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EarthSystems3209­FinalReviewSheet

Circle“Y”(Yes)ifyouunderstandtheoutcome,“N”(No)ifyoudo

notunderstandtheoutcome,or“?”ifyouareunsurewhetherornot

youunderstandtheoutcome(i.e.review/studyrequired).

Unit1

WhatmakesEarthSciencedifferentfromotherscience?

 

YOrNOr?

WhatarethemajorbranchesofEarthScience?

 

YOrNOr?

WhataretheminorbranchesofEarthScience?

 

YOrNOr?

GiveexamplesofhowEarthScienceisrelatedtoothersciences.

YOrNOr?

DrawdiagramsofthefourstagesoftheNebularHypothesis.Beableto

explaineachdiagram.

YOrNOr?

STSE1–“TheSearchForOtherSolarSystems”.(SolarSystem,

ExtrasolarPlanets,HabitableZone,MicrolensingMethod,Transit

PhotometryMethod,RadialVelocityMethod,AstrometryMethod,Direct

Imaging,GoldilocksZone,GeminiNorth,KeplerMission).

 

YOrNOr?

Describetheprocessofsegregation.

 
 

YOrNOr?

Whichfactorsallowedforsegregationtooccur?

 

YOrNOr?

WhatthreesourcesofheatcausedEarthtomelt?

 

YOrNOr?

WhatarethelayersofEarth?Knowthephysicalandcompositional

propertiesofeachlayer.

YOrNOr?

Whathappenstodensity,temperature,andpressurewithprogression

fromthelithospheretotheinnercore?

YOrNOr?

GiveexamplesofhowEarthisadynamicplanet.

YOrNOr?

Describethefourspheres.Giveexamplesthatdemonstratetheinteraction

Describethefourspheres.Giveexamplesthatdemonstratetheinteraction

ofthefourspheres.(E.g.,earthquakes,volcaniceruptions,watercycle.)

ofthefourspheres.(E.g.,earthquakes,volcaniceruptions,watercycle.)

YOrNOr?

Definesystem.

YOrNOr?

Knowtheorderinwhichthefourspheresoriginated.(G­A­H­B)

Unit2

YOrNOr?

Defineuniformitarianism.

 

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenuniformitarianismandcatastrophism.

YOrNOr?

Useuniformitarianismtoexplainwhycertaineventswilloccuragainin

Useuniformitarianismtoexplainwhycertaineventswilloccuragainin

thefuture.

Useuniformitarianismtoexplainwhycertaineventswilloccuragainin thefuture.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenrelativetimeandabsolutetime.

YOrNOr?

Understandrelativedatingtechniques/principals/laws,whichinclude:

superposition;cross­cuttingrelations;inclusions;horizontality;fossil

succession(indexfossils);andunconformities(angularunconformity,

disconformity,andnonconformity).

YOrNOr?

Beabletointerpretthestepsintheformationofgeologic

 

cross­sectionsusingtechniques/principals/laws(SeePointAbove).

CoreLab1.

 

YOrNOr?

Knowyourcross­sectionsymbols(i.e.rocksymbols).

YOrNOr?

Understandburiedlavaflowsversusmagmaintrusions.

YOrNOr?

Understandabsolutedatingtechniques/processes/features,whichinclude:

varves;growthrings;andradioactivedating.

YOrNOr?

Definehalf­life,isotope,parentelements,anddaughterelements.

YOrNOr?

Knowtheisotopepairs(e.g.U­238decaystoPb­206).

YOrNOr?

STSE2–“LabradorZirconsandtheirLinktoRadiometricDatingand

AbsoluteDating”.(Geochronology,isotopepairs,limitationsof

radioactivedating,zircon,U­Pbsystem.)

YOrNOr?

Knowhowtodothedifferentradioactivedatingproblems.(THERE

Knowhowtodothedifferentradioactivedatingproblems.(THERE

AREFIVEDIFFERENTTYPESOFPROBLEMS).

Knowhowtodothedifferentradioactivedatingproblems.(THERE AREFIVEDIFFERENTTYPESOFPROBLEMS).

YOrNOr?

Knowthesourcesoferrorandlimitationsofradioactivedating.

 

YOrNOr?

Beabletousearadioactivedecaycurve.

 

YOrNOr?

WhatistheageofEarth?

 

YOrNOr?

Understandtheimportanceoffossilsindeterminingthegeologictime

scale.(e.g.,evolutions,extinctions).

YOrNOr? WhyisPrecambriantimeconsideredtobeaveryuncertaintime? YOrNOr?

Knowtheimportanceofthefollowingdates:4.54Ba;545Ma;248Ma;

and65Ma.

 

YOrNOr?

Definefossil.

 

YOrNOr?

Whatthreeconditionsarenecessaryforfossilization?

 

YOrNOr?

Describethedifferenttypesoffossilization?

YOrNOr?

CoreLab2–“EstimatingDinosaurSizeandSpeedfromTrackways”.

(Trackway,gait,footlength,leglength,bodylength,stridelength,

relativestride,herbivore,carnivore,dimensionlessspeed,movement

type.)

YOrNOr?

Knowthedivisionsofthegeologictimescale.(eons,eras,periods,

epochs).

YOrNOr? WhydidthePrecambrianhavetheleastamountoflifeforms? YOrNOr? RecognizethatthePhanerozoiceonrepresentstheemergenceofcomplex

lifeforms.(Startsat545Ma).

YOrNOr?

WhatarethethreeerasthatcomprisethePhanerozoiceon?

YOrNOr?

Listthelifeformsthatdominateeachera.“SinceIFoundFlyingAngels

RidingBroomsForgetMedicine”.

YOrNOr?

Knowthe“Ages”astheyrelatetothedifferenteras.

YOrNOr? Knowthetwomassextinctionevents,whichinclude:PermianPeriod–

TriassicPeriod(248Ma–Extinctionoftrilobitesandothermarine

species);andCretaceousPeriod–TertiaryPeriod(65Ma–Extinctionof

dinosaurs).

Unit3

YOrNOr?

Understandthefollowingterms:atom;ion;element;compound;and

molecule.

YOrNOr?

Describehowatomscombinetoformcompounds,whichinclude:ionic

(ionicbonds);molecular(covalentbonds);andmetallic(metallicbonds).

YOrNOr?

Knowtheabundanceofelementsthatcomprisethecrust.(Ottawa

SenatorsAreInsane………

)

 

YOrNOr?

Defineamineral(5Points).

 

YOrNOr?

Knowthesevendifferentmineralgroups(Rules).

 

YOrNOr?

Basedonformulas,beabletoclassifymineralsintermsofmineral

groups.

YOrNOr?

Knowthetwosub­groupsofthesilicateminerals.

YOrNOr?

Knowwhichelementsmakemineralsdarkincolourandwhichelements

makemineralslightincolour.

YOrNOr?

Knowthebasicstructureofthesilicatemineralgroup.

YOrNOr?

CoreLab3–SpecificGravityandMineralIdentification.

YOrNOr?

Understandthedifferentmineralproperties,whichinclude:crystalshape;

colour;streak;cleavage;fracture;hardness;luster;specificgravity;

 

odour;acidtest;taste;magnetism;tenacity;doublerefraction;and

 

fluorescence.

 
 

YOrNOr?

 

Explaintheprocessindeterminingthespecificgravityofanunknown

mineral.

 
 

YOrNOr?

 

Explainwhythespecificgravityvaluewillbethesamefortwo

 

different­sizedsamplesofthesamemineral.

 

YOrNOr?

Explainwhymineralsexhibitdifferentmineralproperties?(Three

Reasons).

YOrNOr?

Giveonesimilarityandtwodifferencesbetweenthemineralsgraphite

anddiamond.

 

YOrNOr?

Compareandcontrastminerals(e.g.quartzandmica).

 

YOrNOr?

Knowtherolesofmineralogists,crystallographers,geochemists,and

gemologists.

 

YOrNOr?

Knowtheusesofdifferentminerals.

 

YOrNOr?

Whichmineralpropertiesareuseful?

 

YOrNOr?

Whichmineralpropertiesarenotasusefulastheothers?

YOrNOr?

Whyiscolournotagoodpropertytousewhentryingtoidentify

minerals?

 

YOrNOr?

UnderstandMoh’sHardnessScale.

 

YOrNOr?

Understandwhichmineralshave“specialproperties”.

 

YOrNOr?

Understandhowtousethepercenterrorformula.

 

YOrNOr?

Definethetermrock.Distinguishrocksfromminerals.

YOrNOr?

Listmineralsthatmakeuprocks.(e.g.,granite,gabbro).

 

YOrNOr?

Beabletodrawandexplaintherockcycle.

 

YOrNOr?

Whichtwoprocessesareinvolvedintheprocessoflithification?

YOrNOr?

Whichthreeconditionsarerequiredformetamorphismtooccur?

YOrNOr?

Knowwhichmetamorphicrockswouldbeclassifiedaslow­grade,

medium­grade,high­grade,andextremelyhigh­grade.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenmagmaandlava.

 

YOrNOr?

Giveexamplesofdark­colouredminerals.

 

YOrNOr?

Giveexamplesoflight­colouredminerals.

 

YOrNOr?

Understandthedifferencebetweenultramafic,mafic,intermediate,and

felsicigneousrocks.

YOrNOr?

UnderstandBowen’sReactionSeries.(Determineswhichmineralsyou

willgetindifferentrocks).

YOrNOr?

Knowwhichelementsmakerockslightandwhichelementsmake

minerals(rocks)dark.

YOrNOr?

KNOWTHE“BROTHER­SISTER”IGNOEUSROCKS.

YOrNOr?

Knowthatigneousrocktexturesaredeterminedbycoolingrate.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenplutonicandvolcanicigneousrocks.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenintrusiveandextrusiveigneousrocks.

YOrNOr?

Knowthedifferentigneousrocktextures,whichinclude:aphanitic;

 

phaneritic;porphyritic(two­stagecooling);vesicular;andglassy(frothy

andcompact).

 

YOrNOr? Whichigneousrocksgiveyouwhichigneousrocktextures? YOrNOr?

CoreLab4–Igneous,SedimentaryandMetamorphicRocks.

YOrNOr?

STSE3–“Diamonds–TheirFormationandProperties”.(Kimberlite,

carat,cratons,kimberlitepipes,indicatorminerals,propertiesof

diamonds.)

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenweatheringanderosion.

YOrNOr?

Whateffectdoesincreasedburialandcompactionhaveontheporosity

andpermeabilityofsedimentaryrocks?

YOrNOr?

Givesexamplesofcementsthatcouldexistinsedimentaryrocks.

 

YOrNOr?

Describethethreeclassesofsedimentaryrocks.

 

YOrNOr?

Whatisanotherwordforclastic?

 

YOrNOr?

Giveexamplesofclasticsedimentaryrocks.

 

YOrNOr?

Whichfactordistinguishesamongtheclasticsedimentaryrocks?

 

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenconglomerateandbreccia.

 

YOrNOr?

Relateparticlesizetocurrentvelocity.(Breccia–Cong.­Sst.–Silt.–

Sh.).

YOrNOr?

Contrastamongtheclastic,chemical,andbiochemicalsedimentary

Understandverticalsortingandhorizontalsorting.

rocks.

YOrNOr?

Describethedifferentsedimentaryenvironmentsandtheclastic

sedimentaryrocksthatrelatetoeachenvironment.

YOrNOr?

Defineturbidites.Describehowtheyform.

YOrNOr?

Beabletolistsedimentaryrocksthatareevaporatesandprecipitates.

YOrNOr?

Understandtheprocessesofevaporationandprecipitation.

YOrNOr?

Describethedifferentsedimentaryenvironmentsandthechemical

sedimentaryrocksthatrelatetoeachenvironment.

YOrNOr?

Contraststalactitesandstalagmites.Definetravertine.

YOrNOr?

Beabletolistsedimentaryrocksthatarebiochemicalinnature.

 

YOrNOr?

Describethesequenceofformationofcoal.

 

YOrNOr?

Describethedifferentsedimentaryenvironmentsandthebiochemical

sedimentaryrocksthatrelatetoeachenvironment.

 

YOrNOr?

Whichrocktypescouldbemetamorphosed?

YOrNOr?

Describetheprocessofmetamorphism.

 
 

YOrNOr?

Describethethreepossiblechangesthatresultfrommetamorphism.

YOrNOr?

Explainwhychemically­activefluidsaresoimportanttothe

metamorphismprocess.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenthemetamorphicrocktexturesfoliatedand

non­foliated.

YOrNOr?

Listexamplesofrocksthatarefoliatedandrocksthatarenon­foliated.

YOrNOr?

Knowwhichigneous,sedimentary,ormetamorphicrocksbecome

metamorphosedintowhichmetamorphicrocks.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweencontactmetamorphismandregionalmetamorphism.

YOrNOr?

Understandwhichagentsdominateinrelationtocontactmetamorphism

andwhichagentsdominateinrelationtoregionalmetamorphism.

YOrNOr?

Understandatwhichlocationsitisappropriatetoexpectforcontact

Understandatwhichlocationsitisappropriatetoexpectforcontact

metamorphism.

Understandatwhichlocationsitisappropriatetoexpectforcontact metamorphism.

YOrNOr?

Understandhowraftsforminrelationtoburiedlavaflowsandmagma

intrusions.

YOrNOr?

Understandatwhichlocationsitisappropriatetoexpectforregional

 

metamorphism.

 
 

YOrNOr?

 

Understandthesequenceofchangeexperiencedbythesedimentaryrock

shaleasitisburieddeeplyalongasubductionzoneinaregional

 

metamorphismenvironment.

L3?

 

YOrNOr?

 

Explain,usingadiagramordiagrams,howbothtypesofmetamorphism

canexistatconvergentplateboundaries.

L3?

Identifycareersthatrelatetorocks.

Unit4

YOrNOr?

YOrNOr?

DescribetheTheoryofContinentalDrift.Besuretounderstandhow

Wegenerthoughtthatthecontinentsweremoving.Whatwerethecauses

ofthe“drifting”continentsasproposedbyWegener?

YOrNOr?

UnderstandtheevidencethatsupportstheTheoryofContinental

UnderstandtheevidencethatsupportstheTheoryofContinental

Drift.

UnderstandtheevidencethatsupportstheTheoryofContinental Drift.

YOrNOr?

DefinePangaeaandknowwhenitexisted.

YOrNOr?

DescribetheevolutionoftheTheoryofPlateTectonics.Besureto

DescribetheevolutionoftheTheoryofPlateTectonics.Besureto

understandthecontributionsofthevariousscientistsinvolved.

DescribetheevolutionoftheTheoryofPlateTectonics.Besureto understandthecontributionsofthevariousscientistsinvolved.

YOrNOr?

Understandhowconvectioncurrentsareresponsibleforthemoving

continents.

YOrNOr?

UnderstandtheTheoryofSeafloorSpreading.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenoceaniccrustandcontinentalcrustandrelatebothto

platetectonics.

YOrNOr?

Understandhowplatesmoveinrelationtocrustandmantleconvection.

YOrNOr?

Describeandgiveworldwideexamplesofplateboundaries.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenconstructiveanddestructiveplatemargins.

YOrNOr?

Describethethreetypesofcollisions(i.e.convergentplate

 

boundaries).Understandthemoltencompositionthatrelatestoeach

 

collision.

 
 

YOrNOr?

 

Describeariftvalleyandhowitevolvesintoadivergentplate

 

boundary.

 
 

YOrNOr?

 

UnderstandtheevidencethatsupportstheTheoryofPlateTectonics.

YOrNOr?

UnderstandthethreecontributionsofJ.TuzoWilson.

YOrNOr?

Beabletodrawadiagramtohelpexplainhotspotvolcanism.

YOrNOr?

Recognizethatdivergentplateboundariesareoftenoffsetovershort

distancesbytransformfaults.

YOrNOr?

STSE4–“TheGeologyofNewfoundlandandLabrador”.(Western

Zone,CentralZone,EasternZone,CapeRay­BaieVerteLineFault,

Hermitage­DoverFault,GrosMorneNationalPark.)

 

YOrNOr?

DescribethegeologyoftheislandofNewfoundland.

 

YOrNOr?

Definecrustaldeformation.

 

YOrNOr?

Defineforce.

 

YOrNOr?

Definestress.

 

YOrNOr?

Describethethreetypesofforces/stressesthatproducecrustal

deformation.

 

YOrNOr?

Describethethreetypesofdeformation.

 

YOrNOr?

Describethefactorsthataffectdeformation.

 

YOrNOr?

Definefaultingandrelateittothefactorsthatareresponsibleforit.

YOrNOr?

Understandthetwocategoriesoffaulting,thespecifictypesoffaults,and

Understandthetwocategoriesoffaulting,thespecifictypesoffaults,and

theforces/stressesinvolved.

Understandthetwocategoriesoffaulting,thespecifictypesoffaults,and theforces/stressesinvolved.
 

YOrNOr?

Definefolding.

 
 

YOrNOr?

Relatefoldingtothefactorsthataffectdeformation.

YOrNOr?

Describethetwocommontypesoffolds.

 
 

YOrNOr?

Defineearthquake.

 
 

YOrNOr?

Describethethreecausesofearthquakes.

 
 

YOrNOr?

Defineseismicwaves,focus,epicentre,foreshock,andaftershock.

YOrNOr?

Understandatwhichlocationsearthquakesoccur.

YOrNOr?

Relateplatetectonicstoearthquaketypes(shallow,intermediate,and

deep).

 
 

YOrNOr?

Describethepropertiesofearthquakewaves.

 

YOrNOr?

Explainhowscientistsknowthattheoutercoreisaliquid.

YOrNOr?

YOrNOr?

UnderstandtherelationshipbetweenRichterscaleandamplitudeon

DistinguishbetweentheRichterscaleandModifiedMercalliscale.

S­waves.

YOrNOr?

UnderstandtherelationshipbetweenRichterscaleandenergyreleased

UnderstandtherelationshipbetweenRichterscaleandenergyreleased

fromearthquakes.

UnderstandtherelationshipbetweenRichterscaleandenergyreleased fromearthquakes.

YOrNOr?

CoreLab5–“LocatinganEarthquakeEpicenter”.

YOrNOr?

Describetheprocessinvolvedinlocatingtheepicentreofan

Describetheprocessinvolvedinlocatingtheepicentreofan

earthquake.

Describetheprocessinvolvedinlocatingtheepicentreofan earthquake.

YOrNOr?

Beabletounderstandfromseismogramsifearthquakesarelarge(or

small)orclosetoastation(orfarfromastation).

YOrNOr?

Describefactorsthataffectthenatureofvolcaniceruptions.

 

YOrNOr?

Definevolcano.

 

YOrNOr?

Describethethreetypesofvolcanoes.

 

YOrNOr?

Describetheeruptiontypethatrelatestothethreedifferenttypesof

volcanoes,andrelateeachtothedifferentplateboundaries.

YOrNOr?

Understandwhichrocksformateachoftheplateboundaries.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenthetwotypesoflava.

YOrNOr?

CompareandcontrastYellowstoneNationalParkfromtheHawaiian

IslandChain.

YOrNOr?

Describetheformationofalavaplateauasaresultofafissureeruption.

YOrNOr?

Describesomeshort­termglobaleffectsofvolcanicactivity.

YOrNOr?

Describesomelong­termglobaleffectsofvolcanicactivity.

 

YOrNOr?

Unit5

Defineeconomicminerals.

 

YOrNOr?

Understandfactorsthatdetermineifamineralisaneconomicmineral.

Defineore.

YOrNOr?

YOrNOr?

Describethedifferenttypesofeconomicmineraldeposits.Beableto

Describethedifferenttypesofeconomicmineraldeposits.Beableto

drawandlabeldiagramsofeachoftheeconomicmineraldeposits.

Describethedifferenttypesofeconomicmineraldeposits.Beableto drawandlabeldiagramsofeachoftheeconomicmineraldeposits.

YOrNOr?

Distinguishbetweenopen­pitminingandundergroundmining.Besureto

understandtheadvantages(pros)anddisadvantages(cons)ofeachtype

ofmining.

YOrNOr?

Listtechniquesforexploringforeconomicmineraldepositsand

petroleum.

YOrNOr?

CoreLab6–“GeologicMappingandCross­sections”.

YOrNOr?

CoreLab7–“SeismicReflectionImaging”.

YOrNOr?

Describetechniquesforprocessingoredeposits.Beabletodrawand

labeldiagramsforfloatation,gravityseparation,andheapleaching.

YOrNOr?

Definepetroleum,crudeoil,naturalgas,hydrocarbons,wetgases,and

drygas.

YOrNOr?

Knowexamplesofhydrocarbons.

YOrNOr?

Describetheoriginandtheprocessofformationofpetroleum.Be

Describetheoriginandtheprocessofformationofpetroleum.Be suretoinclude(1)organicmatterand(2)andpreservationpotential.
suretoinclude(1)organicmatterand(2)andpreservationpotential.

suretoinclude(1)organicmatterand(2)andpreservationpotential.

YOrNOr?

Understandthetwoconditionsthatarenecessaryfororganicmattertobe

preserved.

YOrNOr?

Inrelationtopetroleum,beabletoexplainhowEarth’sspheresare

interconnected.

YOrNOr?

Definekerogen.

YOrNOr?

Understandhowkerogenevolvesintopetroleumasaresultof

Understandhowkerogenevolvesintopetroleumasaresultof

diagenesis,catagenesis,andmetagenesis.

diagenesis,catagenesis,andmetagenesis. YOrNOr? ➢

YOrNOr?

Giveexamplesofsourcerocks,reservoirrocks,andcaprocks.

YOrNOr?

Understandcharacteristicsofsourcerocks,reservoirrocks,andcap

rocks.

YOrNOr?

Understandthetermsporosityandpermeabilityastheyrelatetoreservoir

rocks.

YOrNOr?

STSE5–“Well­Logging”

YOrNOr?

Drawanddescribethefourdifferentpetroleumtraps.Oneachtrap

 

beabletoidentifysourcerocks,reservoirrocks,caprocks,gooddrill

locations,presenceofgas,presenceofoil,andpresenceofwater.

 

YOrNOr?

Knowthat“GOW”occursinpetroleumtrapsduetodensitydifferences.

YOrNOr?

DescribethetwodifferentmeansofextractingpetroleumfromEarth.

YOrNOr?

Understandthatpetroleumexistsinthesubsurfaceundernaturalpressure.

YOrNOr?

Knowtwowaysofgettingtheremainingpetroleumoutofatrap.

Examplesincludepumpinginwaterandfillingthereservoir.

YOrNOr?

UnderstandtheformationofAlberta’soilsands(tarsands)andknow

somecharacteristicsofthecrudeoil.

YOrNOr?

Howisthecrudeoilextractedawayfromthesedimentsinrelationtothe

tarsandsinAlberta?

 

YOrNOr?

Describethethreemethodsofrefiningpetroleum.

 

YOrNOr?

Definesustainabledevelopment.

 

YOrNOr?

Beabletoidentifysomeenvironmental,economic,political,social,and

culturalfactorsthatareinvolvedinextractingresourcesfromtheEarth.

YOrNOr?

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