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2014/2015

FINAL YEAR PROJECT


Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the
ENGINEERING DEGREE FROM THE LEBANESE UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING BRANCH II
Major: Mechanical Engineering
Prepared By:
Majd MAKHLOUF
Firas HADDAD
__________________________________________________________________

LINEAR FREE PISTON ENGINE :


STUDY AND DESIGN
Supervised by:
Dr Marwan AZZI
Defended on the 23rd of July 2015 in front of the jury:

Dr Fady HANNA
Dr Marlne CORDAHI
Dr Ghazi TAWTAH
Dr Rany RIZK

President
Member
Member
Member

Dedicated to our families


for their continuous support,
and to the founders of Wikipedia,
including Jimmy Wales.

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

III

Acknowledgment
First of all, we would like to thank our advisor Dr Marwan AZZI for all
his efforts throughout the duration of this project.
In addition, we would like to thank Dr Fady HANNA, Dr Rany RIZK,
Mr Atef HACHEM and Mr Tanios GEMAYEL for all their support throughout
this project.
Moreover, we would like to thank the head of Phoenix Machinery's
research and development department Mr Dany KADDOUM for all his
contributions to this work.
We would like to give our most warmful thanks to Mr Hady EL
BOUSTANY, Mr Rony SEIF and Mr Ibrahim SFEIR for the great help they
kindly offered us, and for spending a great amount of their precious time
dealing with some of the difficulties that we encountered and consulted them
about. We would also like to thank Mr Charles BERBERI for providing us with
many tools that proved to be very helpful in the design process of this project,
in addition to Mr Fady EL SAIFI, Dr Elie ABOU CHAKRA, Mr Rony SFEIR,
Mr Wissam NASR, and all of Phoenix Machinery's staff and employees.
We would like to thank Mr Charbel AKIKI, Mr Kamil DAGHFAL, and
Mr Mario El HADDAD for generously providing us with many of the essential
parts that were used in this project.
Finally, we would like to thank Dr Ghazi TAWTAH for generously
sharing with us a great deal of his vast knowledge and experience with internal
combustion engines, and for helping us move forward at many occasions
during the design process of this project.
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

Abstract
Being a fully linear crank-less engine, a free piston engine requires in
itself a thorough detailed study and a careful design approach to take into
account its unconventional aspects. After a thorough investigation of many of
the free piston engines that have been manufactured throughout history, it was
found that the most efficient and most practical one was the Pescara opposed
piston engine, which uses a pneumatic rebound system. The aforementioned
engine was the one used as a basis for the design of this engine. A detailed
numerical simulation has been conducted based on the Pescara opposed piston
engine, which showed the higher thermal efficiency of these engines, and
provided many of the parameters that were used later in the design. Moreover,
and due to the fact that this engine is a linear one, and that it operates at a
relatively high frequency, many challenges have been overcome throughout the
design of this engine, most of which are related to the linear guides required in
such an engine, and to the unconventional reciprocating starting system. The
unconventional aspects of this engine also require the conception of an ignition
system that is adapted to this type of engines, which led to the design of an
electronic engine control unit in order to overcome the aforementioned
requirements, although such a feat is beyond the scope of mechanical
engineering. All the aforementioned details will be thoroughly discussed
throughout this document.

Keywords : free piston engine, linear, crank-less, Pescara, opposed piston,


rebound system, numerical simulation, starting system, electronic engine
control unit.

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VII

Contents

I- Introduction...........................................................................................1
II- Literature Review................................................................................3
II-1 Historic Overview.........................................................................3
II-2 Free Piston Engine Layouts........................................................10
II-3 Rebound Systems.......................................................................16
II-4 Advantages Of Free Piston Engines...........................................21
II-5 Starting Systems.........................................................................23
III- Kinetic And Thermodynamic Simulation.........................................25
III-1 Kinetic Characteristics Of The Sliders......................................28
III-2 Thermodynamic Characteristics Of The Free Piston Engine....31
III-3 Simulation Models....................................................................37
III-4 Simulation Results.....................................................................45

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IV- Main Design.....................................................................................53


V- Starting System..................................................................................59
VI- Engine Electronic Control Unit........................................................63
VI-1 Ignition Sensors.........................................................................64
VI-2 Microcontroller Selection And Ignition Algorithm...................66
VI-3 Power Transistor........................................................................70
VI-4 Ignition Circuit..........................................................................71
VII- Conclusion......................................................................................74
Appendix A : Numeric Simulation Of The Free Piston Engine................80
Appendix B : Simulation Of A Free Piston Linear Alternator..................95
Appendix C : SKF Bearing Life Calculator Report...............................106
Appendix D : Free Piston Engine Execution Drawings.........................114
Appendix E : Autodesk Inventor Stress Analysis Reports.....................148
Appendix F : Arduino Source Code Of The Engine Control Unit....184

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List Of Tables

Table 1 : Forces Acting On The Sliders....................................................29


Table 2 : Additional Results Calculated By The Simulation....................50
Table 3: Characteristics Of The OMRON E2A-S08KN04.......................64

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

List Of Figures

Figure II.1 : Otto And Langen's Free Piston Engine..................................3


Figure II.2 : Pescara Synchronization Mechanism.....................................4
Figure II.3 : Junckers' Synchronization Mechanisms.................................5
Figure II.4 : Vertical Section Of The SIGMA GS-34.................................6
Figure II.5 : Stirling Colgate's Free Piston Linear Alternator.....................7
Figure II.6 : Faraday Torch.........................................................................7
Figure II.7 : Toyota's Free Piston Linear Alternator...................................9
Figure II.8 : Beetron Free Piston Engine....................................................9
Figure II.9 : Single Piston Layout.............................................................11
Figure II.10 : Pescara Single Piston Free Piston Engine..........................12
Figure II.11 : Dual Piston Layout.............................................................13
Figure II.12 : Phoenix Machinery's Free Piston Alternator......................14
Figure II.13 : Opposed Piston Engine Layout..........................................15
Figure II.14 : SIGMA GS-34 Slider Assembly.........................................15
Figure II.15 : INNAS Chiron Hydraulic Circuit.......................................18
Figure II.16 : INNAS Chiron External Layout.........................................18
Figure II.17 : Pescara Free Piston Compressor.........................................20
Figure II.18 : SIGMA GS-34 Power Plant...............................................24
Figure III.1 : Diagrammatic Sketch Of A Free Piston Gas Generator......26
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Figure III.2 : Reed Valve..........................................................................27


Figure III.3 : Slider Free Body Diagram..................................................29
Figure III.4 : Standard Spark-ignition Pressure-Volume Diagram...........31
Figure III.5 : Schematic Diagram Of The Compression Chamber
Cycle...................................................................................34
Figure III.6 : Schematic Diagram Of The Bounce Chamber Cycle........36
Figure III.7 : First Expansion Phase SIMULINK Model.........................38
Figure III.8 : Second Expansion Phase SIMULINK Model.....................39
Figure III.9 : Exhaust SIMULINK Model................................................40
Figure III.10 : First Admission Phase SIMULINK Model.......................41
Figure III.11 : First Admission Phase SIMULINK Model.......................42
Figure III.12 : First Compression Phase SIMULINK Model...................43
Figure III.13 : Second Compression Phase SIMULINK Model..............44
Figure III.14 : Piston Position With Respect To Time..............................46
Figure III.15 : Piston Velocity With Respect To Time..............................47
Figure III.16 : Combustion Chamber Pressure With Respect To x..........48
Figure III.17 : Bounce Chamber Pressure With Respect To x..................49
Figure III.18 : Compression Chamber Pressure With Respect To x.........50
Figure III.19 : Colgate Alternator Layout.................................................52
Figure IV.1 : Bounce Chamber Volume Control System..........................54

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XII

Figure IV.2 : Early Draft Of The Synchronization Mechanism................55


Figure IV.3 : Free Piston Engine Final Design.........................................58
Figure V.I : Scotch-yoke Mechanism.......................................................60
Figure V.2 : Early Draft Of The Crank-rocker Starting System...............61
Figure V.3 : Rack And Pinion Starting System.........................................62
Figure VI.1 : Ignition Algorithm Implemented On The
Microcontroller...................................................................68
Figure VI.2 : Schematic Diagram Of The Ignition Circuit.......................72
Figure VI.3 : Power Transistor Circuit PCB Layout................................72
Figure VI.4 : Main Ignition Electronic Circuit PCB Layout....................73

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XIII

Notation

FPEG

Free Piston Electric Generator

FPE

Free Piston Engine

NOx

Nitrogen Oxides

P-V Diagram

Pressure-Volume Diagram

ECU

Electronic Control Unit

DC

Direct Current

CDI

Capacitive Discharge Ignition

LED

Light-Emitting Diode

Sum Of Forces

Ms

Mass Of The Sliders

d2(x)/dt

Slider Acceleration

Fc

Force Due To The Pressure Of The Gases Present In The


Combustion Chamber

Fb

Force Due To The Pressure Of The Air Inside The Bounce


Chamber

Fcomp

Reaction Force Of The Scavenge Pump

Ffric

Friction Force On The Slider

Falt

Laplace Force On The Slider In Case The Engine Is Also A


Linear Alternator

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

XIV

Shear Stress Occurring In The Lubricant Between The Rings


And The Cylinder Walls

Ar

Side Area Of The Piston Rings

Piston Bore

Piston Ring Height

Dynamic Viscosity Of The Lubricant

Instantaneous Velocity Of The Slider

Piston Ring-Cylinder Wall Clearance

Position Of The Slider

Volume

vf

Fluid Flow Speed At A Point On A Streamline

Value Of Acceleration Due To Gravity

Elevation Above A Reference Plane

Pressure At The Chosen Point

Density Of A Fluid

Pc

Pressure Of The Gases Present In The Combustion Chamber

Pb

Pressure Of The Air Inside The Bounce Chamber

A1

Area Of The Small Piston

A2

Area Of The Large Piston

Meter

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mm

Millimeter

ms

Millisecond

m/s

Meters Per Second

Hz

Hertz

Joule

Kw

Kilowatt

Induced Current

Equivalent Length Of Each Of The Coils

Magnetic Field Of The Magnets

min

Minute

Newton

Pa

Pascal

bar

Unit Of Pressure ( 1 bar = 100,000 Pa)

Angle

Angular Velocity

Volt (not to be confused with the volume notation)

cc

Cubic Centimeter

rpm

Revolutions Per Minute

Ampere

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

XVI

Introduction

A linear free piston engine is an unconventional type of internal combustion


engines that is relieved out of many of the common features that can be found in
other common types of engines.
In fact, conventional elements such as flywheels, crankshafts, camshafts, or
any other rotating element, cannot be found in these engines, which leads to many
advantages that include but are not limited to weight reduction, construction
simplification, efficiency improvement, emission reduction...
Unlike other conventional engines, and due to the fact that this type of engines
lacks any rotating element, its output is not a rotating motion. Therefore, other types
of outputs are extracted from that engine. These include fluid compression, gas
generation, and linear electric generation. The latter constitutes one of the most
researched topics nowadays in the automotive industry. In fact, a linear free piston
alternator can be used as the main range extender of a battery powered car, thus
preventing power shortage in case the stored electric power in the batteries runs
down.
However, the design of a free piston engine is met with a multitude of
challenges, which are mainly due to the fact that many of the conventional engine
components that are essential in order to maintain a proper engine operation are
missing, and that no full rotational motion occurs during the operation of this engine,
which requires exceptional energy storage systems and exceptional design

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

characteristics.
Therefore, the design of such an unconventional piece of machinery requires a
lot of research and a detailed numerical study, which in itself constitutes a research
project. And in addition to the aforementioned academic work, a careful attention to
details is needed to overcome the practical challenges of such an engine, which are
many due to the unconventional features present in this project.
Moreover, much of the work necessary throughout the study of this project
involves features that fall beyond mechanical engineering's scope, which includes
features that are usually classified as electrical and electronics engineering subjects. It
is however necessary for these features to be included in this work, for they are
essential since they replace the conventional features that such an engine lacks.
Throughout this document will be shown in detail all the work accomplished
throughout the study and the design of a compact free piston engine. A literature
survey that details all the features that free piston engines include will be presented in
this work, followed by the detailed numerical studies that have been conducted to
verify the operational parameters of this engine, and the whole design methodology
and the resulting design will be finally presented in detail.

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

II-

Literature Review

II-1 Historic Overview


Free piston engines date back to the invention of the internal combustion
engine. In fact, Otto, who is credited with the invention of the spark-ignition
combustion engine, built his first engine as a linear engine which used a rack and
pinion mechanism to transfer the motion of its piston into a rotational motion. It was
known as the Otto-Langen Free Piston Engine, and it was built in 1860[1][2].

Figure II.1 : Otto And Langen's Free Piston Engine [1]

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

However, the main person that has been credited with the invention and the
development of the free piston engine was Raul Petaras Pescara : having invented one
of the first helicopters back in 1922, Pescara noticed that his helicopter was heavily
struggling while trying to take off[3]. It was due to its heavy weight, which was
mostly due to the weight of its engine and its heavy flywheel, a part that forms the
main energy accumulation system that internal combustion engines use. Therefore, he
decided to build a lighter engine for his helicopter, and thus, the free piston engine
was conceived. He built a single piston free piston engine at first, which was found to
be unbalanced[4]. He later proceeded into building an opposed piston engine with
uniflow scavenging, which was found to be perfectly balanced and extremely
efficient[5]. Being the first to build that type of engines, he was able to secure a
patent for the synchronization mechanism of his two piston engine[6].

Figure II.2 : Pescara Synchronization Mechanism[3]

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

In the late 1920s, interest increased widely in free piston engines. Junkers, a
German inventor, built a free piston compressor with the same aforementioned
layout[7]. However,

and due to the fact that Pescara held the patent for the

synchronization mechanism, Junkers' engine was unable to achieve the same level of
efficiency that the Pescara Engine used to reach. Junkers had many attempts to
conceive a different synchronization system that was as reliable as Pescara's with no
success[3]. He then ended up with a rack and pinion synchronization system, which
couldn't withstand jerking properly. That same engine was used by the NAZI military
as an air compressor that was used to launch torpedos and power submarines, which
was due to its low weight[8].

Figure II.3 : Junckers' Synchronization Mechanisms[3]


MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

After World War II, Pescara resumed manufacturing his free piston engines in
partnership with a french company known as SIGMA GS-34, a diesel engine which is
the most efficient free piston engine of all time, with a thermal efficiency of 50% and
a mechanical efficiency of 80%[9]. They were gasifiers which generated hot exhaust
gases that where expanded through turbines coupled to alternators.

Figure II.4 : Vertical Section Of The SIGMA GS-34[9]


Later on, many free piston engines were based on the Pescara layout. In fact,
Stirling A. Colgate patented a free piston linear alternator that used the same layout
that the Pescara engine used[10]. However, this time the power was directly extracted
from the motion of the pistons, which were equipped with permanent magnets that
induced power into a multi-turn coil that surrounded them on the outside[10], which
was based on the Faraday Torch, a flashlight that is charged by a shaking motion that
causes a free permanent magnet to oscillate in and out of a coil.
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

That engine had the advantage of providing the piston with a magnetic
coupling synchronization which was due to the Laplace force that the magnets were
subjected to and which was equal on both pistons since this force depends on the
current flowing through the coils, and both coils were mounted in series. Thus, the
need for a mechanical synchronization was eliminated, which simplified the engine
further more[10]. However, it is unclear whether this engine has been actually built or
not.

Figure II.5 : Stirling Colgate's Free Piston Linear Alternator[10]

Figure II.6 : Faraday Torch[11]

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

Many notable other free piston engines have been built throughout history.
These include but are not limited to:
General Motors GMR 4-4 'Hyprex' : the first and one of the only free piston
engines that have been used to power a car. It is basically a SIGMA GS-34
replica. The motion of the exhaust turbine is however directly transmitted
through a transmission shaft to the rear wheels of the car. It wasn't proven to be
very successful, apart from the fact that it was extemely quiet and vibration
free[8][17].

INNAS Chiron : it is a diesel hydraulic single piston free piston pump which
uses some of the energy that it provides to the oil circuit it compresses for the
storage of the energy necessary for the bounce back operation. It is one of the
few free piston engines that are fully controlled and it can achieve a variable
stroke length operation, which is a feature that highly increases efficiency and
allows the use of different kinds of fuel. It has been used to power a forklift[8].

SANDIA Labs Free Piston Engine: it is a free piston linear alternator that is
based on the Pescara layout[13].

TOYOTA FPEG : built and tested in 2014, this gasoline engine has the same
layout as the first Pescara free piston engine, which also happens to be a twostroke gasoline engine with uniflow scavenging. It has been equipped with
some of the advanced features of common engines (electronic fuel injection,
electronically controlled exhaust valves, ceramic cylinder sleeves...). It is also
a linear alternator[14]. However, it suffers from a design flaw since single free
piston engines are unbalanced, which Toyota must have realized by now.

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

Figure II.7 : Toyota's Free Piston Linear Alternator[14]

Beetron FPE: a free piston engine that is based on the Pescara engine. Being
used as a linear alternator, it is thought to be based on the Colgate free piston
alternator. It is a very promising engine, especially that its inventor Daniel
Hagen did a very thorough research on every free piston engine ever made,
which he shared a great part of on his website [3]. Moreover, he claims that
he combined all the successful free piston engines and alternators ever made in
his own[15]. However, it is a privately funded project, which limits its chances
of commercial success.

Figure II.8 : Beetron Free Piston Engine[15]


MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

Libertine FPE : built in 2015 by a British company named Libertine, this


engine is the most recent free piston engine as of this date. It was revealed in
April 2015. The company has been granted nearly a million pounds to carry on
with its development of free piston engines. It is also based on the Pescara
engine[16].
In Lebanon, SIGMA GS-34 free piston engines have been used back in 1967 as

the main power sources of the Zouk Power Station (also known as the Camille
Chamoun Power Station), and have been used in a power plant in Chekka[9]. In
addition, Phoenix Machinery, one of the leading industrial companies in Lebanon,
have been experimenting with free piston linear engines for a while, which lead to the
execution of many free piston engines in the past. Most of them are, however, of the
dual piston type.

II-2 Free Piston Engines Layouts

Throughout the history of free piston engines, three main layouts have
governed the designs of these engines : the single piston , dual piston, and opposed
piston configurations[8]. Although they may be different, all these layouts share some
features in common, which include the fact that all of them are linear engines, and
that all of them are two-stroke engines.
Single piston free piston engines are, as their name suggests, monocylindrical
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

10

free piston engines that include only one piston. That piston is driven forwards by the
combustion process of the gases of the combustion chamber, and later bounced back
by its respective rebound system, which is essentially an energy accumulation system
that replaces the conventional flywheel that is usually found on other types of
engines, and that is the main component that stores the required energy that keeps the
engine running (the conventional rebound systems that are usually found in free
piston engines will be discussed in detail in the next section). These engines have the
advantage of simplicity over other free piston engines, since the piston of such an
engine is the exclusive part that is in motion. They are also easier to control, as it can
be seen on the INNAS Chiron [12] and the Toyota FPEG that were discussed early
on. However, these engines have a critical flaw, since it is impossible for them to be
balanced, which has proven to be a great inconvenience because it would make its
supporting structure vibrate critically at very high frequencies, and thus they would
eventually be subjected to fatigue failure, which is what lead Pescara to abandon his
initial single piston design[3]. This layout can be mainly found nowadays in
hydraulic pumps, such as the Chiron[12].

Figure II.9 : Single Piston Layout[8]


MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

11

Figure II.10 : Pescara Single Piston Free Piston Engine[4]

Another configuration of free piston engines is the dual piston free piston
engine, which is found on engines that include two opposed combustion cylinders.
Their pistons are thus rigidly connected by a non-rotating connecting rod. These
engines do not require a rebound system for their operation, because the combustion
that drives one of the pistons forwards serves as a rebound process for the other. They
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

12

are mainly used in linear alternators[8]. These engines can be however very
challenging to control, especially that any small variation in its ignition timing can
cause such an engine to malfunction, even if its of the order of 100 microseconds.
Another main disadvantage is the fact that these engines are subjected to high degrees
of perforation. However, and due to the fact that its execution can be easier than
other layouts since it can be built by two conventional scooter cylinder kits, the
pistons of which would be connected by a solid rod (which would be the only
custom-manufactured part), it has been the main layout that research groups have
been using in their linear alternator projects. In fact, Phoenix Machinery have built in
2006 a fully functioning linear alternator that was based on this engine layout.
Although it wasn't clear if they reached a high enough efficiency, they were able to
overcome some of the control challenges of these engines. However, the
aforementioned mechanical limitations didn't allow them to run their engine for a
long enough duration.

Figure II.11 : Dual Piston Layout[8]

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13

Figure II.12 : Phoenix Machinery's Free Piston Alternator

In addition to the other two layouts, a third layout, the opposed piston free
piston engine, has been proven to be the most successful. In fact, it was the layout that
was applied to Pescara's most successful free piston engines. It consists of two sliding
pistons that are moved apart by one central combustion. On each end, a pneumatic
bounce chamber is formed by the rebound pistons and the cylinder heads. These two
bounce chambers, which are connected through an equalizing tube, serve as the main
rebound system of these engines. These engines feature an opposed piston uniflow
scavenging that overcomes the emission problem that engines with crossflow
scavenging suffer from. It is also an important feature since it allows this engine to
feature uniflow scavenging without the inconvenience and complexion of having an
exhaust valve installed. Another main advantage that this layout features is the fact
that it is both statically and dynamically balanced, which allows it to be totally
vibration-free. In fact, General Motors engineers used to demonstrate this feature by
balancing a nickel on a running GMR 4-4 'Hyprex' engine, which adopts this same

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

14

configuration[17]. Another advantage of this type of engine is that it features a


reduced heat transfer since it lacks a cylinder head on the top of the combustion
chamber[8]. However, these engines feature a main challenge since they require a
synchronization linkage for a proper operation, since they belong to the opposed
piston type. This configuration has been mainly used as the main layout of air
compressors, gasifiers, and some linear alternators, which includes the Colgate
engine that claims to achieve piston synchronization through electromagnetic
coupling[10].

Figure II.13 : Opposed Piston Engine Layout[8]

Figure II.14 : SIGMA GS-34 Slider Assembly[9]


MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

15

II-3 Rebound Systems


One of the main requirements on all of the aformentioned free piston engine
layouts (except for the dual piston configuration) is the absolute need for an energy
storage system that replaces the conventional flywheel (which serves as a kinetic
energy storage system) that is found on all other engines, and that enables both the
piston bounce-back operation, and the continuous operation of the engine. Although
most of the free piston engines' rebound systems consist of either hydraulic and
pneumatic energy accumulators, all energy accumulation systems that can be
practically applied to these engines will be discussed in this section.
One of the first rebound systems that comes to mind is a mechanical spring,
which stores elastic energy that is later used for the bounce-back operation. This
system has been featured on some Stirling free piston engines. However, it has been
found that due to the high frequencies of free piston engines (which can reach 60 hz)
[8], and that due to the high loads that the pistons are subjected to during the
combustion process, it is a subject to a very early fatigue failure, which makes its use
impractical[18].
Another rebound system can be used exclusively on linear alternators, which
consists of using some of the energy stored in the batteries during the expansion
stroke to compress the gases during the compression stroke, since a linear alternator
is a reversible machine that can be used as a motor. This imposes a need for a highly
accurate control and the use of switches with very high switching frequency.
However, batteries, like mechanical springs, have a limited life cycle, which would
reduce their life to a very short time due to the high frequency that these engines
reach. One of the solutions to such a problem is the use of a separate rebound circuit
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

16

that is independent of the charging circuit of the batteries and that includes super
capacitors that accumulate the necessary energy for the bounce-back operation. These
have a life cycle that is long enough for such a system. However, they can be a quite
expensive solution.
Hydraulic and pneumatic energy accumulation are the two forms of energy
storage systems that are usually used in free piston engines. Each has its own
characteristics. In fact, a hydraulic energy system usually consists of a series of
accumulators which are divided into two categories based on their stored pressures :
high pressure accumulators and low pressure accumulators[8]. High pressure
accumulators are generally connected through a check valve at the bottom dead
center of the slider that is fixed to the piston while low pressure accumulators are
connected in a very similar way at the top dead center[8]. On the compression stroke,
the pressure difference between the two accumulators drives the piston back to the
top dead center, while the working liquid is compressed into the high pressure
reservoir during the expansion stroke. Such a system is generally integrated into a
wider hydraulic circuit, where the engine is used as the central pump[8]. It has the
advantage of allowing the engine to be highly controllable which helps increase its
efficiency. Such a system can be found on the INNAS Chiron[12], which is a
hydraulic pump that uses a hydraulic circuit as its rebound system. However,
hydraulic systems are known to have a slow response time and to take a big space
because of the fact that liquids are incompressible. They can also be pollutant in case
infiltration occurs into the engine. They can however withstand high loads.

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17

Figure II.15 : INNAS Chiron Hydraulic Circuit[8]

Figure II.16 : INNAS Chiron External Layout[12]

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

18

On the other hand, pneumatic systems, and though they might be less efficient
due to the heat transfer that occurs when they are compressed, and though they
cannot withstand high loads as much as hydraulic systems can, have several practical
advantages over hydraulic systems. In fact, pneumatic systems are cleaner. Therefore,
and in case infiltration occurs, the engine's emission would be unaffected. In addition,
and due to their compressibility, the pneumatic accumulators that are used for the
bounce-back operation have a significantly smaller size than those used in hydraulic
systems, which enables them to be included on the ends of the engine thus reducing
the size of the system (they actually consist of the piston in itself, the cylinder head,
and the cylinder walls), and moreover, these accumulators, which are commonly
known as bounce chambers or air cushions, are all of the high pressure type, since air
is compressed to a pressure that is high enough to drive the piston back without the
need of a second low pressure reservoir, thus reducing the number of bounce
chambers to one in single piston engines, and to two in opposed piston engines, and
thereby eliminating the need for a complicated pneumatic circuit in contrast to that of
hydraulic rebound systems, which was a factor that limited the operational
application of their respective engines to hydraulic pumps. The pneumatic system is
therefore reduced to a simple equalizing tube that ensures an equal pressure in both
bounce chambers, in addition to an air recovery system in case a significant blow-by
occurs. Free piston engines with a pneumatic rebound system have a wider field of
applications, ranging from air compressors to gasifiers and alternators[8]. However,
the fact that their stroke length cannot be as controllable as that of hydraulic engines
denies this type of engines to operate as efficiently at all frequencies. Therefore, they
tend to operate at a determined regime[8].

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19

Figure II.17 : Pescara Free Piston Compressor[5]

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20

II-4 Advantages Of Free Piston Engines

Throughout this section will be recapitulated some of the most notable


advantages that free piston engines have over other types of engines. Some of these
advantages have been briefly mentioned in the previous sections, one of which being
the lighter weight that free piston engines have, which is more than an advantage for
free piston engines : it is the main cause that lead to the invention of this type of
engines, as it was discussed earlier. This advantage has enabled a multitude of
applications for free piston engines in the maritime and aerospace fields back in the
1930s, especially that conventional rotational turbo-compressors and jet engines were
still in a very early development stage when free piston engines were becoming more
and more common back then[8].
Another advantage that free piston engines have is the simplicity of their
design compared with the designs of other conventional engines, which was due to
the fact that these engines lack any rotating systems. That advantage is especially
found in single and dual piston engines, the designs of which can be very simple. It is
less significant in opposed piston engines, especially that they require a
synchronizing mechanism that can complicate their design quite a bit[8].
That last advantage implies another, which is the fact that frictional losses are
way smaller than those of other types of engines, which is due to the fact that fewer
parts are in motion in such an engine. This fact also implies that the mechanical
efficiency of these engines is increased.
In addition to the increase in mechanical efficiency of these engines, the fact
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

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that the stroke length of such an engine is variable can be used as a factor to increase
the thermal efficiency of these engines, especially that of spark ignition engines. In
fact, and as it is observed on conventional gasoline internal combustion engines, the
efficiency is higher on a certain rotational speed than it is on other (usually between
3000 and 4000 rpm). That is due to the fact that on different rotational speeds,
different compression ratios are needed for the combustion to be optimal. However,
and due to the crank-slider mechanism that most engines have, the stroke length is
constant on all the speed regimes of the engine, which implies a constant
compression ratio. That led many engine manufacturers to develop variable
compression ratio engines, which require complicated linkages and mechanisms, thus
implying a further inconvenience. Free piston engines already have variable strokes
lengths that are not limited to a constant value by any linkage (even the
synchronizing linkages featured on opposed piston engines do not limit the stroke
lengths of their respective engines to a certain constant value), which reduces the task
of having a variable compression ratio to the proper control of the ignition of the
gases, and at most to the control of the fluid motion of the rebound systems, and thus,
higher thermal efficiencies can be observed in these engines[8].
A variable stroke length also implies a multi-fuel operation, which was
impossible on conventional engines due to the fact that each fuel has its own required
compression ratio range. Moreover, homogeneous charge compression ignition,
which is a form of compression ignition (that doesn't require a spark) in which a
gasoline-diesel fuel mixture is injected to the combustion chamber during the
compression stroke (thus combining the Otto and Diesel cycles), would be possible.
Other advantages include less fuel consumption, a better fuel-air mixture
which is due to the high speed that is featured around the top dead center, and a
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

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reduced heat transfer loss due to the high speed expansion featured in these engines,
which reduces the time available for heat loss, and also limits the formation of
temperature-dependent pollutants such as NOx[8].

II-5 Starting Systems

One of the main challenges that free piston engines have is the fact that they
cannot be cranked over several revolutions[8] as it is the case with other internal
combustion engines, which implies the use of unconventional starting systems.
Pneumatic free piston engines were started by the impulsive introduction of air
into the bounce chambers, which drove the engine towards the top dead center[8].
These engines had to achieve a steady-state operation right on the first stroke since
that mode of starting was only valid for the first stroke only. Removing the
introduced air volume was the main challenge of this feature[8]. Although a one
stroke starting process was featured on these engines, it wasn't reported that it was a
serious inconvenience[8]. These engines featured a staring reservoir that contained
enough compressed air for this operation. These can be seen on the following
figure[9].

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Figure II.18 : SIGMA GS-34 Power Plant[9]


Multiple stroke starting processes are featured on hydraulic engines and linear
alternators, which are reversible. In fact, an external pump can be controlled to
provide the circuit with the fluid motion necessary for the operation of hydraulic free
piston engines especially that these are generally integrated into a closed hydraulic
circuit[8]. Linear alternators are also reversible electric machines[20][21]. Therefore,
the same alternator can be used as an electric motor to generate a multiple stroke
starting process by simply reversing the current passing through the coils[8].
No mechanical reciprocating system has been noted to have been used for the
starting of pneumatic free piston engines, which is quite remarkable since many
factors, including low temperatures and high altitudes, can impose a multiple stroke
starting process.

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III- Kinetic And Thermodynamic Simulation

After having reviewed most of the notable free piston engines that were built
throughout history, it was found that opposed piston pneumatic free piston engines
were the most successful and that they were the only engines to have been able to
compete commercially, mostly through the Pescara SIGMA GS-34 engines.
Therefore, it was decided that it was the best choice as a basis for the design of the
free piston engine that is described throughout the rest of this document.
In fact, the engine in question is an opposed piston spark-ignition free piston
engine with pneumatic bounce chambers that is based on the SIGMA design. It
features two standard pistons on each side that are connected through a rigid
connecting rod. The two sub-assemblies that are formed each by the two
aforementioned pistons, which are of different sizes, and the connecting rod, are the
main sliding elements of the engine. As it can be seen on the following picture, the
small piston is in direct contact with the combustion chamber gases. A larger piston is
selected for the bounce chamber side to decrease its pressure . A third space is formed
by the large piston and the combustion cylinder transverse walls. It is known as the
compression chamber, and it is used a a scavenge pump, which allows the working
fluid to enter the combustion chamber at a higher pressure, which is essential for the
scavenge operation of two-stroke engines, and also serves as a supercharger. Two
Reed check valves are located on both ends of this space. During the expansion
stroke, pressure decreases in this space, thus allowing an atmospheric pressure airfuel mixture to enter this space. It is later compressed to the point where it exceeds
the pressure of the scavenge reservoir surrounding the combustion cylinder.
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

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At that point air is allowed into the scavenge reservoir through the Reed valve,
thus maintaining a pressure that is super-atmospheric (it is usually a 1.8 bar
pressure)[22]. Note that the bounce chambers are considered to be closed spaces
where air is subjected to a nearly isentropic compression until the slider comes to
rest. The force due to the compressed gases in the bounce chamber later pushes the
sliders towards the top dead center of the engine, where ignition occurs, and thus the
cycle is repeated.

Figure III.1 : Diagrammatic Sketch Of A Free Piston Gas Generator[9]

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Figure III.2 : Reed Valve[23]

Each sliding element is subjected to a multitude of forces that are identical on


both sides due to the fact that this engine is perfectly symmetrical, and that the sliders
are connected through a synchronizing mechanism. The resulting sum of these forces
generates the kinematic characteristics of the sliders. Throughout this section will be
detailed the kinetic and thermodynamic studies and simulations that have been
performed to determine the operating parameters of the engine in question.

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III-1 Kinetic Characteristics Of The Sliders

Each of the two sliders, as discussed earlier, is subjected to a multitude of


forces that are shown on the following free body diagram. Each of these forces will
be discussed in the following table. The sum of these forces is obviously equal to the
acceleration of the slider multiplied by its mass according to the second law of
Newton.

F = Ms * d2(x)/dt

(Eq. III.1)

This equation is the main differential equation that generates the motion of
these sliders. The solution of this equation is a function of time representing the
position of the slider with respect to time. Therefore, it was modeled on SIMULINK
and a MATLAB program has been written to automatically assign the corresponding
value of each parameter. This numerical aspect of the study will be detailed later on.

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Figure III.3 : Slider Free Body Diagram[24]

Symbol Description
Fc

Force due to the pressure of the gases present in the combustion chamber.

Fb

Force due to the pressure of the air inside the bounce chamber.

Fcomp

Reaction force of the scavenge pump.

Ffric

Friction force on the slider.

Falt

Laplace force on the slider in case the engine is also a linear alternator.
Table 1 : Forces Acting On The Sliders
Note that the wide arrow represents the motion of the slider.
Many of these forces' expressions will be determined later on while discussing

the thermodynamic cycles that are respective each of the engine chambers. The
Laplace force that is induced on the slider by the coils will be discussed later on in a
detailed study that was performed on a linear alternator free piston engine. Therefore
the only force that can be determined in this section is the friction force.

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The friction force occurs mainly on the side of the engine, between the piston
rings and the cylinder walls[22]. It is mainly due to the shear stress that occurs in the
lubricant that is located between the two of them. Therefore[22]:
Ffric = s * Ar

(Eq. III.2)

with : - s : shear stress occurring in the lubricant between the rings and the
cylinder walls.
- Ar : side area of the piston rings
Noting that:
Ar = * B * h with : - B : Piston Bore
- h : Piston Ring Height

and[22]:

s * v / c with : - : dynamic viscosity of the lubricant


- v : instantaneous velocity of the slider
- c : piston ring-cylinder wall clearance

The expression of Ffric becomes:


Ffric = * B * h * * v / c

(Eq III.3) [22]

The previous expression has been entered into the numerical simulation model
that will be detailed later on.

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III-2 Thermodynamic Characteristics Of The Free Piston Engine


As it was shown earlier, and as shown on figure III.1, each of the three main
chambers of the engine has its own thermodynamic cycle. Throughout this section
will be shown and explained the P-V diagrams of each cycle, which will help in
determining the expressions of the forces that are due to each of the different
chambers' pressures.
In fact, the two-stroke Otto cycle can be applied to the fluids of the combustion
chamber. The different processes of this thermodynamic cycle will be briefly detailed
based on its P-V diagram that is shown on the following figure.

Figure III.4 : Standard Spark-ignition Pressure-Volume Diagram[22]


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Process 1-2 : isentropic expansion. At any point of this process, the combustion
chamber pressure is [25]:
Pc = P1 * (V1/V) k

with k = 1.4

(Eq. III-4)

Due to the obvious fact that the piston surface is constant:


Pc = P1 * (x1/x) k

with x the position of the slider.

(Eq. III-5)

Note that the previous expression will be the one included for this process in
the numeric simulation of the engine.
Process 2-3 : the exhaust blowdown. During this process, the exhaust ports are
uncovered by the piston. The pressure difference between the combustion chamber
gases and the atmospheric air induces the motion of the gases that exit the engine
according to Bernoulli's Equation. That fact has been taken into account in the
numeric SIMULINK model of the exhaust process, thus allowing a simulation of the
pressure variation with respect to time, which is affected by the aforementioned fact
in addition to the expansion that occurs simultaneously with the blowdown. Note that
the expression of the Bernoulli equation is[26]:
(vf2) / + g * z + P / = Constant

(Eq. III-6)

Process 3-4-5: the admission process. During this process, inlet ports are
uncovered by the piston, and a fresh air-fuel mixture enters the combustion chamber
and pushes the remaining combustion products out through a process known as
scavenging. During this process, Pc is considered to be constant and equal to the
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pressure of the scavenge reservoir, which is usually between 140 and 180 KPa[22].
Process 5-6: final scavenging process. After the piston recovers the inlet ports
of the engine, and before it covers the exhaust ports, some of the remaining
combustion products are driven out during this process. Pc remains constant
throughout this process as well.
Process 6-7: isentropic compression. At any point of this process, the
combustion chamber pressure is [25]:
Pc = P6 * (V6/V) k

with k = 1.4

(Eq. III-7)

And therefore:
Pc = P6 * (x6/x)k

with x the position of the slider.

(Eq. III-8)

Process 7-8: constant volume combustion process. The combustion process is


the main process that provides the cycle with the energy that is extracted from the
engine. Due to the fact that it is a spontaneous process[25], the states of the working
fluids are generally determined at the beginning and at the end of this process, and
the state of the fluid during that process is disregarded and considered unable to be
determined. Thus, the state at the end of this process has been determined based on
the standard optimal end of combustion states of standard spark ignition internal
combustion engines.

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Note that due to the different expressions that Pc takes in all of the
aforementioned processes, one SIMULINK model cannot be sufficient to simulate
the engine cycle, which led to the creation of several SIMULINK models for each of
the aforementioned processes, and to the creation of a Matlab program that assigns
the initial values of the parameters of each of the processes at the beginning of its
respective simulation.
In addition to the combustion chamber, the compression chamber has its own
thermodynamic cycle. The following diagram illustrates the cycle in question.

Figure III.5 : Schematic Diagram Of The Compression Chamber Cycle


Process 1-2: isentropic expansion. During this process, both the compression
chamber inlet and scavenge reservoir outlet reed valves are closed. At any point of
this process, the combustion chamber pressure is [25]:
Pcomp = P1 * (V1/V) k
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

with k = 1.4

(Eq. III-9)
34

And therefore:
Pcomp = P1 * (x1/x) k

(Eq. III-9)

Process 2-3: compression chamber admission. During this process the inlet
reed valve opens, and the Pcomp is atmospheric at any time.
Process 3-4: isentropic compression. During this process, both the compression
chamber inlet and scavenge reservoir outlet reed valve are closed. At any point of
this process, the combustion chamber pressure is :
Pcomp = P3 * (V3/V) k

with k = 1.4

(Eq. III-10)

And therefore:
Pcomp = P3 * (x3/x)k

(Eq. III-11)

Process 4-1: scavenge reservoir admission. During this process the outlet reed
valves are opened, and Pcomp is considered to be equal to the scavenge reservoir
pressure at any time.

In contrast with the two previous chamber, air in the bounce chamber is either
isentropically compressed or expanded depending on the direction of motion of the
slider. And since the bounce chamber is nearly a closed volume, the expression at any
time during the cycle is[25]:
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Pb = P1 * (V1/V)k

with k = 1.4

(Eq. III-12)

And therefore:

Pb = P1* (x1/x)k

(Eq. III-13)

Figure III.6 : Schematic Diagram Of The Bounce Chamber Cycle

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Note that the forces corresponding to each of the aforementioned pressures is


equal to the product of the pressure and the area of the piston that is in contact with
the chamber, such that:
Fc = Pc * A1 with A1 : Area of the small piston

(Eq. III-14)

Fb = Pb * A2 with A2 : Area of the large piston

(Eq. III-15)

Fcomp = Pcomp * (A2 - A1)

(Eq. III-16)

III-3 Simulation Models


All of the aforementioned equations have been modeled using SIMULINK. As
it was mentioned earlier, each model represents the differential equation that
generates the motion of the slider. This differential equation is essentially Newton's
second law, where each of the aforementioned forces are summed according to
equation III-1. Due to the fact that the expression of each of these forces is different
for each of the thermodynamic processes of the cycle, the simulation requires a
multitude of SIMULINK models. These models are simulated according to their
respective orders in the whole cycle, a task that is performed by a Matlab program
that makes sure this order is respected, and assigns the initial values for each of the
models, thus making sure that the simulation is continuous throughout its phases. The
Matlab code of this program can be found in Appendix A. On the following pages
will be presented each of the SIMULINK models that represent the thermodynamic
cycle of the free piston engine.
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Figure III.7 : First Expansion Phase SIMULINK Model

This model represents the expansion of the combustion products that takes
place between the end of the combustion process and the opening of the inlet reed
valve.

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Figure III.8 : Second Expansion Phase SIMULINK Model

This model represents the expansion process right after the inlet reed valve
opens, which occurs when Pcomp reaches the atmospheric pressure. During this
process, Pcomp is constant and equal to the atmospheric pressure.

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Figure III.9 : Exhaust SIMULINK Model


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Note that the previous model is that of the exhaust process, which occurs right
after the exhaust ports are uncovered. Note that in addition to the expansion of the
combustion products, the working fluid motion that occurs out of the exhaust is taken
into account in this model, which generates the instantaneous pressure drop in the
combustion chamber, which is an effect that is governed by the Bernouilli equation
that was discussed earlier (Eq. III-6).

Figure III.10 : First Admission Phase SIMULINK Model


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The previous model is that of the admission process that occurs after the
admission ports are uncovered. Note that the admission process has been divided into
two : the first is that of the admission that occurs before the bottom dead center is
reached. It is represented by the previous model. The second is that of the admission
that takes place after the bottom dead center is reached, and through which starts the
compression of the compression chamber mixture. This process is modeled on the
following diagram.

Figure III.11 : Second Admission Phase SIMULINK Model

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Figure III.12 : First Compression Phase SIMULINK Model

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Figure III.13 : Second Compression Phase SIMULINK Model

The two previous models correspond to the compression process of the cycle.
Note that throughout the first phase, the outlet reed valve is still closed and the
compression of the compression chamber is still ongoing. After P comp reaches the
value of the pressure of the scavenge reservoir, the reed valve in question would
open, thus letting the mixture into the reservoir, a process that is model by the second
model.
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Note that three additional models have been created since the reed valves are
not bound to open in the exact processes that were shown earlier. The Matlab source
code has been implemented with various tests to predict the exact process during
which each reed valve opens, and thus allowing it to select the proper model at the
proper time. These drawings have not been shown among the previous diagrams for
clarity reasons and since the opening schedules according to the final simulation
performed are those of the diagrams that were previously shown. The additional
diagrams can be found in appendix A.
Also note that in all the previous diagrams, all the compression and expansion
processes have been considered as polytropic processes with a polytropic coefficient
equal to 1.3, thus taking into account the heat transfer occurring during each of these
processes[25].

III-4 Simulation Results

Throughout this section will be shown and discussed the results of the
previously described simulation. Note that after having modeled the engine, and
programmed the corresponding Matlab program, a great number of simulation runs
have been performed. The following results are those of the final run which is
considered to have provided the most optimal results. Some of the notable inputs that
were entered were the minimum pressure of the bounce chamber, which was
optimized after a series of runs, and found to be 1.5 bars, the scavenge reservoir
pressure, which was selected to be 1.8 bars based on the scavenge pressure range of
commonly availabe two-stroke engines [22]. In addition, the bores of each of
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

45

the pistons have been entered. These have been initially selected to be 45 mm and 90
mm. Based on that initial choice, two standard pistons that are available on the market
have been selected with close dimensions to the ones required. The small piston that
has been selected has a diameter of 40 mm, and the large one is a 92 mm diameter
piston. The sizes of these pistons were the ones included in the final run of the engine
simulation. Other inputs can be found in appendix A.

Figure III.14 : Piston Position With Respect To Time


Note that according to the previous diagram, many parameters can be
extracted, including the stroke length of the engine, which was found to be 59 mm,
and the duration of the cycle, which was found to be around 40 ms. Note that at
around 17 ms, the slider is brought to rest by the pressure force of the bounce
chamber, which in turn drives it to its initial position at the top dead center, which is
located at 70 mm from the origin that was specified in the simulation parameters.
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Figure III.15 : Piston Velocity With Respect To Time


According to this graph, the maximum velocity of this slider is found to be
almost equal to 5 m/s, which has proved to be an inconvenience that was considered
in the design of the synchronization mechanism that will be discussed later. It can
also be inferred from the previous graph that the velocity of the slider can be
interpolated into a sinusoidal function, which in turn shows that the motion of the
sliders is nearly a periodic sinusoidal one. Note that the instantaneous velocity of the
slider is 0 at the same moment where the slider comes to rest and the bounce back
operation is started (at 17 ms). Another important feature of the free piston engine
that was mentioned earlier can be seen on this graph, which is the fact that the piston
velocity at the top dead center is not null, which is not the case in conventional
engines where the piston is brought to rest as it belongs to a crank-slider mechanism,
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

47

and which is an advantage of free piston engines that has been discussed earlier.

Figure III.16 : Combustion Chamber Pressure With Respect To x


This graph represents the thermodynamic cycle that occurs in the combustion
chamber of the engine. It has been found that this cycle complies with the two-stroke
Otto cycle that has been shown earlier. At the top dead center of the cycle can be seen
a major discontinuity, which is the combustion process of the engine that is assumed
to be a spontaneous constant volume heat addition process and that is determined by
its initial and final states[22][25][19]. The positions of the exhaust and inlet ports can
also be seen on this graph, which are located respectively at 27 mm and 17.5 mm
from the selected origin.

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Figure III.17 : Bounce Chamber Pressure With Respect To x

It can be seen on the previous graph that the maximum pressure that takes
place inside the bounce chamber is equal to 4.75 bars, which occurs at the bottom
dead center of the engine. In addition, the fact that the expression of the pressure of
the bounce chamber is the same throughout the cycle can be verified by the
continuous hyperbolic form obtained through the simulation.

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Figure III.18 : Compression Chamber Pressure With Respect To x


On the following table will be shown some additional results that were
calculated by this simulation.
Parameter

Value

Rated Frequency

25 Hz

Compression Ratio

7.14

Thermal Efficiency

44.56%

Mean Cycle Pressure

13.175 bars

Work Produced Per Cycle

142.4 J

Rated Power Output

3.2 Kw

Ignition Advance

4.5 ms

Table 2 : Additional Results Calculated By The Simulation


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In addition to this simulation, a simulation of a linear alternator that is based on


the Stirling Colgate free piston engine has been performed, since that engine was
considered to be one of the bases of the design of the free piston engine in question
due to the fact that its inventor claims that piston synchronization is achieved through
electromagnetic coupling[10], which enormously simplifies the design especially that
one of the main challenges that it incorporates is the design of the synchronization
mechanism as it will be discussed in the following section.
In fact, and as it can be seen on the following figure, this permanent magnet
linear alternator, which incorporates two magnets that are fixed on the rebound
pistons, has two coils surrounding the cylinders. When the magnets move through the
coils, a variable magnetic field is created, thus inducing an electric current in the
coils. The coils are in series with a capacitive circuit (30) which is built such that the
circuit becomes a resonant RLC series circuit having a frequency equal to the
frequency of the engine[10]. Therefore, and due to the fact that the same current
passes through both coils, the induced Laplace force (F alt in this case), which is
dependent on this current as it can be seen in the following equation[21], will be
exactly the same on both sliders, thus creating the synchronization mechanism
necessary for such an engine.

Falt = il ^ B

with : - i : induced current

(Eq. III-17)

- l : equivalent length of each of the coils


- B : magnetic field of the magnets

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Figure III.19 : Colgate Alternator Layout


A simulation that included a finite element simulation on COMSOL
Multiphysics that determined the instantaneous magnetic field density that was
generated by the motion of the permanent Neodymium magnets through the
coils[27], and a Matlab simulation that included several SIMULINK diagrams that
modeled both the kinetic and electric aspects of such an engine, in addition to a
Matlab program similar to the one already described, has been performed.
This simulation will not be shown in detail in this document since a free piston
linear alternator was abandoned by Phoenix Machinery, and thus it will not be used in
the design of the engine. However, and because it was already performed, it can be
found along with its results in Appendix B.

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IV- Main Design

Based of the simulation results that were shown earlier, and based on the
Pescara free piston engine, a spark-ignition free piston engine was designed. The
output of this engine is intended to be extracted throughout a turbine that expands the
exhaust gases generated by the engine. This turbine would be thereby coupled to an
alternator that in turn generates the power required. The basis of the design was the
standard available pistons that have been selected. Two 40 mm pistons and two 92
mm pistons have been used in this project. These pistons have been divided into two
sets of pistons, each set including one 45 mm piston and one 92 mm piston. For each
set of pistons, a central connecting rod has been conceived. This connecting rod was
connected on each end to one of the pistons, and thus the sliders have been formed.
The combustion cylinder has been designed such that its inlets and exhaust
ports would comply with the aforementioned simulation results. Being made out of
aluminum (ALUMEC79) due to its high thermal conductivity, it features a series of
fins that were intended to increase the heat transfer rate of the cylinder outer walls,
which is essential especially that this engine is an air cooled engine. It also features a
10 mm spark-plug located in the middle of the combustion chamber.
The big cylinders are also made of aluminum. On their ends are fixed the
bounce chamber covers that ensure that the bounce chamber is closed. Each of these
features a 16mm thread that is intended for the connection of the communication tube
that equalizes the pressure in both these chambers. A negligible blow-by occurs
through the piston rings. Therefore, a bounce chamber volume conservation system
MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

53

has been conceived for the bounce chamber. This system makes sure that the air
volume dissipated through the rings is compensated. It includes a pneumatic
accumulator, a pressure regulating valve and a check valve that is connected to the
pressure equalizing tube of the engine. An electric compressor provides the
accumulator with its required pressure. This compressor is controlled such that it
operates whenever pressure drops under a certain level, which in this case is 5 bars.
Compression is stopped once the pressure reaches 7 bars. Note that a pressure
drop of 0.1 bars each 30 mins occurs in the bounce chamber, which implies a limited
operation time for the electric compressor. Note that the check valve ensures that air
would not be transferred to the bounce chamber unless a pressure drop occurs, and
denies the return of the air.

Figure IV.1 : Bounce Chamber Volume Control System


Reed check valves have been selected for the scavenge pump control
operation. A housing has been designed for each of these four reed valves. Two of
these valves are connected to the compression chamber, while the other two are
connected to the scavenge reservoir. The former two are connected on their other
ends to a central carburettor where a fuel-oil mixture is pulverized into the inlet air.

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Both the big and small cylinders have been designed such that they would be
properly centered during the assembly operation. Note that cast iron sleeves are
intended to be inserted into both the big and small cylinders to ensure less friction in
the operation of the pistons.
However, the main challenge in the design of this engine remains that of the
synchronizing linkage. In fact, this linkage has to ensure that the linear motion of the
sliders is maintained, and that the two sliders are properly synchronized.
Two synchronizing mechanisms have been designed for this purpose. A
representative drawing of the first one can be seen in the following figure. It has
been abandoned due to some of the complex aspects that it incorporates, especially in
the sliders that the central link includes.

Figure IV.2 : Early Draft Of The Synchronization Mechanism


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The second one is based on the standard crank-slider mechanism. However, in


this case, it consists of two connecting rods on each end that are each connected to a
sliding bar that is fixed to the main slider of the engine on one end, and to a central
common link on the other. The central link is fixed to an axis that rotates inside an
external bearing arrangement. However, the motion of this link is not a full rotation,
but rather an oscillating one. The degree of freedom of this mechanism according to
the Kutzbach-Grbler equation[28] is equal to one, which is the degree of freedom
required that makes it fully constrained once the engine is in operation. Note that this
mechanism is based on the mechanism used by Pescara in his early opposed piston
compressor that was shown previously[6]. It has the advantage of providing an
external access to the synchronization mechanism, which will prove to be helpful for
the starting operation.
To maintain the sliding bars in a linear motion throughout the whole process, a
linear guide has to be included in the engine assembly, which is one of the topics that
were investigated the most, especially that the linear speed of the sliders reaches
5 m/s, which is a critical speed on almost all of the commercially available linear
guides. In fact, many high speed linear bearings cannot even reach a limit of 3 m/s,
which is an enormously high linear speed in industrial applications[31][32].
Therefore, and after a thorough search on every linear guide ever made, it was found
that the best solution was to locally design and manufacture linear plain bearings out
of sintered bronze (SAE 841), to which has been added powdered graphite, which
according to the Bosch Automotive Handbook can withstands high speeds that can
reach 20 m/s [29]. The design of these bushings has been based on many of the
parameters of commercially available bushings. Two bushings on each side are
needed for a proper support of the bars. However, and due to the limited space on
such an engine, only one bushing has been used on each side. However, these
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bushings have been designed with a length that exceeds the required minimal length
of operation (which was found to be 10 mm) by 2.5 times, thus overcoming the
problem stated earlier, and allowing the bushing to have a higher Pv limit[30].
The connections between the linkages have been designed to include needle
bearings, which can also be found in jet-ski engines. The bearings selected have been
found to have a life that exceeds 100000 hours according to the SKF Online Bearing
Calculator. However, these bearings are usually in a steady-state operation where a
constant rotational speed is maintained once it is reached, which is not the case in this
application especially that cyclic accelerations and decelerations occur continuously
during the operation of the engine. However, this oscillating motion is taken into
account by multiplying the life of the bearings by 0.8, which reduces the life of these
bearings to 80000 hours, which is more than enough since a two stroke engine's life
usually doesn't exceed 1000 hours (even if the results were exaggerated by the tool
provided by SKF, they would still exceed the required conditions by a far large
number). Note that the report of the bearing life calculation can be found in appendix
C.
The final three-dimensional design can be found on the next page. Note that the
shop drawings of each of the 32 parts that form this engine can be found in appendix
D and that the stress analysis simulations of each of the parts can be found in
appendix E. In addition to the aforementioned elements, some of the elements that
belong to the starting system of the engine and others that belong to the ignition
system can be seen on the following figure. These elements will be discussed on the
next two sections of this document.

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Figure IV.3 : Free Piston Engine Final Design


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V- Starting System

As it was discussed earlier, all of the pneumatic free piston engines throughout
history were supposed to achieve a steady-state operation on the very first stroke after
they are started. However, such a feat proves to be difficult even on the most
advanced conventional internal combustion engines, especially when it is a cold start
operation, which usually requires several strokes before a continuous series of
ignitions is achieved. Since the designed engine doesn't belong to neither the linear
alternator nor the hydraulic pump type of free piston engines, which, as discussed
earlier, are the only free piston engines where a multi-stroke starting operation is
possible, it requires a mechanical starting system where a reciprocating motion is
possible.
As it was discussed earlier, the synchronization mechanism that has been
designed for this engine features the possibility of external coupling through its
central link, which allows an external starting mechanism to be coupled to the engine.
However, and due to the fact that the motion of the central link is an oscillating one, a
conventional electric starter can't be used on this particular engine. Therefore, a
mechanical linkage that converts a rotational motion into a reciprocating one is
needed for such an engine, and such a mechanism is required to be disengaged once
the starting operation is complete.
Two designs have been considered for the starting system of this engine. The
first one consists of a crank-rocker four bar linkage with a clutch. The second consists
of a scotch-yoke mechanism, that converted the rotational motion of the starting
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motor into a linear reciprocating motion of a rack, which in turn transferred its
oscillating motion to a pinion that was fixed to the central link.

Figure V.I : Scotch-yoke Mechanism[33]


A crank-rocker linkage has first been designed for the system such that the
rocking motion of the central link would be equal to 36 degrees, which was conform
to the motion of the pistons of the engine, which was limited to a maximum stroke of
70 mm. However, a pulley reduction system was still needed to provide the central
link with its required range of motion, which added an inconvenience to the design of
this system. Another main disadvantage of that system was that it requires a clutch for
the disengagement operation. Other disadvantages include a high risk of fatigue
failure thus requiring thicker linkages which increases the costs of manufacturing, in
addition to a requirement for a spacious frame on which the mechanism would have
been mounted, which would make the engine less compact. An early representative
three-dimensional draft for the design of such a mechanism can be found on the
following figure.

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Figure V.2 : Early Draft Of The Crank-rocker Starting System


The other starting mechanism, which was the one adopted in the final design,
consists of a rack and pinion system that is driven by a scotch-yoke mechanism. A
module two rack is fixed to the sliding element of the scotch-yoke mechanism, and a
46 tooth pinion is fixed to the rocking link of the synchronization mechanism. The
sliding part of this system is allowed to rotate around the eccentric drive of the
system thus allowing a disengagement operation once the starting operation of the
engine is complete, and thus the inclusion of a clutch into the design would not be
needed anymore. The eccentric drive of the system features an eccentricity of 7 mm,
which is equal to half of the stroke length traveled back and forth by the rack. This
eccentric shaft is fixed by a cross-locating bearing arrangement, which enables the
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use of a multitude of driving systems to be fixed on its end. The design of this system
can be found on the next figure.

Figure V.3 : Rack And Pinion Starting System

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VI- Engine Electronic Control Unit

One of the main features that differentiates the free piston engine that has been
designed from the Pescara free piston engine is that the former requires an ignition
control unit especially that it is a spark-ignition engine, in contrast with Pescara's
compression ignition free piston engine. This unit however has to be conceived
especially for this type of engine, for free piston engines cannot be mounted with
neither mechanical ignition units (distributors), nor conventional engine electronic
control units (ECUs) that require the use of crank sensors due to the fact that they
require a full rotational motion to operate properly, which is a features that free piston
engines lack. Therefore, a linear ignition control unit has been designed for this
engine, which consists of proximity sensors, a microcontroller that is implemented
with the algorithm used to control the ignition, an ignition transistor that breaks the
current of the coil whenever a spark is to occur, an electronic circuit where all the
components are connected together and are provided with their rated voltages and
currents, in addition to the ignition coil, the spark plug and the battery.
This unit is based on an ignition control unit developed by Phoenix Machinery
in 2006. However, and due to the fact that the latter belongs to a dual piston engine
which is entirely different from the currently designed engine, the ignition control
unit developed for this engine is different from the one designed in 2006.
Throughout this section will be detailed all the steps that were taken in the
design of this unit, in addition to the parameters that are crucial to the ignition
process and that were included in the algorithm implemented on the microcontroller.
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VI-1 Ignition Sensors

As it was stated earlier, conventional pick-up sensors cannot be used on this


engine due to the lack of rotating elements on such an engine. Therefore, a different
type of sensors was considered for the ignition operation.
It was found that due to the availability of an uncovered sliding bar in the
synchronization mechanism of the engine, proximity sensors could be used for the
sensing operation. Due the high frequencies that are reached during the operation of
such an engine, proximity sensors having a high switching frequency were required
for a proper operation of the engine, which implied the use of inductive proximity
sensors, which proved to be useful especially that the components that were supposed
to be detected were iron rod ends that were designed to feature a sensing rectangular
surface that was separated from the surface of the bars by 10 mm, which is more than
enough according to most of the sensor catalogs that were considered to prevent the
sensors from continuously detecting the bar.
It was found after a thorough search that the OMRON E2A-S08KN04 M8
sensor was one of the most suitable for the application in question. Some of the most
important characteristics of this sensor can be found in the following table. Note that
although it might be obvious that only one sensor would be used since this is a
mono-cylindric engine, two sensors of this type are needed for a proper operation,
which will be explained later on. Also note that one of the reasons that lead to the
selection of this particular type of sensors is that it is locally available, and that it has
been used by Phoenix Machinery previously which confirms that they are suitable for
this application.
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Cylinder type sensing head size


Type
Sensing method
Sensing distance
Setting distance
Differential distance

M8
Unshielded
Inductive type
4 mm -10% to +10%
0 to 3.2 mm
10% Max. of sensing distance
Ferrous metal (Sensitivity lowers with non-ferrous
Sensing object
metals.)
Standard sensing object
Iron 12*12*1mm
Response frequency
DC: 1 kHz (average)
Power supply voltage
12 to 24 VDC ripple(p-p) :10% Max.
Operating voltage range
10 to 32 VDC
Current consumption
10 mA Max.
Control output (Output type)
PNP open collector output
Control outpu (Switching capacity) 0 to 200 mA
Indicator
Operation indicator(yellow)
Operation mode
NO

Table 3 : Characteristics Of The OMRON E2A-S08KN04[34]


The position of each of these sensors is critical for a proper ignition operation,
which is a factor that will be explained later on.
The sensors are supplied with a 12 V DC voltage. Their output is connected to
the input ports of the microcontroller through opto-couplers that ensure that the input
voltage of the controller doesn't exceed its rated value of 5V. These opto-couplers will
be discussed later on.

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VI-2 Microcontroller Selection And Ignition Algorithm

The central component of the ECU is the microcontroller, which is the main
component that controls the ignition operation. This microcontroller is implemented
with a control algorithm that is specific to the engine.
After having reviewed some of the microcontrollers used in popular ignition
kits that are currently being developed worldwide, it was found that an Arduino Mega
2560 platform, which the basis of a popular open source ECU project named
Speeduino[35], is the most suitable for this project especially that it features a 16-bit
timer and that it is simple to program due to the fact that Arduino platforms are very
well documented[36].
The following flowchart represents the algorithm which the aforementioned
microcontroller was programmed to execute. Note that the Arduino source code
implemented on the Arduino Mega board can be found in Appendix F.
The ignition operation represented by this algorithm is similar to that of
Capacitive Discharge Ignition (CDI) units that are found on two-stroke motorcycle
engines, and that feature a constant ignition timing advance, which is featured on
most of the smaller two-stroke engines (engines with less than 200 cc capacity) and
that is also featured on this free piston engine since it is a 150 cc engine[22]. The
average timing advance has been determined by the simulation that was detailed in
section III. The calculation methodology of this parameter will be detailed at the end
of this section.

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One of the sensors is fixed right on the position on which the ignition signal is
sent by the microcontroller to the ignition transistor. This position is calculated by the
numerical simulation of the engine based on the aforementioned timing advance. As
soon as the aforementioned signal is received, the transistor breaks the current of
the primary winding, thus inducing a 35000 V voltage on the terminals of the spark
plug that is powered by the secondary winding, which induces the required spark[29].
The other sensor is located such that it is reached before the first one during the
compression stroke. Its operation is included in a subsystem that makes sure that even
though the first sensor is covered twice during the cycle (one time during the
compression stroke and another in the expansion stroke), ignition only occurs one
time, which prevents misfire. Its exact position is not as necessary as that of the first
sensor.
Note that a variable ignition timing requires in itself several months of research
to allow the creation of a proper ignition map that optimizes the combustion process
of the engine to the greatest extents possible. However, the effect of such an ignition
on small engines is negligible which is why most of the commonly available
commercial engines feature a constant ignition timing advance[22]. Also note that a
delay of 2.5 ms takes place between the beginning of the ignition and its end to take
into account the dwell time of the coil (the time it takes the RL circuit of the coil to
fully charge/discharge)[29].

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Figure VI.1 : Ignition Algorithm Implemented On The Microcontroller

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The following methodology was used in the numeric simulation to calculate


the timing advance required.
The combustion process consists of three phases: flame formation, flame
propagation, and flame termination. The first two phases take some time to occur,
which is the time that is compensated by the ignition advance featured on all internal
combustion engines[22].
Therefore, the duration of these two phases along with the dwell time of the
coil is the timing advance required for the engine. This timing advance is usually
expressed in terms of angular degrees on most engines. It will be determined in terms
of time for this free piston engine because it is a linear engine. This timing advance
will be determined at a frequency of 25 hz, which is the simulation frequency of this
engine. The position of the ignition sensor required for this timing advance will be
determined at the aforementioned frequency through a subroutine implemented in the
Matlab program, and this position will be considered to be the average position that
will be used on all the operating frequencies of the engine.
The timing advance required for flame formation and flame propagation on a
conventional internal combustion engine running at 1800 rpm is 18 degrees[22]. 1800
rpm are the equivalent of a 30 hz free piston engine operation. Therefore, at 25 hz and
for a dwell time of 2.5 ms [22]:
Tadv = 0.0025 + (30/25)*((1/30) * (18/360)) = 4.5 ms

(Eq. VI.1)

Note that the effect of combustion chamber swirl and turbulence also affect the
timing advance of internal combustion engine.
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According to the numeric simulation of the engine, the position of the sensors
corresponding to the timing advance previously calculated would be 61 mm from the
origin of the simulation. Therefore, in terms of mm, the ignition advance would be
9 mm on this engine.

VI-3 Power transistor

Due to the fact that the ignition operation requires breaking the circuit of the
primary winding of the ignition coil in order to induce the required current in the
secondary coil, a switching component with a high switching frequency is required to
drive the ignition coil, which in this case is a transistor. This transistor has to
withstand high voltages of around 300 V.
Among many of the power transistors that were considered during the selection
procedure, and which are almost all of the Darlington NPN type, the one chosen was
the HGTP14N36G3VL transistor, which is one of the transistors that are specially
manufactured as ignition drivers. It is rated at 14 A and 360 V.
This transistor's gate is connected to the output pin of the microcontroller. An
intermediate opto-coupler is used between the two since the output current of the
microcontroller is not sufficient for a proper ignition operation. This opto-coupler
along with those of the input sensors will be discussed in the following section. Note
that the collector of this transistor is connected to the coil and the emitter is connected
to the ground.

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VI-4 Ignition Circuit


An electronic circuit has been designed that incorporates all the ignition system
components. It has the role of connecting all the components together, and preventing
their damage by making sure every one of them is provided with its rated electric
characteristics. The latter feature is ensured through the voltage regulating circuit
featured in the circuit, which provides the circuit with the two required voltages.
Therefore, both 12 V and 5 V supplies are provided for each of their respective
components.
Opto-couplers are used whenever a communication between two differently
rated components is required. In fact, on both the inputs and outputs of the
microcontroller, a difference between the rated electric characteristics of the
connected components can be found, which requires opto-couplers on each of these
connections.
In fact, the power voltage of the sensors is 12 V and the rated voltage of the
microcontroller communication pins is 5V, which requires the use of opto-couplers,
in which the LEDs are powered by the sensor output signal, and a 5 V voltage
supply is provided to its phototransistor.
Moreover, the rated current of the output of the microcontroller is not sufficient
to drive the ignition coil driver, which also requires an opto-coupler that is powered
by a 5 V voltage on its phototransistor end.
It was found that Vishay SFH618 opto-couplers are suitable for the required
aforementioned operations.
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A schematic diagram and the printed circuit boards of the aforedescribed


circuit have been designed. These designs can be found on the following figures.

Figure VI.2 : Schematic Diagram Of The Ignition Circuit

Figure VI.3 : Power Transistor Circuit PCB Layout

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Figure VI.4 : Main Ignition Electronic Circuit PCB Layout

In addition to all the aforementioned components, a 10 mm spark plug has


been used in this engine, along with a 2.5 ms dwell ignition coil and a 12V battery,
which serves as the main power source of the ignition system.

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VII- Conclusion

Throughout this document were detailed all the steps that have been taken in
the study and the design of a linear spark-ignition free piston engine. The different
mechanical and thermodynamic aspects of most of the free piston engine applications
that took place throughout history, including that of the Pescara SIGMA GS-34 on
which the design of the free piston engine in question is based, were presented in
detail throughout the literature review section.
The results of a thorough numerical study that takes into account the kinetic
and thermodynamic characteristics of the designed free piston engine were detailed.
These show some of the characteristics that differentiate free piston engines from
other types of internal combustion engines, which include a longer stroke, a slower
compression stroke and a high piston velocity around the top dead center of the
engine. This study also shows that the rebound system that was selected for the
engine can ensure a complete return of the piston to its relative top dead center, which
is one of the initial challenges that are met during the design of such an engine. One
of the most important features that resulted from this study was the high thermal
efficiency of around 45% that this engine features compared to that of other
conventional spark-ignition internal combustion engines, which is limited to 30 % .
Several challenges have been met throughout the design process of this engine,
many of which were due to the fact that every moving component featured on this
engine has a reciprocating motion, and to the relatively high frequencies that can be
reached on these engines. The design of the synchronization mechanism featured on
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opposed piston engines can be complicated due to the aforementioned operation


conditions. Moreover, an unconventional starting system has been designed for this
engine to accommodate the reciprocating motion of the synchronization mechanism.
In addition, the unique mode of operation of free piston engines requires a
customized electronic ignition control unit that can provide the engine with a
properly timed ignition, and that is well adapted to the linear aspect of this engine.
Such a unit had to be designed from scratch although its design falls beyond the
scope of mechanical engineering. However, it is an essential element in sparkignition engines which has to be included in this work.
It can be concluded from this report that free piston engines are in fact more
efficient than other types of engines, which explains the renewed interest in these
engines that many international automotive and energetic developers are having right
now especially that the slightest efficiency improvements can make the biggest
difference.
A very important local commercial success can also be achieved by free piston
engines due to the fact that Lebanon, and though it is doesn't have an automotive
manufacturing sector, suffers from a great electric power distribution problem due to
the fact that the daily electric power generated doesn't match the current overall daily
need by a far margin. Since a solution to this problem isn't predicted to be available in
a near future of ten years, free piston engines, and due to their compact size and to
their high efficiency, low consumption, low emission levels and low noise generation
especially when they are of the properly balanced opposed piston type, can be
installed in every domestic real estate thus compensating the aforementioned power
deficit as an alternative to the local private generators that are distributed throughout
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the country, which form a relatively expensive and non-environmental solution.


Nevertheless, the required presence of a synchronization system on the engine
in question can be one of the inconveniences that might shadow many of a free piston
engine's advantages, due to the fact that the design of such a system decreases the
simplicity of a free piston engine, which is one of the essential advantages that are
sought to be achieved by free piston engines.
Therefore, future works should focus on the opposed piston design because of
all the advantages it features, and most importantly on the elimination of such a
mechanical synchronization system, which was claimed to be achieved by Stirling
Colgate through electromagnetic coupling[10]. Such a free piston linear alternator has
been investigated throughout this work, and was found to be very promising as it
extremely simplifies the design and execution of free piston engines. These
alternators should be also implemented with electronic fuel injection, which would
enormously increase their efficiency, and which was investigated throughout the
design of this free piston engine, but was not accomplished due to the limited
duration that was imposed.
Moreover, the power extraction method that is to be featured on the free piston
engine described throughout this document, which consists of a turbine mounted on
the exhaust of the engine and which is coupled to an alternator should be featured on
the aforementioned linear alternator, thus creating a turbine compounded free piston
linear alternator which would thus feature a heat recovery system that not only
compensates the power losses featured on linear alternators, but also might increase
the efficiency of free piston engine to unprecedented levels that can exceed 50 %.
Such an engine has been theoretically investigated in 2014 by Chan-ping Lee and was
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found to be an impressive free piston engine design [24]. Such an engine, and due to
its very high efficiency and its extremely simple design and execution, can be,
without any exaggeration, the basis of the industrial revolution of the twenty-first
century.

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References
[1] Butler E., Griffin C.& Co. , Evolution Of The Internal Combustion Engine , Inc., London,
1912.
[2] Lichty L., Internal Combustion Engines , 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY,
1951.
[3] http://www.freikolben.ch
[4] US Patent 1,657,641, United States Patent Office, Janyary 31, 1928.
[5] US Patent 1,950,063, United States Patent Office, March 6, 1934.
[6] US Patent 1,798,697, United States Patent Office, March 3l, 1931.
[7] UK Patent 212,924, United Kingdom Patent Office, June 12, 1925.
[8] Mikalsen R., Roskilly A.P., A review of free-piston engine history and applications, Applied
Thermal Engineering, Volume 27, Issues 14-15, Pages 2339-2352, 2007.
[9] Pescara C., Histoire Des Pistons Libres Pescara, La Gazette, Toulouse, January 2013.
[10] US Patent 3,234,395, United States Patent Office,February 8, 1966.
[11] http://www.freikolben.ch/37401/index.html
[12] Achten PAJ, van den Oever JPJ, Potma J, Vael GEM. , Horsepower with brains: The design of
the Chiron free piston engine, SAE Paper 2000-01-2545, 2000.
[13] Van Blarigan, P., "Advanced Internal Combustion Electrical Generator", NREL/CP-57030535, 2001.
[14] Kosaka, H., Akita, T., Moriya, K., Goto, S. & Co., Development of Free Piston Engine Linear
Generator System Part 1 - Investigation of Fundamental Characteristics, SAE Technical Paper
2014-01-1203 doi:10.4271/2014-01-1203, 2014.
[15] http://www.beetron.ch
[16] http://www.libertine.co.uk/
[17] Underwood A.F., "The GMR 4-4 HYPREX engine A concept of the free-piston engine for
automotive use", SAE Transactions 1957:65:377391, 1957.
[18] Walker G., Senft J.R., Free Piston Stirling Engines, Springer-Verlag, Inc, Berlin, Heidelberg,
1985.
[19] Heywood J. B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York,
NY, 1988.
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[20] Chapman J.R., Electric Machinery Fundamentals, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York,
NY, 2012.
[21] Boldea I., Nasar S.A., Linear Electric Actuators And Generators, Cambridge University
Press, Inc., Cambridge, 1997.
[22] Pulkrabek W. W., Engineering Fundamentals Of The Internal Combustion Engine, Prentice
Hall, Inc., New Jersey, NJ, 2007.
[23] http://www.torvergata-karting.it/article/articleview/76/1/9/
[24] Lee C., Turbine-Compound Free-Piston Linear Alternator Engine, Dissertation, University
of Michigan, 2014.
[25] Borgnakke C., Sonntag R.E. ,Fundamentals Of Thermodynamics, 7th Edition, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc, New Jersey, NJ, 2009.
[26] Munson B.R., Young D.F. & Co. ,Fundamentals Of Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, New Jersey, NJ, 2009.
[27] Voltage Induced in a Coil by a Moving Magnet, COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4 Documentation,
2013.
[28] Norton R. , Design Of Machinery, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY, 1999.
[29] Bosch Electronic Automotive Handbook, Robert Bosch GmbH, 2002.
[30] http://www.reliablebronze.com/catalog-design-param-841.php
[31] Budynas, Nisbett , Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,
New York, NY, 2006.
[32] Chevalier A. , Guide Du Dessinateur Industriel, Hachette, Paris, 2004.
[33] http://web.mae.ufl.edu/tribology/Laboratory/Wear/Mechanisms.html
[34] http://www.ia.omron.com/product/item/e2a_7198b/
[35] http://www.speeduino.com
[36] http://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/arduinoBoardMega2560

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Appendix A : Numeric Simulation Of The Free Piston Engine


Throughout this appendix will be found the remaining SIMULINK diagrams of
the numeric simulation, in addition to the Matlab program that assigns the initial values
of each of the diagrams, and makes sure each simulation run occurs at the right order
and at the right moment.

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admission2.mdl

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admission3.mdl

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admission.mdl

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compression2.mdl

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compression.mdl

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exhaust1.mdl

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exhaust.mdl

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expansion2.mdl

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expansion.mdl

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Matlab Program: FPE.m


clc;
clear;
m=4;
R=0.287;
Pcm=180000;
Patm=101325;
S=0.07;
BC=0.03;
CC=0.007;
K2=1.3;
A1=(pi*(0.04)^2)/4;
A2=(pi*(0.092)^2)/4;
A3=A1;
Aex=(pi*(0.04)^2)/4;
Fr=500;
B=0;
K1=1.3;
Exx=(0.05);
Ex=S+CC-Exx;
Pcci=(Patm)*(Exx/CC)^K1;
Tcci=707/(1826000/Pcci);
Pccf=10111000/(1826000/Pcci);
C2=((Patm*1.5)*(A2*(BC+S))^K2);
Mgc=(Pcci*CC*2*A1)/(R*Tcci);
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
C3=(Pcm*((A2-A3)*CC)^K1);
sim('expansion',[0 0.03]);
i=1;
while p3(i) > Patm,
i=i+1;
end
tst1=x(i);
if tst1 > Ex,
ts1=time(i);
xs1=x(i);
vs1=v(i);

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sim('expansion',[0 ts1]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
sim('expansion2',[ts1 0.03]);
i=1;
while x(i) > Ex,
i=i+1;
end
ts2=time(i);
xs2=x(i);
vs2=v(i);
ps2=p1(i);
sim('expansion2',[ts1 ts2]);
Fplt;
else
i=1;
while x(i) > Ex,
i=i+1;
end
ts1=time(i);
xs1=x(i);
vs1=v(i);
sim('expansion',[0 ts1]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1)/(Mgc);
sim('exhaust1',[ts1 0.03]);
i=1;
while p3(i) > Patm,
i=i+1;
end
ts2=time(i);
xs2=x(i);
vs2=v(i);
sim('exhaust1',[ts1 ts2]);
Fplt;
end
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1)/(Mgc);
sim('exhaust',[ts2 0.03]);
i=1;
while x(i) > 0.0175,
i=i+1;
end
ts3=time(i);
xs3=x(i);
vs3=v(i);
sim('exhaust',[ts2 ts3]);

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

91

Fplt;
sim('admission',[ts3 0.03]);
i=1;
while v(i) < 0,
i=i+1;
end
ts4=time(i);
xs4=x(i);
vs4=v(i);
sim('admission',[ts3 ts4]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C3=(Patm*((A2-A3)*(CC+S-xs4))^K1);
sim('admission2',[ts4 0.04]);
i=1;
while x(i) < Ex,
i=i+1;
end
tst=p3(i);
if tst < Pcm,
ts5=time(i);
xs5=x(i);
vs5=v(i);
sim('admission2',[ts4 ts5]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pcci*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
C3=(Patm*((A2-A3)*(CC+S-xs4))^K1);
sim('compression',[ts5 0.04]);
i=1;
while p3(i) < Pcm,
i=i+1;
end
ts6=time(i);
xs6=x(i);
vs6=v(i);
sim('compression',[ts5 ts6]);
Fplt;
else
i=1;
while p3(i) < Pcm,
i=i+1;
end
ts5=time(i);
xs5=x(i);
vs5=v(i);
sim('admission2',[ts4 ts5]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

92

sim('admission3',[ts5 0.04]);
i=1;
while x(i) < Ex,
i=i+1;
end
ts6=time(i);
xs6=x(i);
vs6=v(i);
sim('admission3',[ts5 ts6]);
Fplt;
end
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pcci*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
sim('compression2',[ts6 0.1]);
i=1;
figure (7)
plot(time,x);
hold on;
figure (8)
plot(time,v);
hold on;
figure (9)
plot(time,a);
hold on;
while x(i) < S,
i=i+1;
end
ts7=time(i);
xs7=x(i);
vs7=v(i);
sim('compression2',[ts6 ts7]);
Fplt;
frequency=1/ts7;
compratio=(Pcci/Patm)^(1/K1);
effth=1-1/(compratio)^(K1-1);
Vh=(Exx-CC)*A1*2;
lambda=Pccf/Pcci;
Phi=0.92;
Pi=Phi*((Patm*compratio^K1)*((lambda*(1-compratio^(1-K2))/(K2-1))-((1-compratio^(1-K1))/(K1-1))))/
(compratio-1);
Li=Pi*Vh;
Ni=Li*frequency;
i=1;
Tign=ts7-(0.0025 +((30/frequency)*((1/30) * (18/360))));
while time(i) < Tign,
i=i+1;
end
Xign=x(i);
frequency
compratio

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

93

effth
Pi
Li
Ni
Ex
Exx
xs3
xs4
Xign
Vh
Pcci
Tcci

Fplt.m:
figure (1)
plot(time,x);
title('Piston Position With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Position (m)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure (2)
plot(time,v);
title('Piston Velocity With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Velocity (m/s)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure (3)
plot(time,a);
title('Piston Acceleration With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Acceleration (m/s2)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(4)
plot(x,p1);
title('Combustion Chamber Pressure With Respect To x');
xlabel('Position (m)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Combustion Chamber Pressure (Pa)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(5)
plot(x,p2);
title('Bounce Chamber Pressure With Respect To x');
xlabel('Position (m)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Bounce Chamber Pressure (Pa)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(6)
plot(x,p3);
title('Compression Chamber Pressure With Respect To x');
xlabel('Position (m)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Compression Chamber Pressure (Pa)'); % y-axis label
hold on;

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

94

Appendix B : Simulation Of A Free Piston Linear Alternator

Throughout this appendix will be found one of the SIMULINK diagrams of the
numeric simulation of an opposed piston linear alternator that is based on the Colgate
engine. In this diagram, it can be seen that a simulation diagram of the electric RLC
circuit that includes the coils that surround the moving permanent magnet of the
alternator has been added to the admission2.mdl diagram that can be found in Appendix
A, and that the effects of each of the two systems on the other is taken into account by
connecting both diagram on the corresponding spots ( the resulting Laplace force that is
induced by the circuit is added to the sum of the forces of the kinetic simulation, and the
velocity of the slider, which is a part of the expression of the electromotive force, is
connected to the circuit diagram). The system obtained is a two-degree of freedom
differential equation. Note that only one diagram has been shown since the same
modification can
be found on all the other diagrams that can be found in appendix A.
In addition, the Matlab program that assigns the initial values of each of the
diagrams, and makes sure each simulation run occurs at the right order and at the right
moment, the results of the simulation, and a COMSOL Multiphysics finite element
analysis that determines the magnetic field distribution of the permanent magnet with
respect to time and position of the slider, can be found in this section.

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

95

admission2.mdl

Gain

-K-

time

To Workspace2

To Workspace

Clock

To Workspace3

uv
-K1
Math
Function 2 Constant2

Product

S+CC

Sign

Constant4

Constant6

-1
Gain 5

-K-

Gain 12

B
Gain 8
Fr

Idot

Constant3

To Workspace8

Km

1
s

-1

Gain 11

To Workspace7
1
s

1/C

Step3
Gain 10

-K-

To Workspace13
Gain 13

Vout

Integrator 4
Step2
Rc

Iload

To Workspace15

Gain 2

Integrator 3

To Workspace12

Idot1

BC

To Workspace1
Step

1
s

-K-

Integrator 1
Step1
p2
To Workspace4
Gain 1
p1
To Workspace5
Patm

p3

Constant5

-K-

To Workspace6

Gain 6

Product1

uv
-K2
Math
Function 1 Constant1

1
s

Gain 3

Integrator 2

A2

A1
Gain 4

-KGain 7

Pelec

To Workspace10

To Workspace11
Felec

-KGain 9

Vind
To Workspace14

Gain 19

To Workspace9

96

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

Matlab Program: FPE-ELEC.m


clc;
clear;
m=5;
R=0.287;
mu0=1.256637061e-6;
roco=2.13e-8;
Tcci=707/1.4;
Pcci=1826000/1.4;
Pcm=182500;
Pccf=10111000;
Patm=101325;
S=0.05;
BC=0.02;
CC=0.007;
Br=1.2;
murc=1.07*mu0;
hm=0.007;
hs=0;
ks=1.1;
g=0.001;
gm=8e-3;
Dm=0.09;
N=100;
Vt=12*sqrt(2);
fest=36;
Rcc=roco*((N^2)/(0.8*4*Dm));
Rc=Rcc;
Rload=10;
L1=(mu0*pi*Dm*S*N^2)/(2*ks*gm);
L=2*L1;
C=(L*(2*pi*fest)^2)^(-1);
Bm=Br/(1+(murc/mu0)*((2*ks*g)/(hm+hs)));
Km=pi*Dm*N*Bm;

K2=1.3;
A1=0.0016;
A2=A1*4;
A3=A1;
Aex=64/10000;
Fr=500;
B=0;

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

97

K1=1.3;
Exx=(((Pcci/Patm)^(1/K1))*CC);
Ex=S+CC-Exx;
C2=(Patm*2)*(A2*(BC+S))^K2;
Mgc=(Pcci*CC*2*A1)/(R*Tcci);
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
C3=(Pcm*((A2-A3)*CC)^K1);
sim('expansion',[0 0.03]);
i=1;
while p3(i) > Patm,
i=i+1;
end
tst1=x(i);
if tst1 > Ex,
ts1=time(i);
xs1=x(i);
vs1=v(i);
Is1=I(i);
Idots1=Idot(i);
sim('expansion',[0 ts1]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
sim('expansion2',[ts1 0.03]);
i=1;
while x(i) > Ex,
i=i+1;
end
ts2=time(i);
xs2=x(i);
vs2=v(i);
ps2=p1(i);
Is2=I(i);
Idots2=Idot(i);
sim('expansion2',[ts1 ts2]);
Fplt;
else
i=1;
while x(i) > Ex,
i=i+1;
end
ts1=time(i);
xs1=x(i);
vs1=v(i);
Is1=I(i);
Idots1=Idot(i);
sim('expansion',[0 ts1]);

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

98

Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1)/(Mgc);
sim('exhaust1',[ts1 0.03]);
i=1;
while p3(i) > Patm,
i=i+1;
end
ts2=time(i);
xs2=x(i);
vs2=v(i);
Is2=I(i);
Idots2=Idot(i);
sim('exhaust',[ts1 ts2]);
Fplt;
end
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pccf*(A1*2*CC)^K1)/(Mgc);
sim('exhaust',[ts2 0.03]);
i=1;
while p1(i) > Patm,
i=i+1;
end
ts3=time(i);
xs3=x(i);
vs3=v(i);
Is3=I(i);
Idots3=Idot(i);
sim('exhaust',[ts2 ts3]);
Fplt;
sim('admission',[ts3 0.03]);
i=1;
while v(i) < 0,
i=i+1;
end
ts4=time(i);
xs4=x(i);
vs4=v(i);
Is4=I(i);
Idots4=Idot(i);
sim('admission',[ts3 ts4]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C3=(Patm*((A2-A3)*(CC+S-xs4))^K1);
sim('admission2',[ts4 0.04]);
i=1;
while x(i) < Ex,
i=i+1;

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

99

end
tst=p3(i);
if tst < Pcm,
ts5=time(i);
xs5=x(i);
vs5=v(i);
Is5=I(i);
Idots5=Idot(i);
sim('admission2',[ts4 ts5]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
C1=(Pcci*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
C3=(Patm*((A2-A3)*(CC+S-xs4))^K1);
sim('compression',[ts5 0.04]);
i=1;
while p3(i) < Pcm,
i=i+1;
end
ts6=time(i);
xs6=x(i);
vs6=v(i);
Is6=I(i);
Idots6=Idot(i);
sim('compression',[ts5 ts6]);
Fplt;
else
i=1;
while p3(i) < Pcm,
i=i+1;
end
ts5=time(i);
xs5=x(i);
vs5=v(i);
Is5=I(i);
Idots5=Idot(i);
sim('admission2',[ts4 ts5]);
Fplt;
K1=1.3;
sim('admission3',[ts5 0.04]);
i=1;
while x(i) < Ex,
i=i+1;
end
ts6=time(i);
xs6=x(i);
vs6=v(i);
Is6=I(i);
Idots6=Idot(i);
sim('admission3',[ts5 ts6]);
Fplt;
end

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100

K1=1.3;
C1=(Pcci*(A1*2*CC)^K1);
sim('compression2',[ts6 0.1]);
i=1;
figure (14)
plot(time,x);
hold on;
while x(i) < S,
i=i+1;
end
ts7=time(i);
xs7=x(i);
vs7=v(i);
Is7=I(i);
Idots7=Idot(i);
sim('compression2',[ts6 ts7]);
Fplt;
frequency=1/ts7;
compratio=(Pcci/Patm)^(1/K1);
effth=1-1/(compratio)^(K1-1);
Vh=(Exx-CC)*A1*2;
lambda=Pccf/Pcci;
Phi=0.92;
Pi=Phi*((Patm*compratio^K1)*((lambda*(1-compratio^(1-K2))/(K2-1))-((1-compratio^(1-K1))/(K1-1))))/
(compratio-1);
Li=Pi*Vh;
Ni=Li*frequency;
i=1;
Tign=ts7-((0.00204*800/(1800))+(0.00204*800*8/(1800*22)));
while time(i) < Tign,
i=i+1;
end
Xign=x(i);
frequency
compratio
effth
Pi
Li
Ni
L
Rc
C
Bm
xs3
Ex
Xign

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

101

Fplt.m:
figure (1)
plot(time,x);
title('Piston Position With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Position (m)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure (2)
plot(time,v);
title('Piston Velocity With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Velocity (m/s)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure (3)
plot(time,a);
hold on;
figure(4)
plot(x,p1);
title('Combustion Chamber Pressure With Respect To x');
xlabel('Position (m)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Combustion Chamber Pressure (Pa)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(5)
plot(x,p2);
title('Bounce Chamber Pressure With Respect To x');
xlabel('Position (m)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Bounce Chamber Pressure (Pa))'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(6)
plot(x,p3);
hold on;
figure(7)
plot(time,I);
title('Induced Current With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Current (A)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(8)
plot(time,e);
title('Induced Electromotive Force With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('EMF (V)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(9)
plot(time,Pelec);
title('Extracted Electric Power With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('P (W)'); % y-axis label
hold on;

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

102

figure(10)
plot(time,Felec);
title('Laplace Force Acting On The Piston With Respect To Time');
xlabel('Time (s)'); % x-axis label
ylabel('Laplace Force (N)'); % y-axis label
hold on;
figure(11)
plot(time,Vout);
hold on;
figure(12)
plot(time,Vind);
hold on;
figure(13)
plot(time,Iload);
hold on;

COMSOL Multiphysics Simulation Results:

Simulation Model

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

103

Magnetic Field Distribution

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

104

Simulation Results

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

105

Appendix C : SKF Bearing Life Calculator Report

Throughout this appendix will be found the detailed calculation report generated
by the SKF bearing life calculator. Note that many of the inputs of the calculations have
been exaggerated as a mean of safety precaution.

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

106

SKF Bearing Calculator


Calculation summary report
Published on 2015-07-15 12.44.51 GMT

SKF General Conditions for technical assistance and advice (available at www.skf.com) shall apply to this report.
SKF accepts no variation of any of these conditions unless confirmed in writing by SKF.
SKF is a registered trademark of the SKF Group.
SKF Group 2013
The contents of this publication are the copyright of SKF and may not be reproduced, duplicated, copied, transferred, distributed, stored, modified, downloaded or otherwise exploited for any
commercial use without the prior written approval of SKF.

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

107

Table of Contents
1.

Designation: NA 4900
1.1 Bearing life

2.

Designation: 6000
2.1 Bearing life

3.

Designation: 6202-2Z
3.1 Bearing life

1. Designation: NA 4900

Type: Needle roller bearing

Bearing Data
d

10.0 mm

22.0 mm

13 mm

8.8 kN

10.4 kN

1.1

Bearing life

Input Parameters
F

0.2 kN

3000 r/min

Operating temperature
Bearing outer ring

80 C

r
Radial load
i
Rotational speed of the inner ring

specification method
c

Cleanliness
classification(recommended)

SKF is a registered trademark of the SKF Group. SKF Group 2013

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

108

Lubricant type and cleanliness

Normal cleanliness (e.g.


shielded bearing)
2
27 mm /s

Viscosity at 40 C

Result
L

497800 hour

0.3

10mh
SKF rating life
SKF
SKF life modification factor a

SKF

Viscosity ratio

0.42

P
Equivalent dynamic bearing load

0.2 kN

0.06

2
17.3 mm /s

>1000000 hour

C/P
Load ratio

44

c
Factor for contamination level
1
Required kinematic viscosity for =1
10h
Basic rating life

2. Designation: 6000

Type: Deep groove ball bearing

Bearing Data
d

10.0 mm

26.0 mm

8 mm

4.75 kN

1.96 kN

SKF is a registered trademark of the SKF Group. SKF Group 2013

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

109

Bearing Data

2.1

Bearing life

Input Parameters
Select bearing internal radial clearance

Normal internal radial


clearance

0.2 kN

0.1 kN

3000 r/min

Operating temperature
Bearing outer ring

80 C

r
Radial load
a
Axial load
i
Rotational speed of the inner ring

specification method
c

Cleanliness
classification(recommended)

Lubricant type and cleanliness

Normal cleanliness (e.g.


shielded bearing)
2
27 mm /s

Viscosity at 40 C

Result

SKF is a registered trademark of the SKF Group. SKF Group 2013

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

110

6730 hour

0.27

10mh
SKF rating life
SKF
SKF life modification factor a

SKF

Viscosity ratio

0.45

P
Equivalent dynamic bearing load

0.289 kN

0.07

2
16.3 mm /s

24700 hour

C/P
Load ratio

16.4

c
Factor for contamination level
1
Required kinematic viscosity for =1
10h
Basic rating life

3. Designation: 6202-2Z

Type: Deep groove ball bearing

Bearing Data
d

15.0 mm

35.0 mm

11 mm

8.06 kN

3.75 kN

3.1

Bearing life

SKF is a registered trademark of the SKF Group. SKF Group 2013

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

111

Input Parameters
Select bearing internal radial clearance

Normal internal radial


clearance

0.2 kN

0.1 kN

3000 r/min

Operating temperature
Bearing outer ring

80 C

r
Radial load
a
Axial load
i
Rotational speed of the inner ring

specification method
c

Cleanliness
classification(recommended)

Lubricant type and cleanliness

Normal cleanliness (e.g.


shielded bearing)

Grease used in the bearing

MT47
2
70.0 mm /s
2
7.3 mm /s

Viscosity at 40 C
Viscosity at 100 C

Warning
The calculation is only valid for horizontal shaft, inner ring rotation and moderate vibrations. For deviating
operating conditions, please contact the SKF application engineering service.

Result
L

151100 hour

1.56

10mh
SKF rating life
SKF
SKF life modification factor a

SKF

Viscosity ratio

0.93

P
Equivalent dynamic bearing load

0.311 kN

0.15

2
13.8 mm /s

c
Factor for contamination level
1
Required kinematic viscosity for =1

SKF is a registered trademark of the SKF Group. SKF Group 2013

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

112

96700 hour

33500 hour

C/P
Load ratio

25.9

10h
Basic rating life
10
Capped bearing grease life

SKF is a registered trademark of the SKF Group. SKF Group 2013

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

113

Appendix D : Free Piston Engine Execution Drawings

Throughout this appendix will be found a detailed bill of material that includes all
the standard and manufactured parts that are included in this project, followed by each
of the 32 execution drawings of the parts of this project.

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

114

Division/Dept:
M.MAKHLOUF
F.HADDAD

R&D Department

Designation

Technical
specifications

Prepared by:

Item
CENTRAL SYNCHRONISING LINK
Support 1
CONNECTING LINK
LINEAR GUIDE
BOUNCE CHAMBER COVER
CONNECTING PIN 1
SYNCHRONISATION SHAFT
ROD END 1
FLANGE
PISTON ROD
BOUNCE CHAMBER CYLINDER
COMBUSTION CYLINDER
BEARING HOUSING 1
SCOTCH-YOKE SLIDER
LINEAR GUIDE
CASE PLATE 1
CASE PLATE 2
CASE PLATE 3
ROTATION ARM
STARTING SYSTEM FLOOR
BASE
STARTING SYSTEM WALL 1
STARTING SYSTEM WALL 2
ECCENTRIC SHAFT
VALVE HOUSING COVER
VALVE HOUSING COVER
ROD END 2
BEARING SUPPORT
BEARING HOUSING 2
CENTRAL SHAFT 1
CENTRAL SHAFT 2
SENSOR PLATFORM
RACK
PINION
NEEDLE BEARING
BALL BEARING 1
BALL BEARING 2
PISTON 1
PISTON 2
REED VALVE

Approved by:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Date:

pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs

Unit

Date:

Catalog
reference

Signature:

Brand
required

Signature:

R.T.F
R.T.F
SKF
SKF
SKF

M2
M2 ; T23
NA 4900
6000
6202-2Z
40mm
92mm
ATSUGI

Function

Bill of Material
DES/BOM/30

Bill of Material

Section /
Assembly #
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000

1/JUN/2015

Qty of
parts
2
1
4
4
2
8
4
2
2
2
2
1
4
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
4
4
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
8
2
4
2
2
4

Part #
10FPE000001
10FPE000002
10FPE000003
10FPE000004
10FPE000005
10FPE000006
10FPE000007
10FPE000008
10FPE000009
10FPE000010
10FPE000011
10FPE000012
10FPE000013
10FPE000014
10FPE000015
10FPE000016
10FPE000017
10FPE000018
10FPE000019
10FPE000020
10FPE000021
10FPE000022
10FPE000023
10FPE000024
10FPE000025
10FPE000026
10FPE000027
10FPE000028
10FPE000029
10FPE000030
10FPE000031
10FPE000032
20FPE000033
20FPE000034
30FPE000001
30FPE000002
30FPE000003
30FPE000004
30FPE000005
30FPE000006

Wiring Sheet #
Sub-assembly #
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000
40FPE000000

Rev. #

Assembly/Section #:
Revision # :

0FPE

40FPE000000

Rev.:1

Job#:

RDT

Rev. Date:

Remarks

PRS/ORS #

Spare Part

115

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Appendix E : Autodesk Inventor Stress Analysis Reports

Throughout this appendix will be found the detailed reports of the stress analysis
finite element calculations that were performed on each of the parts that form the engine.
Note that these reports have been automatically generated by the Autodesk Inventor
Stress Analysis tool.

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Stress Analysis Report


Analyzed File:
Autodesk Inventor Version:
Creation Date:
Simulation Author:
Summary:

Spur Gear11.ipt
2015 SP1 (Build 190203100, 203)
7/10/2015, 2:33 PM
User

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author User

Project
Part Number
Designer
Cost
Date Created

Spur Gear1
User
$0.00
5/28/2015

Status
Design Status WorkInProgress

Physical
Material
Density
Mass
Area
Volume

Steel
7.85 g/cm^3
0.58884 kg
20325.2 mm^2
75011.5 mm^3
x=-0.00000578626 mm
Center of Gravity y=0.0000131034 mm
z=37.0046 mm
Note: Physical values could be different from Physical values used by FEA reported below.

Simulation:1
General objective and settings:
Design Objective
Simulation Type
Last Modification Date
Detect and Eliminate Rigid Body Modes

Parametric Dimension
Static Analysis
7/8/2015, 1:29 PM
No

Mesh settings:
Avg. Element Size (fraction of model diameter)
Min. Element Size (fraction of avg. size)
Grading Factor
Max. Turn Angle

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

0.1
0.2
1.5
60 deg

149

Create Curved Mesh Elements

Yes

Results
Parametric Configuration:1
Result Summary
Name
Volume
Mass
Displacement
Safety Factor

Minimum Maximum
75012.1 mm^3
0.588845 kg
0 mm
0.0235165 mm
6.72447 ul 15 ul

Figures
Displacement

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Safety Factor

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C:\Users\User\Desktop\fyp\gear\Design Accelerator\Spur Gear11.ipt

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Stress Analysis Report

Analyzed File:
Autodesk Inventor Version:
Creation Date:
Simulation Author:
Summary:

Part36.ipt
2015 SP1 (Build 190203100, 203)
7/10/2015, 2:30 PM
User

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author User

Project
Part Number
Designer
Cost
Date Created

Part36
User
$0.00
5/22/2015

Status
Design Status WorkInProgress

Physical
Material
Density
Mass
Area
Volume

Generic
1 g/cm^3
0.241463 kg
39705.7 mm^2
241463 mm^3
x=0.0000000022446 mm
Center of Gravity y=38.6472 mm
z=0.0000000000430052 mm
Note: Physical values could be different from Physical values used by FEA reported below.

Simulation:1
General objective and settings:
Design Objective
Simulation Type
Last Modification Date
Detect and Eliminate Rigid Body Modes

Parametric Dimension
Static Analysis
7/3/2015, 10:58 AM
No

Mesh settings:
Avg. Element Size (fraction of model diameter) 0.1
Min. Element Size (fraction of avg. size)
0.2

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Grading Factor
Max. Turn Angle
Create Curved Mesh Elements

1.5
60 deg
Yes

Results
Parametric Configuration:1
Result Summary
Name
Volume
Mass
Displacement
Safety Factor

Minimum Maximum
241463 mm^3
0.65195 kg
0 mm
0.0473067 mm
3.77985 ul 15 ul

Figures
Displacement

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Safety Factor

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C:\Users\User\Desktop\fyp\Part36.ipt

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Stress Analysis Report

Analyzed File:
Autodesk Inventor Version:
Creation Date:
Simulation Author:
Summary:

Part15.ipt
2015 SP1 (Build 190203100, 203)
7/10/2015, 6:37 PM
User

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author User

Project
Part Number
Designer
Cost
Date Created

Part15
User
$0.00
4/4/2015

Status
Design Status WorkInProgress

Physical
Material
Density
Mass
Area
Volume

Generic
1 g/cm^3
0.739955 kg
234503 mm^2
739955 mm^3
x=22.3278 mm
Center of Gravity y=105.882 mm
z=-0.0000318816 mm
Note: Physical values could be different from Physical values used by FEA reported below.

Simulation:1
General objective and settings:
Design Objective
Simulation Type
Last Modification Date
Detect and Eliminate Rigid Body Modes

Parametric Dimension
Static Analysis
7/10/2015, 6:36 PM
No

Mesh settings:
Avg. Element Size (fraction of model diameter) 0.1
Min. Element Size (fraction of avg. size)
0.2

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Grading Factor
Max. Turn Angle
Create Curved Mesh Elements

1.5
60 deg
Yes

Results
Parametric Configuration:1
Result Summary
Name
Volume
Mass
Displacement
Safety Factor

Minimum Maximum
739955 mm^3
5.80865 kg
0 mm
0.0026513 mm
11.5893 ul 15 ul

Figures
Displacement

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Safety Factor

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Stress Analysis Report

Analyzed File:
Autodesk Inventor Version:
Creation Date:
Simulation Author:
Summary:

Part14.ipt
2015 SP1 (Build 190203100, 203)
7/10/2015, 6:35 PM
User

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author User

Project
Part Number
Designer
Cost
Date Created

Part14
User
$0.00
4/3/2015

Status
Design Status WorkInProgress

Physical
Material
Density
Mass
Area
Volume

Generic
1 g/cm^3
0.198419 kg
46071.9 mm^2
198419 mm^3
x=-0.0000000169427 mm
Center of Gravity y=5 mm
z=0 mm
Note: Physical values could be different from Physical values used by FEA reported below.

Simulation:1
General objective and settings:
Design Objective
Simulation Type
Last Modification Date
Detect and Eliminate Rigid Body Modes

Parametric Dimension
Static Analysis
7/10/2015, 6:33 PM
No

Mesh settings:
Avg. Element Size (fraction of model diameter) 0.1
Min. Element Size (fraction of avg. size)
0.2

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Grading Factor
Max. Turn Angle
Create Curved Mesh Elements

1.5
60 deg
Yes

Results
Parametric Configuration:1
Result Summary
Name
Volume
Mass
Displacement
Safety Factor

Minimum Maximum
198419 mm^3
0.535732 kg
0 mm
0.0761728 mm
1.66431 ul 15 ul

Figures
Displacement

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Safety Factor

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Stress Analysis Report2


Analyzed File:
Autodesk Inventor Version:
Creation Date:
Simulation Author:
Summary:

synchronizatin stress analysis1.iam


2015 SP1 (Build 190203100, 203)
7/10/2015, 6:53 PM
User

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author User

Project
Part Number
Designer
Cost
Date Created

synchronizatin stress analysis1


User
$0.00
4/16/2015

Status
Design Status WorkInProgress

Physical
Mass
Area
Volume

1.30561 kg
365864 mm^2
1305610 mm^3
x=33.4183 mm
Center of Gravity y=29.5539 mm
z=-24.1601 mm
Note: Physical values could be different from Physical values used by FEA reported below.

Simulation:2
General objective and settings:
Design Objective
Simulation Type
Last Modification Date
Detect and Eliminate Rigid Body Modes
Separate Stresses Across Contact Surfaces
Motion Loads Analysis

Parametric Dimension
Static Analysis
7/10/2015, 6:52 PM
No
No
No

Mesh settings:
Avg. Element Size (fraction of model diameter)
Min. Element Size (fraction of avg. size)
Grading Factor
Max. Turn Angle

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0.1
0.2
1.5
60 deg

169

Create Curved Mesh Elements


Use part based measure for Assembly mesh

No
Yes

Results
Parametric Configuration:1
Result Summary
Name
Volume
Mass
Displacement
Safety Factor

Minimum Maximum
1305600 mm^3
5.47931 kg
0 mm
0.0993369 mm
1.40172 ul 15 ul

Figures
Displacement

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Safety Factor

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Stress Analysis Report


Analyzed File:
Autodesk Inventor Version:
Creation Date:
Simulation Author:
Summary:

excentrique.ipt
2015 SP1 (Build 190203100, 203)
7/10/2015, 2:36 PM
User

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author User

Project
Part Number
Designer
Cost
Date Created

Part9
User
$0.00
5/28/2015

Status
Design Status WorkInProgress

Physical
Material
Density
Mass
Area
Volume

Generic
1 g/cm^3
0.0238963 kg
9158.02 mm^2
23896.3 mm^3
x=0.0000000000983883 mm
Center of Gravity y=-59.1829 mm
z=-0.447159 mm
Note: Physical values could be different from Physical values used by FEA reported below.

Simulation:1
General objective and settings:
Design Objective
Simulation Type
Last Modification Date
Detect and Eliminate Rigid Body Modes

Parametric Dimension
Static Analysis
7/10/2015, 2:35 PM
No

Mesh settings:
Avg. Element Size (fraction of model diameter)
Min. Element Size (fraction of avg. size)
Grading Factor
Max. Turn Angle

MAKHLOUF-HADDAD

0.1
0.2
1.5
60 deg

174

Create Curved Mesh Elements

Yes

Results
Parametric Configuration:1
Result Summary
Name
Volume
Mass
Displacement
Safety Factor

Minimum Maximum
23896.3 mm^3
0.187586 kg
0 mm
0.368055 mm
1.41244 ul 15 ul

Figures
Displacement

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Safety Factor

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Stress Analysis Report

Analyzed File:
Autodesk Inventor Version:
Creation Date:
Simulation Author:
Summary:

Part2.ipt
2015 SP1 (Build 190203100, 203)
7/10/2015, 2:27 PM
User

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author User

Project
Part Number
Designer
Cost
Date Created

Part2
User
$0.00
3/12/2015

Status
Design Status WorkInProgress

Physical
Material
Density
Mass
Area
Volume

Generic
1 g/cm^3
0.702994 kg
177635 mm^2
702994 mm^3
x=-0.304108 mm
Center of Gravity y=-0.103671 mm
z=0.00669375 mm
Note: Physical values could be different from Physical values used by FEA reported below.

Simulation:1
General objective and settings:
Design Objective
Simulation Type
Last Modification Date
Detect and Eliminate Rigid Body Modes

Parametric Dimension
Static Analysis
7/10/2015, 2:24 PM
No

Mesh settings:
Avg. Element Size (fraction of model diameter) 0.1
Min. Element Size (fraction of avg. size)
0.2

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Grading Factor
Max. Turn Angle
Create Curved Mesh Elements

1.5
60 deg
Yes

Results
Parametric Configuration:1
Result Summary
Name
Volume
Mass
Displacement
Safety Factor

Minimum Maximum
702991 mm^3
5.51848 kg
0 mm
0.00695989 mm
3.08133 ul 15 ul

Figures
Displacement

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Safety Factor

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Appendix F : Arduino Source Code2I7KH(QJLQH&RQWURO8QLW


Throughout this appendix will be found the Arduino Source Code that has been
implemented on the Arduino Mega board.

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Arduino Program : FPE_IGNITION.ino


const int Sensor1Pin = 2;
const int Sensor2Pin = 3;
const int IgnitionPin = 6; //IgnitionPin = 13 for testing the ignition with the built-in LED
int Sensor1State = 0;

// current state of Sensor1

int Sensor2State = 0;

// current state of Sensor2

int LastSensor2State = 0;

// previous state of Sensor2

void setup() {
// initialize the Sensor1 Pin as a input:
pinMode(Sensor1Pin, INPUT);
// initialize the Sensor2 Pin as a input:
pinMode(Sensor2Pin, INPUT);
// initialize the Ignition Pin as an output:
pinMode(IgnitionPin, OUTPUT);
// initialize serial communication:
Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {
// read the sensor input pins:
Sensor1State = digitalRead(Sensor1Pin);
Sensor2State = digitalRead(Sensor2Pin);
if (Sensor2State == HIGH) {
LastSensor2State = 1;
} // used to prevent post-combustion ignition

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if (LastSensor2State = 1 && Sensor1State == HIGH ) {


digitalWrite(IgnitionPin, HIGH);
delay(2.5);
digitalWrite(IgnitionPin, LOW);
LastSensor2State = 0;
}
else {
digitalWrite(IgnitionPin, LOW);
}
}

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