Lesson Cycle

Lesson Title/Topic: All my relations
Target Concept:
Components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms.
Standards/Rationale:
§112.34. (6) Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics,
(B) recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms.

Lesson Objectives:

Assessment:

TSW describe the common genetic
components common to all organisms on a
relationship diagram with 75% accuracy.

Completed Relationship Diagram

Materials:
Computer
LCD projector
All my Relations ppt
Sticky Notes: four colors
Copy Paper
Colored pencils
Lesson Cycle: (Direct instruction)
The teacher will:
Focus/Mental Set:
You’ve heard in your other science classes that “DNA is
the building block of life”, but what does that really mean
and how does it apply to you today?

The student will:

CNN-Cloned Cats Glow In The Dark (1m:41s)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5TIH1Hfd9M

Watch CNN report-Cloned Cats
Glow In The Dark

Students will have one minutes to describe other types of
genetic engineering:
Medical research
Cloning
Growth hormones
Crop production
Medicines

Respond to questions about genetic
engineering

Write down students responses on the board.

Tony Guzman

Teacher Input:
Explain that scientist used a lentivirus to insert the
fluorescent protein of jellyfish called GFP into the cats. To
test an antiviral gene from a rhesus macaque for AIDS
research.
Remind students that we would discover how DNA is the
building blocks of life and how it relates to their everyday
lives.
1. Why is often said that DNA is the recipe of life?
2. Name two of the four chemicals makes up DNA?
3. Describe what genes do for us?
Students will watch video and define the following terms:
 Genome
 Codon
 Gene
 Protein
Show the first (2m12s) of The Animated Genome video
https://unlockinglifescode.org/media/animations/659#660
Review definitions from the video as a class.
Have students raise their hands over their heads and
interlock their fingers. Lower hands and look to see if
thumbs are left over right or vice versa. Explain that this
is caused be genetic traits.
Provide other examples such as Right/left handed,
hitchhiker’s thumb, widow’s peak, attached earlobes and
rolling tongue.

Respond to question.

Review and discuss their previous
knowledge of DNA.

Watch Video

Take notes and define terms during
the Genome video
Follow directions to see if they
possess each of the traits.

Write on board how many students possess each trait.
Provide the definition of a trait. (genetically determined
characteristic)
Describe the different types of traits
a. Physical
b. Behavioral
c. Predisposed to medical condition
Explain that all of these traits are defined by genes, but
not all genes are turned “ON”

Tony Guzman

Reply to questions and include the
answer in their notes.

As a quick review ask the following:
• Each group of three DNA bases codes for a single____?
• Which part of DNA is the considered the “Universal
Genetic Code?
• How are DNA, genes and proteins?
Interestingly, most Native Americans believed that all life
was connected, in particular the Lakota Sioux of the great
plains have a saying, “Mitakuye Oyasin”, which means
“All my relations”
Let’s take a look at how closely we our genetic code
matches.
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/07/1
25-explore/shared-genes

Work in groups to guess which
species is closest related to humans
and record answer

Students to guess which species is closest related to
humans. (keep score per team)
It is important to stress that not only Human DNA uses
the same four chemicals, but so does ALL living plants
and animals.
Ask students:
What makes us “related” to the different species?
(Same genes)
What is branch of biology that deals with how we are
related? (evolution)
Tell students that we all share the same genetic code of
only four chemicals, but in different sequences.
Guided Practice:
Display the “Genetic Code Table” on the screen.
Demonstrate to students how combining three nucleotides
combine to create the bases of an amino acids. Show
students the steps how to use Genetic Code charts to
combine nucleotides into new amino acids.

Follow directions to use Genetic
Code

http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/gencode.html#c1
Ask students to use the genetic code table to determine

Tony Guzman

Connect with two of their peers to

which amino acid AGG corresponds to (Tryptophan).
Each student will be given one color of sticky note, which
will represent one of the four nucleotides.
They will be given 5 minutes to mingle with each other to
create 10 unique codons and use the Genetic Code chart to
identify which amino acid is created.
Once students have completed the exercise, check their
results as a class using the Genetic Code chart.
Each person must write their name on the sticky note and
turn in the final product.

create 10 unique codons, based on
the color of their nucleotide (Sticky
note). They will use the Genetic
Code chart to identify which amino
acid is created by this pairing.

Write down the codon and
corresponding amino acid on their
sticky note, along with their name.

Line up each of the sticky notes along the board to explain
that each sticky notes represents ten amino acids. The
entire length of sticky notes represents a gene.
Independent Practice:
Students will create a diagram showing the relationships
between the following:
DNA
Cytosine
Genetic Code (codon)
Adenine
Amino Acid

Create a diagram to show
relationship between the items
listed.

Guanine
Gene
Nucleus
Thymine
Protein

The diagram is to include a definition of each item and
describe its relationship to each other. (Show example)
The students will work in pairs, but each person turn in an
individual diagram. Label the diagram “Genome of(either
a plant or animal”
Closure:
Ask students to answer the following:
1. How many letters are there in the “genetic
alphabet?”
2. What are they? (4: A,G, T, C)
3. How many letter are there in every “genetic
word?” (3)
4. What are they called? (codons)
5. About how many pairs are there? (3 billion)
6. Every word must be translated into 1 of 20
________? (amino acids)
7. A “genetic sentence” is made up of amino acids.
What is that sentence called? (gene)

Tony Guzman

In pairs answer questions and
include the answer in their notes.

8. On average how many genes do we have? (22k)
9. How many chromosomes do humans have?
(23 pair)

Options:
Enrichment:

Reteach:

Modifications/Correctives:

References:
The Animated Genome
https://unlockinglifescode.org/media/animations/659#660

National Geographic: Genomics
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/07/125-explore/shared-genes

Genetic Code
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/gencode.html

Others Ideas
http://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/training/tree-of-lifelesson-plan.pdf
http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.lp_hgpwhat/the-humangenome-project/

Tony Guzman

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