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United States Patent 11 ay 4,177,819 Kofsky et al. ts) Dee, 11, 1979 [54] MUSCLE STIMULATING APPARATUS 4,102,348 7/1978 Hihara et al. 1 128/422 [76] Inventors: Harvey 1, Kofsky, 3250 Ellendale Primary Examiner—William E. Kamm ‘Ave, Apt. 408, Montreal, Quebec, Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Schwartz, Jeffery, Schwaab, Canada, H3S 1W4; Arthur Levine, Mack, Blumenthal & Koch BR Ar Monel soy ansmact " ‘The disclosure teaches an electronic apparatus for stim- [21] Appl. No.: $91,817 ulating the muscles of a patient by disposing electrodes [22] Filed: Mar. 30, 1978 on the outer surface of the patient in the ow of the : ‘muscles. The stimulating wave consists of a composite (51) Int, Qi .. ASIN 1/36 signal comprising bursts of a sine wave, having a fre- a] Usa. w 420/422; 28/908; emcy gener than 00H, and preferably nthe range ‘of 2000-3000 Hz, modulated by a signal at a frequency. 188) Piel of Search nn 128/21 419 R, $21, jes than $00 Ha and preferably in the range of 0-80 176/422, Hz. The bursts are applied for 2-20 second periods [56) References Cited sect by 2-0 second rest itera. The apparatus ST nOCinE includes safety circuits which sense the current 0 ae electrodes and turn off the stimulating waves on detec- 2,823,678 2/1958 Luftman et al. 128/422 tion of a no load or overload condition. The apparatus $eees 17192 Deal —- 128/421 alo includes a power amplifier with a gain control and BAT 144 11/1969 Later zac meee eee ay Sassis2 '1/197% Barbara aevana IDEM, Sou asa mepoe PBT set to zero, stimulating waves will not be applied. 32 2/1973 Holt et ae 4,068,669 1/1978 Niemi “128/419 R ‘3 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures LIGHT BULB “pee a 100; > e TIMER ‘RAMP. OW - OFF GEN. moa POWER AME seuson 1-43 yerer| | ow - ore eM. CONTROL a ao ew U.S. Patent Dee. 11, 1979 Sheet 1 of 4 4,177,819 4, a St yh “pd yy Tl s raat aa OM - OFF | Gem. ~ Moe al ON - OFF CONTROL ng af rom 3 or fret of 116.1 "ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED eno U.S. Patent Dec. 11, 1979 Sheet 2 of 4 4,177,819 2-20. 2-50 sec_—4 SEC. Hees pL \ FN Fp. 2e eal AM {\ Re NW Fy 2c oA] UUUUUE Hig 20 - Gp ee F Uh U.S. Patent Dec. 11, 1979 Sheet 3 of 4 4,177,819 To cowrroL —" ren oF - [ie Ha a row eno 6.4 mals, CINE WAVE GEN. oF FT | OMe ag af ovo FROM BT FROM 27 or 416.7 oF GL GWD Zs 6 4 ROM 19 Ae o F167 | 3 | ocr 2 Crh ol _ [x0 Tana oven end WFGT zerector | PROM TOF 6.4 53-0 5 ct @ \ From 1 oF 16.7 INVERTER ~ POWER ON U.S. Patent Dee. 11, 1979 Sheet 4 of 4 4,177,819 9 g 1 ee DIGITAL LI 50 ATTENUATOR 7 FROM, | Lit AB ez counreR Oo FIG.L | pi eenw a 46 e-! 2 ] 52 DErTAL Gin7 DISPLAY UM, BEC. i, . ‘N56 i THUMB WHEEL SWITCHES: eee ow onF [L 7ime TIME | + WO LOAD [ovew soar MICRO- PROCESSOR Bo oy oar YA DISPLAY cowverteR POWER Aue PUTER 4,177 1 MUSCLE STIMULATING APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1, Field of the Invention a This invention relates to an electronic muscle stimula- tor apparatus. More specifically, this invention relates to such an apparatus utilizing a high frequency sine wave pulse modulated at a lower frequency as the mus- cle stimulating wave form. 2. Statement of the Prior Art It is known in the art to use electronic circuitry for ‘medical instrumentation as illustrated in, for example, US. Pat, Nos. 3,718,132 — Holt et al; 3,650,277 — Sjostrand et at; 4,014,347 — Halleck et al; 4,019,519 — Gerling; 3,255,753 — Wing; 3,946,745 — Hsiang-Lai et al and 3,521,641 — Farensbach. It is also known in the art to use such electronic in- strumentation for the purpose of muscle stimulation as discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,589,370 — McDonald; 3,472,233 — Sarbacher, 3,516,413 — McDonald et al and 3,518,996 — Cortina ‘The prior art devices use various wave forms for producing the stimulating waveforms, and it has been: found that they are painful and uncomfortable. In addi- tion, with the prior art devices there is irritation and ‘burns on the skin. Nor do the prior art devices provide any safety devices to ensure the safety of the patient in all respects. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It has been found that pain can be reduced and skin. ‘burns and irritation eliminated by use of a sinusoidal stimulating wave form. The frequency of the sine wave should be greater than 500 Hz and preferably in the range of 2000 Hz-3000 Hz. In a preferred embodiment, the frequency is 2500 Hz. The stimulating wave form should be provided in bursts at a rate ess than 500 Hz, preferably in the range of 40-60 Hz, and preferably 50 Hz. Safety features will ensure that the apparatus can be restarted only when the gain control is set to zero gain In accordance with the invention, electronic appa tus for stimulating the muscles ofa patient by disposing electrodes on the outer surface of the patient in the vicinity of the muscles, comprises: means for generating 2 timulaing wave for pedtermined tine prod spe rated by predetermined time intervals; said stimula wave comprising a sinusoidal signal ata first frequency greater than 500 Hz; means for generating bursts of said signal at a rate determined by a second, lower fre- quency; and means connecting said signal to said elec- trodes. The apparatus preferably includes means for protect- ing the safety of the patient, said safety means compris- ing: a sensor for sensing signal flow to the electrodes; control means, connected to the output of said sensor, to tur said system off when it senses either a no load or an overload condition, ‘The apparatus will also include a power amplifier for amplifying the stimulating wave, and gain control ‘means for said power amplifier; said safety means fur- ther comprising: switch means, associated with said 65 gain control means, for preventing said power amplifier from being restarted when said gain control is not set at zero gain. 10 5 3 4s 88 o 819 2. ‘The apparatus may further comprise means for vary- ing the amplitude of said signal from zero, at the start of each period, to its full amplitude, and from the full amplitude to zero at the end of each period. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will be better understood by an exami- nation of the following description, together with the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 ilastrates in block diagram form, one em- bodiment of the invention; FIGS. 2A to 2G shows wave forms at different points in the circuit of FIG. 1; FIG. 3is a circuit diagram of one embodiment of the ‘modulator; FIG. 48a circuit diagram of one embodiment of the FIG. Si a circuit diagram of one embodiment of the logic circui FIG. 6 illustrates a digital gain control circuit; FIG. 7 illustrates a second embodiment of the inven- tion; and IG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of the invention ling a microprocessor. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS It has been found that the stimulating waveform should not be continuously applied, but rather, should be applied in 20-20 second ON periods separated by 2-80 second OFF intervals. In addition, it has been found that, in each ON period, the muscle stimulating waveform, rather than being applied full force at the beginning of each period, may be gradually increased from a small or zero amplitude to its full amplitude. In a like fashion, the stimulating waveform, rather than being abruptly removed at the end of a period, may be ‘gradually decreased to zero just before the OFF inter- val The circuit in accordance with the invention in-