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A Presentation

on
Transmission line Basics

WHY A TRANSMISSION LINE?


Transmission lines are constructed basically for transmission
of power from one point to another
Normal connecting points
Interconnection between 2(two) generating stations
Connecting generating station with substations
Interconnection between substations
Interconnection between substation & power sub station
Interconnecting power substations
Connection from power substation to consumers
2

BASIC SCHEMATIC

GENERATION TRANSMISSION - DISTRIBUTION


Transmission
system

Power plant

Distribution system

Generator
GT

220 KV

11/220 kV
11 KV

220/33/11 kV
Distribution
Step down
transformer

11/0.4 kV

POWER SYSTEM- DIAGRAM

TRANSMISSION LINE CONCEPT


Power
Plant

Consumer
Home

POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Source:
www.howstuffworks.com

TRANSMISSION LINE NETWORK OF NER

CHOICE OF GENERATION / TRASMISSION


VOLTAGE
Generation is normally at 0.4 or 11 kv
Stepped up through transformer and transmitted over a long
distance to the desired load centers at different voltages which
depends on
Quantum of power to be transmitted
Line length
Cost of terminal equipments
Economy consistent with desired reliability
8

CONDUCTOR SELECTION SCENARIOS


Scenario I : Conductor for low voltage lines ( 0.4 kV, 11 kV, 33 kV)
are selected from the point of view of current carrying capacity
Scenario II : Selection of conductor for EHV / UHV lines where
conductor size can not be increased beyond a certain limit in AC
Transmission because of factors like inductance (wL), capacitance
(1/wC), corona / RI effects etc. Corona / RI phenomena increases
directly with the diameter of conductor. Bundle conductor,
therefore, have to be used for voltage level for 400 kV and beyond
from Corona / RI consideration. Bundle conductor can also be used
in lower voltage line to increase the quantum of power to be
transmitted.
Skin effect of conductor in AC Transmission also limits size of
conductor where bundle conductor is more economical (both cost
and power loss) instead of a single large diameter conductor
9

WHAT IS CORONA?
Transmission-line conductors are surrounded by an electric field.
Corona discharge is generated when the electric field at the surface
of the conductor becomes larger than the breakdown strength of the
surrounding air.
Surface irregularities such as sharp points and water droplets cause
local field concentration, enhancing corona generation. Thus, during
bad weather, corona discharge is more intense and losses are much
greater.
Corona discharge generates audible noise and visible lights. The
visible light and audible noise can be observed simultaneously.
The voltage at which corona begins in called the discharge inception
voltage. Conversely, the voltage at which corona ceases is called
discharge extinction.
10
Corona produces radio and television interference.

CORONA DISCHARGE - PHOTO


Corona Camera

Corona event captured by corona camera on 500kV line

11

CORONA DISCHARGE - VIDEO

12

TRANSMISSION LINE VOLTAGE AND


CHOICE OF CONDUCTORS
Normal Transmission
voltage

Type of conductor Normally used

0.4 kV

ACSR Ant/ squirrel

11 kV

ACSR Weasel

33 kV

ACSR Racoon

66 kV

ACSR Dog

132 kV

ACSR Panther/ Zebra

220 kV

ACSR Zebra/ Moose

400 kV

Twin ACSR Moose / Bersimis/ Invar

765 kV

QUAD ACSR BERSIMIS/Invar


13

TRADE NAME OF CONDUCTORS


Trade name of conductors are normally kept after the names of
various animals, birds and insects. Some of the common ones are:
Code Name

Approx current carrying


Dia. of
capacity (Amp)
conductor
(mm)
40 ambient 45 ambient

Appox
UTS
(kg)

Approx
weight
(kg/km)

Squirrel

115

107

6.33

711

85

Gopher

133

123

7.08

952

106

Panther

520

482

21

9127

976

Zebra

795

736

28.62

13316

1623

Moose

900

835

31.77

16250

2002
14

INSULATED CABLE Vs OVERHEAD LINE


BARE CONDUCTOR
DECIDING FACTORS
Voltage level
Distance
Congestion
Cost consideration
Geographical consideration
Aesthetic consideration
Reliability
Available Technology
Special circumstances

15

LAYING OF TRANSMISSION LINK


I) Insulated cables
Underground
Overhead on Pylon
Supported by Bridge Girder
II) Bare Conductor
Direct supports on Insulators
Pylon supports

Laying of Underground cable


16

TYPES OF PYLONS
A. POLES (Standard length: 7.5 m/ 8.5 m/ 9.75 m/ 12 m)

Wooden

Steel Rail/ Channel

Pre-Stressed Concrete ( PSC)

Reinforced Cement Concrete

Steel Tubular Pole

Wooden Pole

PSC Pole

17

TYPES OF PYLONS
B. LATTICE STEEL STRUCTURE (Tower)
Modular welded (self supporting or guyed)
Bolted ( built up & self supporting)

18

MODULAR TOWER- ERS

19

TYPES OF LATTICE STRUCTURE

According to support condition


According to number of circuits they carry:
According to tower shapes/ base dimension
Further classification
According to angle of deviation

20

LATTICE STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION


ACCORDING TO SUPPORT CONDITION:
Self supporting tower
Guyed tower

21

LATTICE STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION


ACCORDING TO NO OF CIRCUIT THEY CARRY
Single circuit tower
Double circuit tower
Multi circuit towers

22

DETAILS OF SINGLE CIRCUIT TOWER


Cross arm at 3 levels
Cross arm at 2 levels
Cross arm at 1 level

23

DOUBLE & MULTI CIRCUIT TOWER

DOUBLE CIRCUIT TOWER

MULTI CIRCUIT TOWER

24

LATTICE STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION


ACCORDING TO CONFIGURATION

Vertical configuration tower


Horizontal configuration tower
Delta configuration tower

25

LATTICE STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION


ACCORDING TO TOWER SHAPES/ BASE DIMENSION
NOTE: To be chosen by designer on Techno economical consideration

WIDE BASED TOWER


NARROW BASED

800 kV NORMAL
TOWER
ROW
85 Mts

800 kV COMPACT
TOWER
ROW
64 Mts

26

400 kV Compact Single pole tower at Delhi &


Noida

27

LATTICE STRUCTURE CLASSIFICATION


ACCORDING TO ANGLE OF DEVIATION:
(Tangent tower/ suspension tower)
A type tower (0-2 degree).
Tension towers/angle towers:
B type tower (0-15 degree).
C type tower (0-30 degree).
(Also used for transposition)
D type tower (0-60 degree).
28

TRANSPOSITION TOWER
What is transposition tower and its configuration?
Transposition tower is normally parallel double circuit
transmission tower to facilitate interchange of transmission
line phase conductor, where the phase conductors occupy
different structure positions for different portions of the line
length so that transmission-line impedances is balanced.
For example, conductor placement on the structures may be
R-Y-B for one-third of the line length, Y-B-R for one-third
of the line length, and B-R-Y for the remaining third of the
line length.
C-type tower with modified cross-arm is generally used
with zero degree deviation.
29

WHY TRANSPOSITION?
Power transmission lines are transposed primarily for
impedance balance so as to eliminate or reduce
disturbances in the neighboring communication
circuits produced by geometric imbalances of power
line
Transposition tower are required for a line length
> 200 kms why?
Arrangement of transposition tower is shown below

30

LINE TRANSPOSITION
WITH C TYPE TOWER

T1

T2

T3

31
B

SINGLE Vs BUNDLE CONDUCTOR


Single Conductor : Normal Use
Bundle Conductors:
Deciding Factors
Capacity Enhancement
Technical reasons ( Handling & Erection easiness, Corona/ Radio
Interference ( R.I) consideration
Bundle conductor Configuration
Twin Bundle
Quad Bundle
Special Purpose Bundle (Hexagonal/ Octagonal etc)

32

TOWER SIZES
TOWER HEIGHT IS DECIDED BASED ON
Span : Longer the span, more is the height
Minimum Ground clearance (A) required to be
maintained
Conductor sag (B)
Insulator assembly length (C) to maintain
required electrical

Shield angle
E

D
D
C
B

Vertical separation of Cross arms (D)


Number of cross arm and its configuration
Peak Height- for fixing earth wire
corresponding to shield angle (E)

33

WHY EARTH WIRE?


To protect conductor against lightning flashovers
To provide a path for fault current
Direct Flashover
Occurs due to shielding failure with lightning on the conductor,
flashover taking place across the insulator string from conductor
to ground.
Back Flashover
Occurs due to high tower footing resistance with a high voltage at
the grounded tower cross arm compared to conductor, resulting in
a flashover across the insulator string from ground to conductor.
34

WHY EARTH WIRE?


Maximum allowable fault current (I) through earth wire mainly
depends on
Area of earth wire (A)
Maximum permissible temperature
Time of short circuit (t)
I varies proportional to A and inverse proportion to sqrt (t)

35

SHIELD ANGLE
Earth wire is placed on top of the structure to
provide a shied angle for protection against
lightning
over
power
conductors,
the
recommended angle being 30 degree with the
vertical in case of vertical formation of power
conductors.
Location where isokeraunic levels are high, lower
angle of shielding may be adopted
As cross arm width increases, horizontal spacing
of conductor increases . To protect the conductors
with specified shield angle, earth wire has to be
placed at a higher elevation in such cases. To
reduce the tower peak height, double peak with
double earth wire are used in those cases

36

STANDARD NORMAL SPAN


FOR VARIOUS VOLTAGE CLASSES
VOLTAGE

SPAN RANGE (METERS)

11 kV

75-100

33 kV

180-305 ( 90-135 over poles)

66 kV

204-320

132 kV

305-365

220 kV

320-380

400 kV

350- 450

765 kV

400-450
37

MINIMUM GROUND CLEARANCE


VOLTAGE

MINIMUM GROUND CLEARANCE


IN METERS (IS 5613)

11 kV

5.2

33 kV

5.2

66 kV

5.5

132 kV

6.1

220 kV

7.0

400 kV

8.84

765 kV

15.0
38

NO OF CROSS ARMS
AND ITS CONFIGURATION

3 for single circuit line


6 for double circuit line
12 or more for multi circuit lines
Cross arms can be of Horizontal / Vertical or Triangular
configuration

39

MINIMUM PHASE TO PHASE


ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE
VOLTAGE

MINIMUM PHASE CLEARANCE


(APPX) MM ( IS 5613)

11 kV

760

33 kV

1500

66 kV

2000

132 kV

3900

220 kV

6000

400 kV

8000

765 kV

15000
40

WHAT IS GALLOPING?
Galloping (dancing of conductor) is Very low frequency, high
amplitude vibrations induced by:
High velocity steady winds on conductors with asymmetrical
ice deposit
When ice on a portion of ice covered conductor melts and
suddenly drops off
When a flock of birds perching together on a conductor
suddenly takes off, leaving the conductor jumping in loops
Other wind induced vibrations are:
Aeolian vibrations : High frequency, low amplitude vibrations
induced by low, steady & laminar wind
Wake induced vibrations: Low frequency, medium amplitude
vibrations induced by high velocity steady winds on bundle
41
conductors

CONDUCTOR SAG

S= sag

Conductor sag depends on


Type of conductor
Span length
Weight of conductor

Conductor tension
Sag S = WL2 / 8T

L= span

W = conductor weight per meter


L= span length ( tower spacing)
T= Conductor Tension.
Developed Length D= L+ W2 L3
24T2

42

INSULATOR ASSEMBLY LENGTH

Voltage

Approximate Standard insulator assembly


length, single suspension string

11 kV

200 mm

33 kV

550 mm

66 kV

965mm

132 kV

1630 mm

220 kV

2340 mm

400 kV

3740 mm

765 kV

5500 mm
43

MINIMUM TOWER HEIGHT


MINIMUM TOWER HEIGHT IS GOVERNED BY
Minimum ground clearance (A)
+
Maximum sag (B)
+
Insulator assembly length ( C)
(for suspension tower only)
+
Cross arm spacing
(vertical conductor separation) ( D)
+
Earth wire peak distance from top most
cross arm point ( E)

D
D
C
B
A

44

CROSS ARM SIZE (WIDTH)


Minimum electrical clearance of conductor/ jumper from Tower body
(IS 5613)
Voltage

Minimum Body
clearance ( mm)

11 kV
33 kV

330

66 kV

610

132 kV

1070

220 kV

1675

400 kV

1860

765 kV
45

LOADS ON TOWER
VERTICAL LOADS
Dead weight of Tower
Dead weight of conductor & Earth wire
Live weight of working personal,
hoisting tools & tackles etc.
Snow loading (wherever applicable)
Transient loads
HORIZONTAL LOADS
For the purpose of convenience we
consider all horizontal loads in two
perpendicular axes
One in Transverse direction w.r.t cross
arm
One in longitudinal direction w.r.t cross
arm

46

ORIENTATION OF TOWER w.r.t CROSS ARM


A. Suspension Tower
Longitudinal direction
Line alignment

Transverse direction

Suspension tower positions


Longitudinal direction
Line alignment

Cross arm orientation (plan)

47

ORIENTATION OF TOWER w.r.t CROSS ARM


B. Angle Tower

Angle of
deviation
Angle of
deviation

Angle Tower Positions


Bisector

Cross Arm Orientation of Angle tower (plan)

48

TRANSVERSE LOAD ON TOWER


On account of wind pressure on tower body
On account of wind pressure on conductor, earth wire &
insulator string
On account of conductor / earth wire pull

Conductor

Wind load on tower = wind


pressure x projected area

Wind load on conductor/earth


wire = wind pressure x
projected area

49

TRANSVERSE LOAD ON TOWER ON A/c OF


CONDUCTOR / EARTHWIRE PULL

= angle of Deviation

Tsin /2

= 180 -

Tsin /2
T

2Tcos /2

50

LONGITUDINAL LOAD ON TOWER ON ACCOUNT


OF CONDUCTOR/ EARTHWIRE PULL

Longitudinal direction

Transverse direction

51

LONGITUDINAL LOAD ON TOWER


A. On account of conductor / Earth wire pull
In normal case, Longitudinal load due to conductor pull cancel
each other except for broken wire condition (BWC) where there
will be imbalanced pull on the cross arm.
DEAD END TOWER which are used for termination of a line at
switch yard end are subjected to severe pull by conductor which
are strung on one side only.
B. On account of unbalanced Tension of conductor / earth wire on
two sides of towers which may happen due to error during final
tensioning & temperature variation which may cause unbalance
tension due to linear expansion/ contraction when section length
on either side of the tower are different.
C. Under Broken wire condition (BWC)
52

LONGITUDINAL LOAD ON TOWER

Switch yard gantry

Dead End Tower


Connection to Switch yard gantry is
done at a later stage and with slack
span only

53

CONCEPT OF WEIGHT SPAN


What is weight span ?
It is the span length (length of conductor or earth wire)
which contribute to the vertical load on tower.

Weight span
(left)
Weight span

W1

Weight span
(right)

Weight span

W2

54

WHY NEGATIVE WEIGHT SPAN OCCURS ?


On steeply inclined spans, the low point of sag may fall beyond the
lower support. This indicates that the conductor in the uphill span is
exerting a negative or upward force on the lower tower. The amount
of this upward force is equal to the weight of the conductor from the
lower tower to the low point in the sag. If upward pull of the uphill
span is greater than the downward load of the next adjacent span,
actual uplift will be caused.

55

NEGATIVE WEIGHT SPAN


Total weight span of tower A = L A RA
Total weight span of tower B = L B + RB

B
LA

A
(-)RA
LB

RB

56

THEORETICAL FORMULA FOR CALCULATION


OF WEIGHT SPAN BETWEEN TOWERS AT
DIFFERENT ELEVATION
x = Distance of low point from
center of span in meter.
T = Conductor tension in kgf
h = Difference between
conductor support level in Mtr.
w = Unit weight of conductor in
kg/meter.
l = span length in meter
Distance of Null point or Low point of conductor from the center of span
is given by the formula x = (T h) / (w l)
Weight Span :
for Tower A, right hand side only: A = l / 2-x
for Tower B, left hand side only: A = l / 2+x
Similarly, weight span for other side of towers can be calculated and
57
total weight span obtained

THEORETICAL CONCEPT OF OF
NEGATIVE WEIGHT SPAN

T=T2COS2 = T1 cos 1

T2SIN 2 = wL2

T1

T2 COS 1 = T1COS 1
L1

T2SIN 2+wL1=T1SIN 1
T2

w(L1+L2)=T1SIN 1

L2
T

T1

T2
2

T2

wL1

58

SIGNIFICANCE OF NEGATIVE WEIGHT SPAN


Negative weight span will mean that conductor/ earth wire in
such a location will produce a vertically upward load instead of
vertically down in normal cases.
Vertically upward load = (-) weight span x weight per unit
length of conductor/ earth wire
EFFECT OF NEGATIVE WEIGHT SPAN
Effect of negative weight span is that suspension tower can not
be used at location with negative weight span as it will lift up
the suspension insulators. Angle towers are therefore, to be
used for such locations even if angle of deviation is zero

59

CONCEPT OF WIND SPAN


WHAT IS WIND SPAN?
It is the span length ( length of conductor & Earth wire) which contribute
to the transverse horizontal load on the tower

X1

X2

Wind span = ( X1 + X2) / 2


Wind load on conductor/ Earth wire = wind pressure x projected area

60

TOWER SPOTTING
Tower spotting is the process of choosing right type of Tower
along the line route
STEPS INVOLVED
Choosing Techno economical line route
Fixing of Angle ( deviation point) to avoid/ minimize obstacles
enroute
Taking levels at intermediate points for drawing of profile
between Angle points ( Digital instruments like total stations are
now a days used)
Drawing of Profile ( Electronic soft wares are now a days used
using data from digital instruments
61

TOWER SPOTTING

Tower spotting is done either manually using sag template


curves or through electronic soft ware like PLSCAD

Tower spotting on profile

62

SAG TEMPLATE CURVE


Conductor & Earth wire when strung between towers normally
takes shape of a catenary curve. Catenary curves of conductor
drawn at the working tension forms the sag- template curve.
Plastic sag-templates are made for the purpose of manual
tower spotting and also for random checking of spotting done
through electronic soft ware

63

TOWER SPOTTING DATA


Once the technical parameters like angle of deviation, weight
span, wind span etc are tabulated, the next step is to choose the
correct type of towers at various locations after comparing the
field parameters with the design parameters. In case of hillly
terrains, towers with unequal leg extension are also used. This
is mainly adopted to reduce benching work in a particular
location. The design parameters are contained in a document
called Tower- spotting Data.

64

UNEQUAL LEG EXTENSIONS

( + 3 mtr Extn.)

Leg C ( + 4.5 mtr Extn.)


( + 6 mtr Extn.)
Leg D ( + 6 mtr Extn.)

132 kV Badarpur Khliehriat Line


Loc. No. 1 C+LE (3, 3, 3, 6)

65

SAMPLE TOWER SPOTTING DATA

66

SAMPLE TOWER SPOTTING DATA

67

SAMPLE TOWER SPOTTING DATA

68

TOWER SCHEDULE
Loc Angle of
No Deviation

Weight Span
Left

Right

Total

Wind Span
Left

Right

Total

Recommended
tower type

69

GENERAL IDEA ON WIND PRESSURE


Wind pressure is proportional to wind velocity
Wind pressure zones
India is divided in 6 ( Six) wind zones based on wind speed
Wind Zone

Basic wind speed (Vb) m/sec

33

39

44

47

50

6
55
Vb is based
on peak gust velocity averaged
over a short time
interval of about 3 ( Three) seconds

Note: Wind as per IS 802 and Wind zone as per IS 875


70

WIND ZONES OF INDIA

71

WIND ZONES & BASIC WIND SPEEDS OF NER


Name of states

Wind zone

Basic wind speed ( Vb)


m/sec

Assam

6/5/4/2

55/50/47/39

Meghalaya

6/5/4

55/50/47

Arunachal Pradesh

5/3

50/44

Nagaland

4/3

47/44

Manipur

6/5/3

55/50/44

Mizoram

55

Tripura

55
72

WIND ZONE - ASSAM

73

WIND ZONE -MIZORAM

74

WIND ZONE - MANIPUR

75

WIND ZONE - MEGHALAYA

76

WIND ZONE - ARUNACHAL PRADESH

77

WIND ZONE - TRIPURA

78

WIND SPEED
METEOROLOGICAL REFERENCE WIND SPEED ( VR)
VR is extreme value of wind speed over an averaging period of 10
( ten) minutes duration.
VR = Vb/ K0
K0 is taken as 1.375 to convert 3 seconds peak gust speed in to 10
minutes average
DESIGN WIND SPEED ( Vd)
Vd = VR x K1 x K2
K1= Risk coefficient
K2 = Terrain Roughness coefficient

79

SELECTION TABLE FOR K1


Wind Zones

Reliability Level
Level 1 (up to 400 kV)

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Level 2 (above 400 kV)+


triple & Quad ckt up to 400
kV

1.08 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14

Level 3 (Tall River crossing


& special tower)

1.17 1.22 1.25 1.27 1.28 1.30

80

SELECTION TABLE FOR K2


Terrain Category

Value of K2

Cat 1: Exposed terrain with few or no obstructions


with average height of objects less than 1.5 m like
open sea coast/ water stretch, deserts, flat tree less
terrain

1.08

Cat 2: Open terrain with well scattered obstructions


having height between 1.5m to 10 m like normal
country with very few obstacles.

1.00

Cat 3 : Terrain with numerous closely spaced


obstructions like built up & forest area

0.85

Note: For lines encountering Hills/ ridges, K2 should be taken as next


higher value.

81

DESIGN WIND PRESSURE ( Pd )


Design wind pressure Pd = 0.6 Vd2 in N/ m2

82

WIND LOAD ON TOWER


Tower is divided into suitable nos of
panels taken between intersection of
legs and bracings say height of h
Fwt = pd x cdt x ae x GT in newton ( N)
Where

Pd = design wind pressure in N/m2


Cdt = drag coefficient
Ae = net projected area of members
GT = gust response factor

Note: Drag coefficient depends on solidity ratio

83

VALUE OF DRAG COEFFICIENT Cdt


FOR TOWER

Solidity Ratio

Drag Coefficient Cd

Up to 0.05

3.6

0.1

3.4

0.2

2.9

0.3

2.5

0.4

2.2

0.5 and above

2.0
84

SOLIDITY RATIO

Solidity ratio = Protected area of all members


Area of frame

NOTE: Drag coefficient takes in to account the shielding effects of


wind on the leeward face but if leeward members are not shielded
by the windward face, projected area of the leeward members shall
also be considered in the calculation
85

VALUES OF GUST RESPONSE FACTOR FOR


TOWER ( GT) AND INSULATOR ( GI)

86

WIND LOAD ON CONDUCTOR


& GROUND WIRE
Fwc = Pd x Cdc x L x d x Gc
Pd = Design wind pressure in N/m2
Cdc = Drag coefficient (1.0 for conductor and 1.2 for ground wire
/ earth wire)
L = Wind span = Half of sum of adjacent span
d = Diameter of conductor/ Earth wire in meter
Gc = Gust response factor

87

VALUES OF GUST RESPONSE FACTOR GC


FOR CONDUCTOR & EARTH WIRE

88

WIND LOAD ON INSULATOR STRING


Fwi = Pd x Cdi x Ai x Gi
Pd = Design wind pressure in N/m2
Cdi = Drag coefficient to be taken as 1.2
Ai = 50 % projected area of insulator string
Gi = Gust response factor

Note: No masking effect will be considered in case of multiple /


V insulator strings

89

TENSION LIMIT OF CONDUCTOR & E/WIRE


( Ref: IS 802 Part I/Sec I, 1995)
Conductor /Earth wire tension at everyday temperature and without
external load, should not exceed the following:
Condition I
Initial unloaded tension : 35 % of ultimate tension strength ( UTS)
Final unloaded tension: 25% of UTS ( for voltage level upto 220 kV)
22% for conductor & 20 % for Earth wire
( for 400 & 800 kV level)

90

TENSION LIMIT OF CONDUCTOR & E/WIRE


( Ref: IS 802 Part I/Sec I, 1995)
Condition II
Ultimate tension under every day temperature and 100%
design wind pressure or minimum temp. & 36% design wind
pressure should not exceed 70 % of UTS
Every day Temperature:
Shall be considered as : 32 C where minimum Temperature
will be above (-) 5 C
15 C where minimum temperature
will be (-) 5 C or below

91

FORMULA FOR CALCULATING CHANGE IN


TENSION OF CONDUCTOR/ E/WIRE DUE TO
CHANGE IN TEMP & PRESSURE (REF: IS 563 PART I)
T22 [ T2 { (T1 - l2w2q12 )/ 24T12 -t}] = l2w2q22 / 24
where
T2 = Tension at temp. t2 C in kg
T1 = Tension at temp. t1 C in kg
l = Span length in meter
W= Weight per meter
q1 = ( w2 +w12 )/w w1 = wind load in kg/ m
= EA
E = Young modulus in kg/ cm2
A= Cross section area ( m2)
= Coefficient of linier expansion per C
Q2 = loading factor
t = (t2 t1) C

92

SAG TENSION CHART


With change in ambient temperature, tension on conductor and
earth wire shall also change in the following pattern because of
thermal expansion/ contraction in the following manner
Temperature increases : Tension decreases
Temperature decreases : Tension increases
It is therefore important that correct tensions are maintained
during stringing of conductor / earth wire corresponding to
ambient temperature so that design tension and sags are
maintained during worst loading conditions as already
explained earlier

93

SAG TENSION CHART


For this purpose, tension and sags at different ambient
temperatures are calculated corresponding to base working
tension at every day temperature and with no wind & using
formula already discussed earlier.
The results are than tabulated in a convenient way for reference

94

SAG TENSION CHART

95

METHOD OF MAINTAINING CORRECT


TENSION AT THE TIME OF STRINGING

By measuring sag

By measuring tension

STEPS
Step-I

: Measure ambient temp.

Step II: Calculate average ruling span of the section using the
following formula
Step III : Consult Sag- Tension chart and note sag and tension
value corresponding to ambient temp. and corresponding
to average ruling span.
Step IV : Select the span whose length is nearest to the ruling span
& adjust sag or tension so as to attain the required value
before final tensioning (clamping on tower)

96

TOWER LOADING CONDITIONS


Loadings shall be determined for the Two loading conditions
Combination I : Corresponding to maximum wind at mean
annual temperature.
Combination II : Corresponding to 2/3 rd maximum wind at
the minimum temperature.

97

TOWER LOADING - TRANSVERSE LOADS


WIND LOADS

NORMAL CONDITION

On conductors and
ground wires on
full projected areas

Corresponding to full wind Corresponding to 50% of intact


span of bundled
span and 10% of broken span of
conductors & ground wire bundled conductor/ ground wire.

On Tower

On 1.5 times the projected


areas of members on the
windward face of towers

On insulator strings
1) Suspension
100 kg
2) Tension
300 kg

BROKEN WIRE CONDITION

On 1.5 times the projected areas


of members on the windward
face of towers
100 kg
300 kg

98

TOWER LOADING - TRANSVERSE LOADS


DEVIATION
LOADS

NORMAL
CONDITIONS
Transverse components
tension of bundled
conductors and ground
wire

BROKEN WIRE
CONDITIONS
a)

Suspension tower
Transverse components
corresponding to 50% of
the tension of bundled
conductors or 100% of the
tension of ground wire.

b)

Tension tower
Transverse component
corresponding to 100% of
the tension of bundled
conductor/ ground wire

99

TOWER LOADING VERTICAL LOADS


DUE TO
CONDUCTOR

NORMAL
CONDITIONS

BROKEN WIRE
CONDITIONS

Suspension
tower

Equal to the maximum/


minimum weight span of
bundled conductors

60% of maximum/
minimum weight span of
bundled conductors

Tension Tower

Equal to maximum weight


span of bundled
conductors ( downward or
upward)

60% of maximum weight


span of bundled
conductors ( downward or
upward)

100

TOWER LOADING VERTICAL LOADS


DUE TO
GROUND WIRE

NORMAL
CONDITIONS

BROKEN WIRE
CONDITIONS

Suspension tower

Equal to the maximum/


minimum weight span of
Ground wire

60% of maximum/
minimum weight span of
Ground wire

Tension Tower

Equal to maximum
weight span of Ground
wire ( downward or
upward)

60% of maximum weight


span of Ground wire
( downward or upward)

Due to Insulator &


conductor
Accessories

Equal to the weight of


Equal to the weight of Insulator
Insulator strings, spacers, strings, spacers, dampers etc
dampers etc

101

TOWER LOADING - LONGITUDINAL LOADS


DUE TO POWER
CONDUCTOR

NORMAL
CONDITIONS

BROKEN WIRE CONDITIONS

Suspension Towers NIL

50 % of the tension of bundled


conductors

Tension Towers

Equal to the tension of


bundled power
conductors for deadend towers only

Equal to the components of tension


of the bundled power conductors
corresponding to the relevant angles
of deviation

Due to Ground
wire

Normal conditions

Broken wire conditions

Suspension Towers NIL


Tension Towers

Equal to the tension of Ground wire

Equal to the tension of Equal to the components of tension


Ground wire for
of the Ground wire corresponding to
dead-end towers only the relevant angles of deviation

102

TOWER LOADING ERECTION LOADS


NORMAL
CONDITIONS

BROKEN WIRE
CONDITIONS

Man with Tools

NIL

Equal to the tension of


Ground wire

Loads due to lifting


tackles, line car etc
(to be considered at
conductor cross arm
and lifting points)

Equal to the
tension of
Ground wire for
dead-end towers
only

Equal to the components


of tension of the Ground
wire corresponding to
the relevant angles of
deviation

Note: The design of towers shall be based on loading combination


and condition which is more stringent for the particular member
103

FOUNDATION LOADINGS
Calculated from Tower Loadings
Typical Tower Loading tree is indicated below

104

FOUNDATION LOADINGS

Loads transmitted to Foundation through tower legs


Two types of loads act on foundation
A. VERTICAL ( + )
B. Horizontal or side thrust

105

UNDER VERTICAL LOAD

106

UNDER HORIZONTAL LOAD


A. OVERTURNING
OVERTURNING

107

UNDER HORIZONTAL LOAD


B. SLIDING
SLIDING

108

VERTICAL LOAD ON FOUNDATION

WIND
FORCE

VLM VLw

VLw
FST
L

VLM
FST

109

LOAD ON FOUNDATION
On account of gravity force (weight) on tower
If W = Total gravity force ( weight)
Then vertical load (VL) on account of W on each leg,
VLw = W/4 which acts downward (down thrust)
On account Horizontal forces (transverse / longitudinal ) on tower
Which produces turning moment at the base of tower
Net Moment MT = FH x h
Where FH = Horizontal force at a particular height
h = corresponding height from foundation top

110

LOAD ON FOUNDATION
External Moment M produces restoring moment in the form of upward &
downward thrust at leg/ foundation
Restoring Moment
MR = 2(upward/ downward thrust in each leg x leg to leg dist)
i.e. MR = 2 VLM x L
For stability: Net turning moment = Net Restoring moment
i.e. MT = MR ;

i.e. MT = 2VLM x L ; i.e. VLM = MT/2L

Net down thrust on 2 legs on one side

= +( VLW + VLM)

Net upward thrust on 2 legs on other side = - ( VLM VLW)

Normally VLM >>VLW and therefore there is net upward thrust on 2 legs
of a tower which also acts on the foundation and this is called uplift on
foundation
111

FOUNDATION LOADING WIND ZONE-II (33 M/SEC)


FOR 400 KV D/C TOWER WITH TWIN MOOSE CONDUCTOR
TOWER TYPE

COMPRESSION
(Kg)

UPLIFT (Kg)

SIDE THRUST
(TRANS) (Kg)

SIDE THRUST
(LONG) (Kg)

DA + 0

50,000

37,500

2450

1750

DA + 3/ 6 /9

53,500

39,500

2700

2750

DB + 0

81,000

65,000

4850

4700

DB + 3 / 6 /9

84,400

65,500

5150

4300

DC + 0

99,500

82,000

5550

5050

DC + 3 / 6 / 9

1,03,000

82,600

5750

4600

DD + 0

1,47,000

1,2,8500

8250

6000

DD + 3 / 6 / 9

1,53,500

1,31,300

8000

5500

112

LOAD ON FOUNDATION
B. HORIZONTAL LOAD ON FOUNDATION
Horizontal forces on tower also produces side thrust on
foundation
Side Thrust FST = FH / 4
Earth-quake forces

113

TOWER FOUNDATION
TASKS TO BE PERFORMED BY TOWER FOUNDATION
It must keep the tower rooted to the ground all the time under worst
loading conditions
It must be durable throughout life span of the transmission line
It must be cost effective
It should offer ease in construction
STABILITY OF THE TOWER FOUNDATION
It must effectively resist down thrust
It must effectively resist up thrust ( up lift)
It must effectively resist side thrust
It must effectively resist earth quake forces

114

TOWER FOUNDATION
Countering of down thrust is through suitable design so that
a)

Foundation is strong enough against compression, bulking &


Shear failure

b)

Base area is adequate to avoid soil settlement ie adequate


against soil bearing capacity

Countering of uplift is generally provided by adequate counter


weight which will be provided by
a)

Weight of foundation

b)

Weight of earth contained in the frustum of a pyramid on


footing pad with side inclined at certain angle depending on
soil type.
115

TOWER FOUNDATION
c) A footing with an under cut generally develops uplift
resistance of two to three times that of an identical footing
without under-cut. Under-cut foundations are normally
provided in fissured & soft rock foundations.

116

TOWER FOUNDATION

Failure plane

Soil Shear Stress

Undercut
Foundation

117

TOWER FOUNDATION
FOUNDATION TYPE
BROAD CLASSIFICATION :
Open Cast Most commonly used
Augured under reamed pile (where open excavation is Problematic)
Pile foundation
Well foundation

On Special Locations:
- River Bed,
- Nearby river, prone to erosion,
- Weak soil

118

OPEN CAST FOUNDATION

119

AUGURED UNDER REAMED PILE


FOUNDATION

120

PILE FOUNDATION

121

WELL FOUNDATION

122

PILE FOUNDATION

123

PILE FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION


LIFTING OF CAGE

124

PILE FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION


Lowering of reinforcement cage in pile bore

125

PILE FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION


Lowering of reinforcement cage in pile bore

126

PILE FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION


Installed pile

127

PILE FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION


Laying of reinforcement for pile cap & pedestal

128

PILE FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION


Erected tower on pile foundation

129

WELL FOUNDATION

WELL FOUNDATION

130

WELL FOUNDATION UNDER CONSTRUCTION

131

OPEN CAST FOUNDATION


Most commonly used, Convenient & quick in execution where
there is no high water table and soil collapse problem.
COMMON TYPE OF OPEN CAST FOUNDATION:

Depending on type of materials used


Steel Grillage Type foundation

PCC / RCC foundation

Depending on extent of excavation


Individual footing

Chimney frustrum type

Chimney Pad type

Block type

Spread type footing

132

STEEL GRILLAGE TYPE FOUNDATION

133

PCC / RCC FOUNDATION

134

CHIMNEY- PAD TYPE FOUNDATION

135

BLOCK TYPE FOUNDATION

136

SPREAD TYPE FOUNDATION

137

OPEN CAST FOUNDATION (Contd.)

Depending on type of soil


Normal dry soil foundation
Dry fissured rock (with under cut)
Rock Foundation (Anchored)
Black Cotton soil foundation, commonly known as Wet
Black Cotton (WBC) type.
Depending on depth of water table
Dry Foundation: Water table below footing depth
Wet Foundation: Water table 1.5 M from ground surface
Partially Submerged (PS): Water table between 1.5 to 0.75 m
from ground surface
Fully Submerged (FS): Water table above 0.75 m
138

WHY CLASSIFICATION
BASED ON WATER TABLE?
Weight of soil and concrete is less when submerged in water
because of buoyancy effect and therefore offers less
resistance to uplift then in dry condition.
Angle of internal friction () is less for wet soil and
therefore volume of frustum of soil above footing pad is less
in wet condition & therefore offers less resistance to uplift.
Economy in cost is therefore achieved in classifying
foundations based on water table instead of adopting one
type considering worst condition (F.S type)

139

FOUNDATION VOLUME

Comparison of foundation volume for different fdn classification:


Name of Line : 400 kV D/C Misa- Balipara
TOWER
TYPE

CONCRETE VOLUME (CUM)


DRY

WET

P.S

F.S

DA

9.68

10.33

12.69

15.74

DB

24.94

28.51

34.99

42.09

DC

27.86

43.531

53.049

63.62

DD

34.56

50.219

58.35

133.84
140

THANK YOU

141