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Atterbergs Limits of Soil

Prepared by:
Rupesh Patil
Civil Engineering Department

Atterberg Limits of Soil


LEARNING OUTCOMES
Identify

different state of soil.


Identify different physical properties of soil.
Identify different water level of soil

Contents
Introduction
Soil Consistency
Stages of Atterbergs limits
Uses

Soil Consistency
Soil consistence provides a means of describing
the degree and kind of cohesion and adhesion
between the soil particles as related to the
resistance of the soil to deform
Soil Behave Like:
SOILD at very low moisture content
LIQUID at very high moisture content

Introduction
Stated

that depending on the water content, soil


may appear in four states:
Solid (no water)
semi-solid (brittle, some water)
plastic (moldable)
liquid (fluid)
In

each state the consistency and behavior of a soil


is different and thus so are its engineering
properties.

Atterbergs Limits

Solid
Water Content
w%=0

(Non-Plastic )

Brittle

Plastic

Liquid

Plasticity Index

Wpl
Plastic Limit

wll
Liquid Limit

Plastic limit

The plastic limit (PL) is the water content


(w%) where soil starts to exhibit plastic
behavior.

Liquid limit

The liquid limit (LL) is the


water content where a soil
changes from liquid to
plastic behavior

Determined using a
Casagrande cup (lab) or
cone penetrometer (field)

Shrinkage limit
The shrinkage limit (SL) is the water
content where further loss of moisture will
not result in any more volume reduction
The shrinkage limit is much less commonly
used than the liquid limit and the plastic
limit.

Use of Plasticity Index

The PI is the difference between the liquid limit and the


plastic limit (PI = LL-PL).

The plasticity index is the size of the range of water


contents where the soil exhibits plastic properties.

Meaning:
High PI tend to be clay
Low PI tend to be silt
PI of 0 tend to have little or no silt or clay.

Use of Liquid & Plastic Limits

Used internationally for soil identification


and soil classification