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INDUSTRI SODA

Soda Ash dan Caustic


Soda

SODA ASH (Na2CO3)


Bentuk hidrat : Sodium carbonat
mohonidrat, sodium carbonat heptahidrat,
sodium carbonat decahidrat
Monohidrat : Na2CO3.H2O 85.48 % Na2CO3 +14,52 % air
Heptahidrat : Na2CO3.7H2O 45.7 Na2CO3 + 45.3% air
Decahidrat : Na2CO3.10H2O(sal soda atau washing soda)
37,06 Na2CO3 + 62,94 % air

PROSES PEMBUATAN SODA ASH

Le Blanc Process
Trona Purification Process
Dual Process
SOLVAY Process atau Ammonia-Soda
Process

Soda Ash : Le Blanc Process


Le Blanc roasting salt cake + carbon + limestone
dalam rotary furnace, leaching the product with water
SODA ASH (Na2CO3)

Le Blanc Process
Reaksi Pembentukan Soda Ash pd Le Blanc Process :
2NaCl+H2SO4 Na2SO4+2HCL
4C+NaSO4 NaS+4CO
Na2S+CaCO3 Na2CO3+CaS
Treatment of CaS :
CaS + H2S Ca(SH)2
Ca(SH)2 + CO2 + H2O CaCO3 + 2 H2S
H2S + O2 H2O + S

SODA ASH : Trona Purification


Process
TRONA : Mineral karbonat dengan rumus kimia Na3(CO3)
(HCO3)2H2O
Ada 2 jenis proses :
1. Kalsinasi trona impure soda ash purification
pure soda ash (MONOHIDRATE PROCESS)
2. Kalsinasi purified sesquisodiumcarbonat dari trona
(SODIUM SESQUICARBONATE PROCESS)

Trona Purification Process :


Monohidrate Process
Kalsinasi trona pada rotary kiln 150-300 deg C
dekomposisi sodium sesquicarbonat
(Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O) Na2CO3, H2O, CO2

Trona Purification Process : Sodium


Sesquicarbonate process
Crushed trona dissolve saturated mother
liquor.
Ssaturated mother liqour evaporated in
vaccum crystrallizers, cooled to 40 deg C
kristal sodium sesquicarbonate centrifuge
kristal sesquicarbonate
Kristal sesquicarbonate kalsiner 200 deg C
soda ash

SOLVAY Process
Reaksi Overall :
Tahap reaksi :

BLOK DIAGRAM Solvay Process

TAHAP PROSES (1)


(i) Ammonia absorber
2NH3+ H2O + CO2 (NH4)2CO3
CaCI2+ (NH4)2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NH4CI

MgCI2+ (NH4)2CO3 MgCO3 + 2NH4CI

(ii) carbonation Tower


NH3+ H2O + CO2 NH4HCO3
NaCI + NH4HCO3 NaHCO3 + NH4CI

TAHAP PROSES (2)


(iii)Filtration
The solution containing crystals of NaHCO3is
drawn off from the base of the carbonation tower
and filtered to get NaHCO3.
(iv)The NaHCO3obtained from the above step
is heated strongly in kiln to covert it into sodium
carbonate (Na2CO3)
2NaHCO3 Na2CO3+ CO2+ H2O
The carbon dioxide produced here is sent to
carbonation tower.

TAHAP PROSES (4)


(v) Ammonia recovery tower
NH4HCO3 NH3+ H2O + CO2
2NH4CI + Ca (OH)2 2NH3+ 2H2O + CaCI2

(vi) Lime kiln


T 1300 K
CaCO3 CaO + CO2

Caustic Soda (NaOH)


Diperoleh dari dekomposisi brine
(NaCl) secara elektrolitik.

Proses pembuatan :
Kimia : Lime-Soda Process
Elektrokimia : Chloro Alkali Process

Chloro-Alkali Process

Caustic Soda dengan Elektrolitik


Process