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Organic Mushroom Cultivation

Presented by
Assistant Professor

What Are Mushrooms ?

The mushroom is a fruiting body of microorganisms
called fungi.
To propagate, it forms a mycelium initates growth
stage, generating spores in the gills for dispersal.
As mushrooms lack chlorophyll, they dont
photosynthesize (process energy from sunlight) like
green plants.
Mushrooms themselves are tasty, popular to eat and a
beneficial source of nutrients for people.

Much of Asias environment is suitable for

In addition, the low costs associated with
growing mushrooms helps farmers get started
and make relatively quick and good financial
returns, positively contributing to the countrys

Mushrooms play a significant role in forest

ecology, as they help decompose dead plants
and animals, including dead trees, branches,
leaves, fruits, seeds and animal droppings on
the ground.

Mushrooms Varieties and their Values

There are more than 30,000 identified types of
mushrooms worldwide.
99% of these are safely edible and roughly 1%
is poisonous.
Yet there are still many undiscovered
mushroom species and the effects of some
mushrooms on human health remain unknown

A wide assortment of mushrooms is eaten

around the world.
Champignon and Field Mushrooms are
popular in Europe.
Shitake Mushrooms are consumed mostly in
China and Japan, while Thai people prefer
Yanagi Mushrooms or Straw Mushrooms.

Some mushrooms have medicinal qualities and

their popularity is rising too.
Nowadays, almost every country devotes more
attention to research, experimentation,
selection and development of mushrooms.

Nutritional Benefits
Mushrooms are very popular in many countries
and often considered to be as nutritious as meat.
India, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Thailand have
the highest global export rates of mushrooms.
Scientific research has shown that mushrooms
contain many kinds of carbohydrates, proteins and
fat, B-complex vitamins , important minerals ,

Anatomy of Mushroom

Types of Mushrooms


Key environmental factors to consider for

mushroom cultivation
Temperature:- Straw Mushrooms grow well at 38-40
degree Celsius, which is the best temperature for
producing spores. Fibers grow well at 35-38 degree
Celsius while caps grow at 30 degree Celsius. If it is too
hot, mushroom caps will be small and open faster than
Light Even though light is necessary for the growth and
assembly of fibers and in order to produce mushroom
caps, it is not essential for the mushrooms growth. On the
contrary, light darkens the mushrooms color, unlike
growing them in the dark (which whitens them).

pH Levels The pH level is important for the growth of
mushrooms. Straw mushrooms are neutral or a little
acidic. If there is too much acid, bacteria will not grow
and they will be less able to digest molecules. A suitable
pH level for straw mushrooms and other mushrooms is
between 5 and 8.
Oxygen In every stage of mushroom growth oxygen is
needed, especially when the caps are coming out and after
they have bloomed. If there is too much carbon dioxide in
the mushroom bed, fibers will grow slower or stop
growing, the mushrooms will grow abnormally and their
skin will be affected.


Key steps in
mushroom production
The key generic steps in mushroom production a cycle
that takes between one to three months from start to
finish depending on species are:
identifying and cleaning a dedicated room or building
in which temperature, moisture and sanitary
conditions can be controlled to grow mushrooms in
choosing a growing medium and storing the raw
ingredients in a clean place under cover and protected
from rain;

pasteurising or sterilizing the medium and

bags in which, or tables on which, mushrooms
will be grown (to exclude other fungi that
would compete for the same space once the
selected fungi has colonized the substrate it
can fight off the competition).

seeding the beds with spawn (spores from mature

mushrooms grown on sterile media);
maintaining optimal temperature, moisture, hygiene
and other conditions for mycelium growth and
fruiting, which is the most challenging step; adding
water to the substrate to raise the moisture content
since it helps ensure efficient sterilization;
harvesting and eating, or processing, packaging and
selling the mushrooms;
cleaning the facility and beginning again.

Mushroom cultivation

Mushroom Culturing


Ganoderma Lucidum (Red Reishi ) Bright

Shining skin. Reishi began to be mass
produced in the 70s.


Ganoderma Health

Submerged Fermentation of Ganoderma

The advantage of submerged fermentation
over traditional basidiocarp cultivation is the
reduction in the time spent to obtain the
product of interest.
The production of basidiocarp takes at least 3
to 5 months, while reasonable amounts of
ganoderic acid and polysaccharides can be
obtained by submerged fermentation after only
2 to 3 weeks.

Specific Effects Of Reishi

Effect on Tumor
Liver Protection & Detoxification
Effect on Cardiovascular
Effect on Hypertension
Treatment of Diabetes

Effect on Hepatitis B
It was also discovered that extract of G.
lucidum could probably augment the rate of
toxin transformation and subsequent bile
excretion, thereby acting as a liver detoxicant
and protectant.

Effect on Hypertension
Effect on Hypertension G. lucidum is also
effective in lowering hypertensive blood
pressure. This is due to the presence of
lanostane derivatives especially ganoderic
acids B, D, F, H, K, S and Y which exert their
hypotensive activities.

Effect on Wound Healing

Patients with diabetic wounds were healed
between 15 to 22 days. This might be due to
the glucan from the cell walls of G. lucidum
that could activate the fibroblast migration in
order to achieve wound healing and tissue

Effect on Tumor
Effect on Tumor Poor performance of Immune
System is main cause of Tumor. Reishi can best
regulate and activate the immune system and increase
self defense capability against tumor.
It becomes one of the most effective medicines for
anti-tumor, prevent cancer, and supplement to cancer
treatment. Reishi possesses hardly any toxic to human
body. This unique feature of enhancing immunity
without toxigenicity is the definite advantage of
Reishi over any other immune system intensifier.

Liver Protection &


Liver Protection & Detoxification Reishi protect the liver

from damaged by various physiological and biological factors.

It is also suitable for treating chronic hepatitis, effectively

eliminating the related symptoms as dizzy, fatigue, and so on.
It can be used to treat chronic toxicosis, the various kinds of
chronic hepatitis, and other hepatic diseases.

Effect on Cardiovascular

Effect on Cardiovascular Clinical studies and experiments

with animals confirm that Reishi can effectively dilate
coronary artery, increase coronary vessel blood flow, and
improve circulation in cardiac muscle capillaries, thus increase
the supply of oxygen and energy to cardiac muscle.
Therefore Reishi helps to protect the heart from shortage of
blood supply, and it is ideal for both curing and preventing
heart diseases like nausea.
Reishi can reduce the level of blood cholesterol, liporotein and
triglycerides in hypertensive patient All these effects
contribute to preventing various kinds of stroke.

Treatment of Diabetes
The constitutes in Ganoderma lucidum that reduce
blood glucose are Ganoderma B and C. The
principle is by enhancing utilization of blood
glucose by body tissues.
Ganoderma lucidum serves as a substitute to
insulin to inhibit release of fatty acids. It thus
improves symptoms in high blood glucose and
high urine glucose patients. Blood glucose will be
reduced from 173 to 116, cholesterol from 233 to
179, beat-protein from 580 to 465.