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Socials Midterm Review:

Chapter 1:

Orographic Precipitation: is produced when warm moist air is lifted as it moves over a
mountain (Ex: in Vancouver)
Frontal Precipitation: occurs when two air masses meet. The warm air is forced to rise
over the cold air, causing it to cool and form clouds, eventually forming rain.
Convectional Precipitation: When land warms up, it heats the air above it causing it
to rise and then condense, as this process continues, rain will fall. (Ex: in the Prairies)

Know diagram for all 3 precipitations! (in reviewer)

Push Factors: Factors that drive people to leave their homes. (Ex: Lack of

employment, Many others are leaving)

Pull Factors: Factors that attract people to a new area. (Ex: More hope for
employment, Friends are there)
Urbanization: the process of becoming an area with a large concentrated population
Boom / Bust town: A boom town is a town that undergoes rapid population due to a
sudden discovery of valuable resources, such as gold or oil, and it becomes a bust
town when the resource runs out and the population decreases.
Biomes > smaller ecosystems > habitats
Ecosystem: an ecological community of plants and animals
All parts of a system are interrelated, altering one part will affect the whole system.
The Europeans greatly altered Canada. (Ex: Alberta is no longer a place of wild
European beliefs required a taming of the land
First Nation beliefs required stewardship
Back then, people would settle where they were most comfortable
Landforms and Climate play a key role in settlement - but - economic issues overrules
all factors
Where we live affects our beliefs
Most of Canada)has only been altered in the last 100 years
The Rebellion in Manitoba was influenced by the fact that the English and French
settled land differently.
The Aboriginal People did not establish boundaries (the lines on a map)
Political boundaries only focused on control over areas and people, not environment

The inhabitants of Toronto had refused to move to the frozen prairies

British Columbia separated itself from the rest of Canada
Saskatchewan searched for wide open spaces
French Settlement: The French settled in long narrow strips by the St.Lawrence
River. Transportation was by boat (canoe). They used the French Feudal System.
English Settlement: The English settled in towns and streets by the Great Lakes.
Transportation was by horse and buggy. They used the English Feudal System.
Settlement in the Prairies: People in the prairies settled by the railway tracks.
Transportation was by train.
Know diagram for all 3 settlements! (in test)
Seismic: relating to Earthquakes
Canadas West Coast (BC) is the most seismic because it is where two tectonic plates
Plate Tectonics: the study of how the Earths plates move and create seismic activity
Subduction Zone: a long region with a trench, where a tectonic plate is pushed down
into earth
Richter Scale: a measure of the power of earthqukes
5 Themes of Geography:
Movement of people, ideas, objects
Regions - formal, functional, perceptual
Environmental interaction
Location- absolute and relative
Place - physical and cultural characteristics
Absolute Location: position on the globe (latitude and longitude)
Relative Location: how far or how long one place is from another
Vancouvers significance: seaport
Kelownas significance: gateway to Okanagan Valley / transportation and service hub
Calgarys significance: business centre
Landforms: Bodies of waste, soil and mineral deposits. Brings both advantages and
disadvantages to locations.
Cultural Landscape: visible results of human activity
Regions: areas with common characteristics
Regional issues: climate change, changing economy, building of communities

Death of distance - resulted from the speed of communication (Ex: modern

Globalization makes it difficult for us to understand the slowness of communication in
the past.
Protecting the environment is now a global issue. Cyberspace helps.
Humans depend on the environment and adapt it. They also change it to suit their
needs and desires.
Geographers want to know how people change the environment and how this will affect
the future.
Sustainability: is the concept that aims to meet the needs of our generation while
preserving the environment, so that future generations can meet their needs too.
All maps provide a visual representation of an area!
Scale: used by maps to indicate distance
Satellites: gather info on land use, pollution and weather
Geographic Information System (GIS): information system that stores geographic
4 Types of Maps: Political maps, Physical/Topographic maps, Historical maps,
Thematic maps (pg 15 in txtbook)
Geology: the study of the Earths crust
Topography: shape and structure of a place or region
Regions are based mostly on: type of rock found in that region and topography
How did ice and snow shape Canada? A million years ago, snow turned into ice which
began to spread out covering more land. As the ice sheets moved, it shaped the land.
The creation of the Canadian Shield: ice sheets scraped away a large area down to
bare rock - forming the Canadian Shield
Moraines: ridges formed as a result of rocks and debris
Glacial Erratics: large boulder found throughout Canada
Sedimentary Rock: rock made up of layered deposits
Igneous Rock: rock formed from molten material
Metamorphic Rock: rock changed from its original form through heat and pressure
3 Types of Regions Formal, Functional and Perceptual Regions
Formal Regions: Based on official boundaries (cities, provinces). Ex: St. Lawrence
Functional Regions: Based on connections created by an activity (such as
communication). Ex: Distribution area of a newspaper.

Perceptual Regions: Based on peoples attitudes and feelings. Ex: Up north.

Globalization: is the process of political, cultural and technological forces creating a
global society
6 Physical Regions of Canada (MAP): pg.16 in txtbook / look at pictures too!
Appalachian Region: was once an ancient, now eroded mountain range
Fjords: older mountains worn down by glaciers and erosions
Canadian Shield Region: half of Canadas area, no soil for growing, many valuable
Arctic Region: extremely fragile environment, few people, plains/ mountains
St.Lawrence Lowlands: small but has half of Canadas population, well drained soils
ideal for agriculture
The Interior Plains: was once covered with water, most flat grassland, large deposits of
fossil fuels and potash
The Cordillera: has a rugged landscape with parallel mountains (youngest landforms in
Canada), rich mineral deposits (copper, gold)
Weather: changing conditions from day to day (Ex: windy, cloudy, rainy)
Climate: the temperature and precipitation of a region over long periods of time
Continental Climate: climate of Canadas Interior that experiences temperature
extremes and low precipitation
Maritime Climate: climate of Coastal Areas that generally have mild temperatures and
high precipitation
Precipitation Climate: rain, snow, hail, fog
Cold Front: the type of weather system that occurs most often in the Winter
Warm Front: the type of weather system that occurs most often in the Summer
5 Factors that affect climate: Latitude Ocean currents Altitude Distance from sea
Wind direction
Latitude: As, latitude increases = seasonal climatic variation increase
Ocean Currents: warm the air which is blown onto land, can be warm or cold
Altitude: higher altitude = colder temperature (Ex: mountains)
Distance from the sea: the closer a place is to a large body of water, the smaller the
variation of temperature; the farther a place is from a large body of water, the larger
the variation of temperature
Wind Directions: In Canada, winds come from the West or the North. The West Coast
of Canada has mild winter temperatures because of warm winds coming off the

Distance from the sea and prevailing Winds largely determines the amount of
perception received by an area
Whats the greenhouse affect and whats responsible for it? The greenhouse
affect seen as the overall warming of Earths climate. Industrialization is responsible.
The world burns massive amounts of fossil fuels that traps greenhouses gases in the
Negative effects of climate change in the Arctic Region: Melting permafrost = homes
being damaged; Ice roads melting early = polar bears starving
Natural Regions of Canada (MAP): pg.29 in txtbook
Subarctic: coldest climate, arctic wildlife
Tundra: treeless landscape with permafrost
Open woodland: scattered trees and grass
Coniferous Forest: evergreens, soil is not very fertile
Coast and Interior Forest: found in BC, taller trees due to wet climate, abundant
Mixed Forest: softwood trees and hard wood trees
Parkland: long grasses
Grassland: short grasses with not enough moisture for trees, most fertile soils
Water pollution in the Alberta Oil Sands is mutating the number of fish
The Capitals and Provinces of Canada: *look online*
Your Not Nice
Billy And Sally Made Our Queen Nervous, Playing Near Needles
Shows average monthly temperature = line graph (red)
Shows monthly precipitation = bar graph (blue)
(Latitude: N or S , Longitude: E or W)
Population Density: how many people live in a certain place
Population Distribution: where people live in that place
Factors that affect population density and distribution: flat land, transportation,
favourable temperature, resource availability, good soil
Elevation: height above sea level or ground level
Contour interval: difference in elevation between contour lines


Chapter 2
After the war of 1812:
Colonists starting settling in Upper Canada, while Lower Canada was still building its
economy. In the Maritimes, fishing and shipbuilding prospered. Fur was a major reason
for expanding. The aboriginal people were very important to the fur trade, but they lost
out. They suffered from disease brought by the Europeans, were forced to give up their
land and starved as food sources declined.
Hudson Bay Company (HBC) vs North West Company (NWC)
The HBC controlled all the land draining into the Hudson Bay. The NWC began in
Montreal and competed for fur trade in the West.
Land for the Fur Trade or for the Colonies?
Fur traders wanted the land to stay wild and disorganized, whereas colonists wanted
fixed boundaries, roads and land that they could own. The Aboriginal people and the Fur
traders became allies.


Upper Canada = Canada West = Ontario. Most colonists lived near the Great Lakes.
The land in Upper Canada was densely forested and took a long time to clear. There
were few roads so most people walked. Most immigrants were Loyalists, who soon
became the leaders of the communities along with retired British officers and members
of the British gentry.
Daily Life for the Colonists (1820s)
People needed each other and formed close communities. They helped build their own
schools. Farming was hard, since most people went in dept trying to grow their first
crop, forcing them to mortgage their next years crop. Colonists used the barter system
in which they payed with goods instead of cash.
The Importance of Social Class
In Upper Canada, Family background was very important. People had wanted to keep
the same privileges they had in Britain, but were disappointed to find that cheap labour
was not as available and the middle class could now own land in the colonies. Many
people still saw Britain as their home and even sent their kids back to England to be
educated. The poor colonists had wanted an American-style democracy which scared
Britain, who then tried to enforce the same British Society onto the colonies - with the

gentry controlling large estates and tenant farmers. This angered immigrants who had
left England to escape that same class system.
The Problem of Land
In Upper Canada, everyone wanted to own land! Those who didnt farm, worked as
seed sellers or black smiths. Unfortunately for the colonists, much of the good land was
already owned by absentee landlords, land speculators, and members of the Family
Compact :( Aside to that, advertisement had also deceived immigrants, leading them to
believe that they could own good, cheap land when really there was no good land for
the poor immigrants. *The problem of the land was the key reason why people were
angry towards the government and family compact*
Crown and Clergy Reserves
2/7 of all the land in Upper Canada was set aside for the Crown and Clergy to provide
income for the government and Anglican Church. Often, this land remain unoccupied,
blocking the building of roads and raising the price of available land. This made many
colonists angry >:(
The Role of the British Government (Upper Canada)
The British government had wanted the same model of land ownership that was used in
England to be used in Upper Canada. This involved dividing the land into large estates
controlled by aristocrats - who the British Government believed would be the best rulers
of the colonies. Most immigrants were against this and saw the British policy as
discriminatory. The First Nations were also worried and tried to secure their land by
signing treaties.
The Immigrant Experience
Most immigrants came from Britain, America and Europe. In Upper Canada, they kept
close to York and in Lower Canada, they moved to the Eastern Townships where French
culture and the seigneurial system prevailed. They faced expensive and deadly journeys
to get there (North America).
Deadly Journeys
Most Irish and Scottish immigrants had to travel in steerage in filthy overcrowded
vessels called coffin ships. There were no bathrooms, poor food and bad hygiene
which made disease inevitable. Ships were quarantined upon arrival and half of all
travellers would either end up sick or dead.
Cultural Diversity in Canada
Canadas history was written by the British, but they were not the majority. In Upper
Canada, many colonists were American, Irish or Scottish and Lower Canada had
previously been a French colony with a francophone culture.
Black Canadians

Many loyalists brought their slaves with them into Canada. In 1793, Upper Canada
decided to abolish slavery since most blacks living in Canada were already free. They
were promised land but not the ability to vote.
The Underground Railway
The underground railway was a network of secret routes and safe houses used by
Black American slaves to reach Canada and escape slavery. Those who came during
the Loyalist migration tended to settle in the Maritimes. The Quakers and Methodists
helped them. Yay, this meant freedom! BUTthere was still a lot of racial discrimination
in Upper Canada towards the blacks :(
Harriet Tubman: a black activist who helped hundreds of slaves escape to Canada
James Douglas: the governor of BC who invited the blacks to settle on Salt Spring
Josiah Henson: a black American who was freed by the underground railway, fought in
the rebellions and after, became an educator and church minister
Mary Ann Shadd: the first women editor of an any Canadian newspaper; she escaped
the U.S and became an advocate of education, womens rights and the abolition of
Immigrant women in Upper Canada
Married women saw their status through their marriages. Unmarried women depended
on their relatives for support. Divorce didnt exist so choosing the right partner was very
important! This led to socials events like matchmaking. A man could marry-down but a
women could not because she would lose socials status if she did. Women worked hard
to run the household with no help from the men. This was totally unfair because women
often helped the men with planting and harvesting. Aside to this injustice, women were
also believed to live short lives since childbirth was risky, medical care was expensive
and their homes were overcrowded and unsanitary.
Colonial Government and the Need for Reform
The government in the colonies (British North America) was neither representative nor
responsible. The people were run by a few wealthy men known as the family compact,
with Britain in control from afar. The Constitution Act of 1791 created Upper and Lower
Canada giving it: an elected, law making Legislative Assembly, a governor and two
councils. Only male landowners could vote and the governor and his two councils had
the real power and could veto any move made by the Legislative Assembly.
A list of Grievances
As mentioned before, land speculators and crown & clergy reserves, blocked the
building of roads and raised the price of land which angered the colonists >:((!!!

Thats why, Robert Gourlay drew up a list of these Grievances to demand change. Soon
after, he was arrest and kicked out of the colony which angered the colonists even more,
so they got a new leader: William Lyon Mackenzie.
William Lyon Mackenzie: started the Colonial Advocate, a newspaper that strongly
criticized the government. His newspaper office was later ransacked by the Family
Compact which got him elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1828.

The Situation in Lower Canada

Lower Canada = Canada East = Quebec. Here, the political situation was BAD.The
French majority was controlled by the English minority who ruled without democracy and
as you can imagine, the French found this intolerable. For instance, the French had no
representation and were unfairly forced to pay taxes. The Chteau Clique (led by John
Molson) controlled business and government in Lower Canada. It was supported by the
Catholic Church and wealthy french landowners aka Seigneurs.
Economic Difficulties
The agricultural economy was failing. Arable land was limited and Lower Canada was
not able to produce enough wheat to feed itself so wheat was imported from Upper
Canada which created an economic deficit. As a result, seigneurs quickly turned to
forestry and did not share the wealth.
The French had mistrusted the English, needing to protect their language and religion.
They also feared English migration for it weakened their population. In 1832, there was
a cholera epidemic which the French thought was purposely spread by the English to kill
them off.
Three Issues for Reform
1. Discrimination against the French
2. Lack of representation in government
3. Taxes
Louis Joseph Papineau: leader of the protests in Lower Canada, member of the
Legislative assembly and leader of the Parti Canadien
Wolfred Nelson: mayor of Montreal and leader of the Patriotes
James Craig: governor of Lower Canada, openly anti-french and arrested those who
criticized the government
After British soldiers shot protestors in Montreal, Papineau submitted 92 resolutions to
the governor which were responded to three years later with 10 resolutions. This led
Papineau and the Patriotes to rebel against the government.

The Rebellions of 1837

It became clear that the government was not willing to reform, so Mackenzie and
Papineau prepared for an armed rebellion.
Rebellion in Lower Canada
In 1837, Rebellion broke out when a group of patriots resisted arrest. Protestors were
joined by the Fils de la Libert sons of liberty.
FULL rebellion, however, didnt begin until the British had tried to arrest Papineau who
fled to the U.S. The Catholic Church was unsupportive and advised people to stay loyal
to Britain. In less than a month, the rebellion was over.
One year later, in 1838, some Patriotes tried to rebel again which quickly failed.
Rebellion in Upper Canada
Mackenzie had wanted an American-style democracy.
When Sir Francis Bond Head dissolved the Assembly for opposing him, Mackenzie saw
this as a cause for FULL rebellion. Hearing that Head sent troops to Lower Canada,
Mackenzie decided to attack York. The rebels lost and Mackenzie had little support so
he had to flee to the United States :( poor mackenzie!
Sir Francis Bond Head: governor of Upper Canada who abused his power
Punishing the Rebels
Many rebels were pardoned - Mackenzie and Papineau. Few were hanged - Samuel
Lount. Others were sent to Tasmania (off of Australia) where they would work as slaves
on plantations.

The Aftermath
The Union Act of 1841 ended hopes for a free Lower Canada, as English became the
language of the government.
Lord Durhams Report
After the rebellions, the British realized things needed to change so they sent Durham to
determine appropriate action. Essentially, Durham was a dictator. He was a hero to the
English in Canada but was considered a racist to the French. He was lenient towards
rebels but having no support in his decisions, he resigned and returned to England to
finish his report.
Durhams Report suggested that:
-Upper and Lower Canada be joined

-Both colonies be given responsible government

-All colonies be brought together
The problem: the French would be forced to assimilate into English Canada
Union and Beyond

Durham stated that even though peace could not be achieved without democracy,
Canada should still be controlled by England.
A United Canada
Durhams successor, Lord Sydenham, united the two colonies in the Act of Union (184)
which created the province of Canada with Montreal as its capital. The French had no
say in this.

Colony: the overseas possession of another country
Upper Canada: British colony up the St.Lawrence, Canada West = Ontario, mostly
English speaking
Lower Canada: British down the St.Lawrence, Canada East = Quebec, mostly
French speaking
Royal Proclamation of 1763: A British declaration confirming Aboriginal title to lands
west of the Mississippi River
Implicit: Something that is implied, not openly expressed
Metis: A person of both Aboriginal and European descent
Loyalist: Americans who did not support the American Revolution, many moved to the
British Colonies
Gentry: The upper class in Britain
Clergy: People ordained for religious service
Mortgage: to use something as security for a loan
Barter Economy: an economy based on trading products and services, instead of
using money
Blight: a disease caused by fungus, or bacteria that can kill plants
Estate: a tract of land, owned by one person
Tenant farmer: someone who farms land owned by someone else
Class system: a society in which those born into privileged families have advantages
that others do not
Family Compact: the small group of wealthy elite who controlled government in Upper
Chateau Clique: the wealthy elite who controlled Lower Canada, mostly made up of
English speaking merchants
Absentee Landlords: a person who owns and rents property, but does not live in the
Land speculators: those who buy property at a low price and sell it at a higher price
Seigneurial System: the system of landholding in New France, seigneurs were given

estates and responsibilities to settle the land

Coffin Ship: a death ship
Steerage: the area below decks on a ship, used to store cargo
Francophone: a French-speaking person
Representative government: a government made up of officials elected by the people
Responsible government: a government subject to the votes of the people
Oligarchy: rule by a small, select group of people
Veto: to stop with authority
Deficit: a situation where there is more spending than income
Nationalism: devotion to the support of ones culture and nation, may result in the
promotion of independence
Insurrection: taking up arms against the government
Pioneer: early colonists
Dictator: a ruler with unrestricted power, without any democratic restrictions

1791: Constitutional Act creates Upper and Lower Canada
1814: Louis-Joseph Papineau is elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada
1817: Robert Gourlay is arrested for criticizing land policies in Upper Canada
1824: William Lyon Mackenzie establishes the Colonial Advocate
1826: Papineau becomes leader of the Patriotes
1828: Mackenzie is elected to the Legislative Assembly
1837: November - Battle of St.Charles / December - Battle of Montgomerys Tavern
1838: Lord Durham arrives in Quebec
1840: Act of Union is passed

Fig 2-25 (pg.66)

Chapter 3:

The Colonies in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Once the rebellions of 1837 came to an end, many English speaking immigrants moved
to the colonies and outnumbered the French Canadians. In the 1800s, Britain was the
worlds superpower.
Victorians Rich and Poor
During the victorian era, a persons social class determined their wealth, education and
social standing. Social standing was determined by a persons family background. The

Middle Class consisted of very wealthy people who were not aristocrats by birth. Most
people lived in poverty. Workers were paid poorly and had to work long hours, with no
vacations, welfare or health care. They had no support from the government, only
Churches and relatives helped out. Most of the new English, Scottish and Irish
immigrants were poor and uneducated. Religion was an important part of life: English Anglican, Scots - Presbyterian, Irish - Catholic. Church leaders made decisions
regarding education and told people who to vote for.
Victorian Attitudes and Values
Morals, hard work and personal success were important to the Victorians. They were
materialistic and loved to spend money $$$! New, advanced technology and medicine
were discovered regularly.
New Age of Science and Medicine
Vaccinations against terrible diseases, such as small pox, were made.
Doctors knew little about hygiene; they often smoked during operations, operating
instruments were not sterilized and people had free access to the operating room.
Louis Pasteur was the first person to theorize that bacteria caused illnesses. He used
Carbolic Acid as an antiseptic.
Emily Stowe: one of the first female doctors in the British Empire and an activist for
womens rights
Leisure and Technology
Victorian Canadians liked to be entertained. They often attended concerts and sporting
events and read books and magazines. People also socialized while playing cards
(whist), checkers and chess. Lacrosse became Canadas national sport. Leisure travel
became possible thanks to better roads and technology.
Changing Technology
The discovery of the steam locomotive was a huge deal. Having a railway stimulated
wealth for the colonies for it granted access to new markets and more industries,
increasing trade. Train tickets were cheap, so even the poor could afford a ticket. A rail
connection to Halifax made the transport of goods and people easier and quicker for
Canada East and West. A railway also helped defend Canada from American Invasion,
by allowing more people to be sent to the West in order to defend Canada.
Victorian Media: the newspaper
In 1752, The Halifax Gazette, Canadas first newspaper, was born. The Newspaper was
the media and source of information in Victorian Canada. It was also used by politicians
to promote ideas, and businesses to sell products. Victorian newspapers were usually
biased not that truthful, their focus was on local news.

Victorian Times and Aboriginal People

Aboriginal people were pushed aside and forced to live on small reserves. They
suffered from disease, poverty and discrimination, and were no longer treated as allies.
The government wanted all Aboriginals to becomes farmers. The Mohawks had an
easier time adapting. In 1857, the Gradual Civilization Act was passed to assimilate the
Aboriginal people so that once they became English citizens, they would lose their
treaty rights to land. In 1876, this act was replaced with the Indian Act. To the Victorians,
the aboriginals were uncivilized and childlike.

Toward Confederation
Britain feared that Durhams suggestion of a responsible government would affect its
trade with North American colonies. They still favoured Mercantilism.
Economic Pressures
The corn laws made it so that Canadian grain would enter Britain with low import
charges. This made bread in Britain expensive. In 1846, Britain repealed the corn laws
which caused an economic depression in Canada. At this point, influenced by John A
Macdonalds proposal, Canadians began to look at the union of all colonies as a way of
helping their economy. A united British North America could improve trade,
transportation and economic policies.
Lord Elgin and Responsible Government
Lord Elgin was Lord Durhams son-in-law and Governor General of Canada. His job
was to establish a responsible government in order to relieve Britain of its economic
responsibilities to the colonies, while still keeping them in the British Empire. His goal
was to make Canada semi-independent and democratic. In 1849, Lord Elgin signed the
Rebellion Loses Bill because it was passed by the new democratic government. This
angered many English citizens who violently protested, eventually setting fire to the
parliament buildings.
Building a Nation
Canadian View
Many were unsure of the Confederation (union of all colonies) because a joined Canada
might mean they would lose some of their independence, there was little in common
between the people in the colonies and a confederation would cost money which meant
increased taxes.

Political Factors

Benefits of having a confederation (united British North America):

Canadian View
trade and transportation between colonies would be easier, better economic policies,
better system for getting bills passed and political independence from Britain. A united
British North America would also stand a better chance at defending itself from

American Invasion.
British View
Britain would no longer be economically responsible for the colonies, but the colonies
would still be part of the British Empire.
The West and The American Threat
A confederation could allow Canada to annex the Western territories before America
did. The Manifest destiny claimed that the United States was destined to own all of
North America. In the American Civil war, Britain angered the North by allowing the
South to attack the North through Canadian colonies.
The Promise of Better Government
The province of Canada was full of independent politicians who answered to no one creating crisis in the government. The government was made up of a coalition of
political parties.
Party Politics
Political parties were created to attract people with similar goals and ideas. Aboriginal
people had no party and no representation :( In Canada East: the Parti Rouge, led by
Papineau, and the Parti Bleu, led by Cartier and supported by the Catholic Church, both
represented French Canadian interests. In Canada West: the Clear Grits, led by Brown,
pushed for representation by population which meant that each representative should
represent the same number of people. Brown was a radical who ran the Globe, a
Toronto newspaper that attacked government corruption. The Tories was led by John A.
Macdonald, who formed an alliance with the Parti Bleu. Double Majority meant that a
majority was needed in both Canada East and Canada West to pass a law.

Confederation Achieved:
Negotiating the terms of the Confederation was tricky because the Maritime colonies
had more trade with the United States than they did with Canada.
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: A Maritime View
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were prosperous colonies that already had a
responsible government and did not see the benefit of being governed by a federal
government based in England. Reciprocity (free trade between US and British Colonies)
ended, weakening the economy. Technology was hurting forestry (wooden ships were
being replaced by steel). Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island did not join the
Confederation immediately because they thought that the development of a railway
would hurt their economy.
The Fenian Raids
After the American Civil War, an Irish organization of rebels named the Fenian
Brotherhood set out to get revenge on England for destroying Ireland. They were not

successful in their attacks on Canada East and West, but managed to convince many
colonists that the threat of the Manifest Destiny was real.
The Conferences
Charlottetown Conference (Sept. 1864): The premiers of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
and PEI met to discuss a union of the Maritime colonies. Leaders of the great coalition
(Macdonald, Cartier and Brown) joined the conference and got them to agree to the
Quebec Conference (Oct. 1864): All the colonies met again to discuss how much power
the Provincial and Federal government should have. In the end, there was a
compromise. The Provincial Government would have power over internal affairs such as
schooling, and the Federal Government would have power over eternal affairs such as
July 1st, 1867: with British approval, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
became the Dominion of Canada (officially becoming a country).
British Columbia and Union
BC did not officially participate in the confederation, but was still interested in the idea of
a railway linking the colony to Eastern Canada. They believed that a railway link would
create growth and development in the West. Amor de Cosmos was BCs 2nd premier.

The British North American Act

The British North American Act was passed by Britain and created a democratic
Canada, while maintaining the Monarchy at the head.
Canadas Federal Government
Canadas Federal government has been divided into 3 branches: Executive, Legislative
and Judicial.
Federal Responsibility
coinage and currency, fisheries, postal service, banking, unemployment insurance,
Provincial Responsibility
timber, administration of justice, education, business licenses, education, incorporation
of companies
Responsibility Shared by the Federal and Provincial governments
- Queen Victorias reign lasted 60 years.
- MacDonald had to give up his idea for a strong federal government because it was
decided that the provincial government should keep many powers.
- Confederation is the union of colonies under one central government.
- Pasteurization, named after Louis Pasteur, is the process of heating food or liquid to

kill bacteria.
- In order to extend to the West, Canada bought Ruperts Land from the Hudsons Bay
- Annexation Manifesto was a plan made by English merchants in Montreal to allow the
United States to take over Canada.


1837 - Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada

1838 - Lord Durham writes his report on the causes of the rebellions and his
1841 - Act of Union unites Upper and Lower Canada with two provinces, Canada west
and East
1846 - Potato famine devastates Ireland
1849 - Lord Elgin sign Rebellion Losses Bill
1854 - Reciprocity Treaty with the United States
1856 - Grand Trunk railway is completed
1857 - Gradual Civilization Act introduced to assimilate Aboriginal Peoples into English
1864 - Charlottetown and Quebec conferences discuss the terms of confederation
1865 - American Civil War ends
1867 - July 1, Canada officially becomes a country (British North American Act is
Hudsons Bay Company

North West Company


Managed from London

Managed from Montreal

New employees took longer

to arrive from London

Would not bargain; would

not trade alcohol

Open to bargaining; would

trade alcohol

NWC was often seen as

the more popular company
to deal with

Held to a stay by the bay


Set up forts along major

rivers in the Northwest

It was easier for First

Nation trappers to reach
NWC trading forts

Discouraged partnerships
with First Nations women

Encouraged partnerships
with First Nations women

NWC traders had a social

and economic advantage
due to their connections
with Frist Nations

Victorian - a person who lived during the reign of Queen Victoria
Antiseptic - something that kills and prevents the spread of bacteria
Infrastructure - roads, canals, sewers and transportation networks
Reserves - land set aside by governments for the use of First Nations
Band - an Aboriginal community recognized by the government as an administrative
Assimilate - to join another culture and to give up ones own language and traditions
Enfranchisement - granting someone the rights and protection of a citizen of a
particular country
Cultural genocide - the act of completely destroying the culture of a people
Mercantilism - an economic system based on colonialism
Corn laws - laws which protected agriculture in the British Empire by limiting foreign
Tariff - A duty, or charge, that must be paid on an imported item
Economic depression - a period of low economic activity marked by high
Federation - a union of provinces, who give up power to a federal government
Annex - to take over territory
Manifest destiny - an American idea that it was the fate of the United States to control
all of North America
Whip - person who is responsible for ensuring discipline in a political party
Coalition - when political parties work together to achieve a common goal
Corruption - taking bribes or using ones influence to gain an unfair advantage
Reciprocity - free trade agreement between the United states and the British Colonies
Rebellion Losses Bill - gave compensation to people whose property was damaged
Senate - the Upper House whose members are chosen by Prime Minister

Important People
George Brown
George E. Cartier
John A. MacDonald

Fig 3-24: Colonies of British North America
Fig 3-33 : Map of Canada
People / Faces

Chapter 4

The Fur Trade

The fur trade was the driving force behind European settlement in the Northwest.
The Hudsons Bay Company
The HBC company was founded in 1670. Charles II claimed the land surrounding the
Hudson Bay for England and gave the HBC exclusive trading rights in Ruperts land for
200 years. The HBC built trading posts at the mouths of rivers, so first nations trappers
had to bring fur to them (stay by the bay policy). They were mostly after beaver. Each
year, a supply ship would send goods and new employees to York Factory on Hudson
Bay in return for fur.
The Northwest Company
For nearly 100 years the HBC had no competition.. until fur traders from new France
started opening trading posts along rivers in the Northwest. First nations preferred trade
with the French because they came to them. In 1763, English merchants living in
Montreal took over the French fur trade but continued employing the French. In 1783,
the NWC was formed. Supplies moved from England to Montreal to the newly formed
Fort William to inland posts. Transportation from Fort William could take up to 120 days.
Differences between the HBC and NWC
Getting Around the Northwest
Travelling in the Northwest meant using the regions rivers. Waterfalls forced voyageurs
to carry both cargo and boat on land. On the rivers the NWC used canoes. To travel
between Fort William and Montreal, the canot du maitre was used and for journeys
within the Northwest, the canot du nord was used. The HBC used York boats (based on
small fishing boats developed in Scotland). York boats were sturdy and could withstand
lake storms and accidents. They were also good in ice and lasted longer than canoes.
The First Nations of the Northwest
The 4 major First Nations: Cree, Anishinab, Nakoda and Dene. They all had members
who were involved in the fur trade.
The Impact of the Fur Trade
Supplying furs provided a more immediate reward SO many First Nation gave up on
their traditional ways of economy. But when the animal population went down, the
lifestyle for the First Nations died :( The families facing starvation were forced to move to
new areas. The First Nations were also nearly wiped out by epidemics, brought by the
First Nations Women: Vital to the Fur Trade
First nations women helped collect furs. Provided food, shelter, medicine and clothing
for labourers. Gathered pine gum to fix canoes. And worked as guides and negotiators.
Many married European fur traders, creating the Mtis. The Mtis women took on the

roles that Native Women had.

The Northwest from 1800 to 1860
Competition between NWC and HBC was intense. Fur resources decreased. By 1820,
both companies were almost bankrupt.
The Mtis
It became common for French-Canadian fur traders living in the Northwest to marry
Native women. Through these marriages, traders secured ties with the First Nations
they worked with. Marriage was hard for First Nations women - they had to leave their
families and live in fur trading posts. The HBC tried to stop these marriages, but was not
able to enforce its policy of celibacy. HBC felt that kids would be a drain on its finances.
Children of the Fur Trade
The children of the fur trade were referred to as the Mtis (half French-Canadian half
First Nation). They spoke Michif made up of French and Cree. Other Mtis had either a
Scottish or English (Anglo-Mtis) background and spoke Bungee (now extinct).
Settling at Red River
Many Mtis settled in the Red River Valley which consisted of some of the best farm
land in the Prairies. Farms were set up in long narrow lots starting at the riverbank
(French-Canadian style). Behind the river lots was hay privilege, where farmers could
grow hay. The Bison hunt had become a central part of Mtis life.
The Bison Hunt
Most of the bison meat was dried to make pemmican and the hides were used to make
buffalo robes - these items were sold to the NWC. Pemmican was high in protein and
could be stored for years, this was important for the long voyages of the fur traders. The
buffalo hunt involved the whole community and fostered a strong sense of pride.
The Selkirk Settlement
In 1812, European colonists settled in the Red River.
The Earl of Selkirk
Thomas Douglas, a wealthy Earl of Selkirk, was troubled by the difficult situation of poor
Scottish farmers and wanted to help. He established colonies in PEI and Upper Canada
where displaced tenants could migrate to. He also planned on establishing colonies in
the Northwest, even though the Mtis already lived there >:(!
Choosing the Red River Valley
Selkirk felt that he could benefit both tenant farmers and the HBC by creating a farming
colony the Selkirk settlement in the Red River Valley. Farmers would maintain their
way of live and HBC would have the farm products necessary for its operations.
In 1811, the HBC gave Selkirk 300,00sq.km of Ruperts land, not caring about the

The Pemmican Proclamation

In 1814, Miles Macdonell issued the Pemmican Proclamation which banned the sale of
pemmican from the Red River Valley for one year. It was intended to protect colonists
from starvation but ended up angering the Mtis, who made a living from the pemmican
trade as well as the NWC, who relied on pemmican to supply its fur traders. Mcdonell
even tried to kick out NWC employees from the Red River Valley.
The North West Company Strikes Back
Culbert Grant, leader of the Mtis, joined with the NWC to drive the British colonists
away! The NWC and Mtis harassed the colonists, burning down buildings and
destroying their crops. Soon, many colonists left for Norway House and Miles Macdonell
was arrested.
The Battle of Seven Oaks
Colin Robertson, an HBC factor, led British colonists back to the Red River Valley in
order to make peace with the NWC. This was until Robert Semple, the new governor of
the colony, angered the Mtis by burning down Fort Gibraltar (empty post). The Mtis
saw this as an act of war and attacked several HBC York Boats - taking a large amount
of pemmican with them! When Semple went to confront the Mtis, the Mtis split into
two groups and surrounded Semple and his men. Grant attempted a parlay, which failed
and turned into a gunfight. This became known as the Battle of Seven Oaks and is
referred to as the Victory at Frog Plain by the Mtis. Grant allowed the remaining
colonists to leave for Norway House. Hearing about the battle, Selkirk quickly seized
Fort William (NWC post) and gave the land to colonists. When he returned to England,
he faced many lawsuits filed by the NWC.
The Merger of the HBC and NWC
In 1821, the British government feared losing control of the Northwest and forced the
HBC and the NWC to merge. The new company (HBC) was given control over Ruperts
Land and full monopoly over all lands west of the Rockies as well as the Arctic Ocean.
Changes in Organization
York boats were used for transportation. The Mtis and First nations were essential to
the new HBC. The Mtis supplied pemmican, while the First Nations worked as
trappers and guides. George Simpson ran the HBC for 40 years and visited many
trading posts in order to get first-hand information about the operations.
The Red River Valley: 1821 - 1860
By 1821, there was finally peace in the Red River Valley. The population was evenly
divided between the Mtis and the European colonist. The economy was based on the
needs of the HBC. The Scottish settlers sold crops to the HBC. The Mtis provided
pemmican through the Bison hunt.

Race and Social Class in Red River

George Simpson left his Mtis wife and children for his English cousin, Frances, who he
brought with him to Red River. He set out to improve the society in the Red River Valley
by introducing European women. Frances declared that she would not interact with the
Mtis, so the Simpsons soon found themselves isolated. Later on, they left the Red
River for Montreal.
A Self-Sufficient Community
The Red River settlement was isolated from the other colonies. Pemmican was the
staple food and most tasks were done by hand: women worked in fields as well as at
home. Bannock was a nice treat!
The Red River Colony began to expand and at this point, the Mtis believed that that
the had the right to trade despite the HBC trade monopoly. In 1849, 4 mtis were
charged with illegal trading. The judge found one of the defendants guilty, but the jury
called for mercy since there was a large crowd of angry Mtis surrounding the trail. No
punishment was given. The HBC could no longer enforce its monopoly.
SUCK IT HBC - the Mtis.
Changes: The Red River Settlement from 1860-1870
By 1860, the influence of the HBC had declined and more people began to move into
the area.
Rising Tensions
Most of the new arrivals were Protestant and members of the Orange Order ( an antiFrench / anti-Catholic movement). They were extremely biased towards the Mtis living
in the area. Economic problems also caused tension at Red River.
Doctor John Christian Schultz: not a doctor, ran the NorWester newspaper,
organized the Canadian party in hopes of gaining political control in the colony
Canada Purchases Ruperts Land
The HBC realized that running Ruperts Land was too expensive and began
negotiations to transfer its control over Ruperts Land. Ruperts land became part of the
Northwest Territories.
The Red River Resistance
Louis Riel led the Red River Resistance and formed the National Mtis committee in
order to fight for Mtis rights.
The Provisional Government
William McDougall was lieutenant governor of the North-West Territories. He was
disliked by Riel and the Mtis who were ready to fight for their rights but had no
intention of rebelling against the government. Riel set up a provincial government to
maintain order and give the Mtis people a voice. His government became the legal

government of the area with sovereign rights, thanks to a mistake made by

Riel Takes Action
Riel set out to control the Red River Settlement, first arresting John Schultz and his
supporters. Hearing this, John MacDonald sent Donald Smith (HBC negotiator) to
negotiate with Riel. They both agreed on sending delates to Ottawa to negotiate the
creation of Manitoba.

The execution of Thomas Scott marked the end of the threat of war between the Mtis
and the Canadian party.

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