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VMware DRS can be configured to operate in either automatic or manual mode.

virtual machines can move in online state
VMware Fault Tolerance is enabled on individual virtual machines. FT required dedicated Nic.
HA requires 2 esx & same vSwitch with same name.
VMotion is migration of virtual machine from one data store to another data store.
Comparing vNetwork Standard Switch with vNetwork Distributed Switch
These features are available with both types of virtual switches:
Can forward L2 frames
Can segment traffic into VLANs
Can use and understand 802.1q VLAN encapsulation
Can have more than one uplink (NIC Teaming)
Can have traffic shaping for the outbound (TX) traffic
These features are available only with Distributed Switch:
Can shape inbound (RX) traffic
Has a central unified management interface through vcenter
Supports Private VLANs (PVLANs)
Provides potential customization of Data and Control Planes
Uplink is a nic of physical server which connected to vSwitch (virtual Switch)
Esx IMP commands
Service network(service name) restart
You can use the command: esxcfg-info > config.txt
Another excellent tool for checking out what VLAN's are presenting is this baby:
esxcfg-info -n | grep -E -i "_name|Hint
How to export esx logs?
To gather diagnostic data using the VMware vSphere Client:
Open the vSphere Client and connect to vcenter Server or directly to an ESXi 4.x host.
Login with administrator account.
Click the File menu, and select Export, Export System Logs.
In the Export System Logs dialog, select the host or group of hosts to collect diagnostic
information from.
You can create a maximum of 512port groups on a single host.
If Vcenter server is down then which feature will available?
HA will continue to work. It is configured through vCenter Server (i.e. vCenter Server
configures the hosts), however it does not need vCenter Server to work.
DRS will not work. Moving the VM's between hosts is a vCenter Server function.

FT will continue to work for the configured VMs. However in case of a failover, no new
Secondary will be created.
Adding a data store?
Vcenter => Click on ESX server => Select configuration tab => Select Hardware Tab = >
Add data store => add storage window will appear => then add Once in that just follow the
wizard for adding a new Disk\LUN.
Block Size
We can format every block size with 2Tb but assign files size as below.
1MB block size 256GB maximum file size
2MB block size 512GB maximum file size
4MB block size 1024GB maximum file size
8MB block size 2048GB maximum file size
Thick provision & Thin Provision?
Thin provisioning will allow the machine to use only the required storage space.
Thick provisioning will allow the machine to use whole allocated disk space.
Raw Device Mapping
Raw device mapping (RDM) provides a mechanism for a virtual machine to have direct
access to a LUN on the physical storage. It will help for better Performance of VM.
2 types of RDM
Software base RDM & Hardware base RDM.
In Software base RDM we can take Snapshot but this future is not available in Hardware base
How Does VMware VMotion Work?
The entire state of a virtual machine is encapsulated by a set of files. The active memory
and precise execution state of the virtual machine is rapidly transferred over a high speed
network. The networks being used by the virtual machine are also virtualized by the
underlying ESX host, ensuring that even after the migration, the virtual machine network
identity and network connections are preserved.
What is a snapshot?
A snapshot preserves the state and data of a virtual machine at a specific point in tiem.
While taking snapshot it will do original machines as read only and create same copy of VM.
What is a snapshot?
A snapshot preserves the state and data of a virtual machine at a specific point in time.
The state includes the virtual machines power state (for example, powered-on, powered-off,
and suspended).
The data includes all of the files that make up the virtual machine. This includes disks,
memory, and other devices, such as virtual network interface cards.
Tool use forP2V?
P2V converter
What is the template?
A virtual machine template is a virtual machine image loaded with an operating system,
applications, and data. After you define and publish a virtual machine template, you can
quickly and easily create multiple virtual machines based on the virtual machine template

without having to reinstall software or redo setup tasks on each virtual machine. Using
virtual machine templates ensures that virtual machines are consistently configured across
an entire organization.
VMotion 8000

Difference between ESX & ESXi?

ESX have an OS as ESXi does not have OS.
ESX have console ESXi lack of console.
The ESXi requires much fewer updates compared to the ESX.
The ESXi lacks the console that most ESX users are used to.
What is the jumbo frame?
A jumbo frame is an Ethernet frame with a payload this is also known as the MTU
(Maximum Transmission Unit).
Resource Pool
Resource pool is a pool of CPU and memory resources. Inside the pool, resources are
allocated based on the CPU and memory shares that are defined. This pool can have
associated access control and permissions.
Licensing depend on CPU base.
Enterprise Licensing & Standard licensing
Reason of put esx in maintenance mode?
DRS is set to Automatic and yet it still fails entering Maintenance Mode. The machines can
be vMotioned manually however the convience of having them automatically vMotion is
important. The status gets to about 2% when it starts "Enter Maintenance Mode
ESX performance bad when it is newly installed?
Vt check in bios
Vcenter upgrade?
Check database, Sql version, esx version.
Esx upgrade by update manager.
Vcenter upgrade by .exe setup.
Upgrade sequence
Virtual machines vmtool
With the VMware Tools SVGA driver installed, The VMware Tools package provides support
required for shared folders and for drag and drop operations. The mouse cursor, copying and
pasting between guest and host, and improved mouse performance in some guest operating
Memory Reservation: Total memory resources available for this host.
2003 to 2008

Check H/W capability,

Check Domain Functional level
Then Install os on 64 bit 2008
Run Adprep on win 2K8
Create 2K8 server as ADC
All the data will move on win 2k8
New Features in windows 2008
Password policy can set in ad win 2k8
Secure policy will be applied on win 2k8
Prerequisites for forest trust.
Before you create a domain or forest trust, there are name resolution requirements that
must be met so that you can establish the trust successfully
Ensure that Domain Name System (DNS) is properly set up.
Create conditional forwarders on domain A
Run Nltest /dsgetdc: <DNS name of forest B>
If the test is passed initiate the Trust
Port 138,139,445 these ports are must open on both Forest for communication.
Required credentials for both domains.
Set the forest functional level in both forests to Windows Server 2003.
NTldr missing
This problem may occur if the basic input/output system (BIOS) on your computer is
outdated or if one
or more of the following Windows boot files are missing or damaged:
To resolve this issue, verify that the BIOS on your computer is current.
repair the Windows
Use a Boot Disk to Start the Computer
1.Create a Windows boot disk that contains the following files:
Use the Recovery Console
dhcp : Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables a
server to
automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers (i.e., a
configured for a given network.

Discover packet
DHCP offers to the client.
In response to the offer Client requests the server
DHCP acknowledging the request

DHCP Scope
A DHCP scope is a valid range of IP addresses that are available for assignment. In a DHCP
server, a scope is configured to determine the address pool of IPs. Scopes determine which
IP addresses are provided to the clients.
A superscope is an administrative feature of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
Superscope, you can group multiple scopes as a single administrative entity in DHCP.
You can configure multiple scopes on a single network. A single DHCP server or multiple
DHCP servers
can serve these scopes. However, anytime you work with multiple scopes, it's extremely
important that
the address ranges used by different scopes don't overlap. Each scope must have its own
unique address
range. If it doesn't, the same IP address may be assigned to different DHCP clients, which
can cause
severe problems on the network.
dfsr- is introduce after 2003r2. The Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) service is a
new .
multi-master replication engine that is used to keep folders synchronized on multiple
increases data availability and gives users in remote sites fast, reliable access to files.
A name server can act as a primary for multiple zones and as secondary for others. Some
valid record
types on a DNS server are stated as follows.
SOA record (Start of Authority), which consist of crucial information like the SERIAL number,
which is
monitor by other name servers for change, which indicates to them a change in information
for a zone,
REFRESH which tell how often a secondary name server should check for a change in the
serial number,
RETRY is to inform a secondary server how long it should use it current entry if it is unable to
perform a refresh and MINIMUM is how long the other name servers should hold these
NS record which show the authoritative DNS for the zone
A record which points a hostname to an IP address
CNAME record (canonical naming) which allows a node to be address using more than one
MX record, which is used for message routing where there are multiple mail exchange hosts.
A (A) record host address is needed for every MX record set.

PTR records, which are just the reverse of A records, it maps IP address to a hostname.
These records
can only be meaningful in-addr.arpa zones have been delegated to your control by your
service provider
of your IP block.
There are also some other lesser used record types like HINFO which indicate CPU and
operating system
types for mapping to specific hostnames and Text (TXT) record that provides a descriptive
associated with a domain name.
Stub Zone
Stub zone is a newly added feature in WIN 2003 stub zone contains name server information
or name
server records and SOA records (Start of Authority) Stub zones provide fault tolerance & load
balancing besides providing the name server & SOA record information.
Stub zones are useful for resolving the query faster.
If 2003 server is in native mode what issue occurred
Leagacy will not support in native mode.
We have 6 dc's DC1,2,3,4,5 & 6? DC1 have forest wide roles & Dc2 have Domain wide roles.
Dc1 get down to H/W problem IT head said that move forest wide role on DC6 only? But the
dc6 is not
able to access via RDP?
=> There is no requirement to connect particular DC via RDP at the time of NTDSUTIL it will
ask for the
Connection where we need to move the roles.
Stub zone byde fault ad integrated or not?
Unexpected Reboot?
Check the server state via DRAC OR ILO
Then log in to the server.
Check HW health Staus.
check Eventvwr
Check Eventvwr for Dump File
Anlyze the dump file via dumpster.
Authorative & non Authorative.
Non -Authorative = Most commonly used when hardware or software problem. This is
directory services restore mode. first restore os then DC content from Backup.
Authorative = Most commonly used when change was made within the directory such as
deleting an organization unit by mistake.This process restores the DC from the backup and
then replicates to and overwrites all other domain controllers in the network to match the
restored DC.

While authorative backup DC USN is increase with 1,00,000. and other dc in same domain
get think like the dc1 have latest update so they will try to update the self with same as dc1.

Win2K3 edition
std, Ent, Datacenter, web & storage.

node support

Diff. between win 2k3 Web & std edition.

std edition can pramote as DC
WEB edition only user for web hosting.

Steps for new adc.

First all the DOMAIN ROLES sieze to DC one by one
then Remove DNS entry for old ADC from DNS server
then remove all settings from ADSIEDIT.MSC for old adc.
install win2k3 with SP2 & latest Security Updates.
configure with IP
member server of domain
run dc promo
transfer domain roles from DC to New ADC.
DC Database files
Res1.log and Res2.log. - These are reserve log files. If the hard drive fills to capacity just as
the system is attempting to create an Edbxxxxx.log file
Edb.chk. This is a checkpoint file. It is used by the transaction logging system to mark the
point at which updates are transferred from the log files to Ntds.dit.
Edbxxxxx.log. These are auxiliary transaction logs used to store changes if the main Edb.log
file gets full before it can be flushed to Ntds.dit.
Edb.log. This is a transaction log. Any changes made to objects in Active Directory are first
saved to a transaction log.
Ntds.dit. This is the main AD database. NTDS stands for NT Directory Services. The DIT
stands for Directory Information Tree.
What is the future in W2K3 R2.
Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM)
Standalone LDAP service that is Active Directory with the NOS-specific components and
requirements stripped out.

Active Directory Federated Services (ADFS)

Standards-based technology that enables distributed identification, authentication, and
authorization across organizational and platform boundaries.
Identity Management for UNIX (IMU)
Manage user accounts and passwords on Windows and Unix via NIS. Automatically
synchronize passwords between Windows and Unix.
Quoram save all the configuration files for Cluster.
Partition Types
intersite & intrasite
intersites is for one site to another site 2 physical site
intrasite is for 1 physical boundry
KCC generate replication topology.
The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) is an Active Directory component that is
responsible for the generation of the replication topology between domain controllers.
If DC is move in the OU where Policies are set 3 admin users are able to login in DC and 1 of
them Denied what is the reason?
Domain Policy & Domain controller Policy.
User not added in Domain Admin.
ISTG = Inter-Site Topology Generator in Active Directory Replication
Inter-Site Topology Generator, which is responsible for managing the inbound replication
connection objects for all bridgehead servers in the site in which it is located.
Bridgehead Server
Bridgehead replicate with Bridgehead server located on other site.
and provide replica server is responsible for replicated data on remanig server which take
from other site brifdgehead server.
Diffrence between IIS5.0 & 6.0
std, Ent, Datacenter, web.
Ram supported
WEB3 2-bit: 4GB



64-bit: 32GB 32-bit: 4GB


64-bit: 32GB 32-bit: 64GB

Datacenter 32-bit: 64GB 64-bit: 2TB


What is tombstone?
Keeping some of deleted object in multimaster systems such as Active Directory (AD). which
must replicate deletions among domain controllers (DCs). When you delete an object in AD,
that object doesn't disappear completely. The default tombstone lifetime is 60 days
Tombstone lifetime?
Tombstone lifetime is the time period till which a deleted object is left alive.
It is a exchange process to communicate with AD.
DSAccess performs a discovery process to determine the Active Directory topology and then
chooses suitable Active Directory domain controllers and global catalog servers that can be
used by Exchange.
What are the roles of Exchange server 2003?
Answer : Front-End and Back-End Server
Details:MS Exchange Server 2003 and Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server support front-end
and back-end servers. front-end server accepts requests from clients and proxies them to
the appropriate back-end server for processing. This guide discusses how
Exchange Server 2003 and Exchange 2000 Server support the front-end and back-end
server architecture. Also covered
are several front-end and back-end scenarios and recommendations for configuration.
1.Whats the difference between local, global and universal groups?
Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain
Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains.
Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains.
2.I am trying to create a new universal user group. Why cant I?
Universal groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003 environments.
Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to Windows Server 2003
Active Directory.
3.What is LSDOU?
Its group policy inheritance model, where the policies are applied to Local machines, Sites,
Domains and Organizational Units.
Why doesnt LSDOU work under Windows NT?
If the NTConfig.pol file exist, it has the highest priority among the numerous policies.
4.Where are group policies stored?
5.What is GPT and GPC?
Group policy template and group policy container.

6.Where is GPT stored?

7.You change the group policies, and now the computer and user settings are in conflict.
Which one has the highest priority?
The computer settings take priority.
8.You want to set up remote installation procedure, but do not want the user to gain access
over it. What do you do?
gponame> User Configuration> Windows Settings> Remote Installation Services>
Choice Options is your friend.
9.Whats contained in administrative template conf.adm?
Microsoft NetMeeting policies
10.How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine?
Via group policy, security settings for the group, then Software Restriction Policies.
11.You need to automatically install an app, but MSI file is not available. What do you do?
A .zap text file can be used to add applications using the Software Installer, rather than the
Windows Installer.
12.Whats the difference between Software Installer and Windows Installer?
The former has fewer privileges and will probably require user intervention. Plus, it uses .zap
13.What can be restricted on Windows Server 2003 that wasnt there in previous products?
Group Policy in Windows Server 2003 determines a users right to modify network and dial-up
TCP/IP properties. Users may be selectively restricted from modifying their IP address and
other network configuration parameters.
14.How frequently is the client policy refreshed?
90 minutes give or take.
15.Where is secedit?
Its now gpupdate.
16.You want to create a new group policy but do not wish to inherit.
Make sure you check Block inheritance among the options when creating the policy.
17.What is "tattooing" the Registry?
The user can view and modify user preferences that are not stored in maintained portions of
the Registry. If the group policy is removed or changed, the user preference will persist in
the Registry.
18.How do you fight tattooing in NT/2000 installations?
You cant.
19.How do you fight tattooing in 2003 installations?
User Configuration - Administrative Templates - System - Group Policy - enable - Enforce
Show Policies Only.
20.What does IntelliMirror do?

It helps to reconcile desktop settings, applications, and stored files for users, particularly
those who move between workstations or those who must periodically work offline.
21.Whats the major difference between FAT and NTFS on a local machine?
FAT and FAT32 provide no security over locally logged-on users. Only native NTFS provides
extensive permission control on both remote and local files.
23.How do FAT and NTFS differ in approach to user shares?
They dont, both have support for sharing.
24.Explan the List Folder Contents permission on the folder in NTFS.
Same as Read & Execute, but not inherited by files within a folder. However, newly created
subfolders will inherit this permission.
25.I have a file to which the user has access, but he has no folder permission to read it. Can
he access it?
It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which he does not have folder permission.
This involves simply knowing the path of the file object. Even if the user cant drill down the
file/folder tree using My Computer, he can still gain access to the file using the Universal
Naming Convention (UNC). The best way to start would be to type the full path of a file into
Run window.
26.For a user in several groups, are Allow permissions restrictive or permissive?
Permissive, if at least one group has Allow permission for the file/folder, user will have the
same permission.
27.For a user in several groups, are Deny permissions restrictive or permissive?
Restrictive, if at least one group has Deny permission for the file/folder, user will be denied
access, regardless of other group permissions.
28.What hidden shares exist on Windows Server 2003 installation?
Admin$, Drive$, IPC$, NETLOGON, print$ and SYSVOL.

29.Whats the difference between standalone and fault- tolerant DFS (Distributed File
System) installations?
The standalone server stores the Dfs directory tree structure or topology locally. Thus, if a
shared folder is inaccessible or if the Dfs root server is down, users are left with no link to
the shared resources. A fault-tolerant root node stores the Dfs topology in the Active
Directory, which is replicated to other domain controllers. Thus, redundant root nodes may
include multiple connections to the same data residing in different shared folders.
30.Were using the DFS fault-tolerant installation, but cannot access it from a Win98 box.
Use the UNC path, not client, only 2000 and 2003 clients can access Server 2003 faulttolerant shares.
31.Where exactly do fault-tolerant DFS shares store information in Active Directory?
In Partition Knowledge Table, which is then replicated to other domain controllers.
32.Can you use Start->Search with DFS shares?
33.What problems can you have with DFS installed?

Two users opening the redundant copies of the file at the same time, with no file-locking
involved in DFS, changing the contents and then saving. Only one file will be propagated
through DFS.
34.I run Microsoft Cluster Server and cannot install fault- tolerant DFS. Yeah, you cant.
Install a standalone one.
35.Is Kerberos encryption symmetric or asymmetric?
36.How does Windows 2003 Server try to prevent a middle-man attack on encrypted line?
Time stamp is attached to the initial client request, encrypted with the shared key.
37.What hashing algorithms are used in Windows 2003 Server?
RSA Data Securitys Message Digest 5 (MD5), produces a 128- bit hash, and the Secure Hash
Algorithm 1 (SHA-1), produces a 160-bit hash.
38.What third-party certificate exchange protocols are used by Windows 2003 Server?
Windows Server 2003 uses the industry standard PKCS-10 certificate request and PKCS-7
certificate response to exchange CA certificates with third-party certificate authorities.
39.Whats the number of permitted unsuccessful logons on Administrator account?
Unlimited. Remember, though, that its the Administrator account, not any account thats
part of the Administrators group.
40.If hashing is one-way function and Windows Server uses hashing for storing passwords,
how is it possible to attack the password lists, specifically the ones using NTLMv1?
A cracker would launch a dictionary attack by hashing every imaginable term used for
password and then compare the hashes.
41.Whats the difference between guest accounts in Server 2003 and other editions?
More restrictive in Windows Server 2003.
42.How many passwords by default are remembered when you check "Enforce Password
History Remembered"?
Users last 6 passwords.
1. How would you troubleshoot AD Replication ( Intersite & Intrasite ) and what are the tools
which you would use Event Viewer / RPC / Repadmin / DcDiag / Replmon / Subnet Information Event ID 1311 /
1290 / 1586.
Senario - There are 4 Sites Site A Site B Site C Site D. Site A connected to Site B, Site
B connected to Site C, Site C connected to Site D, but Site D is not connected to Site A. So
how long would replication take from Site A to Site D.
Answer Site to Site replication takes 15 min in Windows 2003 Domain, so it would take 45
min for an object to be replicated from Site A to Site D.
2. What are the various Attributes for an Object
Answer Address, E-Mail,
3. Which are the different Naming Context in AD
Answer Domain / Configuration / Schema / Application / Domain DNS / Forest DNS
4. How would you Force Replication in AD & FRS

Answer AD Replication can be forced using Replmon, FRS Replication can be forced by a
relevant D2 or D4.
5. Senario Based A User in Site A changes his Password and then tries to Login in Site B, so
would he be able to login with his new Password or would require to Login with Cached
Answer Yes, the User would be able to Login to Site B with the new password as password
replications are Urgent Replications and are triggered in 15 Sec.
6. What is FRS ? Why is it Used and what are the tools to monitor FRS ?
Answer FRS is used to replicate GPOs and Scripts b/w DCs and also used to Replicate DFS
Data. Tools to monitor FRS are FRSDiag / Ultrasound / Sonar / Event Viewer.
7. What are Morphed Folders and what are they created and what is the way to Troubleshoot
Answer Morphed folders are duplicate folders with same name created due to Replication
Link Failure or Forced Traffic in DFS & FRS.
8. What is Sharing Voilation ?
Answer Sharing Voilation is multiple user accessing the same file while that file is
Replicating through FRS or DFS and fails replication cause User are using the File and it is in
use. Sharing Voilation can be troubleshot by doing a D2 on the Server.
9. What is Backlog Issue in FRS ?
Answer Backlog issue is when Server A is replicating files to Server B and Server B is not
accepting those files then the files are accumulating and creating a Backlog on Server B.
Troubleshooting step is D2 on Server B.
10. How would you flush and register a DNS Record
Answer Ipconfig /flushdns & ipconfig /registerdns.
11. What are the Various Records for a DC in DNS ?
Answer Host A / GUID / Kerberos / GC Record / _MSDCS Record.
12. What is the difference b/w Primary Zone / AD Integrated Zone and Secondary Zone in
terms of Usage and Replication.
Answer Primary Zone is a editable copy but replicated through DNS Replication. AD
integrated zone is AD integrated and is replicated through AD. Secondary zone is a readonly
copy of either Primary or AD Integrated Zone.
13. How would you troubleshoot disappeared DNS Records and what is the use of C Name
Record ?
14. What is Scavenging and what are Stale Records in DNS ?
Answer Scavenging is automatic removal of Stale Records in DNS, default period is 7 days.
15. What are the tools to monitor GPO Replication
Answer GPResult / Userenv / RSOP / GpoTool.
16. There are 1000 Users in an OU and you would like to apply a Policy to only 200 Users in
that OU. How is that possible ? Answer GPO Filtering. User and Computer part of a Policy
can also be filtered if required. There is only 1 Password Policy per Domain no matter what.
17. How would you recover a deleted User / GPO or OU Answer

Study the KB 840001 and NTDSUtil Tool.

18. What are FSMO Roles
Answer Study all the roles properly cause he might ask you to describe any one.
page file
A component of an operating system that provides virtual memory for the system. Recently
used pages
of memory are swapped out to this area on the disk to make room in physical memory (RAM)
for newer
memory pages.
what is authorative & non authorative?
in authorative we can restore single user & in nonauthorative we can restore system state
Sites have information about Subnets and subnets have information about Domains.
Baseline - create a list of patches that form a "company standard" for all ESX servers and
Scan - check against the baseline for compliance
Remediation - patch ESX servers and VM's that fail to meet the baseline
vmware-vpxa service is the agent of VC. witch working on ESX.
mgmt-vmware - is the service whitch starts hostd daemon.
The name of HA service is vmware-aam
During HA reconfiguration I think that the package VMware-aam-vcint is been reinstalled
VMware VMotion enables the live migration of running virtual machines from one physical
server to
another with zero down time, continuous serviceavailability, and complete transaction
Migration with VMotion - Moving a powered-on virtual machine to a new host.
Migration with VMotion allows you to move a virtual machine to a new host
without any interruption in the availability of the virtual machine.
Migration with VMotion cannot be used to move virtual machines from one datacenter to
Storage VMotion enables the migration of virtual machine files from one datastore to
without service interruption.
Migration with Storage VMotion - Moving the virtual disks or configuration file of a poweredon
virtual machine to a new datastore.

Migration with Storage VMotion allows you to move a virtual machine's storage without any
interruption in the availability of the virtual machine.
High Availability (HA) Feature that provides high availability for applications running in
virtual machines. If a server fails, affected virtual machines are restarted on other
servers that have spare capacity.
Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) Feature that allocates and balances computing
dynamically across collections of hardware resources for virtual machines. This feature
distributed power management (DPM) capabilities that enable a datacenter to significantly
its power consumption.
Consolidated Backup (Consolidated Backup) Feature that provides a centralized facility for
agent-free backup of virtual machines. It simplifies backup administration and reduces the
of backups on ESX/ESXi performance.
Fault Tolerance When Fault Tolerance is enabled for a virtual machine, a secondary copy of
original (or primary) virtual machine is created. All actions completed on the primary virtual
machine are also applied to the secondary virtual machine. If the primary virtual machine
unavailable, the secondary machine becomes active, providing continual availability.
vNetwork Distributed Switch (DVS) Feature that includes a distributed virtual switch (DVS),
spans many ESX/ESXi hosts enabling significant reduction of on-going network maintenance
activities and increasing network capacity. This allows virtual machines to maintain
network configuration as they migrate across multiple hosts.VMware vSphere Introduction
Host Profiles Feature that simplifies host configuration management through user-defined
configuration policies. The host profile policies capture the blueprint of a known, validated
host configuration and use this to configure networking, storage, security, and other settings
across multiple hosts. The host profile policies also monitor compliance to standard host

configuration settings across the datacenter. Host profiles reduce manual steps involved in
configuring a host and can help maintain consistency and correctness across the datacenter.
Pluggable Storage Array (PSA) A storage partner plug-in framework that enables greater
certification flexibility and improved array-optimized performance. PSA is a multipath I/O
framework allowing storage partners to enable their array asynchronously to ESX release
schedules. VMware partners can deliver performance-enhancing multipath load-balancing
that are optimized for each array.
vCenter Server vCenter Server provides a single point of control to the datacenter. It
essential datacenter services such as access control, performance monitoring, and
Resource pools are partitions of computing and memory resources from a single host or a
Resource pools can be hierarchical and nested. You can partition any resource pool into
resource pools to further divide and assign resources to different groups or for different
VMware Update Manager Enables security administrators to enforce security standards
ESX/ESXi hosts and managed virtual machines. This plug-in provides the ability to create
userdefined security baselines that represent a set of security standards. Security administrators
can compare hosts and virtual machines against these baselines to identify and remediate
machines that are not in compliance.
port group A construct for configuring virtual network options such as bandwidth limitations
VLAN tagging policies for each member port
RDM (raw device mapping) A mechanism that enables a virtual machine to have direct
access to a
LUN on the physical storage subsystem

revert to snapshot To restore the status of the active virtual machine to its immediate parent
scheduled task A vCenter Server activity that is configured to occur at designated times.
snapshot A reproduction of the virtual machine just as it was when you took the snapshot,
including the state of the data on all the virtual machines disks and the virtual machines
power state (on, off, or suspended). You can take a snapshot when a virtual machine is
on, powered off, or suspended.
Snapshot Manager A control that enables you to take actions on any of the snapshots
with the selected virtual machine.
SSH (Secure Shell) A program for securely logging on to a remote machine and executing
SSH provides encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over a network.