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TEACHING GRAMMAR FOR ACTIVE USE:

A FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING OF


THREE INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES

Teaching
Grammar

Games

Dialogue/ Role
Play

Unfocused Task

Task
Principles
(Ellis, 2003)

Focus on Meaning ( focus on task completion


thus language serves as a means of communication)

Gap (the need to express idea about an issue from a given


context)

Involve linguistic and non linguistic


to fulfil the goal (e.g non linguistic drawing)
Fulfil the task Primary while
language accuracy secondary

Unfocused Task

Use language as a means of


communication to fulfil the
goal or task (Ellis, 2009)

Example Recounting
Picture Series to teacher or
other students

Role Play involves:


(Brown, 2001)

Giving a role to one or


the other members in a
group

Assigning an objective
the participant must
accomplish

Games to elevate students


motivation should: (Malone, 1981)

FANTASY
Formed by experience (Freudian
theory)

CHALLENGE
The game matches with students
current skill; multiple level of
difficulties; randomness

CURIOSITY
the degree to which the game
continou to arouse and then satisfy
students curiosity