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I.C.E., IV, 2015-2016

Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

### Stage 4 – Column Design

• 4.1. Actions and combinations for design

• 4.2. Critical lengths of the column

• 4.3. Sizing the cross section

• 4.4. Verifications in U.L.S. combinations

• 4.4. Classification of the cross section

1.

• 4.4. Verifications for strength under combined state of

• 2. stresses

• 2.4. Verifications for stability

3.

M,V- min/max

max

N

Ed

cor

V

Ed

corespunzator

N

Ed

max

V

Ed

cor

N

Ed

cor

V

Ed

M

cor

Ed

M

cor

Ed

M

max

Ed

• 4.2. Critical lengths of the column

4.1. Design values in combinations N,

• - in the transversal frame plane the column is fixed in the foundation and hinged at the top; buckling about y-y:

L cr,y = 0.7∙h c

• - in the longitudinal direction the column is doubly hinged at the extremities; buckling about z-z:

L cr,z =

h c

Still, as these values do not correspond entirely with the real conditions of restraining in the plane of the frame (transversally) and normal to the plane of the frame, in the longitudinal direction of the structure, thre may be a paralel possibility to evaluate the critical lengths.

Use the relationships for a rigurous approach with the help of the Wood’s curves:

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

I.C.E., IV, 2015-2016

Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

The restraining conditions at L/2, L/3 due to the second order structure that sustain the walling system (joists) are considered doubly pinned.

4.3. Sizing the cross section

Choose a hot rolled universal section for columns, like HEA,HEB,HEM

Estimate a trial section with a selfweight determined with:

g c,k = (0.15

..

0.20)[kN/m]∙h

c [m]

where h c is the length of the column from the base plate up to the capital level

 Geometric characteristics Sectional characteristics h  ....mm A  .....mm 2 b  ...mm I y  ..... 4 mm t  ... mm I  .... 4 mm w z t f  ... mm I t  ...... 4 mm r  ...mm W pl , y  ..... mm 3 A V , Z  ...... mm 2

Sizing the section for the column

1)

2)

M Ed ≤ M pl,y,Rd =W pl,y

Extract W pl,y min λ lim =120; λ y =L cr,y /i y Extract i y min

∙f yd

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

3) Go to tabels and choose section 4) Verify:

max

N

Ed

M

cor

y Ed

,

A

f

y

M

0

W

pl

,

y

f

y

M

0

0.7

și

cor

N

Ed

M

max

y Ed

,

A

f

y

M

0

W

pl

,

y

f

y

M

0

0.7

4.4. Verifications in U.L.S. combinations

4.4.1. Classification of the cross section Class 1 – SR EN 1993-1-1:2006, tab. 5.2

Web:

c

d

h

2t

f

2r;

t

t w

max
1
N
Ed
1
2
c
t
f
w
y

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Flanges:

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

4.4.2. Verifications for strength under combined state of stresses

Members in bending in the presence of axial an shear forces, combined M-N-V

stresses (SR EN 1993-1-1, pct. 6.2.9.1). The effect of axial force upon the rezistent bending moment about the relevant axis

of the symmetric class 1 sections, like I and H will be checked if:

NEd ≥ 0.15∙Npl,Rd and NEd ≥ 0.5hwtwfy,d

So:

M

Ed

M

N,Rd

where:

M Ed = M max,Ed

M N,Rd = M N,y,Rd

M

N

,

y Rd

,

M

pl y Rd

,

,

• 1 n

1

0,5 a

n

cor

N

Ed

N

pl Rd

,

a

A

2

b t

f

A

,

dar a

0,5

Resistance to shear (SR EN 1993 1-1-, pct. 6.2.6)

V
Ed
1
V
V
(
in absenta rasucirii
)
c Rd
,
pl Rd
,
V
c Rd
,
A
 (
f
/
3)
max
v z
,
y
V
V
si
V
Ed
Ed
pl Rd
,
M 0
v,z
A
 A
2
bt
 t
(2
A
r  t
)
v z
,
f
f
w
for I and H sections:

- shear area in the z-z plane

The effect of shear upon the plastic resistant bending moment (SR EN 1993-1-1, pct. 6.2.8) mai be neglected if:

V

max, Ed

V

pl Rd

,

0,5

se neglijează

If:

V

max, Ed

V

pl Rd

,

0,5

se calculeaza M

y V

,

,

Rd

M

y V Rd

,

,

2

A

w

4

t

w

W

y pl

,

M

0

cu

A

w

h

w

t

w

si



2 V

Ed

V

z pl Rd

,

,

1



2

And the verification is :

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M

Ed

M

y,V ,Rd

Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

4.4.3. Verifications of stability of the column under compression and

bending about y-y (SR EN 1993-1-1, pct. 6.3.3)

N

Ed

N

b y Rd

,

,

k

yy

M

y Ed

,

M

b y Rd

,

,

1

N

Ed

N

b z Rd

,

,

k

zy

M

y Ed

,

M

b y Rd

,

,

1

where:

N

Ed

,

M

y Ed

,

- design values of the internal axial forces and moments in the

relevant combination of actions;

N

b y Rd

,

,

y

f

A

y

M 1

;

N

b z Rd

,

,

z

f

A

y

M 1

;

M

b y Rd

,

,

LT

W

f

y

y pl

,

M 1

y

,

z

- reducing factors of byckling about y-y and z-z;

LT

- reducing factor for flexural torsional buckling (open sections);

k

yy

,

k

zy

- interaction factors (Annex B, SR EN 1993-1-1)

• - buckling curves:

• - imperfections factors:

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

   L cr, y y i y   y  0.5    1 N b y Rd , , 
 _     y  y ;   1 y  1 93.9  ;   ( _   0.2)   2 _    y y y y   A f  y  y   M 1

z

L

cr,z

i

z

_

z

z

1

,

z

0.5

1

z

(

_

z

0.2)

_

2

z

N

b z Rd

,

,

z

f

A

y

M 1

Flexural torsional buckling:

  1  y  _ 2 2    y y 1   1  z  z  _ 2 2    z z

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

_
LT
,
LT
1
L
/
i
cr z
,
z
LT
0.25
2
1
L
/
i
cr z
,
z
C

1
1
20
h
/
tf

Alegerea curbei de flambaj:

curba b
,
cu
0.34
LT
_
curba c
,
cu
0.49
0.4
  0.75
LT
LT ,0
_
_
_
2
0.5
1
(
)
LT
LT
LT
LT
,0
LT
1
LT
_
2
2
LT
LT
LT
W
f
y pl
,
y
M
b y Rd
,
,
LT
M 1

Interaction factors determined according to the symplified method,

Anexa B, SR EN 1993-1-1:2006

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

4.5. Capital of the column

R GZ - truss reaction
(1) cap plate
t c =15….20 mm
(2) - stiffener
t
 t
d
w
b
0.5
b  t
d
w
h
d

The length of the stiffener (2) is determined considering the necessary length of the

fillet welds that connect it to the web of the column:

  s  R GZ  f vw d   R GZ A w ,  l w d   l w  l w d  2 a w  A w  4  a w l  w d ,   , 4 a f w  vw d , , h d  l w (modulat la10mm)

4.6. Column base plate

 For the base plate tp=20mm B  b  2 t t  4  d 2 0 L  h  42d 0

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

For the gusset (if necessary)
t
15
mm
t
b
 L
t

4.6.1 Anchor bolt (hold down bolt)

The column is gixed in the foundation with 4 anchor bolts. The diameter of the bolt

is determined from the condition to resist to traction ( tension stresses may be

developed under the base plate due to the effect of the bending moment).

 F t Ed ,  F t Rd , max cor F t Ed ,  M y Ed ,  N Ed h  2 t f 0.9 A f s ub F t Rd  2  ,  M 2 d s  0.89 d  d  d s 0.89
F t Ed
,
M 2
A
s
2
0.9 f
ub
2
d s
A s
4

d

s

4 A
s

4.6.2. Base plate subjected to compression

The design is based on the theoretical model presented in SR EN 1993-1-8: the

flexible base plate is replaced by an equivalent rigid plate, this one being obtained

from the print of the column cross section to which a stripe with the dimension c is

added on the perimeter of the column section, where:

I.C.E., IV, 2015-2016
f y
c 
t p
3 
f jd
M 0

,

the foundation.

Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

f jd

- resistance of the grout layer between the base plate and

The characteristic values of the resistance of both the grout and the concrete are

considered

 Class of resistance of the concrete C20/2 C25/30 C30/3 C35/4 C40/50 5 7 5 cd  f  N / mm  2  13 16,7 20 23,3 26,7 jd   f N / mm  2  13 16,7 20 23,3 26,7

If the pressure under the equivalent surface of the base plate is considered as

evenly distirbuted the rezistance to compression is:

F

c Rd

,

f

jd

A

eff

And the verification to compression is:

max

N

Ed

F

c Rd

,

4.6.4. Base plate under axial force and bending moment

 CASE 1 excentricity zone verification Resistant moment in the connection

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

 Both left and right are max e  M L Ed  N 6 Ed active in compression M y Ed ,  M j Rd ,

F

c,Rd

Rezistence of the conpressed area in the connection

The resistance is given by the lowest value between the resistance of the column

flange and the part of the web in compression and the resistance to compression of

the base plate (as the sum between the active parts in compression):

F
 min
F
;
F
c Rd
,
c fc Rd
,
,
c pl Rd
,
,
M
M
c Rd
,
pl Rd
,
F c fc Rd
,
,
h
t
h
t
f
f
F
f
A
c pl Rd
,
,
jd
eff
A
2
b
l
;
b
2
c
t
;
l
2
c
b
eff
eff
eff
eff
f
eff
F
F
F
c l Rd
,
,
c r Rd
,
,
c Rd
,
z
h
t f
t
h
f
z
 z
c l
,
c r
,
2
2
e=excentricity
F C,l,Rd
- resistance to compression of the left area of the connection;
F C,r,Rd

- resistance to compression of the right area of the connection.

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CASE 2

Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

 excentricity zone verification Resistant moment in the connection M L Ed  N 6 Ed Left side in tnesion and max e  right side in compression (reversible M y Ed ,  M j Rd , in symmetric situations) h t f z C r ,  2  2 z T r ,  h 2  2 d 0 z T r ,  h  t f 2  2 d 0 F c r Rd , ,

Resistance of the zone in compression -

It will be determined as the lowest value from the resistances of the components of

the connection under compression forces

c Rd

,

min

F

c fc Rd

,

,

;

M

c Rd

,

F

c pl Rd

,

,

M

pl Rd

,

# 

F c fc Rd

,

,

h

t

f

F

c pl Rd

,

,

f

jd

A

eff

b

eff

l

eff

;

F

T Rd

,

min(

F

t pl Rd

,

,

h

t

f

A

eff

b

eff

2

c

;

F

t wc Rd

,

,

F

Resistance of the zone in tension - F T,l,Rd

t

f

;

)

l
eff

2 c

b

F t pl Rd

,

,

- resistance of the zone of the base plate obtained from a number of

equivalent T-stubs, which depend on the type of failure mechanisms developed:

F

t pl Rd

,

,

min(

F

T

,1

2,

Rd

;

F

T

,3,

Rd

)

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Steel Industrial Building-Design Project

Mode 1-2 – complete plastic failure mechanism of the base plate:

2  l
M
eff
,1
y pl Rd
,
,
F T
,1
2,
Rd
m

Mode 3 – failure mechanism of braking the anchor bolts in tension

F

T

,3,

Rd

 

F

t Rd

,

2

A

0.9

s

f

ub

M 2