Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 67

Basic DC Principles for

Telecommunications
Tutorial

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Introduction
This introductory course is designed to assist those who have little or no
background in electrical terminology and concepts to cope with the training
modules which are mandatory for obtaining a cabling registration under the
ACMAs Cabling Provider Rules.
The DC Principles examination conducted at the end of this course will enable
you to evaluate how well you have mastered the instructional material.
A mark of 80% or more indicates that you have mastered this material well
enough to cope with the mandatory modules which comprise the Open and
Restricted Registration conversion courses for those with industry cabling
experience.
A mark significantly less than 80 % means that you should attend a nationally
accredited module for more detailed instruction in AC/DC Electrical Principles
such as NTE009 or NE160 (or equivalent) before attempting the mandatory
modules for cabling registration training.
Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Principles of Electricity
Electrical Terms and Units
DC and AC
Electrical Circuit Components
Simple Electrical Circuits
The Telephone Local Loop
Safety Issues
Measuring Instruments
Magnetism and Electro-Magnetism
Answers to End of Chapter Assessment Questions

JB Hunter Technology

Page 1

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 1 Principles of Electricity


1.1

Atoms

All matter consists of atoms. Each atom consists of:


a)
b)

A nucleus which is positively charged


Electrons which are negatively charged

The electrons rotate around the nucleus at high speed and in orbits of different
diameters. Figure 1 shows these elements of an atom.

Electrons

Figure 1 Copper Atom


Positive charge attracts negative charge.
So there is a force of attraction between the nucleus and the orbiting electrons
which holds them in orbit against the tendency to be propelled away from the
nucleus by their orbiting speed.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 2

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

1.2

Tutorial

Conductors

In a small number of materials such as copper, aluminium and iron there is a


lack of balance in the number of outer electrons which are furthest away from
the nucleus. For these electrons an external electrical force can pull them away
from the nucleus and cause these electrons to move or flow through the
material.

Figure 2
Electromotive Force (EMF)
These materials are called electrically conducting materials or conductors of
electricity or simply conductors.
Examples of conductors are: copper, aluminium, iron, steel, silver, gold.

1.3

Insulators

The majority of materials have the electrons balanced in their orbits and closely
bound to the nucleus.
For these materials an external electric force cannot pull electrons out of their
orbits and cannot cause electrons to move or flow through the material.
These materials are called insulators of electricity or simply insulators.
Examples of insulators are: glass, wood, plastic, paper, wool, mica, porcelain,
etc.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 3

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

1.4

Tutorial

Semi-Conductors

There is another class of materials which, when they have certain impurities
added to their atomic structure will support conduction under particular
electrical conditions. Semiconductor materials are used to produce transistors
and integrated circuits.
Examples of these materials are germanium and silicon.

1.5

Electrical Force or Pressure

The external electrical force or pressure which causes the electrons to be pulled
out of orbit and flow in conductors is called an EMF.
EMF stands for electromotive force.

Electric Current Flow

EMF
Negative
Terminal

Positive
Terminal
Figure 3
Movement of Electrons

A car battery produces an EMF across its terminals due to chemical reactions
occurring inside this lead-acid battery.
This EMF causes the electron flow in the wires connecting the battery to the car
headlights.
This electron flow through the fine wires of the headlights heats them up to
white intensity causing them to light up.
The generator in the car is a source of EMF.
The car engine drives the electrical generator which converts rotational energy of
the car engine into an electrical force or EMF. This EMF is produced across the
output terminals of the generator.
Solar cells produce a small EMF by converting the energy of sunlight into an
electrical pressure or force.
Steam-driven turbines drive electrical generators to produce large EMFs or
electrical pressures to power up the electrical transmission lines which distribute
electricity through Australia.

Examples of sources of EMF or electrical pressure are:


JB Hunter Technology

Page 4

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

car battery
car (electrical) generator
solar cells
turbine driven electrical generators

1.6

Electrical Current

The combined effect of many electrons flowing along a conductor is called


electrical current flow. Refer to Figure 3.
Electric current flow can generate heat and this effect is used in the electric
radiators and electric light globes. In the case of electric light globes the heat is
sufficiently intense to heat the light globes fine wires to white heat producing
light.

Figure 4
An Electric Circuit
Examples of the use of electrical current for heating:
electric radiator
electric light globe
electric toaster

JB Hunter Technology

Page 5

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

1.7

Assessment Questions

1.

Positive and negative charges:

Tutorial

a) Attract each other


b) Repel each other
c) Have no interaction with each other
2.

The positive battery terminal


a) Repels electrons
b) Attracts electrons
c) Has no interaction with electrons

3.

Name three conductors of electricity:


a) _________________________
b) _________________________
c) _________________________

4.

Name three insulators of electricity:


a) _________________________
b) _________________________
c) _________________________

5.

Name two semi-conductor materials:


a) _________________________
b) _________________________

6.

What does the abbreviation, EMF mean?


___________________________________________________

7.

What is another way of describing EMF?


___________________________________________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 6

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications


8.

Tutorial

State three sources of EMF:


a) _________________________
b) _________________________
c) _________________________

9.

Complete this sentence:


An electrical current is ________________________________

10.

Provide two examples of home appliances which use the heating effect of
electrical current flow:
a) _________________________
b) _________________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 7

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 2 Electrical Terms and Measurement Units


2.1

Electrical Pressure (EMF)


Electrical pressure or EMF is measured in volts.
The symbol v is used for voltage.
A high voltage would be a voltage greater than 1500 volts (written as
1500v).
A low voltage would be a voltage less than 1500 v but greater than about
60v.
Extra-low voltage would be less than 60v.

Electrical power is generally delivered to the home at 240v.


Home appliances are designed to be powered up by 240v. Even though this level
of electrical pressure is called low voltage it can still kill you.
Safety aspects of dealing with electricity are dealt with in section 7.
A 12v car battery is in the extra-low voltage category and under normal
conditions is of no danger to humans.

2.2

Electrical Current

Electrical current flow is measured in amperes (generally called amps for


short). The symbol used for amps is I.
A 1000/2000 watt/240v domestic electric radiator draws between 5 A and 10 A
of electric current.
A 100 watt/240v electric light globe draws about 0.5 A of electric current.
Your telephone draws about 0.05 A of electrical current from the telephone
exchange via the telephone line.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 8

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

2.3

Tutorial

Electrical Resistance

The ease with which electrons are pulled out of their orbits in conductors varies
with the material.
The electrons are more easily pulled out of their orbits in copper than in iron. So
copper has a lower resistance to having electrons pulled out of their orbit than
iron.
So we say that copper has a lower electrical resistivity (resistance) than iron.
Aluminium has a lower resistivity than iron but not as low as copper.
The following list of conductors is in resistivity order with the lowest resistivity
materials first and the highest, last:
Silver (lowest)
Copper
Gold
Aluminium
Tungsten
Platinum
Steel
Nichrome (highest)
So, on this listing of conductors, silver is the best conductive material with the
lowest resistivity and nichrome is the poorest conductive material with the
highest resistivity.

2.4

Electrical Resistance of a Conductor

In electrical work, electrical components like a battery and car headlights are
connected together using conductors consisting of lengths of copper wire. These
wires have a layer of insulation material covering them.
The telephone is electrically connected to the telephone exchange using insulated
copper wires.
The light switches in your home are electrically connected to the lights and power
points by conductors such as lengths of insulated wire.
The connecting wires in electrical work are a vital part of the installations and we
need to understand their important properties.
One of their most important properties is their electrical resistance.
This is the total resistance to electrical current flow from one end of a wire to the
other end.

This total resistance is determined by:


a)
b)

the length of the wire: the longer the wire the greater the overall
resistance
the type of material used in the wire : this is its resistivity

JB Hunter Technology

Page 9

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications


c)

Tutorial

the cross-sectional area of the wire: larger diameter wires have less
resistance than smaller diameter wires. You could compare his to water
pipes where large diameter pipes have less resistance to water flow than
small diameter pipes
temperature: where the environment temperature is high, the
resistance will be higher than in a lower temperature environment

d)

Electrical resistance is measured in ohms. The symbol used for ohms is .


The following table compares the resistance of 100 m lengths of copper wire for
various wire diameters (cross-sectional areas). The wire diameters chosen in the
table are typical of those used in telephony and data work.
The resistance values apply for a temperature of 20 C.
Wire
Diameter

Resistance
Per 100 m

Typical Uses

0.4 mm

CrossSectional
Area in mm2
0.126

14

0.5 mm

0.196

0.64 mm

0.32

5.4

7/0.67mm
(7 strands
of 0.67 dia
wire)
7/1.04 mm
(7 strands
of 1.04 mm
dia)

2.5

0.7

0.3

Telecommunications external distribution


cables
Internal building telephone and data
cables and some telecommunications
external cables
Longer distance telecommunications
external cables
Earthing of metal work and distribution
frames in telecommunications/ data
installations but not for lightning
protection earthing
Lightning protection earthing in
telecommunications installations in
buildings

Table 1
Typical Resistances of Copper Wire at 20 C for 100m Length

JB Hunter Technology

Page 10

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

2.5

Tutorial

How Temperature changes Resistance

Conducting materials such as copper, aluminium and steel have a positive


temperature co-efficient.
This means that as the temperature increases, their resistance increases also.
So a 100 metres length of copper wire at 45 C will have a higher resistance than
the same length of wire at 20 C.
The temperature co-efficient for copper is 0.00393 ohms per ohm per C.
Example: A copper wire has a resistance of 10 ohms at 20 C.
Calculate its new resistance at 45 C.
The change in temperature is (45 20) = 25 C.
At 40 C its resistance will be:
10 + 0.00393 X 10 X (25)
= 10 + 0.983
= 10.983 ohms

JB Hunter Technology

Page 11

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

2.6

Assessment Questions

1.

The unit of measurement of EMF is the ___________ and its

Tutorial

symbol is ___________
2.

Complete the following:


a) High voltage is above _____________
b) Extra low voltage is below _________
c) Low voltage is below __________ but above __________

3.

In which of the voltage categories mentioned in Question 2 would you


place a 12v car battery?
____________________________

4.

In which of the voltage categories mentioned in Question 2 would you


place the voltage output of the three pin power socket in your
home?
____________________________

5.

The unit of measurement of electric current is the ___________ and its


symbol is ___________

6.

Which material is the better conductor of electricity


Silver, iron, mica, plastic or copper?
____________________________

9.

Of the following conductor material, which material has the highest


resistivity Copper, gold, platinum, aluminium or nichrome?
____________________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 12

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications


10.

Tutorial

The resistance of a conducting wire is determined by:


a)___________________________
b)___________________________
c)___________________________
d)___________________________

11.
A copper wire of 0.4 mm diameter is 100 metres long and has a resistance
of 14 . If the same type of wire was 200 metres long
would its resistance
be:
a)
b)
c)
12.

Which would have the greater resistance:


a)
b)
c)

12.

greater than 14
less than 14
the same if the temperature was the same

100m length of copper wire of 0.4 mm diameter


100 m length of copper wire of 0.5 mm diameter
100 m length of copper wire of 0.64 mm diameter

If a 50 m length of copper wire of 0.5 mm diameter has a resistance of 7


when the temperature is 20 C, would its resistance be greater or less
than 7 when the temperature rises to 40 C?
a)
b)

Greater than 7
Less than 7

JB Hunter Technology

Page 13

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 3 DC and AC
3.1

Direct Current and Alternating Current

The flow of electrons which constitutes an electrical current can be:


a)
b)

direct- which means in one direction ONLY


alternating which means alternately one way then the other way,
repeated

3.2

Direct Current

Direct, or one way only current flow is called dc, which is short for direct
current.
The electrical pressure or EMF causing this direct current flow has to be a DC
voltage source also.
So we say that a car battery has an electrical pressure or EMF of 12 v dc.
The telephone exchange battery has an electrical pressure of 48-52 v dc.
Both these sources of EMF are unidirectional and force current to flow in one
direction only.

3.3

Alternating Current

Alternating (alternately in either direction) current is called ac which is short for


alternating current.

current

time

Figure 5
Alternating Current Waveform
Figure 5 shows how an alternating current varies with time that is alternately
going positive then negative. This means that the current is alternately flowing
in one direction then the opposite direction.
Most modern cars use an AC electrical generator which has an output
voltage of 12 v ac.
The electric motor which drives the domestic refrigerators cooling system
is a 240 v ac motor.
The lighting and power distribution in a home is a 240 v ac system.
JB Hunter Technology

Page 14

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

This ac current alternates 50 times a second. We say this ac current has a


frequency of 50 hertz (50 Hz for short).
When you speak into a telephone, the transmitter converts your voice sound
signals into alternating current signals for transmission down the telephone line.
These signals are extra low voltage and are approximately 1-2v ac.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 15

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

3.4

Assessment Questions

1.

What is meant by the abbreviation dc?

Tutorial

____________________________________________________
2.

What does the abbreviation ac represent?


____________________________________________________

3.

Does a car battery produce dc or ac?


___________________________

4.

Is the home lighting and power distribution dc or ac?


___________________________

5.

When you speak into a telephone, its transmitter converts


your voice
signals into electrical signals. Are these converted signals ac or dc?
___________________________

6.

What is the voltage level of the telephone exchange battery and


does it produce ac or dc?
___________________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 16

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 4 Electrical System Components


4.1

Components

The building blocks of electrical systems including those used in


telecommunications systems include:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Sources of EMF ( electrical pressure)


The wires or cables connecting the system components together
form an electrical current path
Resistors
Capacitors
Switches

4.2

Sources of EMF (Electrical Pressure)

to

In telecommunications systems, the telephone exchange battery is a major and


common source of DC voltage to power the telephones which are connected to it.
This battery consists of individual cells each having a terminal voltage of
approximately 2 volts. 24 of these are connected in tandem to give an overall
EMF of 48-52 v dc
Figure 6 shows the circuit symbol for a single cell of a battery and the symbol for
a number of cells combined in tandem.

a) Symbol for single cell


showing positive and
negative terminals

b) Symbol for two cells in


tandem (series) showing
positive and negative
terminals

c) Symbol for multiple cells connected in


tandem (series) showing positive and
negative terminals
Figure 6 Circuit Symbols for Battery Cells

JB Hunter Technology

Page 17

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Solar cells energised by sunlight are used to provide the EMF to remote
telecommunications equipment. Typically, a composite cell array would provide
terminal voltages of 12 v dc or 24 v dc.
At the customers premises, telecommunications equipment, other than the
standard telephone, is generally powered by the domestic 240 v ac source. The
power pack which is plugged into a standard three pin power outlet may convert
the 240 v ac into say 9 or 12 v dc to power telecommunications equipment such
as modems and answering machines.

4.3

Wires and Cables

Conductors connect together electrical/telecommunications equipment to


facilitate electrical current flow between them. These conductors are
manufactured as thin conductors (wires) with an insulation jacket over the
outside of the wire. The insulation material may be PVC (poly-vinyl-chloride) for
indoor wires and polyethylene for outside plant wires. The wires are associated
(generally by twisting them together) into groups of pairs. Each pair consists of
two wires twisted together and with a distinctive colour code to enable
identification of the individual wire and to distinguish each pair from the other
pairs.
The insulated pairs of wires are given a further protective coating by enclosing
them in a PVC or polyethylene jacket. We call this jacketed assembly of pairs of
wires a cable.

Insulated Conductors Twisted


Together to Form Pairs

Individual Bare
Conductors

Overall
Protective Jacket

Figure 7
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
(4 Pair Cable)

JB Hunter Technology

Page 18

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

4.4

Tutorial

Resistors

4.4.1
A resistor is a component through which current flows but which exhibits
concentrated resistance to the current flow. In some telecommunications
systems, there is a need to restrict current flow or control current flow by adding
resistance at a particular point in the system.
The unit of resistance is the ohm with the symbol .
Resistors come in a wide range of physical sizes and packages and a wide range
of resistance values. Figure 8 shows examples of resistors.

a) Wire Wound Resistor

b) Carbon Resistor

c) Metal Film Resistor


Figure 8
Three Types of Resistor

JB Hunter Technology

Page 19

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

4.4.2
Resistors are made as low as 1 ohm and as high a 10 megohms or 10 M .
Meg or M for short, stands for one million. So 10 M
Kilo or k for short, stands for one thousand. So a 5 k
5,000 ohms.

= 10 million ohms.
resistor =

4.4.3
As a general rule when current flows through a resistor, it heats up the resistor.
The resistor surface must then radiate heat. If the resistor is not large enough to
radiate the heat produced by the current flow through it, it will become very hot,
it may glow and/or may melt/burn out.

Current Flow

Figure 9
Power Dissipated as Heat
Resistors therefore have a rating to indicate how much current can flow through
them continuously without heat damage.
This rating is called their power rating and the unit for electrical power rating is
the watt with the symbol w.
Resistors which are physically small in size may be rated as 1/4 watt or 1/2 watt.
Larger resistors may have a 5 or 10 watt rating.
The basic resistor colour code is detailed in Appendix A

JB Hunter Technology

Page 20

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Figure 10
Examples and Relative Sizes of Power Resistors
This power dissipated is obtained by multiplying the voltage applied to the
resistor by the current flow through it, giving the power dissipated in watts:
VxI=W
WhereV = voltage applied to the resistor in volts
I = current flow through it in amps
W = power dissipated in the resistor in watts

JB Hunter Technology

Page 21

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

4.4.4

Tutorial

Variable Resistors

Figure 11 shows some variable resistors.


In each case there is a control which allows the amount of resistance between its
end connections to be varied.

Figure 11
Examples of Variable Resistors

JB Hunter Technology

Page 22

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

4.4.5

Tutorial

Drawing symbol for resistor

In electrical/telecommunications drawings a physical symbol is used to represent


a resistor. Figure 12. Shows the drawing symbols used to represent both fixed
and variable resistor elements.

Figure 12
Circuit Symbols for Fixed and Variable 10k

4.5

Resistors

Capacitors

Capacitors can be used to store small amounts of electricity and as such have a
smoothing out role in certain types of power supplies. They also have other
roles in electrical and telecommunications systems.
Two important roles of capacitors in telecommunications are:
a)
b)

to block direct current (dc)


to allow alternating current (ac) to pass through

In these roles they discriminate between the two types of current flow, stopping
one and allowing the other to pass.
This is very important in the operation of the telephone.
When the telephone is not in use, a capacitor in the phone is placed in the path
of an incoming phone call.
This capacitor blocks the 52v dc exchange voltage from passing through into the
telephone but allows the ac ring tone to pass through and operate the ring
generator. This ring generator emits the recognisable sound to tell you that there
is a call for you to answer.
If the capacitor was not there, the telephone would be drawing continuous dc
current from the telephone exchange even when the phone was not in use. This
would be a waste of electrical energy.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 23

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Examples of capacitor shapes are shown in Figure 13 (a).


The symbol for a fixed capacitor is shown in Figure 13 (b).
The circuit symbol for a capacitor is shown in Figure 13 (c).

Figure 13 (a) Capacitor Shapes

Figure 13 (b) Fixed Disc Capacitors

Figure 13 (c) Circuit Symbol for a Capacitor

JB Hunter Technology

Page 24

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

4.6

Tutorial

Switches

A switch is a physical circuit component which can either completely stop the
flow of electrical current, or if operated, can allow through the flow of electrical
current without any impediment.

Figure 14
Controlling Role of Switch in a Simple Installation
The switch position for allowing current through is called the closed or make
position.
The switch position for stopping the flow of current is called the open or
break position.
The symbols for a switch in closed (make) and in open (break) positions, are
shown below.

(a) switch closed


(make position)

(b) switch open


(break position)

Figure 15 Switch Symbols for Open and Closed Positions


The electric light switch is in the make position when you switch the light on
and in the break position when you switch the light off.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 25

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

4.7

Assessment Questions

1.

Name three sources of EMF?

Tutorial

a) ____________________________
b) ____________________________
c) ____________________________
2.

Draw the circuit symbol for a battery cell

3.

Draw the battery symbol for multiple cells such as the telephone
exchange battery and indicate its terminal voltage.

4.

A wire used for conduction of electricity is a conductor covered in


insulation material. Different insulation materials are used for indoor and
outdoor wires/cables. State the insulation material used and
whether
used
indoor or outdoor.
a) For indoor, the insulation material is
______________________
b) For outdoor, the insulation material is
______________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 26

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications


5.
Draw a diagram showing the parts of a cable used for
connections and label those parts.

6.

Tutorial
telephone/data

State the unit of resistance and its symbol.


a) The unit of resistance is the ___________
b) The symbol for the unit of resistance is __________

7.
State the meaning of kilo when used in describing the magnitude
resistance:

of

kilo means __________________


8.

What does 10 M

mean ?

_____________________________
9.

Draw the symbol for a fixed resistor.

10.

Draw the symbol for a variable resistor

JB Hunter Technology

Page 27

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications


11.

Draw the symbol for a capacitor

12.

State two functions of a capacitor in telephone systems.

Tutorial

a) ____________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________
13.

Draw the symbol for a switch in the closed (make) position.

14.

Draw the symbol for a switch in the open (break) position

JB Hunter Technology

Page 28

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 5 Electric Circuits


5.1

Circuits

When electrical components are connected together using conductors to form a


closed loop, that assembly is called an electric circuit.
For current to flow around the circuit, there must be a source of EMF
(electrical pressure) in the circuit.
The electrical pressure then forces current flow around the circuit through the
electrical components.
A typical electric circuit might consist of a battery, a switch, connecting wires and
a lamp.
This is shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16
Typical Electric Circuit
Referring to Figure 16, when the switch is closed, that is in the make position,
there is a completed circuit and current will flow from one side of the battery,
through the switch, around the circuit and through the lamp and back to the
opposite terminal of the battery.
Referring to the same figure, if the switch is opened, that is, in the break:
position, the circuit will no longer be complete and current flow will stop.

5.2

Current Direction

Whilst electric current flow in this type of circuit is comprised of electron flow and
is therefore from the negative terminal of the battery, through the circuit to the
positive terminal of the battery, convention describes current flow from positive
to negative.
Using the conventional direction does not make any installations or calculations
invalid.
We will use the conventional direction hereafter in this training manual.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 29

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

5.3

Tutorial

Calculating Current Flow

Referring to Figure 17, we will calculate the current flow in the circuit.

I in amps

12 v

Figure 17
There is a simple formula that allows us to calculate current flow in this circuit.
The formula is: I = V R
That is, the current around the circuit is the voltage applied to the circuit divided
by the total resistance of the circuit.
In Figure 17, the voltage applied to the circuit is 12 volts, and the total
resistance is 6 ohms.
I=VR
I =12 6
I = 2 amps. A current of 2 amps will flow through the circuit.
Lets make the EMF source a 24v battery. What be the current flow now around
the circuit?
I=VR
I = 24 6
I = 4 amps.
You will notice that as the EMF is increased, so the current is increased.
Now we will increase the resistance from 6 ohms to 12 ohms and leave the EMF
at 12v.
I=VR
I = 12 12
I = 1 amp.
Note that an increase in resistance results in a decrease in current.

This formula is called Ohms Law and it is a very fundamental formula in


electrical work. In topic 6 you will do basic telephone network calculations
using ohms law.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 30

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

5.4

Tutorial

Ohms Law

Ohms Law is probably the most important electrical relationship you will
encounter. It is the basic law of current flow.
A German physicist, Georg Simon OHM (1787 1854) discovered this
relationship in 1827.
When an emf is applied to a resistor a movement of charges is produced. The
rate of movement of those charges (current) is directly related to the applied
voltage. If the applied voltage is double, then the current is also doubled
provided the resistance remains constant.
Ohms Law is expressed by:

Resistance = V I

The resistance is constant as long as the temperature is held constant.


It is important to realise that there are components which have resistance, but
do not obey Ohms Law. For example, diodes, light dependent resistors, and
temperature dependent resistors.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 31

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

With this limitation in mind, Ohms Law can be written in three ways:
V=IxR
R= VI

I= VR

I
I

If any two quantities are known then the third can be calculated.
Example:
We know that an indicator lamp has a filament resistance of 10 ohms and works
off a 12v car battery. What is the value of the current in the lamp?
I=VR
I = 12 10
I = 1.2 amps
If we only know that the indicator lamp has a current of 1.2 amps and works off
a 12v car battery, we would find the resistance by:
R=VI
R = 12 1.2
R = 10 ohms
If we only know that the indicator lamp has a filament resistance of 10 ohms and
a current of 1.2 amps, we would find the voltage by:
V=IxR
V = 1.2 x 10
V = 12 volts

1.2 amps

12 v

JB Hunter Technology

Page 32

10

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

5.5

Tutorial

Series Circuits

When electrical components are connected in tandem to form a closed loop, the
circuit components are said to be connected in series.

I in amps

100

12 v

600
100
Figure 18
Series Circuit

Going around the circuit starting at the positive terminal of the battery and
proceeding to the negative terminal of the battery, we have:
100 ohm resistor, 600 ohm resistor and a 100 ohm resistor.
These components are said to be connected in series. The circuit is completed
through the battery. We call this circuit a series circuit.
The total resistance in this circuit as seen by the battery is the sum of the
individual resistances; ie 100 + 600 + 100 = 800

5.6

Parallel Circuits

When electrical components are connected across each other, that is the
components divide the circuit into more than one path it is said to be a parallel
circuit.

In this circuit the current, I, from the battery will now divide between the two
resistors. The resistors are regarded as being in parallel.
A parallel connection is present when the components divide the current.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 33

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

The parallel circuits will provide extra current paths and hence a larger overall
current. It is therefore reasonable to expect less total resistance for an increase
in total current. This can be proved as follows.
Using Ohms Law:
I 1 = V1 R 1
I 2 = V2 R 2
I T = VS R T
Where RT is used to represent the total resistance.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 34

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

5.7

Tutorial

Assessment Questions

1.
Using the correct symbols, draw an electric circuit consisting of a
battery, a switch, and an 18 ohm resistor.

2.

9v

With the switch in the closed position, calculate the current which
would flow around the circuit of 5.1.
The current would be _____________

3.

If the battery voltage in your circuit of 5.1 was increased to 12 volts,


would the current flowing in the circuit increase or decrease?
______________________________

4.

If you increase the resistance of a circuit would the current flow


increase or decrease?
______________________________

5.
If you know the voltage and current in a circuit what formula would
use to find the resistance?

you

______________________________
6.
In a parallel circuit with different resistor values, is the total
resistance
higher than the largest resistor value, lower than the
lowest resistor value,
or somewhere in between?
______________________________
7.

Determine the total resistance of the circuit below.

______________________
200

JB Hunter Technology

Page 35

200

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 6 The Local (Telephone) Loop


6.1

The CAN and the Local Loop

The connection between your fixed telephone at home and the telephone
exchange is called the local loop. It is also called the customers access
connection as it gives you access to the switching and transmission network of
the carrier with whom you are associated.
The aggregate of all the telephone connections from home to telephone
exchange is called, collectively, the Customers Access Network or CAN for
short. Electrically, this local loop looks like the circuit in Figure 19.

Figure 19
Local Loop Telephone Circuit
Note that the circuit consists of a battery, a pair of wires and a resistor
representing the telephone resistance, at the opposite end of the telephone
line. We show a resistor in each of the connecting wires to remind us that each
length of wire has resistance. This is a series circuit.
The source of EMF is the telephone exchange battery of 48-52 volts.
We will use the upper figure of 52 volts in our calculations.
Each wire in the pair of wires connecting this battery to the telephone in your
home, will have resistance. The amount of resistance in the total length of each
wire will depend on:
a)
b)
c)

its actual length


it diameter (cross-sectional area)
its material (copper in this case).

A typical wire used in this situation would have a diameter of 0.4 mm and a
resistance of 14 per 100 metres.
We will make the connecting cable distance 1 km from the telephone exchange
to the home telephone.
Each connecting wire will have a resistance of 14 x 1000 100 =140.

Put this value in the circuit for each connecting wire:

JB Hunter Technology

Page 36

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Figure 20
Local loop Telephone Circuit
The total resistance around the circuit is now:
(140 +600 + 140)
= 880
The current flowing around the circuit is now calculated as:
I=VR
I = 52 880
= 0.059 amps
6.2 Milliamps
To better represent small quantities of current, the milli is used.
Milli means one thousandth.
Milliamp means one thousandth of an amp.
To convert amps to milliamps you multiply by 1000.
So 0.059 amps becomes:
0.059 x 1000 = 59 milliamps
The short hand form for milliamp is mA
Example:
Convert 0.005 amps to milliamps.
0.005 x 1000 = 5 mA

JB Hunter Technology

Page 37

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

6.3

Tutorial

Another Local Loop Calculation

Increase the distance from the telephone exchange to the home telephone to 2.5
km. Using 0.4 mm diameter copper wire and 52 volts for the exchange battery,
calculate the current flow in the local loop circuit. Remember this wire has a
resistance of 14 ohms for every 100m length of wire.
Each connecting wire will now have a resistance of:
14 x 2,500 100
= 350
The total resistance for the circuit will now be:
= 350 + 600 + 350
= 1300
The circuit is as shown in Figure 21.

Figure 21
Local Loop Telephone Circuit
The current flow around the circuit will now be:
I = 52 1300
= 0.04 amp.
Converting to milliamps:
0.04 x 1000
= 40 mA

JB Hunter Technology

Page 38

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

6.4

Assessment Questions

1.

State the meaning of the abbreviation mA?

Tutorial

mA means ___________________
2.

Convert 0.03 Amps to milliamps


0.03 Amps = _________ milliamps

3.

Convert 0.005 A to mA.


0.005 A = _______ mA

4.

Examine the Figure below. What is the total resistance between the two
battery terminals going around the circuit clockwise?

52 v dc

200

The total resistance is ____________________________


5.

Calculate the current flow around the circuit of the figure shown in
question 4.
I = _______ mA

JB Hunter Technology

Page 39

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 7 Electrical Safety Matters


7.1

An Electric Shock can be Painful and Fatal

About 100 people die each year in Australia from electric shock.
Before touching electrical components or installing electrical components and
circuits or maintaining them, it is essential to understand:
a)
b)
c)
avoid
d)

What constitutes electric shock?


How is the body affected by electricity?
How can you avoid electric shock; what precautions must be taken
the risk of electric shock?
What to do if someone else is subject to electric shock?

7.2

Effects on the Human Body

to

Figure 22
Physiological Effect
The physiological effect of electricity on the human body can vary from a
tingling sensation which has no lasting effects to the stopping of the heat beat
and breathing. Depending on the duration and severity, this latter physiological
effect may result in death.
Voltages as low as 24 v may cause the tingling sensation but this level of
voltage is normally consider non-lethal and in fact voltages up to 60 v dc and
42.4 v ac (peak) are generally considered non-lethal.
Voltage greater than these are considered potentially lethal.
It is the passage of electric current through the body and which may interfere
with the nervous system which causes the problem for humans.
Voltage simply breaks down the skin resistance to allow current to flow through
the body.
JB Hunter Technology

Page 40

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Once the skin resistance has been broken down, the body fluid paths present low
resistance paths to the electric current.
Current will enter the body at one point of contact and leave it at another point
of contact in the external electrical path with current flow through the body
between these two points.

Figure 23
The Effect of an Electric Shock
Figure 23 shows two situations.
The first (a) shows the points of contact being fingers on the one hand. Current
flowing between these two points (one finger to the other on the same hand) is
not so serious as Figure (b). Figure (b) shows the points of contact being the two
hands with current flowing through body and possible via the heart. This is a
serious situation as the hearts nervous system may therefore be directly
affected.
Quite small amount of current may have a major effect on the human body.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 41

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Table 2 shows typical levels of current and their likely effect on the human body.
Current level in milliamps
(mA)
1 to 2
2 to 8
8-12
12 to 20
20 to 50
50 to 100
100 to 200
Greater than 200

Possible effect on human body


Lower limit of perception
Tingling sensation
Painful muscle spasms
Limit of let go, extreme pain,
muscle becomes frozen stiff
Possible loss of breathing
Will cause heart fibrillation
Heart stopped
Severe burns

Table 2
Effect of Electric Current Levels on the Human Body
Some electric systems have the current limited to low levels which will cause no
permanent damage to humans or animals.
An example is the electric fence which is designed to keep cattle in by giving
them a minor electric shock but the current is limited to a level which will not kill
them.

Figure 24
Electric Fence
Other dangerous effects of electric shock can be indirect.
For example, a person on a ladder may get a low level electric shock which
causes them to topple off the ladder and sustain injury through the fall.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 42

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

7.3

Tutorial

Basic Rules or Precautions Against Electric Shock

It is not possible to state with certainty a safe voltage level.


It varies with the person and the environment.
A safe voltage contacted under dry conditions with dry hands may be dangerous
under humid conditions with wet hands.
Remember that the current path is often between one point on the electric
equipment/appliance/circuit/cable/terminal and EARTH.
Earth may be the metal part of a refrigerator (which ought to be earthed) or
the metal part of an electric toaster (which ought to be earthed or indeed the
metal work associated with a building or an enclosure of electrical equipment,
again which ought to be earthed.
Consider the following basic working rules to help avoid electric hazards:
a)

Consider the conductive (metallic) parts of any electric appliance,


circuit, terminals, conductors, wires and equipment as being
hazardous
until proved otherwise.
b)
Dont rely on other persons checks; check yourself.
c)
A volt meter (multi-meter) or equivalent device is designed to determine
the voltage between two points. Use this device to check for hazardous
voltages being present. A volt meter check between the exposed
metallic/terminals/frame/conductors and earth will help determine if a
hazardous situation is present.
d)
Dont work in an electrical environment with wet hands or on wet
floors or use wet tools.
e)
Use appropriate protective clothing like rubber gloves and
rubber
soled shoes in electrical environments.
f)
When working near or live electrical apparatus wear tight-fitting cloths
without metal threads and possible without metal fittings and be alert at
all times.
g)
Never work on electrical apparatus when under the influence of drugs or
alcohol or when you are tired.
h)
Dont wear conductive jewellery which might contact live terminals;
even metallic rings and watches can present a hazard
in
electrical
environments.
i)
Wherever possible switch the power off and unplug and where
appropriate, discharge, electrical apparatus before working on it.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 43

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

7.4

Tutorial

Rendering Assistance to a Person Suffering from Electric


Shock

a)

It is essential to act promptly if you suspect a person is in


difficulties
and is being subjected to electric shock.
b)
It is essential not to put yourself at risk also as you will not be of
any
assistance if you also become subject to electric shock.
c)
Seek to quickly make the area safe by switching off the power or
pulling the power cord out of the appropriate socket, where that is
possible.
d)
Since every second is vital, if you cannot remove the power, you may
attempt to remove the person from the point of contact with the
electrical hazard. BUT this must be done in a way which does not
endanger yourself. Use an insulator to drag a person off their point of
contact with the hazard making sure you do not contact the hazard or the
person.
Insulators may be a leather belt which has no metallic elements in it, an
item of clothing which has no metallic material in it, a blanket or a
length of nylon/hessian rope/ rubber.
e)
Apply CPR techniques if you are trained in them otherwise call for the
assistance of someone who is trained in CPR.
f)
Call for assistance if possible phone emergency on 000
It is good work place practice to have staff trained and regularly refreshed in
the techniques of CPR it contributes to safety in the workplace.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 44

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

7.5

Assessment Questions

1.

What is the possible effect of voltage on the human body?

Tutorial

____________________________________________________
2.

What are the possible effects of electric current on the human body?
____________________________________________________

3.

State six basic rules or precautions to be taken for protection against


electric shock:
a) _________________________________________________
b) _________________________________________________
c) _________________________________________________
d) _________________________________________________
e) _________________________________________________
f) _________________________________________________

4.

State the essential steps you would take to render assistance to a


person suffering electric shock:
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 45

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 8 Electrical Measuring Instruments


8.1

Electrical Instruments

Electrical instruments are available to measure:


a)
b)
c)

voltage both dc and ac


current both dc and ac
resistance

Some electrical measuring instruments specialise in measurement of one of


these electric quantities only:
a)
b)
c)

a voltmeter measures voltage only


an ammeter measures current only
an ohm meter measures resistance only

All three functions may be combined into one measuring instrument called the
multi-meter. It is a multi-functional measuring instrument which has a mode
function switch or set of push buttons enabling the user to choose which of these
functions is required.
Figure 25 shows two examples of a multi-meter.

Figure 25
Multimeters
Figure 25(a) shows an analogue multimeter and Figure 25(b) shows a digital
multimeter.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 46

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

The disadvantages of the analogue version are:


a)
More easily damaged due to mechanical shock as the deflecting needle
mechanism is sensitive to mechanical shock.
b)
If the leads are incorrectly connected to the point of
measurement
on the electric circuit then the deflecting needle moves backwards and
may be damaged.
c)
If the incorrect range is selected for the measurement concerned the
deflecting mechanism may be overloaded and the deflecting needle
damaged.
As the digital multimeter does not suffer from these disadvantages it has become
the more popular instrument.

8.2

Multi-Meter Controls

Before connecting a multimeter to the points of circuit measurement, the correct


functions/control choices must be made and the connecting leads inserted into
the correct positions on the instrument.
Figure 26 refers.

Figure 26
Digital Multimeter

JB Hunter Technology

Page 47

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

These aspects must be selected carefully:


a)
b)
c)

d)

8.3

Which function is required: voltage, current or resistance?


If voltage, dc or ac must be selected.
The best range must be selected. For example, if selecting voltage
there may be a choice of the following ranges: 3v, 10v, 30v, 100v,
300v, 1000v on a typical multi-meter. It is good practice to select a
measuring range higher than the value expected to be measured to
prevent overload.
Select the right terminals on the instrument to which the measuring
leads (probes) are to be connected. There may be a common
terminal for both dc volts and dc current and ohm measurement.
The other lead will go in the appropriate terminal for dc volts, dc current
or ohms. Connecting leads are often colour coded in black (negative) and
red (positive). The black lead goes to the common terminal. In the case of
ac current, select the terminals appropriately labelled. In ac measurement,
the red and black colour coding do not have the same significance as for
dc measurements.

Circuit Connections

In the case of dc measurements it is vital to connect the positive (red) lead to


the point in the circuit which is at the higher voltage and the negative (black)
lead to the point of lower voltage. If this is not done, the meter will deflect
backwards (if analogue) or will show a negative sign on the display (if digital).
In ac measurements, this colour coding polarity is not significant.

8.4

Interpreting Measurements

It is easy to misread a multimeter.


The display has meaning only if you are sure which function it is on and which
range has been selected.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 48

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

8.5

Tutorial

Insulation Resistance Tester Megger

Apart from the multimeter, another instrument which is of particular use to those
in the cabling industry is the insulation resistance tester, commonly known as
the megger because it measures megohms.
This instrument is a resistance tester and measures ohms but is designed
particularly to measure very high resistances such as that of the insulation of a
wire or cable. Very high resistances are in the megohm region (millions of
ohms).
Such instruments use a higher voltage source for the measurement than the
multimeter.
Typically a 500v or 1000v option for testing is provided on the function
switch/button of the megger.
The instrument can only deliver very low currents and is not, with correct use, of
danger to the human body however, you are well advised not to touch the
terminals or bare connecting points of a megger when using the instrument.
However, cable pairs and some electronic equipment have capacitance which
charges up to the voltage of test such as 500v or 1000v. It is important to
discharge the cable pair or equipment using a conductor before touching exposed
terminals or wires which may have been charged up during the megger test.
The capacitance of cable pairs and equipment can hold enough electronic charge
at higher voltages to give the human body a nasty shock if discharged through
the body.
In the telephone and data cabling industry, the megger provides a very useful
test for the insulation integrity of:
wires and cables
electrical apparatus
cable joints.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 49

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

8.6

Assessment Questions

1.

State the three functions of a multimeter:

Tutorial

a) ___________________________
b) ___________________________
c) ___________________________
2.

State the purpose of the function switch or push buttons


multimeter:

on a

____________________________________________________
3.

State the purpose of range selection on a multimeter:


____________________________________________________

4.

What is the best range to select before making an electrical


measurement?
____________________________________________________

5.

How do you determine to which terminals you connect the


instrument test leads?
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

6.

What is the purpose of a megger?


____________________________________________________

7.

State any precautions to be observed when using a megger?


____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 50

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 9 Magnetism and Electro-Magnetism


9.1

Magnetism and Permanent Magnets

Figure 27
Like Magnet Poles Repel
A permanent magnet has a north and a south pole.
If you place two permanent magnets close together and in line with each other,
they will be attracted together in one orientation and repel each other in the
opposite orientation. When the north poles are close together they repel and
when the north pole of one is close to the south pole of the other, they will be
attracted.
Like poles repel and unlike poles attract is the rule.
This force of attraction or repulsion is due to magnetism, a force developed due
to the combined effects of small atomic level particles of matter when their
individual magnetic domains are aligned. This alignment can be done by an
external magnetic force.
A material which retains the magnetic property when the external magnetic
force is removed is called a permanent magnet.
The magnetising force is called magneto-motive force.
It is analogous to the electromotive force (EMF) in electrical terminology.
There are very few materials which respond to electro-motive force and can be
magnetised. There is an even smaller number of materials which retain their
magnetism after the magneto-motive force is removed thereby becoming
permanent magnets.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 51

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Examples of materials which can be magnetised but largely fail to retain


magnetism after removal of the magnetising force are:
a) steel
b) iron (ferrous materials)
Other metals such as copper and aluminium cannot be magnetised.
Most materials cannot be magnetised.

9.2

Electro-Magnetism

Figure 28 Magnetism

JB Hunter Technology

Page 52

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Figure 29
The Magnetic Field Created when a Current is
Passed Through a Multi-Turn Solenoid
When an electric current flows through a coil of wire a magnetic force field is
created. The more turns of wire in the coil combined with more electric current in
the coil, the stronger the resulting magnetic field.
If the current is dc, the magnetic field will have a permanent north and south
poles whilst the current continues to flow.
It has the same external effect as a permanent magnet.
However, should the current be turned off, the magnetic field collapses and the
magnetic force disappears.
This effect is called electro-magnetism.
This effect is used in some telephone receivers and is used in audio equipment
loudspeakers.
Consider however, what would happen if the current flowing through the coil was
ac.
This means that the current would be alternately flowing in one direction then
the opposite direction. This would produce a corresponding alternating magnetic
force with the north and south poles alternating at each end in sequence with the
alternating current and at the same frequency.
Frequency is how many times per second the magnetic field does a complete
reversal cycle, N-S-N.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 53

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

9.3

Tutorial

Loudspeaker Construction

Imagine the coil being attached to a circular diaphragm and the diaphragm being
fixed at its extremities. Then connect the coil to the output of a hi fi amplifier so
that the alternating current from the amplifier flowed through the coil. This would
produce an alternating magnetic field in sequence with the ac music current
from the amplifier. If a permanent magnet was placed close to the coil and on
axial alignment with it, the coil would be attracted and repelled by the
permanent magnet depending on which pole was adjacent to it. The attraction
and repulsion forces cause the coil to move resulting in the diaphragm moving
backwards and forwards. The diaphragms movement physically moves the air
and creates sound waves which our ear recognises as music.

Figure 30
Moving Coil Loudspeaker
In the telephone, variations of this design are used to convert electrical signals
back into audible sound signals and also to convert audible sound signals into
electrical signals for transmission to line.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 54

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

9.4

Assessment Questions

1.

Sate two materials which can be magnetised.

Tutorial

a) _______________________________
b) _______________________________
2.

State two metals which cannot be magnetised.


a) __________________________________
b) __________________________________

3.

Complete these sentences which describe the forces operating between


the poles of magnets:
Like poles ___________ Unlike poles ___________

4.
Apart from the permanent magnet, describe another source of magnetomotive force.
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
5.
If alternating current (ac) is passed through a coil, what effect does
have on the poles of the electro magnet so formed?

this

______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

JB Hunter Technology

Page 55

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Chapter 10 Answers to End of Chapter Assessment Questions


Answers to Evaluation Exercises of 1.7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

a)
b)
Copper, aluminium, silver or others mentioned in the text
Mica, plastic, porcelain or others mentioned in the text
Germanium, silicon
Electro-motive force
Electrical pressure
Car battery, solar cells, turbine-driven electrical generator or car
(electrical generator)
9.
An electrical current is the combined effect of many electrons
flowing
along a conductor
10.
Electric radiator, electric toaster, electric light globe

Answers to Evaluation Exercises of 2.6


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.

Volt, v
a) High voltage is above 1500v
b) Extra low voltage is below 60v
c) Low voltage is below 1500v but above 60v
Extra low voltage
Low voltage
Amp,
Silver
Nichrome
a) Its length
b) Its material
c) Its diameter (cross-sectional area)
d) Its temperature
a)
a)
a)

JB Hunter Technology

Page 56

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Answers to Assessment Questions 3.4


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Direct current
Alternating current
DC
AC
AC
52 volts and it produces dc

Answers to Assessment Questions 4.7


1.

a) Car battery
b) Solar cells
c) Turbine driven electrical generator

2.

3.

4.

a) For indoor PVC


b) For outdoor polyethylene

5.

Insulated Conductors Twisted


Together to Form Pairs

Individual Bare
Conductors

Overall
Protective Jacket

6.
7.
8.

a)
ohm
b)
one thousand
10 million ohms

9.
10.
11.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 57

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications


12.

Tutorial

a) Block dc
b) Pass ac

13.
14.

Answers to Assessment Questions 5.7


1.

9v

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

18

I = V R = 9 18 Amps = 0.5 A = 500 mA


Increase
Decrease
Ohms Law R= V I
Lower than the lowest resistor value
100. See below for wworkings.

Total Resistance of parallel circuit where R1= 200 and R2= 200.
RT

RT

____1_____
1 + 1
R1
R2

=
_1_
200

1
+ _1_
200

= ______1______
0.005 + 0.005
= __1__
0.01
Therefore: RT = 100

JB Hunter Technology

Page 58

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Answers to Assessment Questions 6.4


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

mA means milliamps
0.03 Amps = 30 mA
0.005 A = 5 mA
1000
I = 52 1000 = 0.052 A = 52 mA

Answers to Assessment Questions 7.5


1.

May break down skin resistance and allow electric current into the
body
2.
Depending on the level of current will result in a tingling sensation
at
low current levels and may cause heart and breathing stoppage and death at
higher currents
3.
a) Dont work with wet hands or on a wet floor
b) Use insulating clothing with no metallic members and rubber soled
shoes and rubber gloves
c) Never work under the influence of alcohol or drugs or when tired
and
not alert
d) Dont wear conductive jewellery or metallic rings/watches
e) Where ever possible switch off the power and unplug and where
appropriate discharge, electrical apparatus before working on it.
f) Consider the conductive (metallic) parts of any electric appliance,
circuit, terminals, conductors, wires and
equipment
as
being
hazardous until proved otherwise
4.
a) Act promptly but dont put yourself at risk
b) If possible, quickly switch off the power source or pull out the power
cord from its socket to make the area safe
c) If you cannot remove the power, remove the person from contact with
power by using insulating material in a safe method which does not put
yourself in contact with the person or power
d) Apply CPR if trained call for emergency assistance and get a person
trained in CPR if you arent, ASAP.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 59

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Assessment Questions 8.6


1.

a) Measure voltage
b) Measure current
c) Measure resistance (ohms)
2.
To enable you to choose the function required ie volts, current or
resistance
3.
To enable you to determine the maximum range or magnitude you
wish to measure ie 3 volts max or 100 v max
4.
The highest range available first
5.
By the colour of the leads; red to positive and black to negative as
indicated on the terminals
6.
To measure very high resistances such as the insulation resistance of a
wire or cable
7.
Dont make contact with the bare terminals of the instrument during test
and until the cable/apparatus being tested has been discharged.

Answers to Assessment Questions 9.4


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Iron and steel


Copper and aluminium
Like poles repel; unlike pole attract.
A coil of wire through which an electric current is passing
The poles alternate at the same rate as the frequency of the current
changes; north south then south north, etc.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 60

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Appendix A Resistor Colour Codes


Basic Resistor Colour Code
It is often impractical to write the value of a resistor on the outside of its case.
Therefore coloured bands around the case of the resistor are often used to
indicate the appropriate value of resistance. These bands are easy to read and
can be seen from virtually any angle.
Each colour represents a particular number. The basic colour codes are:
Black band
Brown band 1
Red band
Orange band 3
Yellow band 4
Green band
Blue band
Violet band
Grey band
White band

0
2
5
6
7
8
9

The first two coloured bands will give the first figures in the resistance value. For
example:
Red band violet band
Green band blue band

gives 27
gives 56

The third coloured band will give the number of zeros to be counted after the
second colour. It must be noted that gold and silver are sometimes used as the
third colour. Gold multiplies the first two numbers by 0.1 and silver by 0.01 for
example:
Red band violet band brown band = 270ohms
Green band blue band yellow band
= 560,000ohms
Brown band grey band gold band =1.8ohms

JB Hunter Technology

Page 61

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

The value of a resistor can now be determined from its coloured bands. An
example is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Value of a Resistor as Indicated by


Coloured Bands
You may have noticed a 3.9k resistor written as 3k9. This abbreviation is now
widely used in electronics. The engineering prefix symbol is used to replace the
decimal point. For example:
2.2M
3.3k
4.7

=
3k3
=

2M2
4R3

A fourth band, if present will indicate the maximum error (tolerance) that can be
expected for that value of resistor. The main fourth band colours are:
Brown fourth band
Red fourth band
Gold fourth band
Silver fourth band
No fourth band

1%
2%
5%
10%
20%

The colour codes above are found on the most common series of resistors know
as the E12 series.

JB Hunter Technology

Page 62

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Using the basic resistor colour code above, determine the values of resistance
and tolerance for the resistors below.

Exercise A Resistor Colour Codes

3.11.........................

3.12......................

3.13.......................

3.14........................

3.15........................

3.16.......................

3.17.........................

3.18.......................

3.19......................

JB Hunter Technology

Page 63

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Philips Film Resistors


Note: Philips offer a range of high precision film resistors with tolerances as low
as 0.1%. In these cases the third coloured band gives a third value and a fourth
band gives the multiplier or number of zeroes. A fifth band gives the tolerance. A
sixth band, in precision metal film resistors, will give the temperature coefficient.
For example a Philips resistor has the colour coding:
brown red

Value: 1
OR

2
1240

1%

JB Hunter Technology

yellow brown brown

1%

1.24K 1%

Page 64

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

Tutorial

Answers for Exercise A - Resistor Colour Codes


3.11......2200 @ 5%.
3.12......560 @ 20%.
3.13......47 @ 10%.
3.14......1.5M @ 10%.
3.15......2.7 @ 5%.
3.16......33K @ 20%.
3.17......100 @ 1%.
3.18......100K @ 5%.
3.19......12K @ 2%.

JB Hunter Technology
PO Box 2339
DANGAR NSW 2309
Phone 1800 672 933
www.jbhunter.edu.au

JB Hunter Technology

Page 65

V2.3

Basic DC Principles for Telecommunications

JB Hunter Technology

Page 66

Tutorial

V2.3