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NASA/CR-2001-211032

Young-Person's
Guide
Simulation
Grids

Philippe

R. Spalart

Boeing

Commercial

July

2001

Airplanes,

Seattle,

Washington

to

Detached-Eddy

The NASA

STI Program

Office

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Information

NASA/CR-2001-211032

Young-Person's
Guide
Simulation
Grids

Philippe
Boeing

National
Space

Detached-Eddy

R. Spalart
Commercial

Aeronautics

Airplanes,

Seattle,

Washington

and

Administration

Langley Research
Center
Hampton,
Virginia 23681-2199

July

to

2001

Prepared
for Langley Research
under Contract
NAS1-97040

Center

Available

from:

NASA Center for AeroSpace


7121 Standard Drive
Hanover,

MD 21076-1320

(301) 621-0390

Information

(CASI)

National

Teclmical

Information

5285 Port Royal Road


Springfield,

VA 22161-2171

(703) 605-6000

Service

(NTIS)

Young-Person's

Guide

Detached-Eddy

to

Simulation
Philippe

Boeing

Grids

R. Spalart

Commercial

Airplanes

Abstract
We give the

"philosophy",

fairly

complete

instructions,

a sketch

and examples of creating Detached-Eddy


Simulation
(DES) grids froin
simple to elaborate,
with a priority on external flows. Although
DES
is not a zonal method,
flow regions with widely
requirements
emerge, and should be accommodated

different
gridding
as far as possible

if a good use of grid points is to be made. This is not unique to DES.


We brush on the time-step
choice, on simple pitfalls, and on tools to
estimate
whether a simulation
is well resolved.

Background

DES

is a recent

form

[1] or in "cousins"

Navier-Stokes

approach,
(RANS)

Reynolds-number
are

narrow

independent

confidence

in DES

al. [4], which

difficulty

flows
The

coding

validation
basis

the more

thoughtful

was applied.

The

and

tended

is already

by, first,

to test
not

but
the

easy,

incorporating

(LES),
user

and

it lacked

RANS
both

groups

and

types

been

have joined

and

best

reason

LES modes
of turbulence

for

of Travin

et

as well as the

0012 paper

or in LES.

base

has

paper

refinement

at high-

experience

of DES,

NACA
grid

aimed

The

cylinder

definition

earlier

in RANS

and

[6, 7, 8].
is the

in its initial

St Petersburg

[1, 4, 5]; several

on a quantitative

encouraging,

DES

either

of Reynolds-Averaged

Simulation

in Renton

years
and

hybrids

[2, 3]. The

team

three

application,

as:

which

al. [5] was also very


Gridding

wide

also gives

policy

grid design,

claims
we define

Large-Eddy

separated

DES for about

provided

gridding

and

as of 2001.

exercising

which
which

of Shur

or even

et

much

of DES separately.

DES

compounds
treatment

the
in the

samefield and, second,being directed at complex geometries.In fact a pureLES grid for theseflows with turbulent boundary layers would be at least
as challenging;fortunately, there is no usefor sucha grid in the near future,
as the simulation would exceedthe current computing power by orders of
magnitude [1].
The target flows are much too complex, no matter how simple the geometry, to provide exact solutions with which to calibrate, or evento allow
experimentssogood that approachingtheir resultsis an unquestionablemeasureof success.The inertial range and the log layer providedvalid tests, but
only of the LES mode. Besides,many sourcesof error are presentin the simulations and may compensateeachother, so that reducing oneerror source
can worsen

the

5 to 10%

final

range.

is meaningful;
beyond

answer.

it is the

these

merical

reasons,

arguments,

answer.

Grid

step

from

in DNS

ties,

therefore

and

spacing.

gridding
rather

the
4%

of disagreements

discrepancy

from

to 1% which

The

in the

say 40%

is difficult

the

tion

with

walls

grid

convergence

to 10%

to establish

ditions).
when

except

conditions

fields

walls

is being

are

(except
we are

involved;

approximated.

measure

we cannot

soundness
The
difficult
appear

grid

of this

or any

guidelines

below

especially

in mind

that

even

the

limit.

We do aim

grid

applies

the

but

defined

filtered

situa-

the

initial

con-

equation

that

that

%he

to A, which
to any
tool

of

of accuracy

statement

is an essential

at

sen-

convergence

an order

the

probably

on the grid

and

obvious

This

refinement

LES

is the

with

wall

to explore

the

approach.
daunting,

The

a single

in 3D. This
approach

produce

con-

quanti-

walls,

closely

proportional

will appear

with

with

nu-

of derivative,

spectra,

to predict

offer

depends

to expect

scale

at first.

the

times

only

numerical

to conceptualize

strong

and

a length

spacing".

Nevertheless,

incompatible

comodate

with

DNS

grid

filtered

(order

without

in the

in a position

We can

of grid

too

for short
not

itself

quantities

than

are

quantity

even

of course

is much

full flow field is filtered,


modeling.

on the

and

to a _right"

or confusing,
variables

Equation

depends

for Reynolds-averaged

In DES,

subtle,

Differential

on physical

of convergence

in LES the

contribution),

is murky

to initial

instantaneous

because

Partial

of sub-grid-scale

sitivity

on demonstrations

of accuracy

inclusion

will be based

in LES is more

or RANS

order

guidelines

than

convergence

vergence

keep

we are thinking

reducing

doubt.

For

DES

Here

Of course,

many

most-desirable

structured

can make
shown

with

features

block,
DES

here

and

regions

and

appear
fully

are
too

that

of these
difficult

are
grids

to ac-

heavy.

We must

implemented

on the

tilt-rotor airfoil below is the most elaborate,andhasevolvedoveryears. Fine


resultshavebeenobtained with simpler grids, howeverthe accuracywasnot
quite as good as the number of points should haveallowed.
Another limitation of this write-up is that automatic grid adaptation is
not discussed.While adaptation holds the future, combining it with LES or
DES is a new field of study. On the other hand, the discussionis not limited
to DES basedon the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) model [9]; the only impact of
using another model could be in the viscousspacingAy+ at the wall (2.3.1)
and

possibly

issues

We note
the

S-A

with

values

could

that

model),

namely

to it, which

pression:

be that

ing it out.
from

the

and

dissipation

Here,

sustains

Spectra

in a more
preferred

"better"

quantitative

The

simulation

that

led

whereas

the

that

fit well with

stable
well

some
(meaning:

LES regions,

LES)

there.

(BL),

and

Section
about

making

MILES

and

essentially
as it stands

discussed

with

here

guidelines,

4 gives

lower

We

terminology,

dif-

may well remain


is physical,

or eddy
in the

MILES

centered

use upwind

(Monotonically

and

attribute

in numerical

which

is ineffective
are not

art,

accuracy

high-order

molecular

MILES

of the

improved

They

im-

of damp-

state

values

stretching,
any

results

improvement

[9].

[5] used
upwind.

vortex

without

them

simulations

2 follows

pitfalls

singular

instabilities)

However,
the

as low as second-order

suppress

as numerical

the

of them

to 0.65

very

a visual

the

to differences

differences,
ferences,

better

instead

the

(for

is not

is largely
cases,

manner

of _Es

dissipation.

ones

had

is the

do illustrate

value

DES

unsteadiness
criterion

constant

CDES

have

In some

of qualitative

in LES.

in the

0.1.

for the

to revisions.
partners

blow-up.
now

kind

generally

variations

or even

(2.3.2).

value

is open
Several

without

simulation
this

edge

"ofi3cial"
0.65,

is favorable.

eddies,

Using

lowered

the

the

as low as 0.25,
smaller

in DES

boundary-layer

in passing

base

sensitive

at the

as

viscosity

in

Integrated
boundary

layer

overall.

comments,

while

3 is

examples.

Guidelines

2.1

Terminology

The

terms

one

by

Departure

Euler

one,

along

Region.

Region,

RANS

with

Viscous

The

first

three

Region,
Region,

and

LES

Outer

can be seen

Region
Region,

as parent-

will be introduced
Focus

Region

or "super-regions",

and

Figure 1: Sketchof flow regionsaround tilt-rotor airfoil in rotor downwash


during hover.
as shown in the Table, but the prefix "super" will be dropped. Figure 1
illustrates four of theseregions;the other ones(viscousregions)are too thin
to sketch. A fully efficient grid for an external flow will be designedwith
theseconceptsin mind, but not all are strict requirements. Regionsare not
distinguishedby different equationsbeing applied, but by different priorities
in the grid spacing.
Super-Region
Euler (ER)

Region

RANS(RR)

Viscous (VR)
Outer (OR)
Viscous (VR)

LES(LR)

Focus
Departure

(FR)
(DR)

2.2

Euler

This

region

vorticity
most

Region
upstream

except

of the

concept

and
but

also applies
isotropic

by geometry

and

shock

be refined,

especially

shocks.

RANS

This

is primarily

assuming
considering

points.

gridding

grid,

shock

the

spacing

for needlessly

into

the

ER,

fine

which

dictated

normal

With

ER

prevail,

spacing

capturing.

covers

The

practices

and that

of unstructured

boundary

layer,

bubbles

practices

typical

grids

would

activate

"natural"

DES

finer

grid

or by

and

to the

structured

grid

spacings

is inefficient.

or multiblock

This

capabilities.

(RR)

separation

gridding

to much

Euler

adapted

regions

advantage

by turbulence,
to infinity

of the

directions,

is a tendency

viscous

the

share

we assume

Region

shallow

three

entered

It extends

calculation.

In an ideal
there

the

is never

a small

in the

but

by taking

2.3
any

spacing

from

is mitigated

also

contains

C grids,

to propagate

sides

by shocks.

to a RANS

with fairly

and

to the

if it is generated

volume,

would

(ER)

including

such

the

as at the

initial

foot

separation

of a shock.

of pure-RANS

calculations.

LES

regions,

in these

applications.

The

VR and

and
We are

Refinement

but

here

OR overlap

we are

in the

log

layer.

2.3.1

Viscous

This
the

region
same

is within
as for

will create
are

the

model,

about

Because

by the
and

Ay+

of this,
5 and
usual

little

region

sense

the

of 1.25
the

shear

first

spacing

Reynolds
be good

of the

step

studies

first

by going
the

and

of the

below

Ay+

wall-normal

does

ratio
by

a first

enough.

spacing

log

is weak

log layer

layer.

(the
not

DES
All

resolved

supply

by the

any

RANS

Ayj+l/Ayj

should

to be accurate

a factor
attempt

stretching
= 1 and

a problem,
can

ratio.
left

be done
However

Ayj+l/Ayj

been

[3].

of 10 requires
at

Refinement

has

are

direction,
and

and

stretching

For

requirements

is as dictated

number

[7].

1.3 should
gained

layer,

rate),

or less for the

layers

the

time-dependence

the

The

and

wall-normal

buffer

= 2 or less for S-A. The

reduction
of our

the

than

stress.

In

sublayer,

that

smaller

increasing

ratio

of a DES,

RANS.

11 to 13 grid

is typically

in most

RANS
viscous

neighborhood

about

y+ _

in the

Reynolds

be in the
adding

the

a full-domain

are much

significant

(VR)

standard

"modeled"

frequencies

very

Region

= 1.2,

unchanged,

and refinement has taken place primarily in the LES region.


In the directionsparallel to the wall, RANS practicesarealsoappropriate.
The spacingscaleswith the steepnessof variations of the geometryandof the
compressibleflow outside,asunder shocks.Thereis little reasonwhy it would
differ from the Euler spacingdiscussedabove,except at surfacesingularities
such as steps, or the trailing edge. The spacingis not constrainedin wall
units: Ax + is unlimited.
Refinement
will be manual
and follow a scrutiny
of
the

solution,

2.3.2

or be adaptive

RANS

The

whole

there

are

modeled

In attached

spacing

makes

wall

features

singular

standard

detectors.

(OR)

with

3D eddies).

wall-parallel

follow

region

BL is treated

(unsteady
the

outer

and

turbulence,

BL's,

the

same

such

with

a structured
requirements

as steps,

no

"LES

grid
across

slots,

content"

is efficient,
the

and

BL (unless

or breaks

in slope

or

curvature).
The

grid

normal

ing, ideally,
sustained
that

viscosity
ations
point
the

has much
are just

0, and

steeper

as steep

physical

merit

ing sure that

is a side-effect

OR

slope

generate

LES

These

regions

simulation

outer

layer

eddy

S-A eddy
is more
the

the

solver

over

Euler
needs

_ than
to tolerate

coneddy

of the BL. These

vari-

from

a physical

way we have to deal with


needs

to that

"feel"

to fall back

with

at the

numerical

Region

tolerates

well, but

needed

viscosity

BL does not

implies
the

viscosity

similar

spacSince

this

profile

quite

is not

the

S-A).

BL edge

robustness
the edge

the

and
slope

the

has

and

no

mak-

grid spacing.

to under-estimate
some,

to

Sharply

it, so that
_/10

bound

discontinuity

is
and

values.

regions
but

(the

to over-estimate

The

negative

2.4

inside
into

velocity

which

k-e is very

concern

extends

exceeded.

in the
wall,

with

BL thickness.

_ log(1.25),

of the only practical

of the

solution

it is safer

often

routinely

break

Ayj/yj
The

practices

8 is the

at the BL edge

interface
with

[10]; the
the

In practice,

gives

variations
the

RANS

where

y = 8/2.

as near

its behavior

the

8/10

1.25 ratio

around

turbulence-freestream

resolving

not

stops

follows

about

to Ay = 81og(1.25)

of view but

near

the

at the

stretching

stretching

wall again

exceeding

stretching

the

tinued

to the

nowhere

will

contain

are

neither

(LR)
vorticity
BL's,

nor

and

turbulence

thin

shear

layers

at

some

along

point
which

in the
the

grid

can be aligned (such as the slat wakeover a high-lift airfoil).


2.4.1

Viscous region (VR)

The requirementsare the sameas in the viscousregion of the RANS region,


2.3.1.

Again,

even

though

this

layer

is within

the

LES

spacing
parallel
to the wall is unlimited
in wall units.
as Ax + = Az + = 8,000 in a channel,
whereas
typical
are of the

2.4.2

order

"focus

setting

region"

(FR),

must

measure

very

not

"can

that

cars

also

be used
some

other

this
comes

inside

the

margin.

than

from

The

If we are

significant
the

noise).

on

condition
Of course,

the

at jet

tasks

much

roughly

the

body?".

point,

up

FR covers

the

the

a particle

with

the

surface

maybe
region
(as may

turbulence,

ending

of two

FR covers

later,

with

the FR with

difference.

in a thorough

at any

spoilers

starts

to extend

a single

system

noise,

all of the

in the mean,

FR is made

DR

quite

estimate

"can

The

well coincide

not make

the ER are the principal


A0.

the

be

with

became

or Kirchhoff

is slender
may

at this

create,

enclose

can

near

they

FR may

to have

FR

as a wing

the

and

a sensible

such

and

A0

In the

more,

points

to very

question

the

If we have

it, the

point

principal

start.

any

we have

looking

These

the separated

can

smoothness.

Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings
far-field

of grid

the

how far downstream

flow region?"

noise,

over

propagate

(DR)

flow reversal

turbulence

to tail.

For this flow, which

setting

this

of interest,

Laterally,

an outflow

the DR and

some

to an important

to mind.

use

in forces

by the

generates

to extract

with

where

quality

(once

be "is there

spoilers

to decide

resolution

regions

prevail

to fig. 1. A0 is the

region"

It is a good

bodies

point

diameters.

a DR or with
the FR,

same

it would
several
from

that

at 30 nozzle
enclosed

the

return

is buffeted

from

region

"departure

two

should

we do not

so we need

the

interested

a particle

roughly,

propagate
the

Now

to do this

that

(DR)

close to the body


again

A0.

primarily

A0

Refer

lie), but

streamtube

race

at

far exceed

are

a tail

wall

We used values as high


limits when they exist

region

in a DES.
and

where

aiming

If we have

whole

is the region

they

more

and

which

in the

by

time?".

spacing

spacings

and

Even

grid

grid

of where
defined

a target

and

will eventually

body,

departure

far downstream,

we are

different

and

resolution

FR extends,

DR,

(FR)

be well resolved.

of spatial

spacing
the

region

by

turbulence

the

of 20 [7].

Focus

We start

region,

Outlining
grid design,

a little

farther

than strictly necessaryfor safety.


The DR may smoothly evolveto spacingssimilar to those of the ER. It is
a beauty and a dangerof DES that it is robust to grid spacingsthat are too
coarsefor accuracy.As the grid coarsens,the DES length scaleJ grows, the
destruction

terms

and

far-field

can

rise

term

subsides,

DR

faster

may

than

becomes

the

is to provide

inviscid
cost.

dynamics,

We return

argument.
allow

The

cubic

the

is away

from

two directions

enough

the

premise

to be products

isotropic.

Then,

There
results

with

a A0, and

to be:

"Any

unsatisfactory

failure

to run

an order
to resolve
the

FR

tures

to cover

tangibly

have
beyond

smaller

than

DES

a geometry,
run

from

107 points

the

in the

Number
author

cost

ratio

gross

so a l_inil_mm
plausible

diameter
we add

running

as opposed

200,000

Rule
to the

DES,

If it is elongated

Once

worth

The

includes

FR,

ER,

RR

future.

finer

well over

DES

argument
that

for

are small

study

contains

1 of DES
is due

between

easiest
the

DR,

100,000
expect

bare

is

is supposed
appear
case

geometry

even

user's

the two runs


LES

in the

appears

to the

of 323 would

or channel

[4, 5, 11] and

spacing

is logical.

figures.

and

to

to be statistically

or if the

of the

to homogeneous

to 2,500,000
near

the

will tend

physical

ideal

expensive

in all directions,

therefore

The

(at times

FR in any

viscosity
scale

The

three

is the formulaic

As a result,

and

reported

and

eddy

in the

the least
This

its

at a modest

spacings

in all directions

A0.

grid").

grid

and

out only eddies

we can provide

spherical.

considerably.

the minimum
is over

A0/2

of scales,

the

cascade,

capability

result
Still,

range

is roughly

increases

is wasted.

on a fine enough

a wide

be required

direction

destruction
be used;

length

of course).

to choose

with

of magnitude.

the

the

spacing

of large-scale

Ay, Az),

minimum

medium-

grid

in terms

grid cells.

of LES is to filter

way

and

could

similar

cubic

(the

DR will not

condition

walls,

resolution

is no unique

in the

is that

same

of the energy

equal

does,

A = max(Ax,

argument

to about

[1]. The

RANS

"neighbor"

very

A0 is to have

numerical

cells is that

results

a decent

an outflow

we have

grows

naturally

to advocate

desired

(this

in one or even

FR,

in DES

the

steepening

statistically

than

viscosity

a quasi-steady

Essentially,

better

Since

eddy

length

the FR with

to the

way to obtain

the
into

mixing

negligible).

function

directions.

and

well turn

has

to

when
fea-

l_inil_mm

it is clear
grid points

that
(this

turbulence).

We

simulations

well

2.5

Grey

There

regions

are intermediate

zones

are not sharp,

but

instance,

an airfoil

Az

over

in the

ER

some

and

between

are, when
we have

DR

all regions.

they

started

blocks

than

Most

correspond
using

in the

often,

the

to block

a larger

RR

spanwise

and

FR

boundaries

boundaries.
grid

blocks,

For
spacing

thus

saving

within

areas

points.
The
that

boundary

between

will never

spacing
and

may

ER

grids

change

or if the

today:

The
from

We are

DR to the
less

the

boundary.

This

is unable

serious
The
has

than

needed

partly
switch

to vary

Content",
take

over

no reason

an ER.

does not flow

the

eddy

goes for any

viscosity
RR-to-DR

Often,
sense

thickness

the

that

(even

to be on the

neglected.

None

grids),

100%

an unsteady

field).

rapidly

as the

been

wake

the

grid

a grid

cut

final position

of these

the

In other

zones

pose

(recall

that

zone
(those

the

the

It means

given

words,
off the

the
freed

by

near
are

point
does

This

the

due
wall.

expecting

arise

BL lacks
the

not

points

and

turbulence

which

RANS
from

below,

very

the

flow

If anything,

design

We

(those

surface.

typical

RR has more

examples

in

spacing

separation

grid

the

is physical.

stresses

the

RR to FR).

Normally,

in the

of a concern,

wall-parallel

FR a few too many

instability,

pours

more

The

As a result,

resolved

a new
fluid

RR.

if at all.

stresses

of the

we expect

the

RR-to-FR

modeled

to FR

(as is patent

and

this

always

fluid goes from

than

much,
BL

has

RR

so that

in advance.

the

for

area"

from

be finer

change

dominance
and

designed

in all directions.

in the

its accurate
are

of RANS

solutions.

as "DR"

FR

an RR and

and

same

is not troublesome.

wildly

known

concern

eraging

or "grey

FR may

outside

from

physics,

between

typical

coarsening

The

grid

are often

fluid normally

RANS

flow has

physics

separation,

RR-to-FR

to a strong

with

grid design

to structured

The

flow
DR.

in simple

to the

zone

accurately
the

DR

be described

wake

viscous

after

a well-resolved
mark

the

The

no reason

is not

fairly

is also
have

that

a sizeable

in the

is present

This

ER spacings

The

issues.

terms.
LES

in the

stable

normal

RR-to-FR

becomes

involve

of motion.
especially

calculations

can

could

physical

physical

these

BL.

BL and

FR)

one

The

the

Already,

is placed

scales

boundary,

FR to DR (recall

to support

wake).

around
the

invested

fine spacing

of the

that

a block,

region

or fine

from

simulation

of a wing

with

is tight

algorithms.

much

will keep

turbulence,
a bit across

within

"hand-over"

the

region

quite

RR

even

by different

the ER and any other

see vorticity,

model)
from
any

av"LES

wall proximity,
possibility

to

is more

convincingwhen separationis from a sharpcorneror trailing edgethan from


a smooth surface. However,circular-cylinder results do not suggesta major
problem [4]. The ultimate in difficulty may be reattachment after a large
bubble. This all dependson: the thicknessand laminar/turbulent state of
the BL; the grid spacing,which controls which wavelengthscan be resolved
and the eddy-viscositylevel; the time step, which controls which frequencies
can be resolved;and finally (physical) global instabilities which respond to
confinementand receptivity at the separationsite. Physicsand numericsare
intertwined, unfortunately.
We can only point out that no numerical treatment of separationand
turbulence short of DNS will avoid thesecomplexities;that user scrutiny is
key; and that grid variation is the only coherenttool to test the sensitivity
of the solutions and estimate the remaining error. Once a true DES has
beenobtained, grid refinementhas given sensibleresults. The presentguide
should prevent the cost of grid experimentationsfrom going out of control,
as it would if all four directions werevaried independentlyand blindly (as it
is, the grid sizeand time step are not tied by a very rigid rule).
Note that at separationin DES we are relying on a disparity of length
scalesor "spectral gap" betweenthe BL turbulenceand the subsequentfreeshear-layerturbulence. This is not the same as relying on a spectral gap
over the whole separatedregion, which is the argument neededto advocate
unsteady RANS (URANS) for massiveseparation. Somegroups consider
URANS as the answerfor massively-separatedflows; we considerit as ambiguous and flawed and have consistentevidencethat its quantitative performancecan be quite poor [2, 5, 4].
2.6

Time

Here

we assume

primarily

blocks)

We consider
cascade

Therefore,
though

FR,

a result,

with
run

cannot
eddies,
their

time

step

on the
higher

with

that
to the

eddies
they

to smaller
As

the

phenomena

grid

ergy

that

look at the

to excite
(and

step
is chosen

premise

same

a sub-grid-scale
smallest

with
and

that

by

the

other

stability.

regions

the FR does.

is best
can

because
influence

a reasonable
10

the

not

We

are unlikely

All the regions

step.

of maybe

accurate

are under

transport

time

than

model

eddies

wavelengths

be highly

that

frequency

the

for accuracy,

adjusted

be safely
A = 5A
they
of the

the

on the

will be active,

lack
eddy

differencing

to allow

tracked
the

energy

viscosity
scheme

engrid.
even

cascade
instead.
(at

least

Figure 2: DES grid over NACA 0012airfoil.


second-order)with
of this

depends

To best

spend

are

of the

scheme,
That

the

same

differencing

computing

magnitude.

at least

leads

A = A/5 is acceptable,

on the

CFL

Again

assuming

number

not

stability.

Steps

tion

from

this

estimate

cannot

tests

with

different

time

steps

estimate

which

is typically

arrive

at the

challenge

rarely

this
spatial

time

the likely

of 3/2
give

between
step

guideline,
and

highest

1.5 and
At

five

time

it is based
or even

any

strong

All

short

waves.

errors

that

time-integration
steps

per

on rough

2 away

period.
accuracy

in either

as _%correct".

which

temporal

Space/time

error

velocity

several

direc-

Unfortunately,

indications

balancing

depends
Orders

which
of the
is the

experimentation.

11

the

It has

of course
schemes.

encountered

times

= A0/U_n_x.

ten higher in the spatial


directions,
At down somewhat.
All schemes
equal.

a reasonable

of 1. Again,
be described

accurate.

for

for time-integration

maybe

a factor

not highly

performance

towards

an

value.

We then

of the

we wish

we need

estimates,

optimal

effort,

second-order,

to a local

although

scheme's

in the FR,

freestream

been

difficult

velocity,

and

to confirm

on the relative
of accuracy

U_n_x,
or

performance

vary,

and

are

of-

would push the _%rror-balanced"


same order are not even created
area

that

leaves

the

most

room

for

Pitfalls

DES

produces

inaccurate

long, just

like any

adapting

behavior

3D Euler

singularity

compared
RANS

with

are

grossly

of the

so that

and thus

of at least

x/2 and

practice

Scale

(SGS)

alert

the

for the

to signal

cases

grids were too coarse


steady

were

visibly

LES content,
prompt
We

in which

almost

(roughly,

and

there

the

5 points

for resolved

and
the

was

no

It is normal
or Sub-Grid-

close

case

per channel

but

well if

[1]) are small


in our

channel

was ambiguous.

half-height

to be sustained,

"resolved

a factor

will respond

whole domain

turbulence

is

a large

implies

RANS

DES
of dare

is usually

schemes,

Reynolds

h in the
so that

stress".

the

However

model was still limited by the grid spacing


in the core region;
LES branch
of d. The result
was too little modeled
stress

compared
with the
model
was confused.
grids

This

in many

simulation

grids".

whether

the two branches

These

was

model

resolution,

and

Upwind

step"

the

cost).

of "ambiguous

(in which

[7], we created

solution

the

the

LES

will trigger

a %erious

in a region,

study

directions)

that

self-

suppresses

If the

refinement

quadruples

to DES is that

by particles.

wall-parallel

to DES.

divergence.

is expected

zones

the turbulence
it was on the

(recall

nearly

user

rapidly

specific

too

The

of poor

in any

step

up".

of course

a warning

of grid

time

"blows

is present

numerical

user

grid

removing

step

or the

rarely

to the

feature

a serious

behavior

crossed

(thus

therefore

is too coarse
but

is no danger

is specific

the intermediate

viscosity

this

there

grid

strategy,

also suppress

difference,

and

but

under-resolved,

DES

eddy

formation

common,

An issue that

if the

numerical

DNS),

solvers

which

results

other

normal
This

RANS
level, and therefore
skin friction.
was a contrived
failure
in the sense that

too coarse,

and

grid

the

solution

refinement

obviously

would

alter

the

had

none

results

The
these

of the expected

strongly

enough

to

an investigation.
re-iterate

region.

that

A much

thermore

harm

balance

between

finer
the

cult

to judge

than

that

are in a ratio

strongly
spacing

stability

spatial
that

and

anisotropic
in one
of the

of 2 appear

time

temporal

between

grids

direction

inefficient

integration.

steps,

spatial

are

sensible

is that

DES

and

Similarly,

a balance

directions.

equally

in the

is of no value,
which
Often,

LES
fur-

we need
is more

two

for the same

may

time

flow on the

diffisteps
same

grid.
A more
should

subtle

be properly

pressibility

possibility
obtained

in a mixing

layer

from
and

RANS.
of rotation

12

would
For

"fake"

instance,
in a vortex

some
the
are

effects

effects

that

of coin-

to weaken

the

15

2.0 y/D

10
1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
-10

-5

5 x/DIO

Figure

turbulence.

RANS

miss these
the desired

so that

direction.

relative

to RANS,

activity

(for instance

could

over

reporting

4
4.1

so that

over

of the

a DES

improve

results
but

over

a weakened

thin

eddy
lacks

spanwise

theme

often

results

is precisely

in

what

DES does

quality

resolved

domain

size or resolution)

Since
papers,

turbulent

demonstrating
there

Note

could

also compensate

could

improve

model

layers

steers

RANS.
reason.

shear

viscosity

in DES

for a wrong

reduction

cylinder.

viscosity
that

to inadequate

is a recurrent

circular

2.0

1.0 x/D 1.5

0.5

in incompressible

the eddy

even

due

an eddy-viscosity

sipation,

grid

any reduction

Reducing

improvements,

studies,
coarse

RANS

0.0

calibrated

so that

fortuitously

ority

3: DES

models

effects,

15

that

results,

superi-

is a danger
in some

RANS

for numerical
but

then

of

only

dison

grids!

Examples
Clean
design

airfoil

The

grid

Fig.

2 [5]. Compared

over

in our NACA
with

wide
0012

a RANS

range

study
grid

13

of angle

was simple,
adequate

with

of attack
a single

for an attached

block,

see

case,

the

primary differenceswere the O instead of C structure and that more points


were placed in the FR over the upper surface. However: the ER region
under the airfoil also had a finer grid, which was not needed;the FR cells
werenot all closeto cubic; no clear DR region wasdesignedin; in particular,
Az

was

uniform.

The

grid

a 141 61 25 grid
dictated

by Az,

4.2

and

Circular

The

final

factor

the

grids

in the

RR

and

the

coarsening

and

DR

step

for

could

are

the

0.068

later.

have

(since

curvature,

change

with

for the

spanwise

angle

of attack.
period;

This

A0

was

was
0.04c,

At = 0.025c/U_.

to 0.034

3 [4].

is also

Az is uniform;

higher

U]n_x _ 1.5U_),
based

but

These

partly

several

The

ER is clearly

that

that

was

the

FR,

but

z in the

ER

coarse-grid
which

our CFL

guideline

are no regions

little

features

the

(the

seen;

inexpensive

than

there

showed

with

to 0.035

run

by

design

of coarsening

0.05

are longer

because

on tests

have

idea

from

0.05,

At).

refinement

continuous

the

ranged

than

to raise

and partly

DR

steps

to including

diameters,

see Fig.

the

Time

been

in addition

grids,

continuous;

the incentive

above

step

cylinder,

is visible.

came

removed

time

NACA-0012

FR

not

1 chord

cylinder

of 2 in A0 from

absent

did

with

difference

with
from

tight

shorter

steps.

4.3

Tilt-rotor-wing

In the tilt-rotor
The

inner

adapted

work

"snail"
to the

(0.85,-0.1)).
spaced

airfoil
the definitive

block,

geometry
The

"C-grid

cut"

ER

and

time
for

the

RR

blocks
At

Active

is also

which

and

FR.

same

resolution

block

approach

(the

only

Although
with

has

block

The

been

and

with

larger

points

The

a somewhat
(this

smaller

14

Az

and

avoids

The

evolution

FR,

but

at y _
unsteady

good,

since

runs

-2).

does
The

blowing

the

(x, y) A0

spanwise

of course,

of grid
also

from

0.09 in the

of the
54 points

near

a finely-

of course

begins

could,

number

probably

FR, is highly

but

RR and

is quite
grid

code

of the

2D figure

because

total

an unstructured

is powerful

wasteful.

Ay.

short

resolution

580,000

part

see Fig. 4.

slot at the flap shoulder

it is 0.03 in the

is fairly

a C block,

FR character,

have

of Ax

ER,

RR and

the blowing

would

DR

Control.

with

the

H block

in Az:

-90 , as in hover

has a clear

contains

in terms

= O.O15c/U,

Flow

0.03,

wake

variations

DR

step,

grid

(including

first

FR to DR is gradual
not reflect

which

near

provide

in the
the

points,

the

multi-

faster

and

allows

higher orders of accuracythan unstructured codes). In addition, while such


extensivemulti-block grid generation is tedious, reachingthe samelevel of
control in an unstructured grid would also require very numerous steps to
drive the resolution where it is desired.
4.4
The

Simplified
landing-gear

landing-gear
truck

geometry

treated

simulated

with

truck

of Lazos,

although

so far [11] (although


somewhat

simplified,

full jet-fighter

preliminary

grids

by Dr. J. Forsythe
at the US Air Force
blocks with an RR-FR-DR-ER
structure
tilt-rotor,
forced

and
by the

about

2.5 million

complexity

most

complete

configurations

good

have been

experimental

agreement

Academy).
The grid has thirteen
that is not as distinct
as for the

points.

of the

but

is the

The

geometry,

compromises

which

on structure

made

grid

were

generation

very

time-consuming.

Acknowledgements

All the
Shur,

present

grids

Strelets,

fruitful

were generated

and

Travin.

discussions.

and

Drs.

Dr. Singer

Squires

reviewed

many

ideas

and
the

shaped

Forsythe

by Drs.

Hedges,

part

in many

took

manuscript.

References
[1] P.

R. Spalart,

on the

W.-H.

feasibility

proach".

1st AFOSR

LA. In "Advances
Columbus,
[2] P. R.
Int.

M. Strelets

Int.

for wings,
Conf.

and
and

S. R. Allmaras,
on

a hybrid

on DNS/LES,

Aug.

C. Liu and

Z. Liu Eds.,

in DNS/LES",

"Comments

RANS/LES
4-8,

1997,

ap-

Ruston,

Greyden

Press,

OH.

Spalart,

J. Heat

[3] P. R. Spalart,
[4] Travin,

Jou,

of LES

A.,

"Strategies
Fluid

Flow

"Trends
Shur,

Eddy
Simulations
293-313.

M.,
past

for
21,

turbulence

2000,

and

simulations".

252-263.

in turbulence
Strelets,

modelling

M.,

a Circular

15

treatments".

AIAA-2000-2306.

& Spalart,

P. R. 2000.

"Detached-

Cylinder".

Flow,

Comb.

Tur'b.

63,

[5] M.

Shur,

P. R.

simulation

Spalart,

of an airfoil

Eng.

Turb.

Rodi

and

Modelling
D. Laurence

[6] Constantinescu,
of turbulent

[7] Nikitin,

Fluids

solver",

Nicoud,

and

angle

Travin,

of attack."

Experiments,

Eds.,

Elsevier.

Squires,

A.

K. D.,

_Detached-eddy

4th Int.

May

24-26

"LES

and

Symposium

1999,

DES

on

Corsica.

W.

investigations

AIAA-2000-0540.

F., Wasistho,

B., Squires,

K. D.,

to Wall

Modeling

in Large-Eddy

K.,

Dieteker,

J.-F.,

& Spalart,

P.

Simulations".

7.

J., Hoffmann,

of a supersonic

and

axisymmetric

base

_Detached-eddy

flow with

simu-

an unstructured

flow

AIAA-2000-2410.

[9] M. Strelets,
_Detached
AIAA 2001-0879.

[10] P. R. Spalart

and

flows,"

in appendix

for C_l.

[11] L. S. Hedges,
over

eddy

simulation

S. R. Allmaras,

aerodynamic

tions

at high

a sphere."

Approach
12,

Strelets

and

and

flow over

_An

Is] Forsythe,
lation

G.,

N. V.,

R. 2000.
Phys

M.

"A one-equation

La Recherche

A. Travin

a simplified

A{rospa_iale,

& P. R. Spalart
landing

of massively

gear".

16

2001.

separated

turbulence
1, 5 (1994).

flows",

model
Note

_Detached-Eddy

To be submitted,

J. Fluids

for
error

SimulaEr_9.

0.5

>-

-0.5

-!0.5

0.5

Figure

4: DES

grid

over

generic

tilt-rotor

17

airfoil.

Compare

with

fig. 1.

Figure 5: DES grid over landing-geartruck.

18

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2. REPORT

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3. REPORT

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4. TITLE

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5. FUNDING

Young-Person's

Guide to Detached-Eddy

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NUMBERS

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6. AUTHOR(S)
Philippe
R. Spalart

7. PERFORMING

ORGANIZATION

Boeing Commercial
P.O. Box 3707
Seattle, WA
98124

NAME(S)

AND

8. PERFORMING

ADDRESS(ES)

REPORT

Airplanes

9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

AGENCY

NAME(S)

AND

10.

ADDRESS(ES)

SPONSORING/MONITORING
AGENCY

National Aeronautics
and Space Administration
Langley Research Center
Hampton, VA 23681-2199

11. SUPPLEMENTARY

DISTRI

REPORT

NUMBER

NASA/CR-2001-211032

NOTES

Prepared for Langley Research Center under Contract


Langley Technical Monitor: Craig Streett
12a.

ORGANIZATION

NUMBER

BUTION/AVAILABILITY

NAS 1-97040

STATEMENT

12b.

DISTRIBUTION

CODE

Unclassified-Unlimited
Subject Category 64
Distribution:
Availability:
NASA CASI (301) 621-0390
13.

ABSTRACT

(Maximum

200

Standard

words)

We give the "'philosophy",


fairly complete instructions,
a sketch and examples of creating Detached-Eddy
Simulation (DES) grids from simple to elaborate, with a priority on external flows. Although DES is not a zonal
method, flow regions with widely different gridding requirements
emerge, and should be accommodated
as far
as possible if a good use of grid points is to be made. This is not unique to DES. We brush on the time-step
choice, on simple pitfalls, and on tools to estimate whether a simulation is well resolved.

14. SUBJECT

TERMS

detached-eddy
unsteady

15.

simulation,

Reynolds-averaged

17. SECURITY
CLASSIFICATION
OF REPORT

Unclassified
NSN

DES, large-eddy

7540-01-280-5500

Navier
18.

SECURITY
OF THIS

simulation,

Stokes, URANS
CLASSIFICATION
PAGE

Unclassified

19. SECURITY
CLASSIFICATION
OF ABSTRACT

NUMBER

OF

PAGES

23

LES,
16.

PRICE

CODE

20.

LIMITATION
OF ABSTRACT

UE

Unclassified
Standard

Form

Prescribed
298-102

by ANSI

298

(Rev.

2-89)

Std. Z-39-18