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Combo with "Chapter 14 Glossary Property Crime" and 1

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Abel and his associates found that men convicted of rape: show high and nearly equal sexual arousal to portrayals of both violent,
nonconsenting sexual acts and nonviolent, consenting sexual acts.
According to clinical studies, _____ may have been an integral part in the development of both normal and deviant sexual
behavior.: sexual fantasy


According to Finkelhor and Araji (1986) which of the following is one of the four explanations for pedophilia: Submission theories


According to Groth, the smallest percentage of rapists (about 5%) fall under what category: Sadistic rape *





According to Shover, all of the following are characteristics of a "good burglar," except: is skilled in the use of violence when
According to the dominant contemporary theories of the etiology of rape: sexual socialization plays a crucial role in sexual assault.
According to the DSM-IV, _____ pedophiles are sexually attracted to children, while _____ pedophiles are sexually attracted to
both children and adults.: exclusive type; nonexclusive type
According to the DSM-IV those individuals who are drawn to children and adults for sexual gratification are diagnosed as
pedophiles: nonexclusive type.
According to the "just world hypothesis": women who are raped deserve it.


According to the text, although myths about rape are changing, college students continue to hold myths about _____ rape:


According to the text, it may be oversimplistic to assume that the primary motive for prostitution is money: T


Alcohol abuse is common in pedophelia: T



anger rape: uses more force than necessary for compliance and engages in a variety of sexual acts that a re particularly degrading or
humiliating to the woman. expresses contempt for the victim through abusive and obscenity laced language.
Attempting to reason with the attacker often reduces physical injury during rape: F
attitudes that support rape: has to do with attitudes about women and rape itself. peer groups involved in violent and degrading and
dominating views of women. views that show men as dominant, controlling, and powerful, whereas women are expected to be
submissive. fantasy and imagination are important. some get aroused by scenes of nonsexual aggression like a man beating a woman
with fists.


Available research on shoplifting indicates that it is: largely due to spontaneous impulses rather than careful planning.


The best predictor that an individual will burglarize is: the person's criminal record.


Boosters (p428): Professional shoplifters.



Briefly describe Green's occupational crime typology, and give an example of a crime following into each category.: Green's
typology covers crimes that are committed through opportunity provided by one's legal occupation. They include organizational,
professional, state-authority, and individual occupational crimes. Organizational crimes are committed by individuals acting on behalf of
their organization or corporation. In these crimes, the organization is the direct benefit. An example is the illegal dumping of hazardous
waste by a major corporation. Professional occupational crimes are committed by people who belong to a profession, such as a physician,
lawyer, or engineer. A therapist who commits rape by fraud is guilty of professional occupational crime. State-authority crime is
committed by individuals vested with public duty, such as politicians, police officers, or correctional officers. The politician who accepts a
bribe is guilty of this category. Finally, individual occupational crimes is a catch-all category to cover a range of crimes committed by
individuals in the realm of their employment. A good example is the secretary who embezzles from an employer or the bank executive
who commits fraud.
Briefly describe the actions taken in the past decade by federal and state lawmakers to protect potential victims from sexual
offenders.: Most legislative changes fall under the general category of registration and notification laws. For example, federal and state
laws require classify sex offenders into levels or tiers and require them to register with law enforcement officials after conviction or after
release from prison. The length of the registration period (e.g., every year for five years or every year for life) varies with the seriousness
level of the offender's crime. Lists of registered sex offenders are now widely available on the Internet. When a sex offenders moves into
an area, notification provisions vary according to the seriousness of the offender's crime. In some cases, active notification of persons in
the neighborhood are required, while in other cases law enforcement notifies certain institutions, such as schools and day care centers.
In addition to registration and notification, ordinances in some communities restrict where sex offenders live or limit the number of
offenders who can reside in an apartment building. All of these laws are controversial, and some scholars argue that they violate rights or
give a false confidence to the community.


Burglaries are more likely to occur in January and February, after the holidays: F


Burglaries are most likely to involve: private residences.


The burglar that engages in destructive, malicious vandalism during the break-in is referred to as the _____ burglar.: feral threat


Burglary (p408): The unlawful entry of a structure, with or without force, with intent to commit a felony or theft.


Carjacking most commonly occurs in rural, isolated areas: F


Carjacking (p419): The completed or attempted theft in which a motor vehicle is taken by force or threat or force














The category of sexual aggression in which the offender becomes sexually aroused by physical or psychological brutality is
called: expressive sexual aggression
Choose any two crimes covered in this chapter, and briefly discuss them from the perspective of the psychological effects on
their victims.: Burglary is not a violent crime, but it may have a major psychological effect on its victims, who know that their personal
space was invaded. This is particularly the case if the burglar was "expressive," such as by damaging property or leaving puzzles or
riddles. Victims of burglary report sleeplessness, fear of being in their homes alone, or of re-entering their homes at the end of the
day./White-collar offenses as a group may have major psychological effects on their victims. This may be especially true of those that
involved a violation of trust, such as a public official or an employee who embezzles from a kindly employer. White collar offenses such as
bank fraud or investment scams may deplete victims of life savings and cause severe hardship as well as emotional stress.
cognitive perceptual distortions in communication: lead to misconceptions of women's verbal and nonverbal communications. some
men perceive friendly behavior as seductive and assertive behavior as hostile
Cognitive Scripts (411): Mental images of how one feels he or she should act in a variety of situations.
compensatory rapists: rape in response to intense sexual arousal initiated by stimuli in the environment, often quite specific stimuli.
aggression isn't a significant feature, the motivation is a desire to rove sexual prowess and adequacy. tend to be passive, withdrawn, and
socially inept. rapes in an effort to compensate for inadequacy
A concept that refers to the perceived discrepancy between what an individual has and what he or she would like to have is
called: relative deprivation.
Corporate crime (p434): Any criminal offense committed by officers or employees in which the corporation benefits.
Current research suggests that_____ of child molestation offenses (known and unknown) may be committed by adolescents.: 30
to 40%
date rape: up to 1/3 of young adults have reported an abusive dating incident. refers specifically to a sexual assault that occurs within
the context of a dating relationship. children, college students, persons with disabilities, and incarcerated individuals are the most
vulnerable. the rate is underestimated.
Define and provide examples of rape myths.: Although some recent research suggests that rape myths are disappearing, particularly
among the young, there is still evidence that they exist. Rape myths are wrongly held beliefs about the crime of rape and its victims. Some
examples of rape myths are the following: women really want to be raped; it's impossible to rape someone who doesn't want to be raped;
rape does not hurt, particularly if the victim is sexually active; men cannot control their sexual urges, therefore women must take
responsibility for leading men on; women who dress provocatively or hang out in bars are asking for it.
Define expressive burglars and describe each type of burglary associated with the term: Expressive burglars are those for whom
the challenge of committing the crime and the satisfaction derived from it are as important as the obtaining of goods. In interviews with
burglars, Walsh found three types of expressive burglars: the feral threat, the riddlesmith, and the dominator. The feral threat burglar
got satisfaction from doing great damage to the property in the process of burglarizing, such as slashing clothing or vandalizing cars. The
riddlesmith set up puzzles or booby traps for the victims, such as writing strange words on mirrors or nailing a drawer shut. The
dominator sought to frighten victims, and therefore might break into a home while someone was sleeping, but would escape before
confronting the victims.
Define kleptomania and describe the empirical support for the phenomenon.: Kleptomania refers to an irresistible impulse to steal
unneeded objects. It is often associated with shoplifting, but it would also occur in other contexts, such as stealing from a neighbor's
purse. According to the DSM, the person experiences increased tension before stealing and feels pleasure or relief once the crime is
committed. There is very little empirical support for this phenomenon, and if it does exist it is believed to be very rare. Although
apprehended shoplifters may say they did it for the thrill or the challenge, there is scant evidence of a compulsion or irresistible impulse
to steal.
Define larceny and burglary. How are they different from each other: Larceny, often called larceny/theft, is the unlawful taking of
property from the possession of another without force or the threat of force. It covers a very broad range of offenses, including
shoplifting, pickpocketing, and stealing money from an office mate's purse. Burglary is the unlawful entry into a structure for the
purpose of committing a crime, such as taking electronic equipment. Both are nonviolent offenses, but the essential difference is that
burglary involves the breaking in or unauthorized entry onto property.
Define partialism and paraphilia.: Paraphilia is a broad term that consists of recurrent, sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors
involving nonhuman objects, humiliation of oneself or partner or with children or other nonconsenting persons, that occur over a period
of at least 6 months. Partialism refers to a sexual interest in a body part not commonly associated with sexual arousal.
Dehumanization (p407): To engage in actions that obscure the identity of the victim, such as excessive facial battery, or to see and treat
victims like objects rather than human beings









Describe four common attributions used by rapists to justify their sexual behavior.: The uncontrollable impulse attribution
suggests that a sex drive is so intense that the individual is powerless over his behavior. Mental illness attribution suggests that the
individual has a deep-rooted mental disorder or aberration, is sick, and is in need of help. It is a "disease model" of sexual behavior. Drug
attribution is a third belief; in this, the individual argues that he was under the influence of alcohol or illegal drugs that had a disinhibiting
effect on his behavior. In victim attribution, the offender argues that the rape was the fault of the victim, who provoked him, led him on,
or let things get out of hand.
displaced aggression rapists: are primarily violent and aggressive in their attack, displaying minimal or total absence of sexual feeling.
use rape to harm and degrade women.
must have presence of a high degree of
1. nonsexualized aggression or rage expressed either through verbal and/or physical assault that clearly exceed what is necessary to
force compliance of the victim
2. clear evidence, in verbalization or behavior, of the intent to demean, degrade, or humiliate the victim
3. no evidence that the aggressive behavior is eroticized or that sexual pleasure is derived from injurious acts
4. the injurious acts are not focused on sexual significant body parts
Does pornography play a crucial role in sex crimes against women and children: It appears from the research that pornography
that is violent and/or degrading has a strong negative influence on some individuals, and therefore plays a role in sex crimes. "Soft
pornography," that is neither violent nor degrading does not have this influence. In addition, child pornography, depicting sexually
explicit images of actual children, is both illegal and is believed to affect child sex offenders.
Donna Vandiver and Glen Ketcher have proposed a clinically useful typology of female sex offenders. How many categories did
they identify?: six
The essential difference between the two categories of white collar crime, occupational crime and corporate crime is: whether
an individual or the corporation benefits.
Evocative therapy is a treatment approach for sex offenders that focuses on: helping offenders understand their motivations for
sexual behavior. increasing their empathy for their victims.
Expressive burglars (p416): Burglars who take considerable pride in developing ingenious techniques and skills for successful burglary.
expressive sexual aggression: offender's primary aim is to harm the victim physically as well as psychologically. the aggression is
The FBI classified burglary into three categories. Which of the following is not one of them: Unlawful entry where a lock was


Female adolescents with persistent antisocial behavior have often experienced child sexual abuse: T


Fence (p414): An individual who accepts stolen goods and resells them.


Fetishism is not a criminal offense: T


forcible rape: carnal knowledge of a female forcibly against her will. force is presumed even if victim doesn't resist.



Give some examples of crimes against the public order.: Crimes against the public order include crimes such as public intoxication,
disturbing the peace, shouting obscenities, and loitering. In some jurisdictions prostitution is considered a crime against the public order.
They are crimes that are considered offensive to the public and that threaten good order in the community. They are generally
considered minor offenses and rarely involve jail time, although suspects may be held overnight.
global risk recognition failure: womena re aware of the prevalence of sexual assault, but they believe they are at a significantly lower
risk to be victimized than their peers


Good burglar (p415): Refers to the burglar who demonstrates technical skill and overall competence in burglarizing.


Green's concept of occupational crime would include all of the following except: No answer is correct.


Groth identifies two major types of pedophiles. They are: aggressive and nonaggressive offenders.


The Groth rape typology is similar to the original MTC typology, except that Groth: emphasizes the motives for the rape.




groth typology: based on presumed motivations and aims that underlie almost all rapes. divides rape behavior into three categories:
anger rape, power rape, sadistic rape.
Hebephilia is a distinct, diagnostic category of pedophilia: F
How did Groth classify rapists: Be sure to describe all of his classifications.?Groth classified rapists based on their motivations, and he
believed that the motivation was never only sexual. He offers three categories. In anger rape, the offender is motivated by contempt for
women or the victim, often prompted by a previous conflict with that individual or with other women. He engages in acts that will
degrade or humiliate the victim. In power rape, the offender wants to establish control over the victim and will use only the amount of
force necessary to have her submit. In sadistic rape, the offender has both sexual and aggressive motivations. He is aroused by his
victim's distress and torment, and his crime often involves bondage, torture, or other forms of injury.
Identity theft (p420): The fraudulent use of another person's personal identification information--such as social security number, date
of birth, or mother's maiden name--without that person's knowledge or permission.





impact on victims: more likely to develop psychological problems

impulsive/exploitative rapist: neither strong sexual nor aggressive features. engage in spontaneous rape when opportunity is
presented such as during another crime. minimum rape violence or sexual feeling.
must beg callous indifference to welfare and comfort of victim, and presence of no more force than is necessary to gain compliance of the
In addition to the other negative effects of victimization, victims of fraud and identity theft are most likely to experience:
feelings of self-blame.
Individual occupational Crime (p432): Employee theft.
The individual who had a normal adolescence and heterosexual experiences but then later develops feelings of sexual
inadequacy and seeks the frequent companionship of children is called (according to the MTC) the: regressed pedophile*
In Finkelhor's explanations for pedophilia, blockage refers to: factors preventing the offender from meeting his needs.
influence of porn: up for debate. Seto et al. - no causal link between porn and sexual aggression.
donnerstein three factors 1. level of arousal elicited by pornographic films
2. level of aggressive content
3. the reactions of victims portrayed in these films and photographs


In Groth's typology, the MO that is characterized by threat of harm or use of physical force is: fixated.


In Moore's study of 300 convicted shoplifters, over half were designated as: amateurs.


instrumental sexual aggression: sexual offender uses just enough coercion to gain compliance from his victim


In the revised scheme, the primary motivations are sometimes subdivided according to: social competence.




In what major way does a fixated pedophile differ from a regressed pedophile: A fixated pedophile has a long history of preferring
children, both sexually and socially. He feels more comfortable with children and has inadequate adult relationships. The regressed
pedophile had a relatively normal adolescence and social relationships but later developed feelings of masculine inadequacy. Factors
such as divorce, alcohol abuse and unstable work history are common.
_____ is the term used by the FBI in the gathering of crime reporting and arrest statistics for Part I crimes.: Forcible rape
_____ is the type of child molestation most commonly perpetrated by men who molest their daughters or stepdaughters.:
It appears that the primary motivation behind prostitution is: the financial reward.
juvenile sex offenders: who rape and sexually assault frequently engage in a wide range of other criminal and antisocial but nonsexual
behaviors.this is also typical of adult sex offenders. after release from jail they are more likely to get arrested for a nonsexual crime.
paternal abandonment is a strong risk factor for recidivation. juvenile sex offenders show high levels of sexual arousal toward children
and depictions of coerced sexual assaults on peers and adults.


Kleptomania: has not been strongly substantiated by the available research.


Kleptomania (p429): The irresistible urge to steal unneeded objects. Whether there is such an urge is highly questionable.







knight and sims-knight three-path model: three personality traits define the three paths that lead to sexually violent behavior
1. sexual drive/preoccupation
2. anti social behavior
3. callousness/unemotionality
three traits are strengthened by physical/verbal/sexual childhood abuse. sexual offenders are far more callous and unemotional than
other offenders.
verbal/physical abuse provides a model to amplify aggressive behavior who sensation seek and act out impulsively. resembles life course
persistent path
childhood sexual abuse is third path - sexual preoccupation, sexual compulsivity, hypersexuality, aggressive sexual fantasies
List four demographic characteristics of pedophiles.: Pedophiles tend to be older, have a high rate of high school failure and
dropout, unstable work histories, and come from low socioeconomic class.
List some of the justifications that pedophiles use for their sexual behavior.: Emotional congruence, sexual arousal, blockage and
The Los Angeles Epidemiological Catchment Area found that about _____ percent of the individuals interviewed had been
victims of sexual assault during their lifetimes.: 13
Many mental health clinicians do not consider sex offenders to be clinically mentally disordered: T
Many psychologists believe the most effective treatment methods with sexual offenders are those that follow the principles of
risk, need, and responsivity: T
marital rape: more preferred term, sexual partner violence


Martin, Taft, and Resick (2007) estimate that 10-14% of _____ have experienced rape.: married women
massachusetts treatment center classification system: four major categories of rapists:
1. displaced aggression
2. compensatory
3. sexual aggressive
4. impulsive rapists
includes subcategories


MDSO stands for: mentally disordered sex offender


Most adolescent sex offenders have a diagnosed mental disorder: F


Most adult rapists: subscribe to attitudes and ideology that encourage men to dominate and control women.


The most common Part I property crime is: larceny-theft.


The most common type of pedophilia appears to be: adult males against young girls.


Most estimates of the distribution of pedophiles in the general population are derived from: arrest data. prison data.


Most exhibitionists rarely expose themselves more than once to the same victim: T


Most individuals diagnosed with pedophilia commit myriad crimes against children: F


Most rapists are between 35-45 years old: F


The MTC:CM3 has four categories and twelve subcategories: F

MTC:R3: rough framework for conceptualizing and simplifying the behaviors and motives involved in rape. finds that rape offenders
can be in four major types with nine subtypes. the basic four are displaced aggression, sexual gratification, sexual aggressive, impulsive.
does not predict validity in criminal profiling



Much of sex trafficking is international: T


Near-repeat Crimes (p415): Tendency of burglars to burglarize homes near homes that they have burglarized successfully in the past.

Occupational crime (p432): (1) Any one of a variety of offenses committed by an individual through opportunity created by his or her
occupation; see also, Green's four categories of Individual, organizational, professional, and state-authority occupational crime. (2) The
second category of white-collar crime (along with corporate) that refers to crimes committed by individuals for their own benefit.


offender factors - age: most are young. prepubescent children may commit sexual offenses at a rate much higher than commonly
supposed - most victims are siblings friends or acquaintances



Of the following offenders, which are most likely to carefully select their targets and their victims: burglars

Of the following treatment approaches, which has shown the most promise in the overall treatment of sexual offenders?:
relapse prevention


Of the four strategies of resistance to rape, which generally leads to an increased probability or rape completion and has no
effect in reducing physical injury: Nonforceful verbal resistance


opportunistic type: similar to impulsive rapist. fantasies appear to be impulsive and are not driven by sexual fantasy or explicit anger
at women. can be divided based on social competence. type 1 offenders are higher in social competence and first exhibited impulsive
sexual tendencies as adults. type 2 are lower in competence and first demonstrated impulsive sexual actions during adolescence.


Organizational occupation crime (p432): Crime committed by upper level employees or directors of an organization for the benefit of
the organization.



The original MTC had five major classifications and ten subtypes: F

Outline the pedophile typologies of the MTC and the Groth system. Which is better supported by the research literature: The
MTC classifies pedophiles as (1) the fixated type, (2) the regressed type, (3) the exploitative type, and (4) the aggressive or sadistic type.
The typology was then revised to include the following changes: (1) Divide the regressed and fixated types into three separate factors
degree of fixation on children, the level of social competence achieved, and the amount of contact an offender has with children, (2)
incorporate into the scheme a new narcissistic offender type, and (3) partition the violence of the sexual assault into physical injury and
sadistic components Groth classifies offenders as immature-fixated child offender and regressed child offender. He futher divided child
offenders according to intention-sex pressure and sex force offenders. Sex force are futher divided into exploitative and sadistic type.
The MTC is better supported in the research literature.



The overwhelming majority of exhibitionists prefer strangers for victims: T

Past behavior through which the actor recasts activities in a manner consistent with "what should have been," rather than
"what was," is referred to by Cromwell et al. as: rational reconstruction.



The pedophile most likely to kill his victims would be the: aggressive


A person who knowingly buys stolen merchandise for the purpose of resale has been traditionally called the: fence

pervasive anger type: similar to displaced aggression rapists but with difference that his generalized anger pervades all areas of life. not
simply directed at women but at everyone. inflict high levels of physical injury on victims.


physical injury of rape: receive more physical and psychological trauma from husbands than by strangers. serious depression,
extensive fears, problems of sexual adjustment


power rape: seeks to establish power and control over his victim. amount of force and threat depends on the degree of submission
shown by the victim. his goal is sexual conquest and he will try and overcome any resistance. Most are power rapists.


Professional Occupational crime (p432: Illegal behavior committed by professional individuals (e.g., lawyers, doctors, engineers)as
part of their occupation.



Property crimes often involve physical aggression: F


Prostitution, gambling, vagrancy, disorderly conduct, public drunkenness, and drug use are: crimes against the public order


Prostitution is illegal in all states except: Nevada.

The psychological distance between what people perceive they have now and what they feel they can realistically attain is
referred to as relative deprivation: T



psychological effects on victim: make up the largest proportion of ptsd sufferers

rape by fraud: having sexual relations with a consenting adult female under fraudulent conditions, psychotherapist who has sexual
intercourse with a patient under guise of offering treatment



Rape is widely believed to be the most underreported crime: T

rape myths: attitudes and believes that are generally false but widely believed and deny and justify male sexual aggression against
women. false believes that women must be dominated and coerced into sexual activity.


The rapist motivated by anger-retaliation in the MTCR3 is similar to the ____ type described in the original MTC.: Displacedaggression



Recent research indicates that _____ percent of all software installed on computers in 2006 were pirated versions.: 35

Recent research on pedophilia indicates all of the following, except: female offenders are almost never (less than .05 percent)
involved in child molestation cases.



Recent research on pedophilia suggests: A vast majority of pedophiles do not kill or physically harm their victims.


Recent statistics suggest that about _____ percent of all forcible rapes are committed by husbands or dates.: 40

Relative deprivation (p408): A concept developed by Gresham Sykes for explaining economic crime. It refers to the perceived
discrepancy between what an individual has and what he or she would like to have. It is a condition that is especially prominent when
people of wealth and people of poverty live in close proximity.



Repeat burglary (p415): Refers to the observation that some burglars burglarize the same place repeatedly.


Research by Bennett and Wright found that: almost all burglaries are planned.


Research by Goldstein suggests that most rapists: have pervasive preoccupations with sexual matters.

Research by Merry and Hansent found that the psychological impact of burglary for victims is especially severe if the invasion
involves: all of the above.



Research by Scully and Marolla found that most "admitters": saw themselves as nice guys.

Research by Scully and Marolla on deniers and admitters found five major themes running through deniers' explanations for
their rape behavior. Which one of the following was not one of them: Attractive women are more seductive in their behavior than
unattractive women.



Research indicates that most street prostitutes: have been raped or physically assaulted in their work.


Research on rape reveals that, in general, men who rape: none of the above.


Research on the victims of pedophiles indicates that: sexual abuse produces long-term psychological problems in many children.


Research shows that a major motivation for rape is to: harm or derogate the victim.


Risk factors - age: most rapes occur for people between 11 and 24. 2/3 are 17 or younger

risk factors - alcohol: plays major role in both incapacitated and coerced sexual assaults. a large number occur at a party. alcohol also
disrupts the offenders decision making. it is believed to increase level of violence for both rapists and child molesters



risk factors - history of victimization: unexplained reasons.

risk factors - relationship factors: most of rapists of adult victims are intimate partners, not strangers. most common ways is by verbal
persuasion, alcohol, drugs. occur most frequently in males apartment room , then female apartment


risk factors - risk taking behaviors: accepting rides with strangers, heavy drinking, hitchhiking. mostly at time of high school
graduation and freshman year first semester. having many prior sex partners


sadistic rape: both sexual and aggressive components. the aggression is eroticied. experiences sexual arousal and excitement in the
victim's maltreatment, torment, distress, helplessness and suffering.



Sex offenders are a homogenous group, markedly similar in age, race and socioeconomic status: F

The sexual-addiction approach to explaining offending is an example of a(n) _____ assumption about why men rape.: irresistible
impulse, DISEASE


sexual aggressive/sadistic rapists: sexual and aggressive features seem to coexist at equal or near equal levels. to experience sexual
arousal, it must be associated with violence and pain. are often married but have multiple marriages, separations and divorces.
the offender needs to demonstrate a level of aggression or violence that clearly exceeds what is necessary to force compliance of th
evictim, and the explicit unambiguous evidence that aggression is sexually exciting to him



Sexual attraction to inanimate objects is referred to as: fetishism.


Sexual contact with immature family members by individuals from outside the family is called: extrafamilial child molestation.


A sexual disorder in which unusual or bizarre fantasies or behavior are necessary for sexual excitement is called: paraphilia.

sexual gratification: motivations characterized four subtypes of rapists and subdivided into overt and muted types. nonsadistic sexual
rapists are subdivided by social competence



Shop lifting by proxy (p427): A person having someone else shiplift items for him or her.


Shoplifting is an underreported crime: T


Shoplifting is primarily committed by females: F


Shoplifting (p423): A form of larceny-theft, is a frequent and costly type of crime.


Snitches (p428): Amateur shoplifters.


specific risk failure: some women do not recognize that the situation poses a threat. alcohol is usually the culprit.

The standards, perceptions, and values the work group establishes for itself with or without approval by the organization is
referred to as: normative support.



State-authority Occupational crime p432: Refers to a wide range of law violations by persons imbued with legal authority.

statutory rape: carnal knowledgeo f a girl under the age of consent, the age at which individuals are considered competent to give
consent to sexual behavior. exclusive to intercourse.



Subversion techniques are often used by prostitutes to convince themselves that their behavior was not truly criminal: F


Techniques of neutralization (p425): Mental process involved in justifying illegal behavior to oneself and others.


The term pedophilia is from the: Greek word for child lover.


The terms sexually violent predator and sexual psychopath are synonymous: T


There is a direct causal relationship between pornography and sexual aggression: F


Two thirds of burglary cases involve commercial establishments: F


The UCR includes statutory rape in its statistical data of rape if: the girl is underage and force is used.


The United States has the highest reported incidence of rape in the world: T


Victimization data indicate that approximately ____ of rapes go unreported.: 2/3

vindictive offenders: characterized by anger directed exclusively at women. these types are similar to the displaced aggressive type
described in original mtc. intended to harm women physically as well as degrade an humiliate her.


What are the major differences between extrafamilial pedophiles and intrafamilial pedophiles: Extrafamilial pedophiles have
sexual contact with a minor outside the immediate family. Intrafamilial pedophiles have sexual contact with a minor within the immediate


What is date rape, and what is the estimated incidence: Date rape, also called acquaintance rape, is sexual assault that occurs
during a date or other social occasion. It is nonconsensual intercourse that may be, but is not necessarily, facilitated by alcohol or the
ingestion of drugs specifically intended to disable the victim. It is a controversial topic; victims are more likely to blame themselves for the
rape than they would in the case of a stranger rape. Furthermore, the alleged rapist's main defense is typically that the victim consented.
It is believed that many if not most victims of date rape do not report the incident because they fear ridicule, repercussions, or that they
will not be believed.


What is meant by the term rational reconstruction: Rational reconstruction was a term used by Cromwell and associates in their
study of burglars. Burglars interviewed in prison looked back on their offenses and reinterpreted them in a way that described what
made sense to them, not necessarily what really did occur. A good example would be recalling that they had planned the offense
carefully (when evidence indicated that it was spontaneous) or that burglary victims made it easy for them by hiding a key in an obvious
place, which suggests that the victims was to blame.


What is the just-world hypothesis, and how might it enter into sexual assault: The just world hypothesis was proposed by Lerner,
who identified individuals who believe people get what they deserve: good things happen to good people and bad things happen to
bad people. A person who is a "just worlder" is likely to believe that others bring misfortune upon themselves. Therefore, a crime victim
may have done something to provoke the assault or the victimization. Researchers have found that "just worlders" tend to be socially
conservative and authoritarian in their thinking. Thus, they are more likely than non-just-worlders to believe that the victim of a sexual
assault was at fault. Similarly, the rapist who is a "just worlder" probably believes the victim lead him on, really wanted to be rape, or
otherwise deserved the attack.


What prostitution-related phenomenon has been receiving increasing attention in recent years and is often associated with a
number of additional illicit activities?: human trafficing


What three treatment principles are represented in the acronym RNR Briefly define each.: Risk: Treatment that targets the
offender who is likely to reoffend/Need: Treatment that targets characteristics related to reoffending/Responsivity: Treatment that is
matched to the offenders learning styles and abilities


When a person gains sexual arousal from observing unsuspecting people who are nude, or in the act of undressing, or engaging
in sexual activity, it is referred to as: voyerism


When a person obtains sexual arousal form contact with a body part of the sexual partner other than the usual erotic areas, it
is called a: partialism.



When juvenile females sexually offend, it is usually against a female child 10 years younger than themselves: F

When pedophile offenders claims that poor impulse control, excessive use of alcohol and drugs, and an assortment of stressors
in his life lead him to sexually molest children, he is using what theory of pedophilia?: Disinhibition theory


When someone shoplifts for someone else because that person asked or demanded them to shoplift, it is called: shoplifting by


Which of the following factors does not appear to be a determining factor in whether a person is arrested for shoplifting: The
gender of the shoplifter



Which of the following individuals first used the term "white collar crime?": Edwin Sutherland


Which of the following is a category of cues used by burglars: layoutcues

Which of the following is an example of rape by fraud: A therapist having sexual relations with a consenting patient under the guise
of effective treatment


Which of the following is not a provision of the Adam Walsh Child Protection Act: Tier 1 and Tier 2 must update their location
every three months for 3 years



Which of the following is not considered a type of larceny/theft in the UCR: Softlifting

Which of the following is not one of the four primary motivations of rapists outlined in the revised MTCR3 classification
scheme: Pervasive hatred



Which of the following is not one of the popular assumption about why men rape: Misogyny, or hatred of women


Which of the following is not part of the revised MTC child molester classification scheme: No answer is correct.


Which of the following is one of Groth's three categories of rape: Anger rape


Which of the following statements is/are correct?: All the above are correct.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes exhibitionists: They are frequently plagued by mental



Which statement most accurately describes male rape: Male rape survivors are as traumatized by rape as female survivors.


While fetishism is not itself a criminal offense, the desire for fetishes often leads to: rape.

White collar crime (p431): A broad term, coined in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland, that refers to illegal acts committed by those of high
social status in the process of their employment. Contemporary definitions often divide it into corporate crime and individual or
occupational crime. See also Occupational crime.


who offends?: past learning experiences, cognitive expectations and believes, conditioning, environmental stimuli, and reinforcement
contingencies. studies show that they are shy and socially inhibited.