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# BASICS OF ACCELERATION

MEASUREMENTS!
MECHANICAL FAILURE PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY
59 th MFPT FORUM
April 19, 2005
John E. Judd
Dynamic Measurement Consultants, LLC Hamden, CT
jejvibes@aol.com

## GETTING RELIABLE AND USEFUL

INFORMATION
FROM YOUR
ACCELEROMETER.

It is easy to get an
accelerometer to
measure acceleration.
The problem is to keep it
from measuring
everything else! .

Walter Kistler

z
z
z
z

z
z

## Some basics of your vibration measurement.

What common industrial accelerometers are.
Their operating characteristics.
Some of the potential problems & error sources.
MORE IMPORTANTLY!
Some of the information they can provide to your
PdM operation.
You may be surprised!

## Why do you measure vibration?

To establish machine condition.
z To extend the useful life of rotating
machinery.
z To identify conditions that may lead to
shortened life or catastrophic failure.
z Verify condition correction.
z

MEASUREMENT!
z

## DISPLACEMENT-VELOCITYACCELERATION? WHAT IS THE

DIFFERENCE AND WHY SHOULD YOU
CARE?

VIBRATIONS FOUR
RELATED CHARACTERISTICS

z
z
z

## DISPLACEMENT-DISTANCE- D or X-mil inches

VELOCITY-SPEED- D/sec =V (in/sec-cm/sec)
ACCELERATION-( V/sec)= in/sec2
In g units = multiple of gravitational acceleration =
in/sec2 /(386.1in/sec2) = g
FREQUENCY (Hz or rpm)

Examples of Vibration.

time

## Period = T= Time for one cycle or revolution.

Frequency = 1/ T(seconds) = Cycles / sec = Hertz( Hz)

## Periodic Sinusoidal Vibration

PEAK =X/2
RMS = 0.707 X/2
AVERAGE = 0.637X/2

PEAK TO PEAK =X

## Lets begin by looking at

Frequency!
CONVERT rpm to Hz
where: Hz =cps = cycles per
second
rpm = revolutions per minute
rpm/60 = Hz
rpm = Hz*60

DISPLACEMENT = X
z
z

z
z
z

## UNITS -Inch, mil-Inch, cm, mm

Usually expressed as Peak to Peak
( mil inches = inches/1000=0.001 in.(p-p)
CONVERT one inch (p-p) into mils
CONVERT .005 inch (p-p) = to mils

V=fX

## Velocity in/sec 3.14 freq.(Hz)*Disp-In(pp)

or
Velocity in/sec .052*RPM*Disp*In(pp)
RPM = 3600 , Disp. = 1 mil = Velocity?

V=fX

## Velocity in/sec = 3.14 frequency, Disp (In, p-p)

or
Velocity in/sec = .052*RPM*Disp. (in, p-p)
RPM = 3600 , Disp. = 5 mils

g = .051 f2 X

## g = .051 f 2 * Disp. (in-pp)

or = .051(Rpm/60) 2 * Disp.(in-pp)
Let : Frequency = 61.45 Hz
&
Displacement 5.18 mils

## Convert Velocity into g units

g =(2f)2 X/(2*386.1)
(6.28 f/386.1) * Velocity
0.0163*f*Velocity
If f = 61.45 Hz
& Velocity = 1.0 in/sec
We get g 1.0
INTERESTING!
AT 61.45 Hz
Useful Rule: 1g 1in/sec. 5.18 mils
Easy to estimate-@ 1800 1in/sec 10mils, 0.5g, 7200 1IPS 2.5 mils, 2g, etc Easy to estimate g or
Disp.

Frequency RelationshipDisplacement-Velocity-Acceleration
Accel g units

X = Disp(p-p)

61.45 Hz

Vel-in/sec

## Velocity = 3.14 f X (p-p)

g = .051(f)2 X (p-p)

= 3.14

A
Ampl.
mpl.

Disp-mils(p-p)

f2

5.18 mils

Freq.
Vel
Displacement

Disp

Displacement = X
Velocity = fX
Acceleration(g) = .051 f2 X

Amplitude

Acceleration
Velocity

Frequency
Note: at 61.45 Hz 1g =
1 in/sec = 5.18 mils (p-p)

## Why is This Relationship

Important?
Take a look at the next few slides with
time history waveforms and spectrum plots
shown in Disp. Velocity and Acceleration.
z Both bearing #9 and #5 are damaged.
z Displacement and Velocity suppress high
frequency energy containing valuable data
on bearing surface condition.
z

1.0
RMS: 0.3
Live X1
X: 0.0799609
Y: 0.472679
500.0m

IN/SEC

Re

-500.0m

-1.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m se

80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

10.0
RMS: 1.0
Live X1
X: 0.0799609
Y: -0.20284
5.0

Gs

Re

-5.0

-10.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m se 80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

1.0
RMS: 0.295444
Live X1
X: 0.0799805
Y: -0.16657
500.0m

IN/SEC

Re

-500.0m

-1.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m se

80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

10.0
RMS: 2.2
Live X1
X: 0.0799805
Y: 0.209865
5.0

Gs

Re

-5.0

-10.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m se 80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

3.0m

S1
X: 6600
Y: 1.57844e-005

2.5m

## Bearing #5 - Outer Race Heavy Score

2.0m

MILs
1.5m

SKF 6205
Low Frequency amplified 52Hz

Ma

1.0m

500.0u

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

40.0m

S1
X: 66
Y: 0.0

30.0m

IN/SEC

SKF 6205
20.0m
Ma

Emphasis on Low
Frequency
6kHz

10.0m

High Frequency
Reduced

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

500.0m

## Bearing #5 - Outer Race Heavy Score

400.0m

300.0m

Ma

Gs

S1
X: 6600
Y: 0.0703045

20 kHz Acceleration
SKF 6205
Spectrum
Here is the52Hz
bearing
condition information!

200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

The NATURE OF
ACCELEROMETERS
THE OPERATIONAL BASICS .
z IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS.
z POSSIBLE PROBLEMS ?
z HOW TO SPOT & AVOID THEM.
z

AVD CONCLUSION?
For low frequency information, Balance,
Alignment, Foundation, or low end bearing
fault frequencies use Velocity. (in/sec)
For sensing early degradation in rolling
element bearings use acceleration. (g)

A VIBRATION TRANSDUCER

## PROVIDES AN ELECTRICAL OUTPUT

PROPORTIONAL TO THE
INSTANTANEOUS VALUE OF THE
VIBRATORY MOTION.

THE ACCELEROMETER
Produces voltage proportional to
Instantaneous acceleration.
Acceleration = Rate of change of Velocity =
(In g units = 0.051 f2 X
(Hz)

## Where: f = frequency (Hz)

X = displacement (PP)
Usual output voltage units = mv/g

SIMPLE ACCELEROMETER

MASS

Down
Reaction
Force

VOLTAGE

POSITIVE
Motion

Upward
Reaction
Force
NEGATIVE
Motion

BASE
MOTION

VOLTAGE

Positive Charge

Negative Charge

+
XSTAL

+
SHEAR STRESS

REACTION
FORCE

SENSOR BASE

MOTION

COLLECTORS

CRYSTALS

MASS
MOUNTING BASE

Ca

eo

Ca + Cext

## Simplified Charge Mode Amplifier!

Sensitive to triboelectric cable noise! Requires
special low noise cable!

## Low Impedance Circuit!

No Tribo noise, long cables, low coupled noise.

24v

## Constant Current Signal Extraction Mode used

in most modern industrial accelerometers!

IMPORTANT ACCELEROMETER
CHARACTERISTICS
SENSITIVITY
z NOISE DISTRIBUTION
z LOW FREQUENCY RESPONSE
z HIGH FREQUENCY RESPONSE
z FILTERED OR UNFILTERED
z BASE STRAIN
z TRANSVERSE SENSITIVITY
z TEMPERATURE
z

SENSITIVITY
RESPONSE
The transducer conversion
constant along its major
axis in Volts, or
millivolts/g.
Usually at specified
frequency, temperature
and level ( 1 g )
Example: 100 mv/g @
100Hz, 1g, 720 F

1-3mv/g

Base motion
100 mv/g

## The transducer sensitivity

Along the axis perpendicular
to the Sensitive axis.
Expressed as a % of
the Basic Sensitivity.
For example:
3% of basic sensitivity
Motion

Transverse Sensitivity
Rotate

Machine
motion

Motion

MINIMUM

Triax?

5%
Maximum

Expressed as %
of basic
sensitivity.

## LATERAL MOTION CAN

OFTEN BE AS HIGH AS
VERTICAL MOTION!

w /Temperature

charge

5%

voltage

## Usual limit 65 0 F to 250 0F. Special units

to 400 0 F w/Electronics.

Thermal shock!
Change in Sensitivity due
to temperature transient!
0.14g/C0
g

Model X
Model Y

0.004/C0

10 Seconds

Ambient to
320F

## ANSI Standard 82.11- thermal shock

Linearity-Change in Sensitivity
with level
Basic
Sensitivity
@ 100 Hz

Deviation

1g

Level g

## BASE STRAIN ERROR

Error signal introduced when
sensor case or base mounting
interface is mechanically strained
Induced strain

Input
motion

## Specification = g/ strain typical = 0.0003-0.001g/ strain

strain= 1 inch/inch
= micro inch= 10 -6 inches

If large difference at
1x between magnet
and hard mounted
sensor check base
strain.

Greased
bushing will
minimize effect.

## BASE STRAIN ERROR

USUALLY OCCURS AT 1X IN LARGE
LOW FREQUENCY MACHINERY
USE MECHANICAL ISOLATION STUD.

High Overall
z

## High Discrete Signal Levels

High 1X signal levels may indicate that there is a
bending mode in the machine causing base strain
in the sensor. The bending mode may be
decoupled by a magnet or mounting
1X
bushing placed under the sensor.
Base strain=.001 g/ms X10 ms=.01g
.01g @ 300 CPM= .12 in/sec 7 mils.!
just from strain error!

26

High Overall
z

## High Discrete Signal Levels

High 1X signal levels may indicate
1X that there is a bending mode in the
machine causing base strain in
the
sensor. The bending
mode may be
decoupled by a
magnet or mounting
bushing
placed under the sensor.
Base strain=.001 g/ms X10 ms=.01g
.01g @ 300 CPM= .12 in/sec
26

MOUNTED RESONANT
FREQUENCY
The axial resonance of the mounted
accelerometers sensing crystal and its
associated mass. The frequency at which
the unfiltered basic sensitivity is maximum.
Usually expressed in kHz.

## VIBRATION TRANSMISSIBILITY RATIO

Ratio - A out / A in
vs. Frequency

Fn = 1/2 K/M

A out

XSTAL

A input

Fn=1.0

Internal
Filter

10kHz
+/-3dB

+/- 5%

Typical
Specified

Low

Range

But
Useable

Useable
range

5-10kHz
+/- 5%

Typical
3-5 Hz

fn

Resonance
range 15 to
25kHz

10 15
kHz

Useable for
high frequency

Frequency

## Useful frequency response range

Accelerometer Sensitivity vs. Freq.

## Mounting - High Frequency

Effects
z

Mounting
A - Stud Mounting
C - Magnetic Mounting
D - Hand Held

D
C
B
A

10Hz

100Hz

1kHz

10kHz
41

39

## Mount to solid surfaces- near load zone

avoid brackets!
Better

x
BEST

fn

Bracket
resonance
can modify
machine
spectrum!
38

SURFACE PREPARATION

Thin film
Silicon grease.

## Drilled and tapped holes

shall be perpendicular to
the finished surfaces
1 degree within 1 degree

Chamfer
Accelerometer mounting
surfaces shall be flat within
700 micro inches Rms

Remove burrs
Surface finish of 125 microinches
or better

## Mounting holes shall be drilled

and tapped to a depth sufficient
to accommodate the mounting
stud.

A-59

42

response.
z

z
z
z

## If you have something specific to measure such as 3rd

gear mesh and know the expected frequency, select
sensor with fn at least 2/3x expected frequency.
For bearing measurements mount sensor close to load
zone. This can usually be visually estimated.
General vibration energy up to 10/13 kHz. Select unit
with 25 kHz fn.
If you need to measure important information above 2/5
kHz pay special attention to method of mounting. Use
flush (not horseshoe) super magnets, rigid epoxy bonds.
Do not use hand held stinger probe.
Above 8kHz hard mount to flush flat surface with thin film
of silicon grease.

## MOUNTING & PROBES

z MAGNETS
z HAND PROBES
z

USE OF MAGNETS!
TEST ACCEL
WITH FLAT +/5% RESPONSE
TO 10KHz

INTERFACE #1
SUPER
MAGNET

INTERFACE #2

HIGH FREQUECY
REFRENCE ACCEL.

Sweeping sinusoidal
vibration Input motion
generated from high
frequency vibration
exciter.

+20%
+10% @ 6kHz

## Thick film of grease.(+20%)

10kHz

SUPER MAGNET W/
OILED SURFACE (+10%)

10kHz

## The grease tends to fill the

voids and provide better
interface coupling!

1)HARD MOUNT
2) S-MAGNET/GREASE
10 kHz

## Super magnet on dry

surface @ 5 g.

Conclusion on Magnet?
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

## Use rare earth super magnets with machined contact

surface.
Use smooth machined bushing for attachment.
Thin film of grease or oil gives good results to 10 kHz.
More is not better! Do not use excessive Coating of
grease.
Thin film of silicone grease on both mating surfaces is
best.
Consider the expected g level!
Over 5/10 g use grease on both surfaces, high strength
25 lb magnet or hard mount if possible.

## Use of a Hand Held Probe?

Be Aware!
10 kHz

Frequency response
5%

35

## Hand Held Probe- 4 1/2 in stinger

Up 5 dB

500 Hz

2300 Hz
Data attenuated

Down 8dB
DataUp
Amplified
4 dB
700Hz

36

Fn est. 0.16(AE/L(ms+0.3mr))
SUGGESTION:

10,000 Hz
20 dB
Attenuation!

Bearing information

ONLY USE
HANDHELD
PROBES FOR
CHECKING LOW
FREQUENCY
BALANCE AND
ALIGNMENT ABOVE
1200 CPM!

37

## Conclusion on hand probe!

Be cautious in using hand probes in
general.
z Tests indicate that they are best used
above 20 Hz and below 500 Hz.
z For checking imbalance and misalignment.
z Not recommended for use in detecting
bearing faults.
z

NOISE SOURCES!
GENERAL
z GROUNDING NOISE
z BASE COUPLED NOISE
z EFFECTS OF INTEGRATION
z LOW FREQUENCY NOISE!
z

## High Output- Ground Loop Noise

keep connectors and sensors off ground!
Case Grounded

Line Powered
Analysis
Equipment

noise voltage
on ground

Current
flow
through
ground
loop

Noise
capitively
couples
into signal!

Machine Surface
13

CAPACITIVELY
COUPLED
NOISE FOILS
INTERNAL
ISOLATION.

## Internal or external isolation

could be a problem!
0 Vdc
24 Vdc

<

<
>

<
>

>

Accel.

CONTAMINATION
SHORTS OUT
EXTERNAL
ISOLATION

12 Vdc
Bias Level

Vibration
Signal>

GROUND NOISE

8

## High Output-Ground Loop Noise

or Base Coupled Noise!
z IsoShield

TM

Internal
Shield
Good solution!

Glass Isolated
outputs.

Noise is
shunted to
ground!

Thin film
Isolation

14

Another
Isoshield tm
Design.

## High level at line frequency

Zoom in to check actual frequency.
Should be exactly at power line.
z Try power turn off- If it disappears
instantly -its electrical!
If not -its from other source.
z Check for single System ground.
Remember ground noise can be from
z

16

## High Output - Ground loop noise

z

Loss of Isolation
60 Hz

running
speed

Conductive materials
at the accelerometer,
cable, or connections
are conmon cause of
ground loops !

17

z

## Clipping [May be high frequency-above analysis range!]

z Bias Instability-square wave FFT causes odd
harmonics.
Turn-on Time, Base Strain, Cable Sensitivity
Loss of Isolation-60 Hz noise
Use Time Domain as a diagnostic tool.

z
z
z
z
z

## See strange peak? Change resolution.

High frequency-VFD, Gear noise, line coupled
noise from other electrical signals.
55

COMMON SOURCES
OF
LOW FREQUENCY NOISE!

## High Output - Ski slope

Problem-suppresses real signal!

Frequency

OA= 0.8

1
0.8

Ski-slope

M10v
M10A
M10H

0.6
0.4

1x =0.19

0.2
0
1

10

100

1,000

10,000
18

Understand INTEGRATION!
Amplifies low frequency noise.

FFT of
Acceleration

Frequency
Velocity g/0.0163*f
z

FFT integrated to
Velocity

or 1/f

Frequency
23

## High Overall-SKI SLOPE

USE HIGH PASS FILTER IN DATA
COLLECTOR.
Noise
W/ Filter

SKI SLOPE
W/O FILTER

Hi Pass Filter
set below frequency
of interest.

## This will drop the overall component levels

due to noise or unwanted foundation motion!
24

## High Output- ski-slope

(Low Frequency Measurements)
z

## Sensor / Power Supply 1/f Noise (In

Velocity)

Velocity
noise.

Velocity = 61.5 x g
F

Velocity

signal

1/F
NOISE

help here!
Why?

.

SIGNAL

Frequency
25

z

24 Volts

Final
Bias

## Some sensors can take 8 to10 secs!

Allow time before collecting data.
T=0

TIME

22

SKI SLOPE ?
Real Motion?
Structural / support motion is usually
discrete frequency. Increase
analysis resolution.
Look for distinct peaks that relate to
floor or structural resonance.
Otherwise its probably noise!
z Put sensor on floor or structure!
z

20

z

## Changing FFT resolution to check

for discrete structural frequencies.

support

High Resolution

noise

5 kHz

Low resolution
21

5 kHz

## High Ski Slope

z

Possible Causes:
1) Could be real motion of floor or
supporting Structure?
2) Sensor turn on time?
3) Sensor 1/f noise?
4) Integration processing noise?
6) Clipping Saturation products?
7) Aliasing signal processing errors?
8) Wrong high pass filter?
19

## Signal Level Dropping!

Trouble Level Dropping!
Low Frequency Noise Increasing!
Random Noise=g(rms) = ( g2/ Hz *Bw)
= g/ Hz (Bw)1/2

Where:

## g2/ Hz = spectral density factor

and g/ Hz = is the spectral noise factor.
z Caused by the internal electronics in the
sensor. Random thermal noise and 1/f low
frequency random noise.
z It is not constant with frequency!

0,001g =
100
volts!

0.001g

0.01g

0.1 g

sensor dropping!

3 Hz
Corner

Select
Sensor
with prop
low
frequenc
response
corner!

Electronic noise
Increasing!

## Signal to Noise Ratio

Periodic signal in random noise @ 90 %.
Ratio = signal/noise Minimum 3:1
z Example: Signal = 3, noise = 1
= (32 + 12) = 3.16 5.3%
z Signal = 2, noise = 1 error 12 %
z At 10 DOF (5 aver.) error up to 35%
z At 20(10aver.) error range up to 28%.
z At 40(20 aver.) error 25%
z Need 500 averages to approach 12%
z

z

z
z
z
z

## Most vibration sources in rotating machinery are

periodic. Therefore the information exists at discrete
frequencies.
Need for bandwidth in making measurements is to
accommodate normal variation in the machines
rotational frequency.
Unwanted random noise may be reduced when
necessary by reducing the analysis bandwidth.
Rms noise = g2/Hz * BW
Reducing a 5 Hz band to 1 Hz will cause a 5 or 2.24
reduction-increases the sample time by 5.
Purchasing low frequency sensor with higher sensitivity!

## Ref: Tony Keller,

Spectral Dynamics, CA.

## Degrees of Freedom, Bandwidth

& Averaging time?
DOF = n = 2bT = degrees of freedom, b=
bandwidth, T = Averaging time, t = sample
time for one block= 1/b.
z T = sample time * N (number of block
averages)
z n = 2bT = 2/t*T= 2/t* N t = 2N
z DOF = 2N( number of block averages.)
z

## A Better Way: Synchronous Averaging.

Averages out random noise signals!

PERSON- MOUNTING-POSITION

## Some Interesting Highlights

Reference:
EPRI- Electric Power Research Institute
VIBRATION SENSOR MOUNTING GUIDE
Prepared by:
CSI, Knoxville, TN 1991

EPRI GUIDE
40%

## VARIATION WITH PERSON- FIVE PEOPLE MANUALLY

HOLDING ACCEL IN POSITION # 0
EPRI- Electric Power Research Institute
VIBRATION SENSOR MOUNTING GUIDE (CSI)

BELOW 30 HZ = 60%

+/- 10%

EPRI GUIDE

## PERCENT VARIATION- SEVEN PEOPLE AT SAME POINT

VS. FREQUENCY- HAND PROBE WITH 2 STINGER

Peak?

EPRI GUIDE

Useful Range

300 %

Pressure
HAND PROBE 2 STINGER %PERCENT DEVIATION AT
HIGH FREQUENCY

EPRI GUIDE

7:1
Negative side

Frequency

400Hz

## LEVEL VS. POSITION AROUND BEARING

AT LOW FREQUENCIES

ERROR SOURCE

SIGNAL CLIPPING !

## SENSOR SYSTEM REVISITED

Dynamic Range? Maximum g w/o clipping. (Not Damage!)
Power
supply

0 Vdc
24 Vdc

<

<
>

<
>

>

Accel.

Vibration
Signal>

12 +/- 2 Vdc
Bias Level

8

DYNAMIC RANGE
z
z

## Dynamic Range= max peak voltage w/o clipping

3 x rms band limited noise floor.
Factors:
>Bias level determines +/- allowable voltage swing.
> Bias level varies +/- around 10volts.
> Rms noise is random with 3 sigma peaks
> Noise varies as bandwidth.
> Power supply allows uniform +/- voltage swing.
> Sensitivity 10, 100, 250, or 500 mV/g?

15
10

10

w/ 24v
supply +/10 VOLT
LIMIT

14 volt
bias

Note:

-5

10 volt peak =
100 g 100mv/g

-10

10 g- 1volt/g

-15

2 g 5volt/g
1g 10volt/g

-10 -5

0 +5 +10

Most
power now
+/- 12 volts

## Input Voltage Swing from Accelerometer

Crystal Assuming Power Supply at 24V
But Bias level at 14 volts.

Bias +/- 2v

Also Remember!
z

Time Domain

100
g 80
A

sec
peak

## Peak values can

be
many times higher
than single
spectral
Spectrum
A
components in
The Frequency w/10 g
bins.

Domain

100 G

Time

20 G MAX

Frequency
46

CL[P

BIAS
VOLT

CL[P

z

z The

## FFT of a square wave consists of the

fundamental frequency and all odd
harmonics.

Accel

1 3 5 7 9 11 13
Frequency
50

SENSOR - Clipping
z

Sensor Sensitivity !
z 10,

mV/g?

g LEVEL X SENS
Supply voltage
normally 24 VDC
10-12

Dynamic Range

volts

Bias Voltage
12 VDC nominal

45

Clipping
causes DC
offsets!

## Clipping shifts ref up

causing DC component.

Zero ref.

T = RC
T =1/6.28fL
Low
frequency
corner 3 Hz
T=0.05 sec.

DC

SHIFT

Power
supply

## Off set looks like low frequency and

takes RC to settle down.

1/6.28RC= fL

Where:
R= input z
C= capacity of xstal
fL = Low frequency corner

Time
Cause of ski slope - low frequency noise?

z

Volts

Time (seconds)

## What effect will this produce?

Low Frequency Noise and sum/ difference frequencies.!
47

z

z The

## FFT of a square wave consists of the

fundamental frequency and all odd
harmonics.

Accel

1 3 5 7 9 11 13
Frequency
50

AMPLITUDE

FREQUENCY

AMPLITUDE

F1 + F2 F1 F2
F1+F3

F1- F3

F2 +F3 F2 F3

by Clipping

## Erratic Data - other places to look!

z

Clipping !
Look for g levels beyond the dynamic
range of the sensor. There may be clipping beyond
the frequency range being viewed.

Accel

Normal range
of interest.

Frequency

F max
51

Most Common!
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

## Noise -Integration-Low Frequency

Clipping-bouncy-bias Instability-odd harmonicsclipping beyond analysis frequency
Low frequency-high pass filter-integration-turnon time.
1/rev-Base Strain-Cable Sensitivity, increase
resolution.
60 Hz noise-Loss of Isolation-ground loop!
Signal loss-check bias voltage
Change resolution-If amplitude changes it is
Random noise and not a discrete frequency.
55

ERROR SOURCE

VOLTAGE SWING

## Gain change due to

slew rate limiting!

IDEAL

Slew limited.

## Slew Limiting causes reduction in high

frequency gain and peaky signal!

+ 8V

signal burst!

## SLEWING RATE INCREASES WITH FREQUENCY

REQUIRED CURRENT = I = C de/dt
SR = 6.28 frequency Emax

Slew Rate

## Slewing Rate example

g
Frequency
Sensitivity
Emax
Slew Rate

100
10,000 Hz
100mv/g
0.1 VOLTS/g
= 0.1 x 100 = 10 volts
6,28 x freq. X Emax
6.28 x 10,000(10
x 10
VOLTS)
628,000 volts/sec
0.628volts / micro- sec

## Power Supply Current Required

I = C de/dt
Where:
I = current C= capacitance =15pf/ft
de/dt = Slew Rate .628V/ u-sec
I = 1000(15 x 10 - 12) .638 V/10 -6
I = 9ma

## CABLE LENGTH @ CURRENT

@ 10kHz-15pfd/ft-5volts
Approximate cc power supply current:
z 0.6 ma 125 ft.
z 1.2 ma 250 ft.
z 2.4ma 500 ft.
z 4.8 ma 1000 ft.
z 9.6 ma 2000 ft.

## Sensor High -Low Frequency

Measurements?
z

STRANGE SIGNALS ?
z
z
z

## BELOW 500 RPMLF NOISE, FLOOR/MOUNTING

AROUND 60 Hz (1x) GROUND NOISE/STRAIN!
ABOVE 5/10 kHz- MOUNTING, CLIPPING,
VFD, OR GEAR MESH !

Accel.
Output
Volts

+5%

+5%

-5%

-5%

## Usable Frequency Range

Frequency
fn

40

Error Sources!
Measuring Shock or
Transient Impulse with
accelerometer.

Impact response

To avoid
accelerometer ringing
in an impact test:
fn > 10/T & flp =0.5 fn
Where: fn is mounted resonance.

## Shock & Vibration Handbook 3rd Edition

Eller & Whittier
Endevco Corp. Chap. 12

## Shock & Vibration Handbook 3rd Edition

Eller & Whittier
Endevco Corp. Chap. 12

Droop Error!

Droop error

## To avoid low frequency error and zero shift:

Amplitude error
Actual impact input.
Measured impact.

Zero shift

## Low frequency response < 0.008/T

Where: T = pulse duration.

## Shock & Vibration Handbook 3rd Edition

Eller & Whittier
Endevco Corp. Chap. 12

## Key Items to Observe for Impact

To minimize Amplitude Errors &
Undershoot
Low Frequency Corner < .008/ T[Pulse
duration.]
Ex. T=0.2 sec. Low corner =0.04 Hz.
z To minimize Ringing
Resonance Fn must be > 10/T and
Low Pass Filter less than 0.5 Fn
Ex. T= 1millisec, Fn => 10 kHz.
z

GETTING USEFUL
INFORMATION
FROM YOUR
ACCELEROMETER?
[See session on
Bearing Lifeguard tm
Multiple Discriminant Analysis.]

SAMPLE

\$2,200

Est Avoided
Cost =\$22,000

MACHINES

MAIN CAMPUS
LIFE FACTOR
DISTRIBUTION
144 MACHINES

HAVE REDUCED
BEARING LIFE!

35
30
25

L-FACTOR

20

AHU
PUMPS
MOTORS

15
10
5

ILLUSTRATION

100

75

50

25

FAIL

## CHANGE IN EXPECTED BEARING LIFE

WITH CHANGE IN MACHINE SPEED

% L 10

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

WB,K2

1080

2
1800

3
3600 RPM

DISTRIBUTION
60
50
MACHINES

40

AHU
PUMPS
MOTORS

30
20
10
0

L-FACTOR

1-3

3-7

7-10

SAMPLE

12
10
8
6
4
2
0JAN

FEB

MAR

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

ILLUSTRATION

Questions?