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What you must know to pass the Living Environment Regents

Scientific Method

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Terms
_observation__________: something seen or measured
__inference_________ (to infer): conclusion based on evidence
_Hypothesis__________: a prediction based on evidence
must state effect (If I do _______) and cause (then _______ will happen)
must be able to test a hypothesis with an experiment
_theory________: explanation of natural events supported by lots of previous evidence
explains many scientific facts and common results
Experimental Group: group being changed or tested
Control Group: normal group with no change
used to compare possible changes from __experimental______ group
Independent Variable: variable being tested (new drug, ph, time)
Always plotted on the _x_ axis of the graph
_Depedendent____ Variable: variable that is measured (ask what is
being measured?)
plotted on the y axis
Sample Experiment
Problem: Does temperature affect heart rate in goldfish?
Hypothesis: If _temperature increases_, then _heart rate will
decrease
Independent Variable: __temperature________
Dependent Variable: ___heart rate_________

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Conclusion:________________________________________________
C. Good Experiments:
a. Can be easily _repeated____________
b. Have _large_______ sample sizes
c. Performed for longer period of _time______
d. change and test only 1 variable
e. Test results tell if the hypothesis was __right______ or wrong
D. Graphs and Data Tables
a. Data Tables: organize information
i. 1st column is the _Independent __ variable (what is changed)
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2nd column is the dependent variable (what is _measured____)
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Columns should be titled and include _units_____
v. data must be in ascending or descending order
b. Graphs: show information in an illustration
i. x and y axis must be labeled and include _labels with units_____
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_Independent___ variable is on the x axis
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_Dependent_____ variable is on the y axis
v. x and y must be numbered in uniform increments (by 1s, 10s, etc.
1. each line must increase by the _same____ amount

2. numbers must line up with the grid lines


v. you should use as _much__ of the graph as possible
Maintaining Balance
1. All living things must maintain
_homeostasis_________ to stay alive
a. _Homeostasis_____: maintaining a stable internal
environment
b. illness or death is a result of not maintaining
homeostasis
c. Feedback Mechanisms: cycles that help
maintain _homeostasis______
d. Organisms are in a _dynamic
equilibrium______: small changes around a
normal set point
2. All _living____ things carry out chemical
processes. All life processes needed to maintain homeostasis are _metabolism_____
a. _Nutrition__: use nutrients for growth, synthesis, repair, and energy
b. _cell respiration__ (Cell): converts energy in food (sugar) into a usable form (ATP)
c. synthesis ____: put molecules together, to make things
d. Transportation_: absorb and distribute molecules throughout the body
e. _Regulation____________: control and coordination of life processes
f. _Excretion___________: remove wastes produced by metabolic processes
g. _Heredity____________: pass on genes to offspring
3. Inorganic Compounds
a. Water, _H2O____ ; most common substance in living things, 60%
i. assists in chemical reactions
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dissolves other molecules to allow for transport
b. Oxygen, _O2__ : most organisms use for __cell respiration______________
i. plants release as waste product of __photosynthesis________________
c. carbon dioxide, _CO2___: used by plants to make glucose
i. waste product of _cell respiration___________
4. Organic Compounds
a. _Carbohydrate (sugar, starch, cellulose): immediate energy, cell structure of plant cell wall
b. Lipids (fats, oils, wax): _store__ energy, make up cell membrane, insulates and cushions
c. Protein_________: large macromolecules that carry out all life activities
i. many functions
1. Enzymes: speed up chemical Rx, very
_specific_________
a. work best at specific __temperature____________
and pH
2. Hormones and neurotransmitter: _transmit____
messages to other parts of the body
3. Cell receptors: _receive_____ messages from hormones and neurotransmitters
4. _Antibodies___________: attack foreign substances (antigens)
THE CELL

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The _smallest______ unit of living things. Cells carry out life functions
Plant and animal cells
plant cells have cell wall, large vacuole, and chloroplasts
Major organelles
_nucleus___: controls cell, contains DNA
_cytoplasm___: helps transport materials
_mitochondria____: carries out cell respiration
makes ATP, energy for cell
Ribosomes: make _proteins________
Chloroplast: carries out photosynthesis
_cell wall________: shape and structure of plant cell
i. _cell membrane_____: controls what moves
in and out of cell
1. Small molecules pass freely through
membrane
a. Diffusion: molecules moving from _high_____ concentration to low concentration
b. Osmosis: water___ moves from high concentration to low concentration
causes size of cell to change
2. _Large or polar molecules must be transported through membrane
3. If molecules move in from low to high energy must be used
4. Receptor molecules on _surface_________ of cell membrane

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELL RESPIRATION


All organisms use cell respiration to produce _ATP___
1. Autotrophs- produce own food through __photosynthesis___________
2. _Heterotroph_____-consume food
Photosynthesis occurs in plant cells in _chloroplasts____________
use _carbon dioxide___ (CO2) +_water___ ( H2O) _glucose (sugar)_ + oxygen (O2 )
benefits, include produce sugar, oxygen, and use carbon dioxide
Cell Respiration-used by all cells
sugar + oxygen (O2 ) _ATP_______ + (CO2) + ( H2O)
benefits: produce ATP
usually occurs in _mitochondria______________
HUMAN BODY
All organisms begin life as a single cell: _fertilized egg__________
the nucleus contains all the genes (_DNA-46 chromosomes__) to form an organism
multicellular organisms grow as a result of _mitosis_________ (cell division)
Cells form specific tissues
cell differentiation: only specific _genes___ are turned on in specialized cells
example: white blood cell turns off all genes for skin, nerve, muscle cell
Tissues work together to form _organs________
_Organs______ work together forming organ systems

6. Organ systems work together to maintain _homeostasis______ in an organism


ORGANELLE CELL TISSUE ORGAN ORGAN SYSTEM ORGANISM

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Nervous System-regulates body


responds to _stimulus_______ (change in the environment)
Neurotransmitters released by nerve cells and received by
_receptors______ in cell membrane
Receptors are _specific_____ shapes and only receive
certain neurotransmitter
Endocrine System-hormones to regulate body
_Hormone_______ is a chemical messenger
hormones move _slower______ than nerves messages
hormone response are controlled by feedback mechanisms
Specific _hormone____ receptors on cell membrane
receive hormone signal
Blood Glucose
pancreas makes _insulin________ and glucagon
control blood _glucose__________ levels
improper regulation can result in _disease or death______
_Sex______ hormones
testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone
Circulatory System-_transports_________ materials through the body
Components
_red blood cell______ (RBC): hemoglobin, a protein, binds and transports O2
Plasma _dissolves and transports__ all other substances
Platelets: clot blood
Molecules _diffuse____ into and out of the blood throughout the body
_Capillaries_________: very small blood vessels where diffusion occurs
Respiratory System: provides O2 needed for cell _respiration_______, removes CO2
Immune System-__protects________ body against pathogens
_Pathogens___ cause disease
virus, bacteria, parasites, fungi, or allergens
_White______ Blood cells fight pathogens
identify pathogens tag for destruction--> _destroy pathogens
make _antibodies____________ (protein) to tag antigens (markers on
surface of pathogen)
antibodies are _very_____ specific to a certain antigen
_Vaccination_: an injection of a dead or weak pathogen (virus)
causes body to make antibodies to fight future infection
vaccines CANT cure a disease
_Antibiotics_______: drugs used to fight current bacteria infection
can cure a disease
Diseases

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AIDS-caused by _HIV____ virus


weakens human immune system
spread through _body___ fluids
cant be cured
_Cancer______-cells reproduce (mitosis division) at an uncontrolled rate
forms tumor
cells are not specialized
causes include mutations___, chemicals, viruses, heredity
treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and _gene therapy___
Diabetes-inability to control blood sugar
treated with GE _insulin__________
Allergies-_immune_____ system overreacts to a harmless substance

REPRODUCTION
_Asexual___ reproduction
Advantage: very fast
Disadvantage: no genetic variation
produces offspring that are genetically identical to the __parent__________
only ___1____ parent involved
cell division is __mitosis______
daughter cells are genetically _identical_________
Types include: binary fission, sporulation, budding, cloning
_Sexual Reproduction
_sexual reproduction__-produces offspring with genetic variation
Disadvantage: takes time and _energy_________
__2_____ parents contribute DNA
gametes formed by __meiosis_______ with the normal chromosome number
recombination results in genetic __variation___________
Male Reproductive system
Testes-produce and store sperm (made by meiosis)
_sperm_________ function is to deliver DNA to the egg
Female Reproductive system
_ovary_________-produce eggs (made by meiosis)
contain all the organelles for the offspring to grow
Menstrual Cycle-lasts __28____ days
ovulation-release of _unfertilized egg________
_Menstruation_______-shedding of the uterine wall
Fertilized egg grows in the _uterus___________
Fetal Development
a fertilized egg is called a _zygote___________
zygote is diploid (full set of chromosomes. 46________)
egg divides and cells differentiate
cell _differentiation___________________: cells use specific gene
information to become _different types of __ cells
specialized cells become tissues_____ and organs

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fetus-most major organs are formed


Placenta- _transfers____ nutrients, oxygen and wastes between mothers blood and fetus
transfer occurs by _diffusion_________
blood is not mixed
alcohol and drugs have a _greater________ impact on fetus in early stages because organs and tissues
are still forming
DNA and Genetics
Chromosomes are found in _nucleus_________
receive _23____ chromosome from each parent to create __homologous___ pairs
pairs carry genes for the same traits
person has 2 alleles for each _gene________
gene has instructions to make a __protein_______
_DNA______-deoxyribose nucleic acid
chemical that makes up your genes and chromosomes
stores __information________ to make proteins
shaped like a _double________ helix
made of 4 bases _A__,_T___,_G____,_C____
A-T pair; G-C pair
RNA T is replaced by _U__, A-U pair
Protein Synthesis-this is how genes control your body
DNA RNA protein
DNA is transcribed into _RNA___
_Ribosome_______ reads codons on RNA
codon is _3__ consecutive base pairs
a codon represents a single _amino acid__________
Ribosomes assembles amino acids to form _protein__
the _number and order_ of the amino acids determines the
_shape__ (and function) of the protein
Mutations
any change in _DNA____
only passed to offspring if mutation is in sex cells
_mutations_____ can be caused by radiation, chemicals, virus, and natural error
some mutations cause a change of amino acid _sequence_____
this can change the shape and function of the protein
Genetic Engineering
making changes to the DNA of an organism
_restriction enzymes__________ are used to cut
and paste DNA segments
bacteria are often used in genetic engineering
add genes from other organisms
_bacteria________ will produce protein that the
gene has instructions for
most common example is synthetic insulin to treat
__diabetes___________
DNA fingerprint: use gel electrophoresis to create band patterns

a. unique to each _person___________


b. closer relationship to another person/organism will have more similar DNA _fingerprint__________
Evolution
1. Evolution is the gradual _change_____ over time
a. The earth has been constantly changing for _billions____________ of years
b. As the environment changes species that are best _adapted_____ survive
c. _Natural Selection_____ is the mechanism that causes a species to change
i. _Variation___________: members of a species are different from each other due to mutations and sexual
reproduction
1. no variation=no _evolution____________
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Overproduction: too many offspring produced
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competition: offspring struggle to _survive____________
v. _survival of the fittest____________: offspring that inherit fit traits are better able to get resources,
escape from predators, and find mates
1. offspring with unfit traits will not survive as well
2. fitness: how well a trait helps an organism survive and _reproduce____________ in a certain environment
v. Survival of the Fittest (not strongest)
1. more fit organisms reproduce and pass on favorable traits
2. over many generations fit traits become more common in a _population_
i. _Speciation______: process of making a new species from an existing one
1. Requires _isolation_____ of populations (geographic or behavioral)
2. new variations lead to _adaptations______ in different population
a. over long periods of time the difference becomes greater
3. eventually _populations______ will no longer be able to breed creating a new species
d. Branching (Evolutionary) tree diagrams
i. used to show evolutionary relationship between _species___________
e. common descent: modern species _evolved____ from earlier different species
f. new traits arise in species from mutations and _genetic recombination_______
g. species that cant adapt to environment become __extinct___________
h. species only change when _environment____ changes over long periods of time
i. environmental change includes
1. climate change
2. temperature change
3. change in water availability
4. change in food availability
5. introduction of new food (new predator or prey)
i. Environmental change does not cause evolution to occur.
If this were true all species would _evolve_____________
and there would be no extinction
j. Evolutionary Diagrams: used to show relationship between
species
2. Evidence to support _evolution__________
a. Fossil record: show _ancestral____ and transitional
species
i. fossil rocks can be dated to determine _age__ of organism

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Comparative anatomy
comparing physical structures of different species
Direct observation
bacteria evolving resistance to _antibiotics________
_Insects and plants_____ evolving resistance to pesticides

Ecology (most important


information to know)
Organisms interact with the
_biotic___ (living) and _abiotic
(non-living) parts of their
environment through food webs
and nutrient cycle
_Energy___ is needed to keep
an ecosystem going
energy comes from the
_sun____
energy is made usable by
_producers____ (plants and
other autotrophs)
_energy________ passed on to

consumers as food
c. most energy _lost as heat and waste__ before it is passed to the
next trophic (food ) level in the food chain
organisms high up the food chain (apex predators/carnivores) have
_less____ energy available to them
producers have much _larger__________ populations than higher

trophic levels
3. Environmental Factors-determine which organisms can
_survive_ in an ecosystem and how large population can get
a. factors include-air, water, light, temperature, pH, food,
predators, etc.

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the maximum size of a population is the _ carrying capacity________


There are many roles in an _environment___ (niche)
competition usually results in only one species occupying a niche at a time
organisms with similar need (birds and bats that eat insects) occupy different _niches___ (day and night)
Describe the basic process of ecological succession
series of predictable changes that occur in a community
over __time__________
land will develop over 100s or 1000s of years
Ecology definitions
producer - organism that makes its own _food___
_Consumer__ - gets food by eating other organisms
omnivore - eats animals and __plants________
herbivore - eats only __plants________
_Carnivore________ - eats only animals
predator - hunts other _animals________ for food
parasite - lives on or in a host and _harms____ it
_Habitat________ - place where an organism lives
niche - the role of an organism in its _environment______
population - a group of one __species_ in an area
community - a group of _populations____ in one area (all the cats, dogs, ants, people, etc in syracuse
_Ecosystem______ - all living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) things in an area
biosphere - all the places on the _earth that life lives (includes, land, water, and air)
_Pollution_____ - harmful substance to the biosphere
renewable resources - resource that can be replaced after a time or __________
Human Actions- development, industrialization, pollution, farming, over-hunting, overgrazing, clear cutting,
introduction of _invasive_ species, soil erosion often have _negative__ consequences for ecosystems
most negative effects are due to increasing human __populations_________
_ecosystems___ are decreasing to make room for building and homes
more wastes are produced
Biodiversity- the variety of life on _earth__________
when habitats are lost species become _extinct__, reduces biodiversity
ecosystems with low diversity
_less___ stable than high diversity ecosystem
take longer to recover from environmental changes
humans use organisms for many things including _food____ and medicine
losing organisms means losing valuable resources
Environmental Actions- aimed at reducing or repairing damage done by _humans____
Recycling
conservation of available resources
Using clean energy _sources_______ (solar, wind, and water power)
Protection of habitats and _endangered____ species
Using biological controls (natural predators) instead of pesticides and _herbicides___
farming native plants (cocoa in the rainforest)
planting _trees_________ to replace those cut down
rotating crops to reduce soil loss
creating laws to control pollution, land management, hunting and fishing, etc

10. Common Ecological problems


a. Acid Rain
i. cause- nitric and sulfuric acids released by industry
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negative effect- kills plants and _animals___, pollutes water
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Fixing- place filters on smokestacks
b. _Deforestation______ (loss of habitat)
i. cause -cutting down trees
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negative affect-soil erosion, loss of habitats, less CO2 taken out of the atmosphere
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fixing- selective cutting, recycle paper
c. loss of diversity
i. cause-habitat destruction/fragmentation
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negative effect-unstable ecosystems
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fixing- nature preserves, protection laws
d. Global _Warming__________
i. cause- increase in carbon dioxide due to burning fossil fuels
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negative effect- ice caps _melting______, more severe weather
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fixing- use alternate energy sources
e. loss of ozone layer
i. cause-use of CFCs
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negative effect-less protection from UV _radiation____________
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fixing- ban the use of CFCs
f. Invasive species
i. cause- foreign species accidentally or purposely brought into habitat by _humans__
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negative effect- out-compete native species
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fixing-increase natural predators?
Diagrams you must know how to read