Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 77

Tanker vessel: Oil Cargo

loading operations

Capt Deepanshu

loading operations
Loading

oil cargo in a tanker ship


require utmost diligence in
planning and most careful
consideration will need to be
made for safe operation.
Following are the basic
procedures at various stages of
loading oil cargo
Capt Deepanshu

Line up of the Vent lines


Prior

loading operation
commence, cargo tanks IG
inlet lines to the
designated tanks shall be
re-checked and confirmed
in desired position.
Capt Deepanshu

Line up of the Vent lines


The

control of the key to


the locking
arrangements for cargo
tank IG inlet valves shall
be with the Chief Officer.
Capt Deepanshu

Line up of the Vent lines


For

tanks which are required


to be isolated by vapor (as
per the Charterers
instructions), the individual
I.G pressure shall be
monitored Every 4 hrs.
Capt Deepanshu

Safety Confirmations and


Clearance:
Once the Chief Officer is satisfied
that all preparations have been
made in accordance with the cargo
oil loading plan and the shore
facility representative has
confirmed that the facility is ready
to load cargo,
Capt Deepanshu

Safety Confirmations and


Clearance
he

may order the opening


of the designated
manifold valves and
loading operation to
commence in accordance
with the loading plan.
Capt Deepanshu

Safety Confirmations and


Clearance

Commence loading at reduced rate


(to avoid static generation), watching
the manifold back pressure at all
times.
The first loading tank shall be
documented in the Tanker Cargo Log
Book and the number should be
restricted to a minimum.
Capt Deepanshu

Safety Confirmations and


Clearance
Ullage

confirmation shall be
carried out to confirm cargo
oil flowing as planned into
the designated cargo tank.

Capt Deepanshu

Safety Confirmations and


Clearance

In case of heated cargo,


confirmation of temperature of cargo
is as per agreed value and within the
Charterers instruction. Also, the
loaded cargo temperature shall be
within the vessels design criteria (of
valve / tank coating limitations)

Capt Deepanshu

10

Safety Confirmations and


Clearance
Only

after receiving reports of all


safety checks confirmed from all
stations of deck / pump room watch and
the chief officer may open other loading
tanks and carefully increase the loading
rate. Close watch of the manifold back
pressure shall be maintained, until
completion of settling down of final
maximum agreed loading rate.
Capt Deepanshu

11

Safety Confirmations and


Clearance

Close communication to be kept


with shore side, until all
parameters have stabilized.
Loading cargo tanks IG back
pressure shall be adjusted to
maintain slight positive, at all
times. The same shall be
monitored, for Capt
any
change.
Deepanshu

12

Deck Watch and Personnel


Arrangement
The

deck watch shall check for oil leaks


in the cargo area throughout the cargo
oil loading operation.
At the beginning of the operations,
confirm that no oil leaks from piping
joints and that no oil in flowing into
tanks other than the tank being loaded.

Capt Deepanshu

13

Deck Watch and Personnel


Arrangement
Keep

continuous monitoring
of the Oil Level of the loading
tanks, until settling down of
shore flow rate. Also, monitor
other tanks (unused) for any
change in the level.
Capt Deepanshu

14

Deck Watch and Personnel


Arrangement
After

reaching the desired full


loading rate and confirmation
reports have been received from
all stations at deck / pump room
watch, (including the cargo piping
and sea surface around the vessel)
the Chief Officer may dismiss the
off duty crew and revert to the
routine Watch Schedule
Capt Deepanshu

15

Deck Watch and Personnel


Arrangement
During

loading operations,
monitor the manifold back
pressure, especially when
changing over the valves /
tanks.
Capt Deepanshu

16

Leakage Monitoring
System
Cargo

leakage, however small shall


be paid attention to- at an early
stage of operations. Leakages from
piping system, joints and valves
shall be monitored. Tanks not being
loaded shall be monitored to
ensure that no oil is flowing into
tanks other than the loading tanks.
Capt Deepanshu

17

Leakage Monitoring
System
During

loading operations,
watch oil loading pressure all
the time, and monitor
portions where oil is likely to
leak. Excessive vibrations on
piping systems must be
attended to immediately.
Capt Deepanshu

18

Cargo Loading Rates


a) General
The vessels maximum loading
rate and maximum venting
capacity must be posted in the
cargo control room giving details
of the rates for
homogenous(entire the vessel),
Group-by-group and Tank-wise
Capt Deepanshu
19
loadings.

Cargo Loading Rates


Such

information, based on
calculations, shall assist the
Master to determine how fast the
ship can safely load a particular
cargo at a particular facility,
taking into account the vessels
design parameters and the cargo
involved.
Capt Deepanshu

20

Cargo Loading Rates


The

Chief Officer should


indicate, in the loading
plan, rates required at
stages throughout the
operation
Capt Deepanshu

21

Cargo Loading Rates


b)

Theoretical Rates
The maximum flow rate into any
single tanks shall be less than
the maximum venting capacity
(SOLAS). To allow for generation
of gas when loading, the venting
rate shall be taken as 125% of
the oil loading rate
Capt Deepanshu

22

Cargo Loading Rates


Maximum

loading rates are


affected by a number of factors:
Diameter of Manifold valve / line.
A cross section of the Pipe [m2] x
Instant Flow Rate 7[m/sec] x
3,600[sec] = Reference Max.
Loading Rate
Capt Deepanshu

23

Cargo Loading Rates


Number

of tanks being loaded


at any one time.
Gas venting capacity main
system.
Secondary gas venting
capacity
Capt Deepanshu

24

Cargo Loading Rates


c)

Setting Loading Rates


The initial and maximum
loading rates, topping off
rates and normal stopping
times should be considered,
having regard to: Capt Deepanshu

25

Cargo Loading Rates


The

nature of the cargo to be


handled;
The arrangement and capacity
of the ships cargo lines and
gas venting systems: the vent
line pressure should not
exceed that indicated by the
builder and must be closely
monitored at terminals
Capt Deepanshu
26

Cargo Loading Rates


where

loading rates are known


to be high.
Builders maximum vent
pressure may be based on a
rate for loading all tanks
simultaneously; rates must be
reduced accordingly for a
smaller number of tanks tank
being loaded.Capt Deepanshu
27

Cargo Loading Rates


The

ability and competence of the


vessels staff.
The loading rate should also be
governed by the age, condition and
reliability of the vessels pipeline
system and the gauging system.
Precautions to avoid accumulation
of static electricity.
Any other flow control limitations.
Capt Deepanshu

28

De-Ballasting of
Segregated Ballast
Obtain

the Berth (Loading)


Masters permission before
starting to de-ballast the
segregated ballast tanks. In
principle, de-ballasting
operations should commence,
after starting of cargo operations.
Capt Deepanshu

29

De-Ballasting of
Segregated Ballast
De-ballast,

as per the cargo plan


to achieve ample trim, especially
towards the completion of deballasting operations.
Such period should be planned
well before the level in cargo
tanks are near Topping-off
ullages.
Capt Deepanshu

30

Recording during
operations in Tanker Log
Book
Following items shall be recorded in
Tanker Cargo Log Book hourly.

Loading Quantity (Rate) to compare it


with that of the terminal side
Regular ship/shore comparisons of
loaded cargo figures shall be carried
out and changes in difference to be
investigated / reported.
Capt Deepanshu

31

Recording during
operations in Tanker Log
Book

If

the Duty Deck Officer cannot


account for the variation of rate
then he must call the Chief Officer
immediately.
Manifold Pressure / Temperature,
Draft & Trim
Capt Deepanshu

32

Recording during
operations in Tanker Log
Book

Monitor

of levels in tanks not being


discharged

The Stress and Stability of the vessel


Tank pressure

Capt Deepanshu

33

Recording during
operations in Tanker Log
Book
SBM / FSO position monitoring
shall be carried throughout
the operations. The crew on
watch shall be briefed as to
the danger limits for the
bearing and distance of the
SBM / Hawser to be reported.
Capt Deepanshu

34

Chief Officers Standing


order
Chief

Officer shall give his


written instructions of cargo
plan to duty officer .
Stress monitoring and printouts of intermediate conditions
shall be recorded during
regular cargo operation.
Loading computer shall be
Capt Deepanshu

35

Chief Officers Standing


order
updated

hourly for conditions on

board.
Where possible, comparison of
real & calculated draft & trim
shall be carried out to give
proactive warning of any
unplanned or unobserved
deviation from plan.
Capt Deepanshu

36

Trim and draft


Ensure

the draft maintained,


after allowing for tidal
variation, is well within the
limits of the height limitation
of manifold / loading arms.
The vessel shall always be
maintained well within the
operating limits (envelope) of
the shore arms.
Capt Deepanshu
37

Topping Of
Before

commencement of
Topping off operations, arrange
adequate personnel for the
operations.
As the number of remaining tanks
are reducing with progressing of
Topping off operations, lower the
loading rate down to have
sufficient
Capt Deepanshu
38

Topping Of
time

to cope with the Final


Loading Topping off.
Confirm the Check items
when Topping-Off, as per
Tanker Loading Checklist to
record the results.
Capt Deepanshu

39

Preparation for Topping


Of
The

Chief officer should


indicate, in the loading plan,
the method he wishes to be
used for Topping Off along
with the maximum permitted
topping off rate(s).
Capt Deepanshu

40

Preparation for Topping


Of
The

Chief Officer should indicate to


the Duty Deck Officer when he
wishes to be called for Topping Off.
The Duty Deck Officer should
calculate when the Topping Off
operation will begin and advise the
shore terminal well in advance.
Capt Deepanshu

41

Preparation for Topping


Of
Well

before topping off, the Duty


Deck Officer should have the
deck watch verify and compare
the portable gauges with the
fixed cargo tank gauge. He shall
complete the Cargo Tank Level
Gauge Check Record at Loading
Ports of the tanks to confirm the
accuracy of theCaptCCR
tank gauges42
Deepanshu

Preparation for Topping


Of
The

Chief Officer should be


notified of any discrepancies
when he is called for Topping
Off operation.

Capt Deepanshu

43

Preparation for Topping


Of
On

the assumption that the tank


to be topped off is not the final
tank and that there are other
tank valves opened for the grade
being loaded, the valve should
be operated when there is
sufficient ullage remaining in the
tank, to ensure that the valve
will close as required.
Capt Deepanshu
44

Preparation for Topping


Of
When Topping Off tanks,
there must be enough
personnel available to
monitor the operation and
provide assistance.
Capt Deepanshu

45

Preparation for Topping


Of
It

should be remembered that this is


a critical point in a loading operation.
A portable hydraulic pump must be
readily available on deck complete
with extra oil and hoses, in case of a
failure in the valve operating system.

Capt Deepanshu

46

Topping Of Operation
If

at any time the Topping off


operation gives significant cause
for concern, such as equipment
malfunction, STOP LOADING!!
Then take the necessary time to
get things settled down again
before resuming.
Capt Deepanshu

47

Topping Of Operation
After slowing down the loading rate
for Topping off, it should be
checked that the loading rate is
reduced as requested.
If the loading rate is still too high,
then the shore should be requested
to further reduce the pumping rate.
Capt Deepanshu

48

Topping Of Operation
It is essential that all the
vessels valves are not
shut against a flow of oil.

Capt Deepanshu

49

Topping Of Operation
To

avoid this not less than a


pre-determined minimum
number of valves must be
open during periods of
maximum flow rate and
specified in the loading plan.
Capt Deepanshu

50

Topping Of Operation
Care

must be taken when topping


off tank(s) to make sure that there
are sufficient other valves open.
When the first tank has been
topped off, the deck watch shifts
to the next tank as directed by
the Chief Officer and the process
is repeated.
Capt Deepanshu

51

Topping Of Operation
When

the final tank is to be


topped off, this valve should not
be closed against the flow of oil.
Slack or empty tanks should be
monitored to ensure that the set
ullage does not change.

Capt Deepanshu

52

Topping Of Operation
Care

must be taken not to operate


the tank valve controls by mistake,
and if possible a system of marking
the valves to remain closed should be
arranged. Care must be taken to
make sure that valves are shut
properly, and the levels of tanks
already topped off must be monitored
to make sure there has been no
change in the final ullage.
Capt Deepanshu

53

Topping Of Operation
On

confirming with the


manufacturers, to prevent the
possibility of the hydraulically
operated cargo valve to
creep, the control switch
shall be left in the closed
position on non operational
tanks when working / or after
finished loading
cargo
.
Capt Deepanshu
54

Topping Of Operation
A

warning notice to be posted in


the cargo control room of all
tankers, that have a neutral
position on the valve remote
control switch, to the effect that
the valve is to be kept in the
closed position on non
operational tanks when working /
or after finished
loading cargo. 55
Capt Deepanshu

Completion of Loading
Close

the manifold gate


valves after confirming the
completion of transferring
oil from the terminal.

Capt Deepanshu

56

Completion of Loading
Once

cargo operations have


ceased the Mast riser, or other
venting system in use should be
closed to reduce the loss of light
ends to the atmosphere; but the
tank pressure should be closely
monitored to ensure that the
system is not over-pressurized.
Capt Deepanshu

57

Completion of Loading
Drain

hoses and arms at the


manifold. All manifold drain valves
are to be operated under the
knowledge of the Chief Officer; the
duty deck officer must be stationed
at the manifold and ensure that the
correct valves are opened before
confirming to the Chief Officer in
the CCR that the valves are
opened.
Capt Deepanshu
58

Completion of Loading
After

draining of all oil in pipe


lines, close tank valves and
vent valves. Ensure
connection is depressurized
and isolated from the internal
cargo tank IG pressure.
Capt Deepanshu

59

Completion of Loading
All

cargo in deck cargo lines


should be dropped by gravity
into a designated tank or
tanks. Lines should not be
dropped back to the pump
room.
Capt Deepanshu

60

Completion of Loading
In

parallel with draining work,


measure the temperature and
ullage in each tank to work
out the loaded quantity.

Capt Deepanshu

61

Completion of Loading
On

completion of gauging
and sampling all ullage
ports, vapour locks and
any other tank openings
should be confirmed
closed.
Capt Deepanshu

62

Completion of Loading
Care

should be taken to
ensure that cargo lines do
not become over pressurized
due to high ambient
temperatures

Capt Deepanshu

63

Completion of Loading
The

IGS recorder shall be


switched on to record and
monitor the cargo tanks
pressure. It shall be suitably
marked for details of Voyage
Number, date and time of
turning on and corresponding
present pressure.
Capt Deepanshu
64

Completion of Loading
This

record shall be in
continuous operation until
the final discharge port.

Capt Deepanshu

65

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
Ullage

Report The following


would need to be considered,
when carrying out accurate
cargo measurements.
Capt Deepanshu

66

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
Case-1

Line Volume: If NOT


included in the ships
individual tank measurement
tables and more than one
grade loaded;
Capt Deepanshu

67

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
* Loaded

qty of 1st grade=


Loaded Tanks Qty of 1st grade +
ALL Lines (used for loading) Qty

Capt Deepanshu

68

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
* Loaded qty of 2nd, 3rd

grades= Loaded Tanks Qty


of 2nd, 3rd grades only .

Capt Deepanshu

69

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations

Case-2 Line Volume: If


INCLUDED in the ships
tank measurement tables
and more than one grade
loaded;
Capt Deepanshu

70

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
* Loaded

qty of 1st grade=


Loaded Tanks Qty of 1st
grade + Empty Tanks only:
Lines (used) Qty (A)
Capt Deepanshu

71

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
* Loaded qty of 2nd, 3rd grades=
Loaded Tanks Qty only of 2nd,
3rd grade above qty (A)

Capt Deepanshu

72

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
* The cargo tanks are to be gauged

in the presence of the attending


Surveyor / Loading master to
confirm final ullages,
temperatures and presence of free
water.
Capt Deepanshu

73

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
* The vessel is to prepare the ullage

report upon completion of gauging


of cargo tanks. The surveyors
Ullage report shall be verified for
ullages and temperatures only. If
available, copy of the surveyors
document to be retained onboard.
Capt Deepanshu

74

Tank Gauging / Survey


upon completion of
Loading operations
* Closed method of dipping such
cargo tanks shall be followed.

Capt Deepanshu

75

Completion of Loading

Capt Deepanshu

76

Completion of Loading

Capt Deepanshu

77

Centres d'intérêt liés