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N

Film
placement

Head
Position

In both
projections
Centered
:
over the
1
*** The
head
body of
Lateral
tipped 15
the
Oblique
degrees
Projection mandibl
towards
(Body of e
the side
mandible
being
projection)
imaged.

Point of
Angulation
Entry

The beam
Just
is directed
below
upwards
the
(-15 to
inferior
-20)
border of
centered
the
on the
mandible
body of
(below
the
the lower
mandible
6) on the
&
side
perpendic
****The
opposite
ular to the
chin is
the
film.
extended & cassette.
Centered
The beam
Lateral
elevated
over the
is directed
slightly
Oblique
Point
upwards
Projection ramus of
the
posterior
(-15 to
(Ramus of
mandible
to the
-20),
mandible (In both
third
centered
2 projection) projections
molar
on the
: The
region on
ramus of
patient
the side
the
must hold
opposite mandible&
the
the
perpendic
cassette in
cassette. ular to the
position
film.
with the
thumb
under the
edge of

the
cassette
and the
palm
against the
outer
surface of
the

cassette).

Film
placeme
nt
3

True
Lateral
Skull
Dead )
(Lateral

Posteroanterior
View

Head
Position

Point of
Entry

Angulati
ons'

The x-ray
The
tube
patient is
head is
the
positioned
positione
The
central ray
in a
d with
sagittal
is
manner so
the
plane of
perpendic
that the
central
the head is
ular to the
side of
ray is
parallel to
sagittal
the face
centered
the film.
plane and
touches
to the
the film
the film
external
auditory
meatus.
*** The
The X-ray
head
tube head
The
tipped
is
patient is forward so Centered positioned
positioned that the
through
with the
facing the forehead & the
Central
film
tip of the
occiput.
ray
nose touch
horizontal

the film,
the so***Note:
called
The mouth
in this view foreheadnose
is closed
position.
**The
(Zero
radiographi
angulation
c baseline
)
(Cantho
-meatus
line) is
horizontal
& at right
angles to
the film.
The
***The
Centered
patient is head
through
positioned tipped
the
The
5
facing the back till
occiput.
Occipitocentral ray
the chin
mental View film
is
**Note:
touch the
(Waters
horizontal
The
cassette.
View)
(Zero
***The
Sinus view mouth in
angulation
this view
radiographi
)
is open.
c baseline
is at 45 to
the film.
***The
The X-ray
Reverse
The
head
beam is
Townes
patient is tipped
aimed
View
positioned forwards in
upwards
6
facing the the
Centered
at 30.
film
foreheadthrough

Submentovertex
View

Posteroanterior
cephalometric

nose
position.
Note:
The mouth
is open.
***The
radiographic
baseline is
horizontal
and at
right angle
to the film.
**The head
The film is is tipped
positioned backwards
behind
as far as is
the
possible,
patient
so the
head
vertex of
the skull
touches
Note:
the film.
The
mouth is
***The
closed.
radiographi
c baseline
is vertical
and
parallel to
the film.
the
patient

**** The
Frankfort

the
occiput.

The
central
ray is
aimed
upwards
from
below
the chin

The
central ray
is
centered
on an
imaginary
line
joining the
lower first
molars.

view

face
positioned
plane or
frontally
Occlusal
to
plane is
cassette
horizontal.
(facing
(parallel to
the film)
floor)
Put the
***** Adjust
plastic
Midsagittal
wrapper
plane in
of
the center
cephalost
of nasal
ate ear
support
rods