerances, tooth errors, profile modifications and system misalignment will signifi- cantly influence gear tooth load along the contact path, thus affecting load sharing.

Accurate evaluation of gear tooth load sharing behavior under dynamic conditions is not only important in minimizing the weight of the entire system but also is valuable to enhance over- all system reliability.

Detail design of aircraft gears can also involve modifications of analysis methods, using nonlinear multibody dynamic analysis including equilibrium analysis, kinematic analysis, vibratory analysis with open loop systems, closed loop systems and elastic (flexible) and/or rigid body systems.

All of the above can be used to perform an assessment of the load distribution along the contact line. ANSVAGMA 20014388 defines load distribution for gears of general use.

In addition to materials and design configurations, the following items greatly influence the rate of load transfer, or a system’s response to input torque:

-

Geometry of Pinion and Gear Teeth;

-

Thermal Distortions;

-

Gear Rim Centrifugal Forces;

-

Profile Modifications and Crowning;

-

Manufacturing and Alignment Errors;

-

Instantaneous Angular Position of Gears;

-

Rotational Delay of Driven to Driving Gear

(Angular Acceleration);

- Total Tooth Deflections (Rim, Web, etc.);

- Shaft Deflections (Bearing, Housing, etc.).

Load distribution is influenced by the above factors and is non-uniform along the contact lines of meshing gears. To determine tooth load distribu- tion, tooth and rim deflections are required. These deflections vary with the load position and affect the

dynamicsand tooth root stress as the tooth rotates

through the entire mesh.

4.4.1 Finite element modeling considerations

Single flank element models can be used to determine tooth stress. To develop a finite element methodology and a design tool to analyze the load sharing behavior from simple spur gear systems to more complex helical and spiral bevel gears on combined systems, an attempt should be made to address the factors influencing load sharing dis- cussed earlier.

4.42 Tooth bending and contact siderations

Once the load distribution along the contact path is obtained, the calculated load can be transferred to gear tooth pair mesh locations to obtain stresses at the root or along the contact surfaces. The calcula- tions and limits are discussed in clause 8.

Gear stresses are a valuable design tool in deter-

mining thesize

gear system weight. It is particularly important in

sizing (where possible) to base the selection of derating factors of a new design on old designs which are similar and have been successful in the past.

The tendency of gear teeth to pit has traditionally been thought of as a surface fatigue problem in which the prime variables are the compressive stress at the surface, the number of repetitions of the load, and the endurance strength of the gear material. In steel gears the surface endurance strength is quite closely related to hardness, so stress, cycles, and hardness become the key items. Gear work in the 1970’s led to two very important conclusions.

- Pitting isvery much affected by lubrication con- ditions; - There is no pitting endurance limit. (S-N diagram does not become asymptotic.) The allowable stress used for design purposes con- siders such items as the number of cycles and the types of material and oil used.

Work on the theory of EHD showed that gears and rolling-element bearings often developed a very thin oil film that tended to separate the two contacting surfaces so that there was little or no

stress

con-

of the gears, and thus minimizing the

metal-to-metal

contact.

When this favorable

situation was obtained, the gear or the bearing

AGMA Qll-A94

could either carry more load without pitting or runfor a longer time without pitting at a given load.

Gears in service frequently run for several thousand hours before pitting starts, or becomes serious. A gear can often run for up to a billion (1Og)cycles with little or no pitting, but after 2 or 3 billion (2 or 3 x 1Og) cycles, pitting, and the wear resulting from pitting, can make the gears unfit for further service.

4.4.3 Regimes of lubrication

To handle the problem of EHD lubrication effects, three regimes of lubrication should be considered (see figure 2.12 in [19]*). These are:

- Regime I: No appreciable EHD oil film

(boundary);

- Regime II: Partial EHD oil film (mixed);

- Regime Ill: Full EHD oil film (full film).

Regime I is encountered in aircraft gears when speeds are jaw, such as in the final stages of gearing in a helicopter gearbox.

Regime II is characterized by partial metal to metal contact. The asperities of the tooth surfaces hit each other, but substantial areas are separated by a thin film. Regime II is typical of medium speed gears, highly loaded, running with a relatively thick oil and fairly good surface finish. Most helicopter or final stage turboprop gears are in regime II.

In Regime Ill the EHD oil film is thick enough to essentially avoid metal-to-metal contact. Even the asperities generally miss each other. The high speed gear is generally in Regime Ill. In the aerospace gearing field, turboprop drives are high speed and in Regime Ill. Helicopter gears are in the high speed gear region at the input sections of the gearbox.

Definition of endurance limits and regime of lubrica- tion are outlined in clauses 5 and 8.

4.4.4 Considerations for quality levels

Quality levels of aircraft and aerospace gears, bearings and seals are usually as high as system cost limitations permit or as good as can be obtained by using today’s manufacturing methods.

Aircraft engine gears are generally ground to obtain quality 12 or better, honed to obtain good surface

finish, and designed to controlled surface finish and waviness.

Aircraft bearings are typically AFBMA grade 5 to 7 or better, selectively designed to meet performance requirements.

High speed aircraft seals are in general carbon face and rotating. Their designs are selected to be flat within two Helium light bands, where each band step measures 11.6 pin (294 pmm). In lower speed applications, lip seals are often used.

4.4.5 Lube system considerations

Details of lube systems are discussed in clause 5. Aircraft or aerospace gearbox components rely on direct and pressurized lubrication for the formation of EHD films and cooling.

Lube system design includes internal coring or external piping, jets, spray bars, and into mesh or out of mesh lubrication. Lube pumps,deaeration, and filtering requirements are also considered an integral part of the lube and cooling systems.

4.4.6 Tradeoff considerations

Completion of final design can also include a comparative study for advanced materials vs. conventional materials. This study includes all rotating components and housings. Life, weight, cost and maintainability can be compared.

4.4.7 Test considerations

Completion of any aircraft or aerospace gear system design also includes modification of test tools and test setups to run the following:

- Manufacturing Tests;

- Component Tests;

- Loss of Oil Tests;

- Power Plant Tests;

- Overload Tests:

- Ground Tests;

- Flight Tests.

These tests are conducted at specified environ- mental conditions outlined in clause 6.

Vibrations, fire resistance, weapons effects, emis- sions, and attitude are also integral parts of the above defined tests.

* Numbers in brackets[ ] refer to references listed in Annex C.

AGMA 91%A94

AGMA 91%A94 5 Lubrication 5.1 Cooling vs. lubrication requirements Proper lubrication of gears consists of: a)

5 Lubrication

5.1 Cooling vs. lubrication requirements

Proper lubrication of gears consists of:

a) selecting the correct lubricant;

b) ensuring that the lubricant gets into the gear

mesh;

c) providing adequate lubricant flow so that heat

generated in the mesh is removed.

Typically,convection and radiation are ignored such that the entire heat load is to be transferred to the cooling oil by conduction and then removed from the system with a separate oil cooler. When using grease lubrication, solid lubrication and low flow splash lubrication, heat must be removed entirely by conduction through the housing walls or through shafting. Cften cooling is a major limitation of these systems. Knowing the heat load, the lubricant characteristics and the allowable temperature rise, the required oil flow rate can be calculated:

There are a number of other considerations in the design of an aerospace gearbox lubrication system but all are related to these three basic requirements. Failure modes that can occur due to inadequate lu- brication include: scuffing, micropitting and spalling.

5.1.l Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication and lambda ratio

The thickness of the protective EHD oil film can be calculated using the techniques described in ap- pendix A of ANSVAGMA ZOOl-B88. The ratio of film thickness to composite surface roughness is called the lambda ratio. At a lambda ratio of one, there is theoretically no metal to metal contact. As the lambda ratio decreases, more and more contact occurs. However, carburiied aerospace gears operate successfully at lambda ratios as low as 0.4 without incurring suface damage. Aerospace gears can operate successfully at lambda ratios below 0.4 if adequate boundary lubrication is available. Boundary lubrication utilizes the chemistry of the tooth surfaces, the lubricant and its additives to provide a protective film. Since this type of lubrica- tion is not well understood today, the designer must match the application to past successful1designs operating under similar condiiions.

5.1.2 Cooling the gear mesh

In oil lubricated systems, the amount of lubricant supplied to the gear mesh depends on the heat generation rate. The amount of oil required in the formation of an oil film is miniscule compared to that required for cooling. Most aerospace lubrication systems are designed to handle the highest heat load and have excess capacity at all other operating conditions. Heat generation in gears and bearings can be estimated by various techniques [l] thru [7].

HG

where

HG

=

M

ch (T,,,,,-

Td

(8)

is heat generated at design point, Btu/min (kJ/min);

M is lubricant flow rate, Ib/min (kg/min);

ch

is lubricant specific heat at ( Tout+ Th) /2, Btu/lbm”F (kJ/kg”K);

Tau is average oil out temperature, “F (“C);

l-ill

is average oil in temperature, “F (“C).

5.2 Lubricants

52.1 Liquid lubricants

Liquid lubricationpredominates inthe aerospace in- dustry today. Many gear systems must be designed to utilize lubricants that were originally formulated for high temperature turbine engine applications (MIL-L-23699 and MIL-L-7808). In some cases the engine and gearbox use a common lubrication system and thus must utilize engine oil. In other cases a common lubricant has been required to pre- vent mixing of two diierent types of oil. These lubri- cants were formulated to meet criteria such as cold flow/cold start requirements, high temperature li- mitations, material compatability requirements and cost. These properties are derived from fluid base stocks that are not necessarily ideal for lubricated contacts in a gear drive system. Recently a new version of these engine lubricants has been put in servicefor helicopter applications (DOD-L-85734). This lubricant isvery similarto MIL-L-23699 butad- diiives beneficial to the transmission are included.

Tables 2 through 5 list pertinent

properties of the

most commonly used aircraft lubricants today.

AGMA 91%A94

AGMA 91%A94 Table 2 - Aerospace lubricant viscosities Tern1 lrature “c   ViSCOS I,csf OF
AGMA 91%A94 Table 2 - Aerospace lubricant viscosities Tern1 lrature “c   ViSCOS I,csf OF
AGMA 91%A94 Table 2 - Aerospace lubricant viscosities Tern1 lrature “c   ViSCOS I,csf OF

Table 2 - Aerospace

lubricant

viscosities

Tern1

lrature

“c

 

ViSCOS

I,csf

OF

MIL-L-23699’

MIL-L-7808’

DOD-L-85734*

Dexron II3

400

204

1.25

1.00

-

-

350

177

1.63

1.25

-

2.23

320

160

2.00

1.47

-

2.8

212

100

5.00

3.00min”

-

7

210

98.9

5.ooto5.50*

-

5.00 to 5.50

-

104

40

25.00

12.00

-

42

100

37.8

25.00 min*

-

25.00 min

-

-40

-40

13000max*

2000

c9500

20000

-65

-

13OOOmax

-

-

dotes-

Reference - AFAPL-TR-71-35; ! QOD-L-85734(AS) specification )General Motors Dexron II Specification ’from MIL-L-23699D or MIL-L-7808J specifications

Teml

OF