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Prol
environnemental
Auvergne

Diagnostic

MILIEUX NATURELS ET BIODIVERSIT

Objectifs rfrences
Directive europenne Oiseaux - 6 avril 1979 : assurer une protection de toutes les espces doiseaux vivant
naturellement ltat sauvage sur le territoire europen
Directive europenne Habitats 21 mai 1992 : assurer la biodiversit par la conservation des habitats
naturels ainsi que de la faune et la flore sauvages
Directive Cadre sur lEau 23 octobre 2000 : maintenir et amliorer lenvironnement aquatique par
lamlioration de la qualit des eaux afin datteindre un bon tat cologique, cest--dire offrir un milieu
aquatique permettant aux cosystmes de fonctionner
Stratgie nationale pour la biodiversit - 2004
Loi pour la protection de la faune, la flore et les milieux naturels - 10 juillet 1976 : amliorer les connaissances;
contrler les introductions dans les milieux naturels
Loi sur leau - 3 janvier 1992 : fixe un objectif de gestion quilibre de la ressource en eau et place la
prservation des cosystmes, la protection contre les pollutions et la restauration de la qualit au mme
niveau que le dveloppement de la ressource, sa valorisation conomique et sa rpartition entre les usages
Loi dOrientation pour lAmnagement et le Dveloppement Durable du Territoire (LOADDT) - 25 juin 1999:
mise en place dun schma de services collectifs des espaces naturels et ruraux ; organiser les rseaux
cologiques, les continuits et les extensions des espaces protgs
Contrat de Projets Etat-Rgion : Article 3 : Dvelopper les nergies renouvelables et mettre en uvre un
plan de biodiversit et qualit des eaux, Article 3.1 : Biodiversit et qualit des eaux : Plan Rgional pour la
Biodiversit

Direction Rgionale de l'Environnement


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Prol
environnemental
Auvergne

Diagnostic

POLLUTIONS

A contrario, lhiver, les besoins en chauffage tant


plus importants et les moteurs des vhicules tournant
froid, on observe une augmentation des missions
dorigine rsidentielle et tertiaire ainsi que celle lie
au trafic routier. Cette priode est galement propice
aux inversions de tempratures.
Le rseau de mesure
Mises en place par lassociation Atmo Auvergne,
les stations danalyses sont places en des points
reprsentatifs des diffrents types de pollution et en
fonction des polluants que lon souhaite analyser.
Station urbaine : en centre ville ou zone densment
peuple ; estimation du niveau de pollution moyen et de
lindice Atmo ; SO2, NOx, particules et ozone
Station priurbaine : en priphrie des agglomrations ;
estimation de limpact des centres villes ; NOx et ozone
Station rurale : zone faiblement peuple ; ozone
Station trac : en zone urbaine et moins de 10 m dun
axe forte circulation ; polluants primaires
Station industrielle : en proximit des industries ;
polluants spciques
Les agglomrations dAurillac, Montluon et le Puy-enVelay sont quipes dune station urbaine, dun site trac
et dun poste priurbain. Issoire et Riom possdent un
site urbain. Six stations rurales sont disperses dans la
Rgion, dont une vocation montagnarde au sommet du
Puy de Dme. Enn, un site reprsentatif de la pollution
industrielle est situ proximit dune usine aux Ancizes
(nord ouest de Clermont Ferrand).
Des analyses ponctuelles par des stations xes compltent
ce rseau de suivi, danalyse et de surveillance.

2.
Synthse de la rgion Auvergne vis--vis
des principaux polluants
A.

LES

COMPOSS ORGANIQUES VOLATILS NON


MTHANIQUES COVNM RANG 9 (DONNES 2000)
Les Composs Organiques Volatils (COV) regroupent
une multitude de substances. Les hydrocarbures et les
solvants font partie de cette famille de molcules.
Les sources de COV sont trs nombreuses en
Auvergne. En effet, les missions sont dues des
procds industriels impliquant la mise en uvre de
solvants (chimie de base et chimie fine, parachimie,
dgraissage des mtaux, application de peinture,
imprimerie, colles et adhsifs, caoutchouc, etc.),
ou nimpliquant pas de solvants (production de
boissons alcoolises, de pain, etc.). On retrouve au
premier rang des metteurs les transports, surtout
automobile. On notera galement que la biomasse est
fortement mettrice (forts), sans oublier non plus les
missions lies aux produits domestiques (peinture,
produits dentretien, parfums et cosmtiques,
journaux, tabac, etc.). LAuvergne est concerne,
en particulier en raison dune activit importante
dimpression sur films plastiques. Cependant une
baisse trs importante (-48% entre 2000 et 2007) a
t enregistre au cours des annes passes du fait
de lapplication de la rglementation visant rduire
les COV.
Clermont-Ferrand : proccupation croissante pour le
benzne car les teneurs sont suprieures aux valeurs
de rfrence sur les sites de proximit automobile et
en hausse en 2006.
Le Puy-en-Velay : dpassement de lobjectif qualit
en 2006 pour le benzne mais infrieur la valeur
limite.
Il est cependant frquent de distinguer sparment
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naturellement prsent dans lair, des autres COV
pour lesquels on emploie alors la notation COVNM
(COV Non Mthaniques). Il participe directement
au phnomne daccroissement de leffet de serre
(sa contribution est estime 18 % environ) et sa
concentration dans lair ambiant augmente encore
plus vite que celle du CO2. Les principales sources
mettrices sont : lexploitation des mines de charbon,
les dcharges dordures mnagres, llevage, la

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Prol
environnemental
Auvergne

1.

Diagnostic

POLLUTIONS

Les dchets mnagers et assimils

B.

UN GISEMENT MOYEN ET UNE VOLUTION RELATIVEMENT

STABLE
A.

DFINITION

Ce sont les dchets produits par les mnages y


compris les dchets dits occasionnels tels que les
encombrants, les dchets verts et les dchets de
bricolage. Ce sont galement les dchets produits
par les artisans, les commerants et les activits
diverses de service, collects en mlange avec les
dchets des mnages. Un rapport de lADEME dat
de 2005 montre que la quantit de ces dchets
produite depuis ces dix dernires annes est en voie
de stabilisation.

En 2006, les installations de traitement des ordures


mnagres (ITOM) ont permis dliminer 958 000
tonnes de dchets, contre 913 000 tonnes en 2004 ;
soit une progression de prs de 5 %.
Comparativement deux autres rgions dont
la population est similaire, lAuvergne a une
production moyenne de dchets mais avec une
faible progression, cette constation est cependant
prendre en compte avec prudence car linventaire
ITOM considre uniquement les dchets traits, sans
prendre en compte les effets dus des changes de
dchets entre rgions :

DONNES 2006

AUVERGNE

BASSE NORMANDIE

CHAMPAGNE ARDENNE

FRANCE MTROPOLITAINE

Population
Quantit de dchets
limine dans les ITOM
(tonnes)
Dont les dchets
provenant des mnages
(tonnes)
Production de dchets
totale (kg/an/hab)
Production de dchets
par les mnages
(kg/an/hab)
Progression 2004-2006

1 332 996

1 448 996

1 338 995

61 166 000

958 000

1 173 000

926 000

47 497 000

507 740

527 850

527 820

24 698 440

718,7

809,5

691,5

776,5

380,9

364,3

394,1

403,8

4,9 %

10 %

12,4 %

1,5 %

Source : SINOE, INSEE

107

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Prol
environnemental
Auvergne

Diagnostic

POLLUTIONS

V.

INVESTISSEMENTS POUR PRESERVER LENVIRONNEMENT

1.

La rgion Auvergne

Selon le dossier Les dpenses denvironnement


des Dpartements et des Rgions (1996 2002) de
lInstitut Franais de lEnvironnement, les contributions
et dpenses moyennes engages par la Rgion est
proche de 1% du budget global, taux infrieur la
moyenne nationale proche de 2%. En 2003, lIFEN
estime que la Rgion Auvergne a mobilis environ
2 par habitant pour lanne dans des programmes
environnementaux, ce qui est trs infrieur, encore
une fois, aux crdits moyens nationaux de 4,6 par
habitant. Cependant, on note de grandes diffrences
selon les annes, en fonction des programmes
annuels mis en place par la Rgion :
En 1996 : entre 1,4 et 2,5% du budget tait consacr
lenvironnement
En 2000 : ce taux slevait plus de 2,5%
En 2003 : environ 1% seulement.
Ces dpenses, au cours de la priode 1996-2002 ont
concern avant tout leau et lnergie (plus de 20%
du budget environnement ; leau en reprsentant 8
20%), puis lenvironnement urbain (10 20%) et
enfin la biodiversit et le paysage (moins de 10%).
Les dchets et les risques ont peu de ressources
financires.
Il importe de noter que depuis 2003, le budget de
la rgion a fortement augment puisquil tait de
3,8 millions d'euros (M d') au budget prvisionnel
(BP) 2003 et quil est aujourdhui de 8,1 M d' (BP
2008).

2.

Les dpartements en Auvergne

Les investissements des Conseils Gnraux sont aussi


ingaux. Ainsi, sur la priode 1996-2002, on constate
que cest le Puy de Dme qui a le plus investi dans
les programmes lis lenvironnement. Il est suivi de
la Haute Loire puis du Cantal. Les chiffres ne sont pas
donns pour lAllier. Les dpenses des Dpartements
concernent plus principalement leau et la prvention
des risques naturels ou encore, lenvironnement
urbain.

3.

Les entreprises auvergnates

Les entreprises sinvestissent de plus en plus dans des


dmarches cologiques de plusieurs natures: lutter
contre les pollutions de leau, limiter la production
de dchets, limiter leur rejet de gaz effet de serre,
protger les sites et paysages
Les donnes de la priode 2003-2005 montrent
que les entreprises auvergnates ont ralis plus
dinvestissement dans la lutte contre les missions
atmosphriques que la moyenne nationale, aux
dpens dinvestissements immatriels et des tudes
pralables. Les audits environnementaux permettent
aussi une entreprise en fonctionnement de faire le
bilan de ses impacts dans son fonctionnement.

Cette hausse correspond un dveloppement des


interventions rgionales dans des domaines dj
existant ( eau et patrimoine naturel, avec notamment
implication forte dans les Parcs Naturels Rgionaux)
et au dveloppement dune nouvelle politique sur
lnergie.

117

Prol
environnemental
Auvergne

Diagnostic

POLLUTIONS

Source : Statistiques EIDER de lIFEN

Ces actions leur permettent non seulement de


contribuer la protection de lenvironnement mais
aussi, souvent, de faire des conomies budgtaires
et/ou de promouvoir une image cologique de
leur socit, trs positive pour leur dveloppement
personnel.

Dautres outils permettent de rpondre aux attentes


environnementales. Il sagit notamment du Plan de
Dplacements en Entreprise qui vise rduire le
nombre de salaris venant en vhicule individuel au
profit des transports en commun et du covoiturage,
voire des modes doux comme le vlo.

Lmergence dco-entreprise est notamment


encourager par les rgions Nord Pas De Calais, PoitouCharentes, Centre et Auvergne notamment.

A limage des collectivits, une entreprise peut


sengager dans une dmarche dagenda 21.

Les entreprises peuvent prsenter, confronter et


partager leurs bonnes pratiques Qualit - Scurit
Environnement - Dveloppement Durable en
Auvergne lors dun concours organis par Auvergne
Qualit Performance. Ce concours est ouvert divers
types dentreprises : grandes entreprises, PME PMI,
associations, artisans.

Direction Rgionale de l'Environnement


AUVERGNE

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Prol
environnemental
Auvergne

Diagnostic

RISQUES MAJEURS ET SCURIT

II.
LES RISQUES TECHNOLOGIQUES : RISQUES POTENTIELS POUVANT ENTRANER DES ATTEINTES
AUX PERSONNES ET LENVIRONNEMENT

A.4

Malgr
la prsence dindustries chimiques
notamment, la problmatique des risques
technologiques en Auvergne ne se pose cependant
pas avec la mme acuit que dans certaines rgions
(couloir de la chimie Lyon par exemple).

La question sur les atteintes aux milieux,


principalement aquatiques, peut toutefois se poser
dans la mesure o elle ne parat pas tre apprhende
dune manire suffisante et quil sagit aussi dun
enjeu majeur.

Il faut toutefois considrer ces risques avec srieux


car certaines populations urbaines sont directement
concernes. Le risque est connu, identifi et les
exploitants des installations mettent en uvre des
tudes relatives la connaissance des dangers et
aux effets prvisibles dune potentielle catastrophe.
Les plans de prvention des risques technologiques
visent ce que soient prises les mesures adaptes,
notamment en matire durbanisme pour en
rduire les ventuelles consquences.

Il convient de signaler que le territoire auvergnat ne


prsente pas dinstallation nuclaire.

ENJEUX

HUMAIN
Toxicit par inhalation,
ingestion ou contact

Risque industriel

Brulures, asphyxie

Lconomie auvergnate est trs marque par le


monde industriel, mais le dveloppement long
terme de ce secteur ne peut se faire sans prendre en
compte les enjeux lis aux risques technologiques
quil peut engendrer.

ECONOMIQUE

ENVIRONNEMENTAL

Destruction, dtrioration
et dommages aux
habitations, aux ouvrages,
au btail, aux cultures

Pollution brutale ou diffre de


lair, de leau, du sol ou des nappes
phratiques avec risque datteinte de
la flore, des fruits et lgumes par les
racines, des animaux puis des hommes par la chane alimentaire

Traumatisme

Le risque industriel est compos dvnements


accidentels susceptibles de se produire sur un site
industriel : incendie par inflammation, dispersion des
polluants ou des toxiques dans lair, leau ou le sol,
explosion
LAuvergne est une rgion franaises prsentant
assez peu dactivits risques en 2007 : peu
dtablissement SEVESO seuils haut et bas (23) et
dinstallations classes au titre de lenvironnement
(938) (industries classes pour la protection de
lenvironnement). Dautres installations peuvent
tre potentiellement dangereuses, sans pour autant
engendrer un risque majeur : stockages de produits
dangereux, en particulier les silos de crales,
les dpts dengrais, les grosses installations
de rfrigration lammoniac et les stations de
production deau potable utilisant dimportantes
quantits de chlore.
Ces tablissements sont munis de documents visant
lorganisation des secours en cas daccidents : plan
dopration interne, plan particulier dintervention

Direction Rgionale de l'Environnement


AUVERGNE

1.
Le risque industriel : encadrement
lgislatif des grosses industries

et plan de secours spcialis. Le nombre de ces


mesures, en 1999, tait proche de la moyenne
nationale. Les deux premiers plans de prvention
des risques technologiques ont t prescrits en
dbut danne 2008 pour les industries de Total
Cournon dAuvergne (Puy de Dme) et Lagarde
Cusset (Allier).
La connaissance des risques technologiques qui
touchent le secteur priv, est porte connaissance
de ltat par le biais des tudes de dangers rendues
obligatoires par la lgislation des installations
classes. Elles dcrivent et dmontrent lefficacit
des mesures prises par les tablissements pour
rduire la probabilit et les effets des accidents.
Le tissu industriel est essentiellement compos
de petites industries, entrainant un ala industriel
assez minime. Cependant, lAllier, la Haute Loire et
surtout le Puy de Dme prsentent des industries
plus grosses, dont certaines sont soumises la
rglementation SEVESO.

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Prol
environnemental
Auvergne

Diagnostic

RISQUES MAJEURS ET SCURIT

Situation actuelle

+
+

Tendances

Peu dinstallations industrielles prsentant des risques pour la sant ou


lenvironnement
Concentration du risque de transport
de matires dangereuses sur les principaux axes de communication
Prise en compte des risques dans les
DDRM qui diffusent les zones dala,
les zones de risques et les mesures
prventives

Atout pour le territoire

Problmatique ou pression pour le territoire

Ralentissement prvu des activits industrielles en


Auvergne
Rgion en cours de dsenclavement o routes
et voies ferres devront permettre daccroitre la
capacit de dplacement (voyageur et fret)
Efficacit initialement base sur la diffusion de
linformation au public qui va ralentir du fait dun
manque de connaissances scientifiques

La situation initiale va
saccentuer
La situation initiale va
ralentir ou sinverser

Couleur
verte
Couleur
rouge

Les perspectives dvolution sont


positives
Les perspectives dvolution sont
ngatives

Objectifs rfrences
Loi relative la prvention des risques technologiques et naturels 30 juillet 2003
Dossiers dpartementaux des risques majeurs

Direction Rgionale de l'Environnement


AUVERGNE

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