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Live Curious: Life-Long Learning

If you are, you breath.


If you breath, you talk.

CME609
Research Methodology

If you learn, you grow.


If you grow, you wish.
If you wish, you find.

By
Prof. Okechukwu Ugweje

2016LectureGuide
Federal University of Technology, Minna

If you find, you doubt.


If you doubt, you question.
If you question, you understand.

If you understand, you know.


If you know, you want to know more

Dept. Of Telecommunications Engineering


Prof. Okey Ugweje

If you talk, you ask.


If you ask, you think.
If you think, you search.
If you search, you experience.
If you experience, you learn.

And if you want to know more, you are alive.


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Research Methodology

Research Methodology

Module 1

without adequate training and supervision,


the neophyte researcher can unwittingly become
an unguarded projectile bringing turbulence to the
field, fostering personal trauma (for researcher
and researched), and even causing damage to
the discipline. [1]

A. Research Concepts
Expertise is earned not given
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Research Methodology

What is Research? - 1
The word research is composed of two syllables, re
and search.
Re = a prefix- meaning again, anew or over again
search = a verb- meaning to examine closely and
carefully, to test and try, or to probe

Definition of Research?

Together they form a noun describing a careful,


systematic, patient study and investigation in some
field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or
principles

Even if you are on the right track, youll get


run over if you just sit there.
-- Will Rogers
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

What is Research? - 2

Research is the process of finding out something that


we (everyone) dont already know
Scientific research builds upon the extant knowledge
base and it is methodical, repeatable and verifiable
Methodical means that you can specify, in
advance, a procedure to accomplish your stated
objective
Repeatable means that it can repeated severally
with the same report
Verifiable means that it can be verified by someone
else other than you.

A systematic attempt to provide answers to questions


A systematic way of asking questions, a systematic
method of inquiry
A careful and systematic process of inquiry to find
answers to problem of interest
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What is Research? - 3

Research is the process of hunting for facts or truth


about a subject
Organized scientific investigation to solve problems,
test hypotheses, develop or invent new products
The systematic investigation into existing or new
knowledge

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

What is Research? - 4

What is Research? - 5

Research is systematic, because it follows certain


steps that are logical in order. These steps are:
Understanding the nature of problem to be studied
and identifying the related area of knowledge.
Reviewing literature to understand how others have
approached or dealt with the problem
Collecting data in an organized and controlled
manner so as to arrive at valid decisions.
Analyzing data appropriate to the problem
Drawing conclusions and making generalizations

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Research follows a scientific method


This means that it makes an integrated use of
inductive and deductive reasoning
This makes it very useful for explaining and/or
predicting phenomena.
The basic assumption of the scientific method is that
every effect has a cause

Prof. Okey Ugweje

What is Research? - 6

No Problem!
No Research!!

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What Constitutes a Research Topic?

General Schematic characteristics of Research

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Unanswered question
Unsolved question
Concern
Query
Statement of inquiry

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research as Acquiring Knowledge

Purpose of Research

Research is a well-structured, properly reported study


must provide answers to all questions regarding the
what, why, when, how, where, and who associated
with the research.
The problem statement offers the context necessary
for addressing the why question

How?
What?

Who?
Where?

Why?
Prof. Okey Ugweje

When?

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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To solve a prevailing problem / answer question


To provide solutions to complex problems
To investigate laws of nature
To make new discoveries (discover new knowledge)
To develop new products
To expand our knowledge about things
To predict about something in the future
To explain a new phenomenon
To generate new knowledge
To get PhDs, Masters and Bachelors?
A combination of any of the above

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Purpose of Research

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Consider the following


A general manager of a car manufacturing company was
concerned with the complaints received from the car users
that the car they produce have some problems with rating
sound at the dash board and the rear passenger seat after
few thousand kilometers of driving

Add new information through


New facts that was not known before
Validates results of previous research
Tests theories
Explains findings of a previous research
Find out new relationships among present
phenomena

He obtained information from the company workers to


identify the various factors influencing the problem.
He then formulated the problem and generated guesses
(hypotheses)
He constructed a checklist and obtained requisite
information from a representative sample of cars
He analyzed the data thus collected, interpreted the results
in the light of his hypotheses and reached conclusions

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Consider the following

Which of these is research?

You will notice in the example above that the


researcher went through a sequence of steps which
were in order and thus systematic
Secondly, the researcher did not just jump at the
conclusions, but used a scientific method of inquiry
in reaching at conclusions
The two important characteristics of research are
it is systematic and

Federal University of Technology, Minna

[2] Emeka Okoro says that he has researched and completed a


document which gives information about the age of students
at NTNU, their CGPA, their parents income and distance of
their schools from the District Office.
[3] Taiwo Olushola participated in a workshop on curriculum
development and prepared what she calls, a research report
on the curriculum for building technicians. She did this
through a literature survey on the subject and by discussing
with the participants of the workshop.

it follows a scientific method of enquiry.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

[1] Ahmed Farouk prepared a paper on computer usage in


secondary schools after reviewing literature on the subject
available in his university library and called it a piece of
research.

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Which of these is research?...

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High Quality Research!

None of the above examples can be classified under


the name research
WHY ?
You will know it when you have understood the
concept of the term research

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Is based on the work of others


Can be replicated (duplicated)
Is generalizable to other settings
Is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory
Is doable!
Generates new questions or is cyclical in nature
Is incremental
Is an apolitical activity that should be undertaken for
the betterment of society

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Acceptable Research Criteria

Acceptable Research Criteria


Philosophies: means approaches e.g. qualitative,
quantitative and the academic discipline in which you
have been trained
Validity: means that correct question
Reliability: refers to repeatability and accuracy
Unbiased and objective: means that you have taken
each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each
conclusion to the best of your ability and without
introducing your own vested interest
Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or
highlight something

When you say that you are undertaking a research


study to find answers to a question, you are implying
that the process;
is being undertaken within a framework of a set of
philosophies ( approaches);
uses procedures, methods and techniques that
have been tested for their validity and reliability;
is designed to be unbiased and objective .

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Characteristics - 1

Research is a process of
collecting,
analyzing and
interpreting information to answer questions

Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis


Requires clear articulation of a goal
Follows a specific plan or procedure

But to qualify as research, the process must have


certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible, be

Often divides main problem into sub-problems

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Accepts certain critical assumptions


Requires collection and interpretation of data
Cyclical in nature

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Research Characteristics - 2

Originates with a question or problem

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Controlled,
Rigorous,
Systematic,
Valid and verifiable,
Empirical, and
Critical

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Characteristics - 3

Research Characteristics - 3

1. Controlled:

3. Systematic:

Implies that, in exploring causality in relation to two


variables (factors), you set up your study in a way
that minimizes the effects of other factors affecting
the relationship

The procedure adopted to undertake an


investigation follow a certain logical sequence
The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard
way. Some procedures must follow others

2. Rigorous:

4. Valid and verifiable:

Ensure that the procedures followed to find


answers to questions are relevant, appropriate
and justified

implies that whatever you conclude on the basis of


your findings is correct and can be verified by you
and others

Again, the degree of rigor varies markedly between


the physical and social sciences
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Characteristics - 4
Criteria

This means that any conclusion drawn are based


upon hard evidence gathered from information
collected from real life experiences or observations.
Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the
methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry.

Analysis and
discussion

The process of investigation must be foolproof and


free from drawbacks

Conclusion

The process adopted and the procedures used


must be able to withstand critical scrutiny.

Referencing
Communication
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Poor Research

Research problem Unclear and unfocused


& scope
Literature review A list of items,

Methodology

6. Critical:

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Poor vs. Good Research

5. Empirical:

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Relevance is unclear,
Little or no evaluation,
Research questions missing,
impractical or unfocused
Little appreciation of research design
No justification of choice
Not linked to the literature
Unclear findings, unrelated to research
question,
Little or no attempt to discuss in relation
to literature review
Some conclusions but not linked to
research questions
Implications and limitations of results
not addressed
Plagiarism through omission of
inadequate referencing
Difficult to follow, Many spelling and
grammar mistake

Good Research
Sharply focused
Related to academic debate
Critical evaluation of relevance, up-to-date
literature,
Linked to focused feasible research
questions

Cohesive design,
Excellent review of research design options,
Linked to the literature
Clear findings discussed in an analytical
manner that generates new knowledge and
insight,
Linked to the literature
Conclusions clearly linked to research
questions
Attention given to implications and
limitations
All sources cited in the text and full
bibliographic details listed at the end

Clear flow of ideas


Appropriate spelling and grammar

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What is NOT Research?

What is Bad Research?

Research IS NOT information gathering


Gathering information from resources such as books,
journal, magazines, Internet, etc., is not research

The opposites of good research as discussed above

Research IS NOT the transportation of facts


Merely transporting facts from one resource (other
peoples work) to another (your work) doesnt
constitute research

Plagiarizing other peoples work

Looking for something when it simply is not to be


found
Falsifying data to prove a point
Misrepresenting information and misleading
participants

Research IS NOT reading and understanding what


other people has written
When your work does not contribution to new
knowledge it is NOT research
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Methodology

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Research Methods - 1
Research can be classified according to the perspectives:
1. Purpose of the research (why do it) the reason why
it was conducted

Types and Classification


of Research

2. Process of the research (how to do it) the way in


which the data were collected and analyzed; structured
(quantifying extent of problem) vs. unstructured
(exploring nature of problem without quantifying it)
3. Outcome of the research (benefit) whether the
expected outcome is the solution to a particular
problem or a more general contribution to knowledge

There are various types of design used in research,


all with specific advantages and disadvantages
Which one a scientist uses, depends on the aims of
the study and the nature of the phenomenon.
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

4. Logic of the research whether the research logic


moves from the general to the specific or vice versa
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methods - 2

Research Methods - 3
Classification of Research by Purpose

Classification of main types of research


Type of Research
Applied or Basic
Exploratory, Descriptive,
Analytical or Predictive
Quantitative or
Qualitative
Deductive or Inductive

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Basis of
Classification
Outcome of
research
Purpose of
research
Process of research

Comments

Explanatory,
Correlational
Structured,
Unstructured

Classification of Research by Methods

Logic of research

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Methods - 4

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Research Methods - 5

Classification of Research by time:


Cross-sectional
Longitudinal
Classification of Research by Methodology
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Exploratory vs. Experimental

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Key Categories of Research


Approach

Common Type
of Data
Experimental
Quantitative
Causal-Comparative Quantitative
Historical
Quantitative or
Qualitative
Developmental
Quantitative
Correlational
Quantitative
Case Study
Qualitative
Grounded Theory
Qualitative
Ethnography
Qualitative
Action Research
Quantitative and
Qualitative

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Stage of
Problem
Evaluation
Evaluation
Description

Categories of
Theory
Testing or Revising
Testing or Revising
Testing or Revising

Description
Description
Exploration
Exploration
Description
Applied
Exploration

Building or Revising
Testing
Building or Revising
Building
Building
Building or Revising

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Research Types - Exploratory


Conducted into a research problem or issue when there are
very few or no earlier studies to which we can refer for
information about the issue or problem
Focus is on gaining insights and familiarity with the subject
area for more rigorous investigation at a later stage
Aim of study is to look for patterns, ideas or hypotheses, rather
than testing or confirming a hypothesis
Assess which existing theories and concepts can be applied to
the problem or whether new ones should be developed
A hypothesis is a proposition that can be tested for
association or causality against empirical evidence.
Empirical evidence is data based on observation/experience
Data are known facts or things used as a basis for inference
or reckoning.
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Types Exploratory

Research Types Descriptive - 1

Typical techniques include case studies, observation


and historical analysis
can provide both quantitative and qualitative data
very flexible as there are few constraints on the nature
of activities employed or on the type of data collected.
Approach is usually very open and concentrates on
gathering a wide range of data and impressions
Rarely provides conclusive answers to problems or
issues, but gives guidance on what future research, if
any, should be conducted

Deals with collecting data and testing hypotheses


or answering questions concerning the current
status of the subject of study
Conducted to describe phenomena as they exist
Goes further in examining a problem than exploratory
research
Undertaken to ascertain and describe the
characteristics of the pertinent issues
Research questions start with what or how
because the aim is to describe something

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Types Descriptive - 2

Research Types Descriptive - 3

It deals with the question What Is of a situation


It concerns with determining the current practices, status
or features of situations
Data collection is either done through asking questions
from individuals in the situation (through questionnaires or
interviews) or by observation
Example: Peter O. Peretti and Kris G. Majecen (1992)
interviewed 58 elderly individuals, from 68 to 87 years of age,
using a structured interview to investigate the variables that
affect emotional abuse among the elderly
As a result of the interviews, they found 9 variables are
common to elderly abuse, including lack of affection, threats
of violence and confinement
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Other Examples
What type of packaging for a box of chocolates do
consumers prefer?
What information do consumers want shown on food
labels?
Which car advertisements on television do men and
women of different ages prefer?
How many students study accounting in China
compared with students in Australia?
How do commuters travel to work in capital cities?

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Types Descriptive - 4

Research Types Correlational - 1

Note:
Descriptive and historical research provide a picture of
events that are currently happening or have occurred in
the past
Researchers often want to go beyond mere description
and begin discussing the relationship that certain
events might have to one another.
The most likely type of research to answer the
relationship among variables or events is called
correlational research.

A continuation of descriptive research


Aims to understand phenomena by discovering
causal relations among them
Goes beyond merely describing the characteristics
Establish a relationship or interdependence 2 or more
aspects of a situation/factors/variables
A correlation study aims at determining the degree of
relationship between two or more quantifiable variables
The relationship if determined could be used for making
predictions
A high value of relationship, however, does not signify a
cause and effect relationship which must be verified
through and experimental study

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Types Correlational - 2

Research Types Correlational - 3


An Example of Correlational research
In a study of the relationship between temperament and
attachment behavior in infants, the correlation among
different types of attachment behaviors, how securely
attached the infants were to their mothers, and the
infants general temperament were examined (by
Vaughn et.al., 1989)
The researchers found that an infants temperament
does not predict how securely attached the child is to
his or her mother.

Correlational research are studies that are often


conducted to test the reliability and predictive validity
of instruments used for division making concerning
selection of individuals for the likely success in a
course of study or a specific job
Some authors consider this research as a type of
descriptive research, since it describes the current
conditions in a situation
However, the difference lies in the nature of
conditions of the studies
A correlational study describes in quantitative terms
the degree to which the variables are related
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Goes even further than explanatory research


Forecasts the likelihood of a similar situation occurring
elsewhere
Aims to generalize from the analysis by predicting
certain phenomena on the basis of hypothesized,
general relationships
Solution to a problem in a particular study is applicable to
similar problems elsewhere, if solution is valid and robust,
based on a clear understanding of the relevant causes
Provides how, why and where answers to current
events and also to similar events in the future. It is also
helpful in situations where what if questions are being
asked

A continuation of descriptive research


Aims to understand phenomena by discovering
and measuring causal relations among them
Goes beyond merely describing the characteristics
Analyzing and explaining why or how the
phenomenon being studied is happening
Identifies and, possibly, control the variables or
factors in the research activities, as this permits the
critical variables or the causal links between the
characteristics to be better explained
A variable is a characteristic of a phenomenon that
can be observed or measured
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Research Type - Predictive

Research Type - Explanatory or Analytical

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Type Predictive

Research Type Case Studies

Possible Research Questions


In which city would it be most profitable to open a new
retail outlet?
Will the introduction of an employee bonus scheme lead
to higher levels of productivity?
What type of packaging will improve the sales of our
products?
How would an increase in interest rates affect our profit
margins?
Which stock market investments will be the most
profitable over the next three months?
What will happen to sales of our products if there is an
economic downturn?

Empirical investigation of particular phenomenon


(unit)
Unit of analysis could be individual, group,
organization, community, country, etc.
Purpose is more exploratory, i.e. hypothesis
development
Single vs. Multiple cases:
Multiple cases are suggested to compare and
contrast different cases
Certain single cases are warranted: revelatory /
critical / extreme / unique

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Type Case Studies

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Research Type - Epidemiologic

Doing Case Study Research


Use qualitative and quantitative data:
Documentation, archives
Interviews
Direct observation (cf. ethnography)
Analysis:
Heavily dependent on researchers aptitude
Group of researchers are beneficial
Multiple data affords triangulation.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Epidemiologic research looks at the way things


affect an entire population of people.
In this type of study, researchers simply
observe what's going on.
E.g., what's going on could involve a disease and
how often that disease was occurring
Researchers don't actively try out any particular
approach to health when they conduct an
epidemiologic study

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Type - Clinical Trials

Research Type In-Vitro Studies

Clinical trials are research design that involve trying


out a particular approach to health
It look at specialized groups of people rather than
whole populations, and they seek to determine
whether a particular approach to health might have
benefits for a particular group of people
E.g., researchers conducting a clinical trial might
want to evaluate the possible benefits of high-fiber
snacks for digestion and overall health in a group of
teenage girls, or a group of adult males at risk for
colon cancer

In vitro studies encompass other basic approaches to


research that do not involve people at all
Instead, various aspects of food, nutrition, and health can be
studied at a tissue or organ level, or even at the level of
individual cellular activity
Particularly when a researcher is trying to understand a
biochemical process inside the body, which is very important in
the study of food and nutrition, it can be almost impossible to
develop a precise understanding unless a large number of
factors can be carefully isolated and controlled
Real, living people with trillions of cells and thousands of
biochemical reactions taking place inside each cell are simply
too complicated to analyze to draw insights into very
specialized events occurring with the body's biochemistry.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Type - Historical

Research Type Historical

Purpose of historical research is to arrive at conclusions


concerning trends, causes or effects of past occurrences
This may help in explaining present events and anticipating
future events
The data are not gathered by administering instruments to
individuals, rather, they are collected from original documents
or by interviewing the eye-witnesses (primary source of
information)
In case primary sources are not available, data are collected
from those other than eye-witnesses (secondary sources)
The data thus collected are subjected to scientific analysis to
assess its authenticity and accuracy

Example:
Nancy Burton and Lyle Jones (1982) examined trends
in achievement levels of African American versus White
children.
They examined high school graduation rates between
these 2 ethnic groups who were born before 1913,
between 1913 and 1922, between 1923 and 1932, etc.
They also examined a variety of historical indicators in
more recent groups of African American and White
children.
One of their conclusions is that differences in
achievements between these groups are decreasing.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Type Ex-Factor

Research Type Ex-Factor

In some research, both the effect and the alleged cause


have already occurred and are studied in retrospect
Such research are referred to as Ex-post Factor (after the
fact)
It is a Systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist
does not have direct control of independent variables
because their manifestations have already occurred or
because they are inherently not manipulable --- Kerlinger
(1973)
Researcher has no control on the variables or cannot
manipulate the independent variables (IV) which cause a
certain effect (dependent variables) being measured
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Since this type of a study lacks manipulation of


variables, the cause-effect relationship measured are
only tentative.
Some authors categorize Ex-post facto studies into the
category of descriptive research.
Though it too describes conditions that exist in a
situation, it attempts to determine reasons or causes for
the current status of the phenomena under study.
The procedures involved in this study are quite different
than those in descriptive research.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Type Experimental - 1

Research Type Experimental - 2

We already know that correlational research can help


establish the presence of a relationship among
variables but it could not give us any reason to
believe that variables are causally related to one
another
How does one find out if the characteristics or
behaviors or events are related in such a way that the
relationship is a causal one?
Two types of research can answer this:
(1) experimental research, and
(2) quasi-experimental research

Experimental research is where participants are


assigned to groups based on some selected criterion
often called treatment variable
Quasi-experimental research is where participants
are preassigned to groups based on some
characteristic or quality such as differences in sex,
race, age, neighborhood, etc

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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These group assignments have already taken place


before the experiment begins, and the researcher has
no control as to what the people will belong to each
group
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Research Type Experimental - 3

Research Type Experimental - 4

The primary characteristic of experimental research is


manipulation of at least one variables and control
over the other relevant variables so as to measure its
effect on one or more dependent variables
The variables (s) which is manipulated is also called
an independent variables, a treatment, an
experimental variables or the cause
Some of the examples of an independent variables
could be: temperature, pressure, chemical
concentration, type of material and conductivity.

Example of Experimental Research


Experimental research will always have two or more
groups for comparison on the dependent variables
It is the only type of research which can establish truly
the cause and effect relations
Consider an Example
A researcher in technician education is interested in
studying the effects of two methods of instructionstructured lecture method and programmed
instruction on the achievement of students in a
course of one semester in Applied Mechanics.
Sixty students in the class are divided randomly into
two groups of thirty each

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Type Experimental - 5

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Experimental vs. Nonexperimental

The groups receive the specified treatment for an


equal amount of time during the semester.
The participants are measured for their performance
on the achievement test before and after the program
so as to measure the gain.
In this experiment, the experimental or independent
variables is the method of instruction and the
dependent variable, is the achievement of students.
The difference in the gain on achievement between
the two groups will show the effect of the methods of
instruction.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Experimental

Independent variables (IVs)


and Dependent Variables
(DVs)
Cause-and-effect
Extraneous variable
controls
Three fundamental
characteristics
1. At least 1 active IV
2. Extraneous variable
controls
3. Observation of DV
response to the IV
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Non-experimental
1. Causalcomparative
2. Descriptive
3. Correlational
4. Historical

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Basic vs. Applied Research

Basic Research
Pure, fundamental
research
Discovery of new
knowledge; theoretical
in nature
Has no immediate
application
Takes many years for
the results of basic
research to find some
practical utility
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Quantitative Research - 1

Applied Research
Central purpose to solve
an immediate problem
Improved products or
processes
has immediate
application
Infers beyond the group
or situation studied
Interpretation of results
relies upon Basic
research

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A qualitative approach is one in which the inquirer


often makes knowledge claims based primarily on
constructivist perspectives (i.e. multiple meanings of
individual experiences, meanings socially and
historically constructed, with an intent of developing a
theory or pattern) or advocacy/participatory
perspectives (i.e. political, issue-oriented,
collaborative or change oriented) or both.
--- (Creswell, 2003, p.18)

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Quantitative Research - 2

Characteristics of Qualitative Research


Takes place in the natural setting
Uses multiple methods that are interpretive
Is emergent rather than tightly prefigured
Fundamentally interpretive (role of researcher as interpreter)
Researcher views social phenomena holistically
Researcher systematically reflects on who he or she is in the
inquiry and is sensitive to his or her personal biography and
how it shapes the study
Researcher uses complex reasoning that is multifaceted,
iterative, and simultaneous
Researcher adopts and uses one or more strategies of
inquiry

Amounts
Frequencies
Degrees
Values
Intensity
Uses statistics for greater precision and objectivity
Based on the deductive reasoning

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Quantitative Research - 3

Quantity is the unit of analysis

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Qualitative Research

Quantitative vs. Qualitative

Qualitative researchers study things in their natural


settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret
phenomenon in terms of the meanings people bring
to them.
--- (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p.3).
In qualitative study inquirers stated research
questions, not objectives (i.e., specific goals for the
research) or hypotheses (i.e., predictions that involve
variables and statistical tests)
--- (C., 2003, p.105)
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Quantitative vs. Qualitative - 2


Quantitative
Field & lab experiments
Surveys
Formal methods (e.g.
mathematical modelling)

Quantitative
Numerical, measurable
Explanation, prediction
Test theories
Known variables
Large sample
Standardized instruments
Deductive
Clearly stated questions
Rational hypotheses
Extraneous variable
controls
Statistical analyses
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Qualitative
Generally non-numerical
Explanation, description
Build theories
Unknown variables
Small sample
Observations, interviews
Inductive
In-depth descriptions of
situations
Interpretive and
descriptive

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Quantitative vs. Qualitative - 3

Qualitative
Action research
Case studies
Grounded theory
Ethnography
Differentiate between data
gathering & data analysis!

Difference with
Quantitative research
respect to:
Approach to
Structured/rigid/predetermined
enquiry
methodology
Main purpose of To quantify extent of variation in a
investigation
phenomenon, situation, issue, etc.

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Qualitative research
Unstructured/flexible/op
en methodology
To describe variation in
a phenomenon,
situation, issue, etc.

Emphasis on some form of either


Measurement of
measurement or classification of
variables
variables

Emphasis on
description of variables

Sample size

Fewer cases

Emphasis on greater sample size

Narrows focus in terms of extent of


enquiry, but assembles required
Focus of enquiry
information from a greater number
of respondents
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Covers multiple issues


but assembles required
information from fewer
respondents
72

Research Methodology

Quantitative vs. Qualitative - 4


Difference with
respect to:
Dominant
research value
Dominant
research topic

Nature of
findings

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Quantitative research

Qualitative research

Reliability and objectivity


(value-free)
Explains prevalence,
incidence, extent, nature of
issues, opinions and
attitude; discovers
regularities and formulates
theories
more analytical in nature,
drawing inferences and
conclusions, and testing
magnitude and strength of a
relationship

Authenticity but does not


claim to be value-free
Explores experiences,
meanings, perceptions and
feelings

Exactly what will your research


contribute to the knowledge base?

more descriptive and


narrative in nature

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Research Objectives

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Objectives - 1

Research Objectives - 2

The research objective is a concise


statement of what you intend to find out
that we dont already know

Research objective should reflect the solution of the


problem
If you can not state the problem, you can not do the
research
Is the problem significant enough?
Is it feasible (practical/possible for you to do it)?
Is it free of unknown hazards/dangers?
Is it clear (unambiguous)?

This is probably one of the


hardest parts of a research
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Objectives - 3

Research Objectives - 4

Examples of bad research objectives


1. The objective of my research is to provide a
quantum leap in the design of anti-gravity boots
2. The goal of this project is to develop an integrated
modeling tool for the hardening process
3. The goal of this project is to develop innovative
advances to enhance wire sawing processes
4. This research will bridge the accuracy gap in
these processes by developing theoretical and
technological means to implement significant
gains in accuracy
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5. This project aims to advance the research in


predictive modeling for manufacturing process
optimization
6. The proposed study will significantly advance the
theory of random fields
7. This study will develop modeling and simulationbased technologies for building construction
8. New methods in robust optimization are proposed
for optimizing complex models under uncertainty.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Objectives - 5

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Research Objectives - 6

Examples of good research objectives


1. The objective of this research is to test hypothesis
H
2. The objective of this research is to measure
parameter P with accuracy A
3. The objective of this research is to prove
conjecture C
4. The objective of this research is to apply method
M from field Q to problem X in field R

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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5. The objective of this research is to measure the


cross-section of the muon-nutrino interaction at 5
GeV accurate to 10%
6. The objective of this research is to test the
hypothesis that chip formation in high-speed
machining of brittle materials is determined by
parameters x, y and z
7. The research objective is to account for
uncertainty in engineering design decision making
through the application of utility theory

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

Research Process - 1
The research process deals with the ways and
strategies used by researchers to understand the
world around us.
The research process is similar to undertaking a
journey.
For a research journey there are two important
decisions to make1. What you want to find out about or what
research questions (problems) you want to
find answers to;
2. How to go about finding their answers.

Research Process

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Process - 2

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Research Process - 3

Conceptual Map of the Problem-Based Research Cycle

A Research Design Model


PLD Model for Deriving Research

P = research-worthy Problem
L = valid peer-reviewed Literature
D = Data available

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Process - 4

Research Process - 5

Steps of the Scientific Method


The scientific method has a similar structure to an
hourglass
starting from general questions, narrowing down
to focus on one specific aspect,
then designing research where we can observe
and analyze this aspect
At last, the hourglass widens and the researcher
concludes and generalizes the findings to the real
world

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

Research Methodology

B. Research Methodology
or Methods

Research Methodology

Methodology and Method are often (incorrectly)


used interchangeable, but they are not the same
This distinction is not clear cut, even in established
literature!
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology - 1

Research Methodology - 2
May be regarded as the science of studying how
research is done scientifically
Is the study of various steps that are generally
adopted by a researcher in studying his/her
research problem along with the logic behind them
Should have a sound theoretical basis, conceptual

Research Methodology (RM):


Is a highly intellectual human activity used in the
investigation of a problem
Deals specifically with the manner in which data is
collected, analyzed and interpreted
A formalized approach to conduct research
A series of steps and deliverables

frameworks and assumptions used to inform research

The general approach to inquiry in a given field


Represents a way to develop research
systematically, a way to do scientific inquiry
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

Research Methodology - 3
A research methodology consist of phases, subphases, which will guide the researchers in their
choice of the methods, techniques, procedures, tools,
etc., appropriate at each stage of the research and
also help to plan, manage, control and evaluate the
progress of research

Research Methods

Research Methodology in Engineering/Science


Is a collection of methods, procedures, techniques,
tools and documentation aids which will help
researchers in their efforts to conduct a research in
the field of Engineering/Science
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methods

Types of Research Methods

Research Method/Design:
Specific Methods, Techniques, or Procedures
used to conduct research or collect and analyze
data
Specific techniques, tools or procedures applied
to achieve a given objective
Research methods in engineering include
mathematical analysis, simulation,
measurements (data gathering), experimentation,
development of algorithm, software development,
comparative analysis, etc.
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

Field & lab experiments


Surveys
Formal methods (e.g. mathematical modelling)
Action research
Case studies
Grounded theory
Ethnography

Which one should be used?


Depends on the nature of the design
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Methodology vs. Methods - 1


Methodology
Methods
Explains the methods by which you The specific methods
1. may proceed with your research
by which you conduct
research into a topic

Research Methods vs.


Methodology

Involves the learning of the various Involve conduct of


techniques that can be used in the experiments, tests,
2. conduct of research, conduct of
surveys and the like
tests, experiments, surveys and
critical studies
Aims at the employment of the
3. correct procedures to find out
solutions

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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95

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Aim at finding solutions


to research problems

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Methodology vs. Methods - 2

Methodology vs. Methods - 3


We can say that Research Methodology has many
dimensions and Research Methods do constitute a
part of the research methodology.

Methodology
Methods
If the subject into which you
If the subject into which
conduct a research is a scientific you conduct a research is
subject or topic
a scientific subject or topic
then research methodology
then the research
pertaining to the scientific
methods include the
topic involves the steps
experiments, tests,
regarding how to go about
study of various other
conducting the research, the
results of different
tools of research, advanced
experiments performed
techniques that can be used in
in relation to the topic
the conduct of the
or the subject and the
experiments, etc.
like
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

The scope of research methodology is wider than that


of research methods

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Choice of Methodology & Methods

98

Types of Research Questions


Generally we have 3 types of questions:
1. Descriptive questions
2. Difference questions
3. Relationship questions

What is the nature of the problem being investigated?


Is the problem being investigated subjective or
objective?
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

Selecting Appropriate Methodology

Depends on
Research Questions/Problems
Research Aims/Goals/Objectives
Researcher Beliefs and Values
Researcher Skills
Time and Funding

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This general classification scheme helps not only


with the design of the study, but also in choosing
the type of data analysis procedure

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Descriptive Questions

Difference Questions

Purpose:
Seeks to describe phenomena or characteristics of a
particular group of subjects being studied
Answers the question what is
Asking questions of the research participants
Testing or measuring their performance
Survey research
Qualitative research

Purpose:
Seeks to make comparisons between or within
groups of interest
Often associated with experimental research
Is there a difference between the control group
and the experimental group?
Treatment vs. control
Pre-test vs. post-test comparisons
Comparison of one group to another on the basis of
existing characteristics
Non-experimental research

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

Relationship Questions
Purpose
To investigate the degree to which two or more
variables co-vary or are associated with each other

Module 2

Rather than analyzing the differences between


groups, researchers characterize the
relationships among them

Steps in Conducting
Research

Does not establish cause-and-effect


Only identifies extent of relationship between
variables

To fail to prepare is to prepare to fail


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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Steps of doing Research

Some Definitions
Research Skills

Irrespective of the category of a


research study, the steps followed
in conducting research are
essentially the same.

Skill: The learned capacity or talent to carry out


pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay
of time, energy, or both - Wikipedia.com
Most of the skills can be learnt or improved over
time, if one wants
Some talent is needed, but alone it is not enough
People with great talent and no skills obtain much
less than what they could do
Not only technical skills
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

105

Research Methodology

106

This marks the beginning of a research study and is


the most difficult and important step. This involves:
1. Identifying and stating the problem in specific
terms;
2. Identifying the variables in the problem situation
and defining them adequately;
3. Generating tentative guesses (hypotheses) about
the relation of the variables or in other words the
solution of the problem, or writing explicitly the
questions (research questions) for which answers
are sought; and
4. Evaluating the problem for its research ability.

The formulation of a problem is often


more essential than its solution
- Albert Einstein
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

Selecting and Defining a Problem

1. Selecting and
Defining a Problem

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Selecting and Defining a Problem


Describing Methodology of Research
Collecting Data
Analyzing and Interpreting Results
Drawing Conclusion

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Selecting and Defining a Problem

Research Problem or Question

All this is not done in a vacuum


To achieve this, you must review the literature
related to the problem to know what other
researchers have done and discovered and to identify
the possible methodology for conducting the research

The foundation of the research process


First, and arguably the most important, step

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Recall that a Research Problem can be


Unanswered question
Unsolved problem
Statement of inquiry
Concern
Query

Selecting a Research Topic

4. Newness / Relevance
5. Manageability
Expertise, time, resources
Free from personal bias
6. Feasibility
Time constraints
Ethical constraints
Organizational support
Availability of equipment
7. After graduation employment possibilities

Answer
1. Personal interest / Passion, Curiosity
Most important
2. Importance / Contribution to the field
3. Significance
Theoretical value
Practical value
Timeliness
External review
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Selecting a Research Topic

What are some considerations when


selecting a research topic?

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Sources of Research Topics

Refining Your Topic


Refinement needed for effective and efficient research
Narrow your topic
Identify a theoretical framework
Specifically and unambiguously define terms
State research questions and hypotheses

Discussion with faculty


Faculty ongoing projects (if any)
Previous student projects (B. Sc. M. Sc to PhD)
Peer-reviewed journals in your field
Personal experiences
Existing literature Recommendations for future
research

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

1-2

A literature review will help you


See if your idea has been tried before
Include all relevant constructs
Select instruments
Anticipate common problems
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Finding a Research Problem - 1

Which category do you fall into?


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114

Finding a Research Problem - 2

Three categories of people selecting a research


problem
1. Those who know precisely what they want to do
and have a well conceived problem
2. Those who have many interest areas and are
having difficulty deciding exactly what they want to
study
3. Those who do not have any idea about a
worthwhile research problem

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From where ???????


Theoretical basis
Professional practice
Personal experience
Curiosity
Controversy
Replication
Literature Review
Other People
...???
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

116

Finding a Research Problem - 3

How to get a Good Idea

Requires that you do a Literature Review on the


subject of interest
Articles in Professional Journals, Magazines,
Conferences, etc.
Electronic Abstracts and Indexes
Web Searches
Books, Monographs, Government Reports
Professional Standards
Legislation and Regulations Reports
Journalistic Sources
Advocacy Groups
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Talk to a mentor and other knowledgeable


professionals about the research interest
Develop research problem that matches your
interests, background and training
Base research problem on current state of knowledge
Research problem should present logical next step
in progression from what is known, to important
issue that is not known
Determine that the research problem is addressable
by some methodology/methods
Identify research resources as well as any constraints
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Getting Started

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118

Problem Formulation

The absolute requirement for a research project is a


good idea

Perhaps the most important step in the research


process is problem formulation

The problem formulated from this idea must be:


Clear and testable

A well-defined study begins with a clearly defined


problem/question

Of limited scope (i.e. can be completed in less


than a lifetime)

This is the purpose of the study, i.e., to solve a


problem or answer a question

Important as well as interesting

The problem is rarely clear-cut

New, unique, extend knowledge, solve an


important problem

Slight variations in research questions can lead to


substantial changes in the research process
Drives decisions related to research design,
measurement, sampling, etc.

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

120

Problem Formulation

Steps in Identifying the Problem

Some questions to ask during problem formulation


Is additional background information necessary?
What are specific research questions and what
information is needed to make the decision?
How will the information be utilized?
Should research be conducted?

1. Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you


2. Dissect the broad area into subareas
3. Select what is of most interest to you
4. Raise research questions
5. Formulate objectives
6. Assess your objectives
7. Double-check

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Determine Research Objectives - 1

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Determine Research Objectives - 2

Make sure you have a strong reason why such


research is worth doing
Study the impact?
Study the usage?
Performance studies
Program effectiveness
Etc.
Build your reasons based on facts (previous studies,
existing problems, etc.)
(See slide on the aims of research)

Actively involve yourself (and other experts) in


NARROWING and REFINING the problem

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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123

Narrowing the focus, Scope/Population


Situation (time, condition, subject availability,
researchers readiness, resources available, etc.)
Measurements
Issue(s) dealt with?
Setting the scope of the problem (this is my lineI
wont go beyond it)

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The Scientific Method

Ten Commandments for Picking a


Research Project

Systematic; cyclic; series of logical steps.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Pick an area on the basis of your interest


Look for an under occupied niche that has potential
Go to talks and read papers outside your area of interest
Build on a theme
Find a balance between low-risk and high-risk projects
Be prepared to pursue a project to any depth necessary
Anticipate the results before doing the study
Differentiate yourself from your mentor
Do not assume that clinical/laboratory research is easier
than basic/applied research
10. Focus, focus, focus
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Research Methodology

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Formulating a hypothesis
Developing the research plan
Collecting and analyzing the data
Interpreting results and forming conclusions

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126

Describing Methodology of Research


You need to state the purpose of the study and to define the
problem clearly
This guides you in deciding methodology of research which
involves:
1. Identifying the method of research;
2. Specifying the subjects of study (e.g. heat flow problem,
Performance Analysis, etc.);
3. Selecting an adequate representative sample of
subjects;
4. Selecting/constructing valid and reliable instruments for
measuring the variables in the problem; and
5. Selecting a research design and describing procedure to
be employed for conducting the research study.

2. Describing the
Methodology of Research

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Identifying the problem

127

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

128

Research Methodology

Collecting Data
This step involves conducting the study as per the
designed procedure (manipulating the experimental
variables in the case of an experimental method),
administering instruments for measuring variables
and/or gathering information through observation.
It also involves tabulating the data thus collected for
the purpose of analysis.

3. Collecting Data

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129

Data Collection Techniques - 1

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Data Collection Techniques - 2

Secondary research not necessary


Survey Research
Lots of ways to collect data
Measurement
Constructs / Variables
Equipment
Frequency of data collection
Numerical methods
Simulating
Programming
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Stage in the
Process
Determine
data collection
method and
forms

131

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Typical Questions
Can existing data be used to advantage?
What is to be measured? How?
What is the source of the data?
Can objective answers be obtained by asking people?
How should people be questioned?
Should the questionnaires be administered in person, over
the phone, or through the mail?
Should electronic or mechanical means be used to make the
observations?
Should structure or unstructured items be used to collect the
data?
Should the purpose of the study be made known to the
respondents?
Should rating scales be used in the questionnaire?
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Research Methodology

Data Collection Techniques - 3


Stage in the
Process
Design sample
and collect the
data

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Typical Questions
Who is the target population?
Is a list of population elements available?
Is a sample necessary?
Is a probability sample desirable?
How large should the sample be?
How should the sample be selected?
Who will gather the data?
How much supervision is needed?
What operational procedures will be
followed?
What methods will be used to ensure the
quality of the data collected?
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4. Analyzing and Interpreting


Results

133

Analyzing and Interpreting Results - 1

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134

Analyzing and Interpreting Results - 2

When the results of the study are generated, what do you


do with it?

After completing the analysis results are tied together or


summarized

Analyzed to provide information for testing the


hypotheses

The results are interpreted in the light of the hypotheses


and/or the research problem

Appropriate statistical methods of analysis are used to


test the hypotheses

Results must be discussed in relation to:


the existing body of knowledge,

You can perform the analysis manually, by using a hand


calculator or a computer as per the demands of the
problem, and the available facilities

consistencies and inconsistencies with the results of


other research studies, and
then the conclusions are drawn.
This is followed by writing the research report
This may be followed by making oral presentation

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

136

Research Methodology

Analyzing and Interpreting Results - 3


Edit / clean / code the data
Analyze
Interpret

5. Planning and Managing


Research Project

Stage in the Process Typical Questions


Analyze and interpret the Who will handle the editing of the
data
data?
How will the data be coded?
Who will supervise the coding?
What tabulations / statistical tests /
analysis techniques will be used?

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Learning the skills of research


management
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Research Plan - 1

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138

Research Plan - 2

A successful research project must have a written


research plan

Purposes of a written research plan


Forces the researcher to think through every aspect
of the study
Facilitates the evaluation of the proposed study
Provides detailed procedures to guide the study
A well thought out research plan
saves time,
provides structure to the study,
reduces the probability of costly mistakes, and
generally results in higher quality research study

A research plan is a detailed description of the


procedures that will be used to investigate the
problem
General components of a research plan
A justification for the hypotheses or exploration of
the research problem
A detailed presentation of the steps to be followed
in conducting the study
A research plan can be articulated in a proposal
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

140

Research Plan - 3

Research Plan - 4

A strategy must be developed for gathering and


analyzing the information that is required to test the
hypotheses or answer the research question
Four parts:
Selection of a relevant research methodology
Identification of subjects or participants
Description of the data-gathering procedures
Specification of the data analysis techniques
Pilot studies, preliminary results, , all must be
determined in advance!

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

A research plan must itemize the following:


A clear and specific objective(s)
The responsibility matrix
All planned activities to be undertaking which is
finite and bounded
All deliverables must be itemized and justified
Most research projects operate under constraints
What are the constraints on your project ?

141

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Research Project Constraints

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142

Project Management Tools

Time? How long does it take to take to do research

To plan a project in detail - essentially when you need


to allocate funding or resources - you will need to
analyse it in detail.

Clarity of scope
What are you trying to achieve in the research?

Some available tools fort analysis

Are you clear on the limits of the investigations?

1. Mind Map

How will you know when the project is complete?


Access to literature / resources

2. Drill Down

Access to supervisor

3. Gantt Charts

Funding

4. Risk Analysis

Publishable quality
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Mind Map - 1

Mind Mapping - 2

One of the challenges of learning is that


understanding something is not sufficient to
remembering it

Students at a leading university who received an A


on the final exam were given the same exam a month
later

Thinking that you understand what you have seen,


heard, or read can actually short-circuit your memory,
if you neglect to create mental associations for recall

None of them passed it, proving that the final exam


was final indeed

Unless you train your memory it is likely to get worse


over time, not better

Drawings have been used for centuries to analyze


problems and map out information

Unless you retain and review what you have learned,


you are likely to lose 80% of it within 24 hours

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Mind Map - 3

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Mind Mapping - 4

A mind map is a graphical way to represent ideas and


concepts

Mind Mapping trains your mind for more efficient


retention and recall

It reinforces your understanding, giving you a visual


framework on which to organize and associate ideas

Mind maps are tools which help you think and learn

It is a visual thinking tool that helps in structuring info,


helping you to better analyze, comprehend,
synthesize, recall, and generate new ideas

Mind Maps store everything you need on one page,


and encode the info in memory-rich nuggets for easy
recall

University students have found mind maps useful

Useful at the earliest stage of a project


Set out all possibilities and issues
Helps gives structure to project
Makes linkages more evident
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Mind Mapping - 5

Mind Mapping - 6

Compact notes improve recall


Learning without note taking forces you to go
back and review from scratch
On the other hand, taking extensive notes provides
too much information and too few memory cues
Use key words, symbols, and pictures packed with
meaning and associations that work for you.
Weave them together by color, positioning, outlines,
or arrows
For more information:
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newISS_01.htm
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Test Drive Mind Maps

project

Why is this project


happening ?

risks

How is it happening ?
(methodology)

impact
Challenges
for me
Prof. Okey Ugweje

To plan a project in detail requires that you analyze it


in detail and then allocate resources
The drill down technique enables you to do this
It is a simple technique for breaking complex
problems down into progressively smaller parts
A technique used to identify all tasks associated with
a project
Drill down is useful for identifying all the tasks
involved, but one of the most difficult elements of
project planning is the allocation of time to each task

Why am I doing research ?

the future

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Drill Down - 1

In the centre of the page, write a phrase which


summarises your research idea
Now allow your ideas to flow..
for me

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Who will benefit ?

project

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Drill Down - 2

Drill Down - 3

Usually people vastly underestimate the amount of


time needed to implement projects

Drill Down is important to get time estimates right for


two main reasons:

This is true particularly when they are not familiar with


the task to be carried out
They forget to take into account unexpected events or
unscheduled high priority work
People also often simply fail to allow for the full
complexity involved with a job

Time estimates drive the setting of deadlines for


delivery of projects, and hence peoples'
assessments of your reliability
They often determine the allocation of resources
and hence their efficiency
It will show exactly where you need further info

At this stage you are learning the skills of research


management so ask for input from more experienced
researchers about your plan.
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Drill Down - 4

Keep on drilling down into points until you fully


understand the factors contributing to the project
If you cannot break them down using the knowledge
you have, then carry out whatever research is
necessary to understand the point
Alternatively, discuss this with your supervisor
Drilling into a question helps you to get a much
deeper understanding of it
The process helps you to recognise and understand
the factors that contribute to it
Drill Down prompts you to link in information that you
had not initially associated with a problem

A little to the right, write down a list of points relating


to the project:
reasons for doing the project,
ideas about methodology,
plans for evaluation, etc.
This process of breaking the problem down into its
component part is called 'drilling down'.
For each of these points, repeat the process
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Drill Down - 5

For this technique, start by writing the project aim


down on the LHS of a large sheet of paper

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Drill Down Example Bank Robbery


Get a job in bank
Research what
is in vault

Involve a bank
insider
Use press and
financial
knowledge

Rob Bank and


get away

Buy house nearby


Get into
vault

Get away

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Dig tunnel

How will money be


laundered?

Assignment
You are required to plan and organise a conference
at FUT Minna
Drill down the different tasks which must be achieved
for a successful event

Will the cash be


identifiable?
Where will we buy
construction
equipment?
Has anyone done
this before?
Set up business to
hide soil removal
Get plans of
building
Buy construction
equipment

Where do we lie low?


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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Gantt Chart - 1

Gantt Chart - 2

A project (e.g., your Thesis) is a collection of tasks


that must be completed in minimum time or at
minimal cost
A Gantt chart, commonly used in project
management, is one of the most popular and useful
ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed
against time.
On the left of the chart is a list of the activities and
along the top is a suitable time scale.
Each activity is represented by a bar;
The position and length of the bar reflects the start
date, duration and end date of the activity.
This allows you to see at a glance:

This allows you to see at a glance:


What the various activities are
When each activity begins and ends
How long each activity is scheduled to last
Where activities overlap with other activities, and by
how much
The start and end date of the whole project
To summarize, a Gantt chart shows you what has to
be done (the activities) and when (the schedule).

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Gantt Chart - 3

Gantt Chart - 4
You can use Gantt Chart to:
Lay out your research tasks to be completed
Show when these tasks should be carried out
Assist the allocation of resources is necessary
Work out the critical path for a task that must be
complete at a particular date
Identify relationships between research tasks
Estimate time for each task such as
Completing chapters
Conducting experiment or programming
Allocate time for meetings, information gathering

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Projects Risks

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Risks in the bank job

Identify sources of risk

Get caught digging tunnel

Assess likelihood of risk

Tunnel collapses

Assess magnitude of risk

Tunnel route blocked by pipes / rock

Develop response

Vault empty / disappointing


Forensic evidence left

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Sources of Risk in Master/ Research


Discover that someone has already done it!

If you discover or anticipate a delay, it is essential to


take action
Report the implications of delays
Discuss changes in plans- involve others so they
can make suggestions
Redirect resources
Avoid persecution
Respond early
Be flexible
Involve your supervisor(s) and others

Your laptop with all your records is stolen or crashes


Unable to get hold of a key sources of information
Supervisor leaves University and takes up another
job elsewhere
You did not finish on schedule as required by the
University and gets expelled
Loss of motivation

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Behind Schedule ?

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Research Methodology

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Module Learning Objectives


Identify the objectives/goals/function of reviewing the
literatures

Module 3

Discuss what is meant by literature review


Identify the processes of reviewing literatures.
Enumerate steps/process of literature review

Literature Review

Start the literature review for course project


Enumerate the components of literature review

Analyzing the past to prepare for the future


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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

1-2

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What is a Literature Review? - 1

What is Literature Review? - 2

Literature review (or surveys) is a review of scholarly


articles, books and other sources relevant to a
particular issue, area of research or theory
A Literature Review (LR) seeks to describe,
summarize, evaluate, clarify, and/or integrate the
content of primary reports
It aims to review the critical points of current
knowledge on a particular topic
Its brings the reader up to date with current literature
on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such
as the justification for future research in the area
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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LR is central to the research process and can help


refine a research question through determining
inconsistencies in a body of knowledge
It can help inspire new research innovations & ideas
while creating greater understanding about a topic
It is an integral part of the entire research process
and makes a valuable contribution to almost every
step of the research
Identify information, methods and ideas that may be
relevant to your project

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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What is Literature Review? - 3

What is Literature Review? - 4

Undertaking a LR requires:
1. identification of a topic of interest,
2. searching and retrieving the appropriate literature,
3. analyzing and synthesizing the findings, and
4. writing a report
Reviewing the literature involves:
searching,
collecting,
prioritising,
reading with a purpose and seeking out key issues and
themes, and
then presenting and discussing these critically.

Please note that literature review is NOT just a


summary of the literature
Rather it is an organized synthesis of each subtopic
discussed about the larger topic.
It requires a synthesis of different subtopics to come
to a greater understanding of the state of knowledge
on a larger issue

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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It works very much like a jigsaw puzzle


The individual pieces (arguments) must
be put together in order to reveal the
whole (state of knowledge)
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What is Literature Review? - 5

Reasons for Literature Review - 1

For example, one section of a LR might read as follows:


Researcher A suggests that X is true. Researcher
B also argues that X is true, but points out that the
effects of X may be different from those suggested by
Researcher A...
It is clear that subtopic X is the main idea covered in
these sentences. Researchers A and B agree that X is
true, but they disagree on Xs effects. There is both
agreement and disagreement, but what links the two
arguments is the fact that they both concern X.

A literature review has a number of functions:


Bring clarity and focus to your research
question/problem
Improve your methodology
Broaden your knowledge base in your research
area
Contextualise your findings

More on this later


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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Reasons for Literature Review - 2

Reasons for Literature Review - 3

1. Bring clarity and focus to your research problem


LR can play an extremely important role in shaping
your research problem
It helps define the relationship between research
problem and the body of knowledge in the area
Enables a novice researcher to gain insight into
suitable research designs, as well as providing
information on data collection and analysis tools
Identify similar work and other people working
in the same fields
Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory
previous studies (to identify opposing views)

2. Improve your methodology


LR acquaints you with the methodologies that have
been used by others to find answers to questions
similar to the one you are investigating
Tells you if others have used procedures and
methods similar to the ones that you are proposing
Helps you to identify which procedures and
methods worked well for them and what pitfalls
they have faced with them

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Reasons for Literature Review - 4

Reasons for Literature Review - 5

3. Broaden your knowledge base in your research


area
LR ensures that you read widely around the subject
area in which you intend to conduct research study
Allows you to know what others have found regarding
same or similar questions, what theories have been
put forward and what gap exit in the research area
Avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least,
stop you from making same mistakes as others)
Increases your breadth of knowledge of the subject
Ensures the chosen research problems are
researchable

4. Contextualise your findings

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Qualities of a good Literature Review

178

What is the problem and why is it important?


Is the problem clearly defined?
try to state the problem as simply as you can
Is the research methodology well stated?
Hows the data being created and manipulated?
Is the manipulated data sufficiently interpreted?
What is the contribution of the study?
Is the conclusion related to the problems?
Is the evidence sufficient enough to support
conclusion?

A logical flow of ideas;


Current and relevant references with consistent,
appropriate referencing style;
Proper use of terminology; and
An unbiased and comprehensive view of the
previous research on the topic

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Points to Discuss in Literature Review

A good literature review is characterized by:

Prof. Okey Ugweje

LR helps identify how your findings compare with the


existing body of knowledge
LR helps answer questions to your questions compared to
what other have found
What contribution have you been able to make to the
existing body of knowledge?
How your finding differ from others?
Carry on from where others have already reached
reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of
existing knowledge and ideas
Provide intellectual context for your own work, enabling you
to position your project relative to others

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Types of Literature Review - 1

Types of Literature Review - 2

Types of literature reviews include


Narrative or traditional;
Systematic review;
Meta-analysis; and
Meta-synthesis.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Narrative or traditional
This type of review critiques/summarizes the
literature and draws conclusions about the topic in
question
The literature must be relevant studies and
knowledge that address the subject area
It is typically selective in the material it uses,
although the criteria for selecting specific sources
for review are not always apparent to the reader
It is useful in gathering together a volume of
literature in a specific subject area and summarizing
and synthesizing it
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Types of Literature Review - 3

182

Systematic review
Systematic reviews use a more rigorous and welldefined approach to reviewing the literature in a
specific subject area
It is used to answer well-focused questions about a
problem
It detail the time frame and methods used to
evaluate and synthesize findings of the question

To provide the reader with a comprehensive


background for understanding current knowledge and
highlighting the significance of new research.
It can inspire research ideas by identifying gaps or
inconsistencies in a body of knowledge, thus helping
the researcher to determine or define research
questions or hypotheses
It can help refine or focus a broad research question
and is useful for both topic selection and topic
refinement.
It can also be helpful in developing conceptual or
theoretical frameworks
Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Types of Literature Review - 4

Purpose of Narrative or traditional Review

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Types of Literature Review - 5

Types of Literature Review - 6

To assess the reliability/validity of the review, the


reviewer needs to present the precise criteria used
to:
Formulate the research question
Set inclusion or exclusion criteria
Select and access the literature
Assess the quality of the literature reviewed
Analyze, synthesize and disseminate the
findings.

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Types of Literature Review - 7

The purpose of a systematic review is to provide as


complete a list as possible of all the published
studies relating to a particular subject area
While traditional reviews attempt to summarize
results of a number of studies, systematic reviews
use explicit and rigorous criteria to identify,
critically evaluate and synthesize all the literature
on a particular topic

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Types of Literature Review - 8

Meta-analysis
Meta-analysis is the process of taking a large body
of quantitative findings and conducting statistical
analysis in order to integrate those findings and
enhance understanding
It is seen as a form of systematic review which is
largely a statistical technique
It involves taking the findings from several studies
on the same subject and analyzing them using
standardized statistical procedures
This helps to draw conclusions and detect patterns
and relationships between findings

Meta-synthesis
Meta-synthesis is the non-statistical technique used
to integrate, evaluate and interpret the findings of
multiple qualitative research studies
Unlike meta-analysis, where the ultimate intention is
to reduce findings, meta-synthesis involves
analyzing and synthesizing key elements in each
study, with the aim of transforming individual
findings into new conceptualizations and
interpretations

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Knowledge Continuum of LR - 1

Knowledge Continuum of LR - 2

Thus there are levels of competencies when completing


conceptual task (e.g., literature review) [2])
Howell formulated a 4-phase knowledge continuum

Unconscious Incompetence:
being unaware of something, its relationship to other
things, and how it can be used in conjunction with
other things
Conscious Incompetence:
becoming aware that one does not know what can
be known
Conscious Competence:
beginning to surmise, envisage and hypothesise the
nature of something, its relationship to other things,
how it can be used, but not yet being able to use it as
intended

Unconscious Incompetence

Conscious Incompetence

Conscious Competence

Unconscious Competence
Levels of competency when completing a conceptual task ([2], [3], [4]

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Knowledge Continuum of LR - 3

Knowledge Continuum of LR - 4

Unconscious Competence:
achieving expert level of knowledge of something
and its relationship to other things, how it can be
used, can conceptualise it as newly understood
events, and being able to utilise it, and understand
the general interrelationship and interaction
potentials between that thing and other things

Aligning Research Problems, Questions and Aims


In a well-designed research project, the researcher
has a clear conceptualisation of what the general
problem and the questions one should answer
through ones own research
Once you understand the general problem and
research question, you have to expound them in
greater detail into more specific sub-problems and
sub-questions

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Student Knowledge Continuum - 1

Student Knowledge Continuum - 2

Phase 1: Unconscious Incompetence


Many students start doing LR, collecting data with no
defined problem statement,
They read each reference in detail rather than using
abstracts and summaries to establish relevance,
They start summarising the literature with no plan in
mind, and end up with a document without a proper
layout, showing no coherence and progression,
In many cases ending up perpetrating intentional or
unintentional plagiarism,
This is the first and probably the worst case scenario,
It reflects a mind state of unconscious incompetence,
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Phase 2: Conscious Incompetence


This is when students begin to appreciate how little
they do know of the topic
They set out without a plan and write
unsystematically without knowing where they must
stop creating pages upon pages of copious notes
They rely on the supervisor to tell them what they
must leave out
This is the stage of conscious incompetence

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Student Knowledge Continuum - 3

Student Knowledge Continuum - 4

Phase 3: conscious competence


Student becomes aware of the fact that s/he is
coming to grips with the major references that relate
to the problems
Due to the students newfound confidence it is
sometimes difficult for the supervisor to properly
advise the student what to do and not do,
This leads to disagreements about what should and
shouldn't be included in the LR and often leading to
unfounded mistrust on the side of the student.

Phase 4: unconscious competence


The student has become a true researcher
Student creates proper problem statement and
extracts key concepts from it for refereed literature
Using key concepts derived from problem statement,
the problem statement itself becomes the filter that
ensures that only literature relevant is reviewed
It also enables the researcher to determine to what
extent identified problems have been solved,
enabling the researcher to remove solved problems
and reformulate the original problem statement, the
research objectives and the research questions

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Procedure for Literature Review - 1

Procedure for Literature Review - 2

When performing the review:

There are 5 steps involved in conducting a


literature review:

Start searching professional journals


Begin with the most recent articles you can find
Keep track of relevant articles in a bibliography
Dont be discouraged if work on the topic is already
underway.

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Procedure for Literature Review - 3

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Search for existing literature in your area of study;


Review the literature selected;
Develop a theoretical framework;
Develop a conceptual framework;
Writing up the literature reviewed

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Procedure for Literature Review - 4

1. Search for existing literature in your area of study


Start with at least some idea of the broad area of
the problem you wish to investigate, in order to set
parameters for your search
Search with the keyword of the research topic
Key Words
Essential for searching the literature
Must be both general and specific
E.g. Patch antennas, dielectric, electrically small,
mutual coupling

Use broader keyword (term) if the documents


retrieved are few
Use narrower keyword if the documents retrieved
are too much
Use synonym or related terms to enhance the
search
Employ Boolean operator: AND, OR, NOT to control
the search
Start looking for another related articles through:
New search terms found in the related articles
List of references in the chosen article

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

200

Procedure for Literature Review - 5

Procedure for Literature Review - 6

Pick the most recent and related article to start


with
Be very careful to check your sources when doing
your literature review
Only peer-reviewed articles are acceptable for
citation
Professional conferences and journals often have
each article reviewed by multiple people before it is
even recommended for publication
IEEE digital libraries, IEE, ACM and Elsevier, are
good places to start looking for legitimate research

Please note that many articles in the Internet


and trade magazines are not peer reviewed!

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

The Internet can be a good source of information,


but it is also full of pseudo-science, poor
research and non-peer reviewed documents
Make sure you verify the claims of any
documentation that has not been peer reviewed by
other professionals in the industry

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Procedure for Literature Review - 7

Reports

Conference Proceedings

Records

Magazine

Archives

Letters

Interviews

2.

Internet
Data bases

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Procedure for Literature Review - 8

Sources of information include


Observations
Books
Journals

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Review the literature selected


Now that you have identified relevant articles, start
reading them critically to pull together relevant
themes and ideas
If you do not have a theoretical framework, use
separate sheets to group ideas together
Then slot the findings from the reviewed material
into each idea or framework
As you read further, go on slotting the info where it
logically belongs under the themes developed

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Procedure for Literature Review - 9

Procedure for Literature Review - 10

Where there are significant differences of opinion


among researchers, give your opinion about the
validity of these differences
Ascertain the areas in which little or nothing is
known - the gaps that exist in the body of
knowledge

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

3. Develop a theoretical framework


As you start reading the literature, you will soon
discover that the problem you wish to investigate
has its roots in a number of theories that have been
developed from different perspectives

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Procedure for Literature Review - 11

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

206

Procedure for Literature Review - 12

4. Develop a conceptual framework


The conceptual framework stems from the
theoretical framework
It is usually based on theoretical framework which
becomes the basis of your study

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

5. Writing up the literature reviewed


While reading the literature for theoretical
background of your study, you will realize that
certain themes have emerged
List the main ones, converting them into
subheadings.
subheadings should be precise, descriptive of the
theme, and follow a logical progression
Now, under each subheading, record the main
findings with respect to the question, highlighting
the reasons for and against an argument if they
exist, and identifying gaps and issues
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Structuring the Literature Review - 1

Structuring the Literature Review - 2

Two popular methods of structuring LR are:


1. Concept-Centric
Concepts determine the organizing framework of
a review
This method synthesizes the literature
2. Author-Centric
The author determine the organizing framework
of a review
This method fails to synthesize the literature

You may recall that LR is NOT just a summary of the


different sources

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Structuring the Literature Review - 3

Topic: _________________________________
Source
#2

Source
#3

Source
#4

One way that seems particularly helpful in organizing


LR is the synthesis (or Concept) matrix.
The matrix is a chart that allows a researcher to sort
and categorize the different arguments presented on
an issue
Federal University of Technology, Minna

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As you examine your first source, you will work


vertically in the column belonging to that source,
recording information about each significant idea
presented in the work
Follow a similar pattern for your following sources

Source
#K

As you find info that relates to already identified main


points, put it in the pertaining row.

Idea A
Idea B

In your new sources, you may find new ideas that you
need to add to your list at the left

--Idea J

Prof. Okey Ugweje

It is especially difficult to organize the info in a way


that makes the writing process simpler

Structuring the Literature Review - 4

Across the top of the chart you record sources, and


along the side of the chart you record the main points
of argument on the topic of research, and Vice Versa

Source
#1

For this reason, it can be very difficult to keep your


research organized

Etc.
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Structuring the Literature Review - 5

Structuring the Literature Review - 6

All problem-based research therefore begins with


ignorance, because conducting research about
known subjects would be like reinventing the wheel
A well-designed research project has a clear
conceptualisation of what the general problem is, and
the questions to be answered through the research
A structured step-by-step approach facilitates the
production of a comprehensive, valid LR

1. Problem-research question alignment matrix


used to ensure that identified sub-problems are
properly aligned with the research questions
ensures that research process is problem-solution
oriented
extract sub-problems from general problem
statement, and
aligns research questions with each sub-problems

Matrix methods help achieve traction, coherence,


progression and closure in research
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Structuring the Literature Review - 7

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Structuring the Literature Review - 8

Flowchart demonstrating the alignment of a general problem and research question, and
reconceptualising them in greater detail as properly aligned subproblems and research
questions [5]

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2. Concept matrix
Used to present a concept-centric rather than an
author-centric LR
Ensures that LR is essentially a qualitative content
analysis of available published literature
Is a study of the research with the aim of collecting
information about its structure, process and
relationships
Thereby increasing familiarity of research object
and establishing the credibility of the project
Considers previous research, attempting to link it
with the study currently planned
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Matrix Method

Matrix Method

The matrix method of LR is a powerful and practical


research tool that forms the initial platform to
Help you sharpen the focus of your research and
Enable you to rapidly progress from initial level of
conscious incompetence to the level of unconscious
competence
This means that research mostly
Begins at a stage of total ignorance of research topic
Progresses to a realization of the extent of ones
ignorance,
To a stage of limited knowledge about the topic, and
If one persists, to a stage of expert knowledge of topic.

Matrix method protects the reviewer against ignorant


assumptions about the research topic due to lack of
knowledge about the topic under investigation

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Matrix analysis of LR can be used to summarize


complex aspects of knowledge of a topic and provide
an eagles eye perspective of the topic

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Concept Matrix Method - 1

Concept Matrix Method - 2

A Concept Matrix (CM) can help to organize and


constrain a literature review
There are no right or wrong matrices, but only
functional matrices
Constructing the matrix is based on personal
creativity, proficiency and originality of the researcher
(i.e., you)

You first generate the concept matrix by surveying only


the abstracts and summaries of references
Once the appropriate literature has been identified, you
commence with the literature survey proper
this entails a critical analysis of each reference to
identify potential solutions to the problems
This is followed by critical analysis of individual
references by comparative analysis of all references
that are listed under a particular concept to establish
differences of opinion,
converging opinions and
consensus among experts under review

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Concept Matrix Method - 3

Concept Matrix Method - 4

That is, references that have been ticked on a


particular column of the concept matrix are subjected
to critical comparative analysis

The key concepts on the matrix therefore become the


key concepts embedded in the headings in the LR

In this approach, you systematically read each article,


considers the validity, and classifies the reference
thematically
Importance is that you must realize that you cannot
use everything in an article but should instead
concentrate on aspects that relate to the problems
under investigation

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

The CM enables you to subject all literature to critical


comparative analysis
It also enables you to establish at a glance whether
you have identified enough references under each
concept
Realize that earlier versions of LR matrices may be
modified as your understanding of their research topic
grows

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Concept Matrix Method - 5

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Concept Matrix Method - 6

The layout of the Concept Matrix is straightforward


Leftmost column contains references to be reviewed
listed in abbreviated IEEE style
The head of each column displays a concept that was
extracted from the problem statement of the research

To determine the relevance of the reference, it is


sufficient to scan the abstract (where the content of
the reference is summarised prospectively) and the
summary/ conclusions section (where the content of
the reference is summarised retrospectively)

If a relevant concept is discussed in a particular


reference a 1 (one) is placed in the appropriate cell
In order to determine the relevance of a source you
do not have to waste time by reading the whole article

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Concept Matrix Method - 7


Economic
Development

Networked
World

Innovation

Readiness
Evaluation

Institutional
Development

Digital
Inclusiveness

Community
Development

E-Strategies

E-Schools

Access to ICT
Services

Barabash et al. [1]


Bridges.Org. [2]
Brown et al. [3]
Buckner and Stoner [4]
Cette et al. [5]
Chasia [6]
De Villiers [7]
Finlay [8]
Gilwald [9]
Govindsamy [10]
Hiralal [11]
Hoffman and Novak [12]
Jacobs and Herseiman [13]
Jiamton and Sills [14]
Kelly [15]
Markle Foundation [16]
Matthew [17]
Mbarika et al. [18]
Melody et al. [19]

E-Learning

References

E-Education
Policy

Concepts

Concept Matrix Method - 8

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

Atypicalconceptmatrixshowingwhichconceptsarediscussedinreferencesfora
literaturereviewoneReadiness[6]
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Access to ICT
Services

E-Schools

E-Strategies

Community
Development

Digital
Inclusiveness

Institutional
Development

Innovation

Readiness
Evaluation

Networked
World

Economic
Development

1
3
1
2
2
5
1
3
1
3
3
1
2
1
2
3
3
1
1

E-Learning

Total sources per concept


Barabash et al. [1]
Bridges.Org. [2]
Brown et al. [3]
Buckner and Stoner [4]
Cette et al. [5]
Chasia [6]
De Villiers [7]
Finlay [8]
Gilwald [9]
Govindsamy [10]
Hiralal [11]
Hoffman and Novak [12]
Jacobs and Herseiman [13]
Jiamton and Sills [14]
Kelly [15]
Markle Foundation [16]
Matthew [17]
Mbarika et al. [18]
Melody et al. [19]

E-Education
Policy

References

Total relevant
concept per
source

Concept Matrix Method

Concepts

2
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

This approach enables the you to conduct a critical


comparative LR of all references listed under each
concept
This approach frees you from the tyranny of being
trapped within a particular reference, and from merely
providing general paraphrases of references
It also enables supervisors to establish at a glance
that only relevant literature is being reviewed and
captured in the bibliography section
References that do not appear on the concept matrix
should not form part of the LR and should not be
included in the bibliography
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Concept Matrix Method - 10


With CM you can easily keep track of how many
references deal with more than one concept in the
overall topic under investigation as well as how many
sources deal with a particular concept
This allows the you to differentiate between core
references that deal with multiple aspects of the
research topic, and references of a more peripheral
nature, and with well researched and less well
researched concepts

A typical concept matrix with an added row indicating the total number of sources per
concept as well as the total number of relevant concepts per source that focuses on eReadiness [6]
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Concept Matrix Method - 11

Concept Matrix Method - 12

Benefits of concept matrix


Summarizes visually the number of sources per
concept,
Summarizes how many different relevant concepts
a particular reference covers enabling you to
distinguish
between primary and secondary references,
between major and minor concepts

Bar graph showing the number of sources per concept on the concept matrix
for a literature review that focuses on e-Readiness [6]
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How to Review Literatures? - 1

How to Review Literatures? - 2

Compare:
Try to find the similarities among literatures
Explain how each article is similar to the others.
Contrast:
Try to find the differences among literatures
Explain how each article differ to the others
Criticize:
Put your own opinion on what is written in the
literatures
Criticize the strength and weakness of the research

Synthesize:
Combine several literatures into an idea
Summarize:
Restate the article with your own words in a concise
way

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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E.g. of Problematic Literature Review - 1

E.g. of Problematic Literature Review - 2

Case One
The student was a doctoral candidate and could not
determine when to stop his literature review and
ended with a literature review of 180 pages. When
his supervisor requested that the student cut this
down, the response was You tell me what to cut
out. The student belonged to the conscious
incompetence branch of the competency quadrant.
This student should never have been accepted for a
doctoral study.

Case Two
another doctoral candidate who argued that he was using
grounded theory to inductively generate a new theoretical
framework from collected data because he could not find
enough literature to review on his topic. The supervisor
agreed that the grounded theory approach could be
appropriate if the research theme falls within an emerging
field of knowledge generation. Surprisingly, produced 100.
The supervisor then pointed out that the grounded theory
approach would be inappropriate because the student had
found more than enough theoretical literature to review. The
supervisor argued that the student should not use grounded
theory and that he should reduce the theory to at least 45
pages.

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E.g. of Problematic Literature Review - 3

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Where to Place Literature Survey

Case Three
The business student started a proposal and was
advised to use headings. He used some headings
and when advised to list a specific heading argued
that he would slot it into the introduction. The
students supervisor eventually could not make out
head or tail of the unsystematic literature review
that was presented.

A literature review may constitute an essential


chapter of a thesis or dissertation or essential section
on a peer-reviewed article
Usually, LR is placed in Chapter 2 of your thesis or
dissertation (more on this in later modules)
Recall that reviewing literatures will enhance the
statement of the problem(s)
Reviews must have logical connection to the
problems statement

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

References and Citation - 1


All written research presentations (proposal and
reports) must have references and citations
Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging
sources of information and ideas that are used in the
research in a way that uniquely identifies its source

Referencing / Citation

References are the empirical support for claims in a


report that are not directly observed by the researcher

Validity of your research

They are needed for researchers to remain empirical


in their descriptions of topics
References and Citations are just as important as
any other part of your report

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

References and Citation - 2

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Why do we Reference?

With citation you will avoid repeating what has been


published

To avoid plagiarism accusations

Citation:
Shows your credibility as a researcher
Gives proper credit to other authors and
researchers
Protects you from accusations of plagiarism

To demonstrate support for your ideas, opinions and


point of view

To display a knowledge of current literature

To provide examples or evidence to support own


research
To acknowledge the source of others work
To allow readers to follow-up and read cited authors
argument

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

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When do we Reference?

References List - 1

Cite sources whenever you are quoting,


paraphrasing, or summarizing work that is not yours

Reference section must include a list of ALL the


sources used in the research

Quoting directly is discouraged

Reference list allow readers to investigate the subject


in greater depth.

Facts, Figures, Ideas and Theories not common


knowledge
Information rewritten in your own words (paraphrase)
regardless of the sources

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A reference list contains only the source of


information that are cited in the report
Any source not cited in the text should not be
included in the list

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References List - 2

Reference/Citation Styles

All sources of information used in the proposal/report


must be cited regardless of the source:
Books
Journal, magazine
Conference Proceedings
Interviews
Lectures
Newspaper articles
Website

IEEE (Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers)


Engineering, Information Technology,
APA (American Psychological Association)
psychology, education, and other social sciences.
MLA (Modern Language Association)
literature, arts, and humanities.
AMA (American Medical Association)
medicine, health, and biological sciences.
Chicago Citation Style:
used with all subjects in the "real world" by books,
magazines, newspapers & non-scholarly publications

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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IEEE Citation Style - 1

IEEE Citation Style - 2

IEEE style is used primarily for publications in


engineering, electronics, telecommunications,
computer science and information technology

1. In Text Citation
Cite references in numerical order beginning with
the main text, not the preliminary pages.
Once you number the reference, use the same
number in all subsequent citations.

IEEE Author Tools web site at


www.ieee.org/web/publications/authors/.
The style is sometimes referred to as alphabetnumber system:
Citation by number from an alphabetically arranged
numbered reference list
The references are numbered in the order they are
mentioned in the text
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IEEE style encloses citation numbers within the text


of a paper in square brackets [1] rather than as
superscripts1 or in bracketed form (Ugweje, 2001),
It is not necessary to mention the author(s) of the
source unless it is relevant to your text.
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IEEE Citation Style - 3

IEEE Citation Style - 2


Similarly, it is almost never useful to give the dates of
references when you cite them in the text. If you do
include author names in text, list all authors if there
are one or two, but use et al. for more than two.
(Note that et al. is not italicized.) Examples:

Multiple References
Separate citation numbers with commas [3], [5]
To cite more than one source at a time:

Preferred
[1], [3], [5]
[1]-[5]

One author: Smith [1] reports


Two authors: Smith and Jones [12] report
Three or more authors: Smith et al. [23] report

Acceptable
[1, 5, 7]
[1-5]

It is not necessary to say in reference [27] ; the


phrase in [27] is sufficient.
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

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IEEE Citation Style - 4

IEEE Reference List - 1

Actual example in a Journal Article

2. Reference List:
List of all sources at the end of the work
List references in the order they were cited (numerical
order, starting with [1]), not alphabetical order.
Align bracketed numbers and flush left, forming their
own column that hangs out beyond the body of the
references
This is called a hanging indent (examples later)
Allow space such that reference bodies remain
aligned when bracketed numbers increase to double
and (if necessary) triple digits.

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

List only one reference per bracketed number.


The names of all authors should be given in the
reference list unless there are more than six, in
which case you may use et al. (no comma before
et) after the name of the first author.
Footnotes and other words and phrases not part of
the reference format should not be included in the
reference list. Phrases such as for example should
only be given in the text.

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IEEE Reference List - 3

IEEE Reference List - 2

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Style for Titles


Set the titles of books (handbooks and manuals),
periodicals, conference proceedings, and standards
in italics with headline-style capitalization
capitalize the first and last words, and all
important words in between;
Set the titles of articles, book chapters, reports,
theses and dissertations, conference papers and
presentations, and patents in quotation marks with
sentence-style capitalization
capitalize first word of title and subtitle, as well as
proper names and most initials
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IEEE Reference List - 5

IEEE Reference List - 4


Spacing
Please note the correct spacing and punctuation for
author names:

Abbreviations
Either spell out the entire name of each periodical,
or use accepted abbreviations. Either way, be
consistent.
Abbreviations are: vol., no., p. (1 page only), pp.
(range of pages), Jan., Feb., Mar. (optional), Apr.
(optional), Jun. (optional), Jul. (optional), Aug.,
Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.

D. L. Tao, C. Siva Ram Murthy, and S. Al Kuran


T.-C. Hsu and L. A. Stein-Rosenberg
1st Initial. 2nd initial. Last Name,
Do not write last name first

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Punctuation
Place punctuation inside quotation marks.
E.g, Periodicals.

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IEEE Reference List - 6

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IEEE Reference List - 7

Books

Journals

Enter full book title, as given on the copyright page


Capitalize all words in the title, except for "of," "and," "for,"
"in" etc.

[Citation Number] Author name[s], "article title,"journal title ,


volume number, issue number, month (abbrv.), pages,
publication year.

[1]

D. Jones, Technical Writing Style, Toronto: Allyn and Bacon,


1998.

[2]

D. Beer, R.F. Martin and P. Fingle, Photosensory


Transduction, New York: Jonh Willey & Sons, 1993.

[3]

A. Rezi and M. Allam, Techniques in array processing by


means of transformations, in Control and Dynamic Systems,
vol. 69, Multidimensional Systems, C. T. Leondes, Ed. San
Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1995, pp. 133-180.

[4]

K.A. Nelson, R.J. Dwayne Miller, D.R. Lutz, and M.D.


Fayer, "Optical generation of turntable ultrasonic waves,"
Jour of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 2, Feb., pp. 1144-1149.

[5]

V. Aalo, O. Ugweje, and R. Sudhakar, Performance


analysis of a DS/CDMA system with noncoherent M-ary
orthogonal modulation in Nakagami fading, IEEE Trans. on
Veh Tech., vol. 47, pp. 2029, Feb. 1998.

example of a chapter
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

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IEEE Reference List - 8

IEEE Reference List - 9


Reports

Conference Proceedings

Technical reports, internal reports, memoranda


Provide report number and month if available.

[Citation Number] Author name[s], "article title," conference


title, city of conference, month, publication year, pages.
The word in before the conference title is not italicized

[8]
[6]

[7]

O. C. Ugweje and V. A. Aalo, Performance of selection


diversity system in correlated Nakagami fading, in Proc.
IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf. (VTC97), Phoenix, AZ, May 1997,
pp. 1488-1492.

Ph.D. dissertation and Masters Thesis

S. Al Kuran, The prospects for GaAs MESFET technology


in dcac voltage conversion, in Proc. of the Fourth Annual
Portable Design Conf. 1997, pp. 137-142.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

K. E. Elliott and C. M. Greene, A local adaptive


protocol, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL,
Tech. Rep. 916-1010-BB, 1997

257

[9]

H. Zhang, Delay-insensitive networks, M.S. thesis,


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL,
1997.

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IEEE Reference List - 11

IEEE Reference List - 10

Course materials

Manuals
[10] Bell Telephone Laboratories Technical Staff,
Transmission System for Communications, Bell
Telephone Laboratories, 1995.
[11] Motorola Semiconductor Data Manual, Motorola
Semiconductor Products, Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 2007.

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[12]

O. C. Ugweje, Equalization Techniques, class notes


for EEE 513, Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering, Nigerian Turkish Nile University, Abuja,
Oct. 19, 2015.
- example of a handout
- (treat title as article, give specific date)

[13]

J.-M. Jin, Electromagnetic Field Theory. Class notes


for EEE 544, Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, 2008.
- example of a packet/book (treat title as book)

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IEEE Reference List - 12

IEEE Reference List - 13

Catalogs

Patents

[14] Catalog No. MWM-1, Microwave Components, M.


W. Microwave Corp., Brooklyn, NY.

[17] K. Kimura and A. Lipeles, Fuzzy controller


component, U. S. Patent 14,860,040, December
14, 1996.

Unpublished Sources
Standards
[15] T. I. Wein, private communication, Sept. 2005.
[18] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE
Standard 308, 1969.

[16] G. Kinneavy, An approach to graphs of linear


forms, unpublished.
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

IEEE Reference List - 14

Personal Communications (e.g., conversations,


letters, interviews, e-mails, phone talks, etc.)
IEEE style states that you cite only published works,
forthcoming published works, and unpublished
materials available to scholars in a library, a depository,
or an archive.

A. Harnack and G. Kleppinger, "Beyond the MLA


Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the
Internet." Kairos, [Online serial] 1 (2), (1996 Sum),
Available at: http://english.ttu.edu.kairos/1.2/

For interviews or other "non-recoverable" info,


referencing needs to be done in the text itself.
"In a personal interview with Bill Gates, he suggested
that he would soon rule the world."

[20] R. J. Vidmar. (1992, Aug.). On the use of atmospheric


plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors. IEEE Trans.
Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3), pp. 876-880. Available:
http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03-vidmar
- example of a journal article
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IEEE Reference List - 15

E- Sources (IEEE)
[19]

Federal University of Technology, Minna

"In a letter to the author, Professor Mueller detailed


his experiences with using this data collection
software."
263

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Examples

Harvard / APA Referencing - 1


A.k.a Name and year system
In-text Citation
(Author last name, initials, year), next to where the
information is cited
If 2 authors, then both last names are written.
If more than 2 authors, then only first authors
name is written followed by abbreviation et al.
If a single statement requires more than one citation
then citation are arranged chronologically from
oldest to more recent, separated by semicolons.

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Research Methodology

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Module Learning Objectives


Identify the first step of conducting research stating
the problem
Steps in the formulation of a research problem
Identify considerations in selecting a research
problem
Construct hypothesis or research questions

Module 4
Statement of the Problem

Determine research objectives

The formulation of a problem is often


more essential than its solution
- Albert Einstein
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Statement of the Problem - 1

Statement of the Problem - 2

Statement of the Problem (SoP) is a concise


statement of the problem that the research will
address

It presents justification, by direct reference to


previous work, that the problem is previously
unsolved
It will usually identify the key variables as well as give
some information about the scope of the study
It may present discussion of why it is worthwhile to
address this problem

A clear Statement of the Problem is essential to


original and worthwhile contribution to knowledge
A very specific statement which clearly identifies the
problem being studied
The SoP refines an idea into a problem or question
and make it sufficiently specific so that it is amenable
to investigation

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May include inherent sub-problems, if appropriate


Tells the reader how you will interpret the significance
of the subject matter under investigation

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Statement of the Problem - 3

Problem statement usually occur in the introduction or


beginning chapter of a research report

The answer to a question that you have posed

It introduces the problem to be discussed and (briefly)


describes the proposed solution

The solution for a problem you have identified


A statement that takes a position on a debatable
topic

The rest of the research gathers and organizes


evidence that will support solution of problem
Formulation of problem statement takes place after
an initial review of related literature and the distillation
process

By making direct reference, you must demonstrate


that problem has not been previously solved
that problem is worth answering

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Statement of the Problem - 4

A research statement of the problem can be:

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Statement of the Problem - 5

Purpose of Problem Statement

Controls the entire argument of your research


Determines what you are required to say
Determines what you cannot say
After research when you write a paper, every
paragraph in your paper exists in order to support
your research statement
Accordingly, if one of your paragraphs seems
irrelevant to your research, you have two choices: get
rid of the paragraph, or rewrite your paper
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Represents the reasons/motivation behind your


proposal (based on the specific domain of study).
It specifies the conditions you want to change or the
gaps in existing knowledge you intend to fill (this is
the specification of the research problem)
Should be supported by evidence
Specifies your hypothesis that suggests a solution to
the problem
Shows your familiarity with prior research on the topic
and why it needs to be extended
Even if the problem is obvious, your reviewers want
to know how clearly you can state it
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Key Points in Problem Statement

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Formulating a Research Problem

Demonstrate a precise understanding of and the


motivation for the problem you are attempting to solve
Clearly convey the focus of your project
Indicate the relationship of your project to larger
problems and justify why your particular focus has
been chosen
Demonstrate that your hypothesis is supported by
evidence and observations

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you


Dissect the broad area into subareas
Select what is of most interest to you
Raise research questions
Formulate objectives
Assess your objectives
Double-check

Demonstrate that your problem is doable and that


your experimental design is appropriate for validating
your hypothesis
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

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Identify a broad field of interest

Identify a broad field of interest

First you need to be knowledgeable about


your topic of interest
Read the literature - most likely it will
tell you what needs to be done
Especially workshop and conference
papers in the area of research
Use papers references to get to original
papers
Keep an annotated bibliography of
papers, noting (1) Main contribution (2)
Open questions (3) How it relates to
your interests, work
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Attend professional conferences/Seminar/Workshop


Carry a notebook to record notes, thoughts, etc.
Seek the advice of experts
Talk to experts when they visit your school
At conferences and workshops
Question previous works assumptions

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Dissect broad area into sub-areas

Select what is of most interest to you

You need to consider potential problems


Consider hot topics carefully
Thoroughly understand the problem
Break problem into manageable pieces
Develop methods that work for you
When to work deeply, broadly; when to put aside
Set aside blocks of time to focus on research
Work consistently on the problem

It is neither advisable nor feasible to study all


subareas
Go through your list and delete all those sub-areas in
which you are not very interested

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Raise research questions

Formulate Objectives

What is the effect of customer expectation on


customer satisfaction?
What is the effect of service quality on customer
satisfaction?
What is the effect of word of mouth communication on
customer satisfaction?

Your objectives grow out of your research questions


The main difference between objectives and research
questions is the way in which they are written
Research questions are obviously that questions

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Example:
1- To determine the effect of customer expectation on
customer satisfaction
2- To find out the effect of service quality on customer
satisfaction
3- To identify how word of mouth communication impact
on customer satisfaction

Formulate Objectives

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Objectives transform these questions into behavioral


aims by using action-oriented words such as:
'to find out',

Research Objective
To identify organizations
objectives for introducing
retirement schemes.
To describe the consequences
of early recruitment for
employees
To explore the effects of early
retirement for the organization

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Assess your objectives

Paraphrasing research questions as research


objectives
Research Question
Why have organizations
introduced early
retirement?
What are the
consequences of early
retirement schemes?

Federal University of Technology, Minna

'to determine',
'to ascertain' and 'to examine,
to measure,
to explore.
Examine your objectives to ascertain the feasibility of
achieving them in the light of the time, resources and
technical expertise at your disposal.
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Double-Check

that you are really interested in the study


that you agree with the objectives
that you have adequate resources
that you have the technical expertise to undertake the
study

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Characteristics of an Effective Research


Statement
A research answers the questions
How? or Why?
A research passes the
So what? test

Why should I care?


Why should others care?
Federal University of Technology, Minna

Interest,
Magnitude,
Measurement of concepts,
Level of expertise,
Relevance,
Availability of data,
Ethical issues.

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Qualities of Outstanding Research Problem


Research problem must contribute new knowledge
Research question must be important
Research problem should represent a sustainable
research interest
Research problems is the basis of peer-reviewed
publications, recognition
Common mistakes in developing a Research Problem
Dont try to be research-trendy
Avoid topics as opposed to clearly defined research
problems

What does this topic have to do with anything?

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Considerations in Selecting a Research


Problem

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How to arrive at Research Statement

How to arrive at Research Statement

A research is the result of a lengthy thinking process

Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a


workable research topic or idea,
a basic or main idea,
an argument that you think you can support with
evidence but that may need adjustment along the
way.

Formulating a research is not the first thing you do


after reading papers or articles
Before you develop an argument on any topic, you
have to
collect and organize evidence,
look for possible relationships between known facts
(such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and
think about the significance of these relationships.
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Features of Effective Research Statement - 1


A research statement is not:

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Features of Effective Research Statement - 2


A research statement is not:

A fact or observation
Incorrect: The United States has many homeless
people
Correct: Because the homeless population is still
widespread in the United States, Congress,
organizations, and individuals must do more to
improve the problem

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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A generalization
Incorrect: Men take all the good jobs and get paid
more
Correct: Recent research shows that men are still
earning a significant amount more than women in
the same positions; therefore, employers and the
government must do more to narrow this gap.

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Features of Effective Research Statement - 3


A research statement is not:

A research statement is not:

An exaggeration
Incorrect: Fad diets are extremely unhealthy

A question
Incorrect: Is it right for the media to portray
women the way they do?

Correct: Many fad diets are dangerous because


they may harm the human body, they often lack
proper nutrients, and they may easily cause a
person to regain original weight.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Correct: The media and Nollywood portray


women as very beautiful and thin; doing so has a
negative effect on young girls self-esteem.

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Features of Effective Research Statement - 5


A research statement is not:

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Features of Effective Research Statement - 6

Vague or general
Incorrect: Jane Austen was a good author.
Correct: Jane Austen was one of the greatest
authors of all time because of her unique use of
characterization and plots detailing significant
social issues.

Correct: Marijuana must not be legalized


because it will lead to greater social ills.

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

A research statement is not:

An announcement
Incorrect: This essay talks about how legalizing
marijuana is incorrect.

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Features of Effective Research Statement - 4

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Features of Effective Research Statement - 7


A research statement is not:

1. Analytical Research Statement

Written in first person


Incorrect: I believe second-hand smoke is bad for
people.
Correct: People of all ages should avoid secondhand smoke because it poses one of the
deadliest health risks today.

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

Ways of Constructing Research Statement - 1

297

An analytical statement breaks down a text(s) into


its component parts, evaluates the data, and
presents this breakdown and evaluation to the
audience as an argument.
State your point of view on the topic directly and
often in one sentence. This sentence is the
research statement, and it serves as a summary of
the argument you'll make in the rest of your paper

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Ways of Constructing Research Statement - 2

Ways of Constructing Research Statement - 3

2. Persuasive
A persuasive statement makes a claim based on
opinion, evaluation, or interpretation about a topic
and proves this claim with specific evidence
If you have been asked to argue a point or choose
a side on an issue, this is likely the type of research
you will use.

4. The Essay:
Contains essays topic point, and three supporting
reasons

3. Expository
An expository (explanatory) research explains
something to the audience
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Example:
To reduce the number of highway fatalities
[topic and point], our country needs
[purpose=persuasive] to enforce the national
law that designates twenty-one as the legal
minimum age to drink, set up check points on
major holidays, and take away licenses from
convicted drunk drivers [three reasons].
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Ways of Constructing Research Statement - 4


5. The Umbrella:
Contains essays topic, point, and alludes to
reasons why the reader should believe you.
Do not directly state the supporting reasons, but
instead allude to them.
Example:
Although thought to be humane and necessary,
animal testing [topic] for medical and cosmetic
purposes does not live up to its promises [point
and reasons].
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Writing Tips for Problem Statement


Do not paint the problem in general terms:
little is known about ...
no research has dealt with ...
Usually arguing for something that isnt makes for a
weak need statement
Instead explain the consequences of the information
void
Think about sub-problems and further delineate your
statement

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Delimitations

The work that will not be performed is described as


the delimitations of the research
Delimitations define the scope of the study
That is, they set the boundaries of the study
Normally under control of the researcher (you)

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Delimitations

All research has limitations and thus certain work that


will not be performed

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Examples include
Number and kinds of subjects
Treatment conditions
Tests, measures, instruments used
Type of equipment
Location, environmental setting
Type of training (time and duration)
Number of iterations of programs

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Limitations

Limitations

Limitations are very similar to delimitations, but they


tend to focus on potential weaknesses of the study
Possible shortcomings of the study . . . usually cannot
be controlled by the researcher
You will, of course, try to eliminate extremely
serious weaknesses before the study is
commenced

Examples include
Sampling problems (representativeness of subjects)
Uncontrolled factors and extraneous variables
Faulty research design and techniques
Reliability and validity of measuring instruments
Compromises to internal/external validity

May be a result of assumptions not being met


No study is perfect; the researcher recognizes the
weaknesses
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Assumptions

Assumptions can also be the basic, fundamental


conditions that must exist in order for the research to
proceed
Basic premises required in the study... the researcher
does everything possible to increase the credibility of
the assumptions, but does not have absolute control
E.g.,: a given test instrument accurately and
consistently measures the phenomenon in question
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Assumptions

Assumptions are those things that the researcher is


taking for granted

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Assumptions could be made about


(1) The motivation of the subjects,
(2) Whether subjects responded truthfully,
(3) The validity of the measuring instrument, and
(4) Whether subjects followed directions correctly
As a general rule youre better off documenting an
assumption than ignoring it
Overlooked assumptions provide a prime source of
debate about a research projects results.
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

Research Variables
A variable is a characteristic, trait, or attribute of a
person or thing that can be classified or measured
Attitude
Gender
Heart rate
Voltage, Current, Bit Error Rate
Variable - the condition or characteristic which in a
given study may have more than one value
Quantitative measured numerically
Discrete or Continuous
Qualitative categorical in nature
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Some Ways to Find a Topic


There is no one size fits all
But, here are six common ways to find a topic
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Some Ways to Find a Topic - 1

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Some Ways to Find a Topic - 2

1. A Flash of Brilliance

2. The Term Project +

You wake up one day with a new insight or idea


New approach to solve an important open problem

You take a project course that gives you a new


perspective
E.g., theory for systems and vice versa
The project/paper combines your research project
with the course project

Warnings:
Warnings:
This may be too incremental

This rarely happens if at all


Even if it does, you may not be able to find an
advisor who agrees
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Some Ways to Find a Topic - 3

Some Ways to Find a Topic - 4

3. Re-do & Re-invent

4. The Apprentice

You work on some projects

Your advisor has a list of topics


Suggests one (or more!) that you can work on
Can save you a lot of time and anxiety

Re-implement or re-do
Identify an improvement, algorithm, proof, etc.
You have now discovered a topic
Warnings:
You may be without a topic for a long time
It may not be a topic worthy of a M.S./PhD thesis
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Some Ways to Find a Topic - 5

6. Idea From A

You work on a number of small topics


that turn into a series of conference
papers

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You read some papers from other fields/subfields.


Apply this insight to your (sub)field to your own
E.g., graph partitioning to compiler optimizations

E.g., you figure out how to apply a


technique (e.g., branch and bound)
to optimize performance tradeoffs

Warnings:
You can read a lot of papers and not find a
connection
Or realize someone has done it already!

Warnings:
May be hard to tie into a thesis
May not have enough impact
Federal University of Technology, Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Some Ways to Find a Topic - 6

5. 5 papers = Thesis

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Warnings:
Dont work on something you find boring, badlymotivated,
Several students may be working on the
same/related problem

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Research Methodology

Problem Statement: An Example


Problem statement involve three things:
1. shared context,
2. perception of a problem, and
3. proposed solution.

Examples of
Problem Statements

http://cnx.org/content/m17223/latest/

What is shared context?


Status Quo.
A set of ideas that are well-known and can be
agreed upon by all readers

The great tragedy of science, the slaying of a


beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact.
-- T.H. Huxley, Biogenesis and Abiogenesis

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Problem Statement: An Example

Problem Statement: An Example

The properties of water at the nanoscale are crucial


in many areas of biology, but the confinement of
water molecules in sub-nanometer channels in
biological systems has received relatively little
attention Advances in nanotechnology make it
possible to explore the role played by water
molecules in living systems, potentially leading to the
development of ultrasensitive biosensors.

Hardins notion that individuals inevitably consider their


own interests over those of the collective whole does in
fact hold in considering traffic congestion. In the absence
of inexpensive and timely transportation alternatives,
commuters will favor their own cars, thus crowding streets
and reducing their value to the collective group. However,
by presenting feasible alternatives and regulating use of
personal automobiles, government entities can reduce
this effect, thereby ensuring the continued value of
transportation infrastructure to the collective group.
Where are the shared context, perception of a
problem, and proposed solution.

Where are the shared context, perception of a


problem, and proposed solution.
http://cnx.org/content/m17223/latest/
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Problem Statements w/o Shared Context

MoJo: A Distance Metric for Software Clustering

1. The problem was to investigate the effects of exercise


on blood lipids among college-age females.

The software clustering problem has attracted much attention


recently, since it is an integral part of the process of reverse
engineering large software systems. A key problem in this research
is the difficulty in comparing different approaches in an objective
fashion. [Needs to say in more detail what the difficulty is]
We propose a metric that calculates a distance between two
partitions of the same set of software resources. We hypothesize
that this metric can be used to effectively evaluate the similarity of
two different decompositions of a software system.
We begin by introducing our model and present a heuristic algorithm
that calculates the distance in an efficient fashion. We evaluate the
performance of the algorithm and the effectiveness of the metric.
[Need to say more about the experiments and how they might
be used to validate the hypothesis]

2. This study was designed to determine the relationship


between stability performance and physical growth
characteristics of preschool children.
3. The study was designed to identify those
characteristics which differentiate between students
who binge drink and those that do not.
4. The problem of the study was to determine if there is
a relationship between self-efficacy and self-reported
alcohol usage among middle-aged adult females.
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Task-Oriented Pattern Discovery for Predictive Web


User Modeling
An essential task in building personalized and adaptive systems
is the automatic discovery of predictive models for user behavior.
Existing approaches, such as clustering, correlation analysis, and
association discovery, tend to generate shallow patterns which do
not capture the full complexity of users' online behavior. Nor can
the generated patterns explain the users' underlying interests
which lead to specific types of behavioral patterns. To better
capture users' underlying interests or information needs, we
introduce the notion of task.
A task is a set or sequence of actions which are likely to be
performed commonly by users in order to meet a specific
information need or perform a specific function. These tasks are
not directly visible, but can be captured and characterized either
by a combination of users' interactions with the site and the site's
content and structure. (cont.)
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Persevere - You Will Find a Topic


There are no guarantees that is what makes it research!
And, youll often have difficult/stressful times
But remember drive distinguishes the great scientists

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Methodology

Assignment
Download an IEEE journal paper on software
programming or development. Using this paper,
answer the following questions:

Module 5

1.
2.
3.
4.

Identify the research problem


Identify the purpose statement
Identify the hypotheses, if any
How did they collect the data?
What equipment/methods/procedures did they use?
5. How did they analyze the data?
6. Did they support or reject the original research hypothesis?
Why?
7. What were the conclusions? Future studies?
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Research Proposal

To write well is to think well


(Ghebremendhin & Tweeten, 1994)
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Module Learning Objectives

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Module Learning Objectives

Identify the structure of research proposal


Discuss the need for research proposals
How is a research proposal usually evaluated?
How can we write key sections of a proposal?
Write a good research proposals?

I hear, and I forget


I see, and I remember
I do, and I understand
--- Confucius
The more you write - the more research papers you
write - the easier writing will be and the better writer
you will become

Thisisthetruth!
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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A Research Proposal

Purpose of a Research Proposal - 1

A good proposal is a good idea, well expressed,


with a clear indication of methods for pursuing
the idea, evaluating the findings, making them
known to all who need to know, and indicating
the broader impacts of the activity.
Source: http://www.nsf.gov/

Let me do the study?


Plan, then do
Provide a road map
Opportunity for advice
Check quality / rigour / do-ability
Avoid costly mistakes
Convince supervisor and you

Source:PlanningandwritingyourResearchProposal,byCaroline
Malthus,Te Puna Ako LearningCentre
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Purpose of a Research Proposal - 2


What is the problem?
What is its extent?
2. To convince the reader, especially supervisors and
reviewers, of the value of your proposed research
Is this project worth the time and money?
Will it make a difference to the world?
3. To demonstrate your expertise and competency in a
particular area of study
Do you have the qualifications to conduct this research?
Have you informed yourself of the existing theory and
data relevant to your topic?
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Purpose of a Research Proposal - 3

1. To inform the reader of nature of your proposed research

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4. To plan the research project and provide a step-by-step


guide to the tasks necessary for its completion.
What are the key stages of the work?
How do the various components fit together?
5. To request support from individuals and agencies who
provide supervision, oversight or funding.
What kinds of support does the project need?
Are all participants properly protected?
6. To contract with the agencies and individuals involved,
(e.g. supervisors, foundations and participants).
How will tasks be assigned and resources expended?
What does each contribute to the collective endeavor?
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Proposals - 1

Research Proposals - 2

Recall that Research refers to a search for knowledge


Research means a scientific and systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic
In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation
The purpose is to discover answers to questions
through the application of scientific procedures

A research proposal is a document that describes the


intended research including:
What ?
Problem and sub-problems
Why ?
Hypotheses
Who?
Delimitations
How ?
Definitions
When?
Assumptions
Importance
Past research
Preliminary result, if any.

Any research study should therefore have a proper


proposal in written form before it is actually carried
out
It is like a blue print of a building plan before the
construction starts
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Proposals - 3
A good research proposal is based on scientific
facts and on the art of clear communication
Writing a formal research proposal should be started
by the time one has decided on the topic for the study
After you have gotten the ideas, then state the
problem in writing
Design steps to solve the problems methodology
Use all related theories, methods, techniques

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Research Proposals - 4

Writing a research proposal is both science and art

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Proposal for research should include:


Introduction of the proposed research
Objective of research
Justification for the research
Background /Review of literature
Methodology
Time frame and work schedule/Gantt chart
Personnel needed / available
Facilities needed / available
Budget
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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Research Proposals - 5

Standard Requirements

A limited level of Literature Review (LR) is necessary


for the proposal
LR usually precedes a research proposal
Without LR, you wont know if your problem has
been solved or what related research is ongoing
It is through LR that you will justify the need for such
research
LR brings clarity and focus to your research problem
It avoids reinventing the wheel

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Title
Research question
Aim and objectives
Rationale and context
Methodology/Methods
Plan of work
Resources / Support
Ethical Issues, if any
Reference list
Appendices

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Required Sections in Proposal

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Title and Title Page

At the very least, your proposal must contain the


following sections:

Title should be concise, complete, and descriptive

Title: ____________________________
Abstract
1. Introduction
2. Statement of the Problem
3. Objectives
4. Motivation
5. Justification
6. Methodology
7. Contribution of Research
8. Outline of Thesis

Title page should have the following:


Tentative Title of research
Author(s),
Affiliation,
Date
For proposal, it has to be on a separate page

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Federal University of Technology,


Minna

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Federal University of Technology,


Minna

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Title and Title Page

Abstract

Examples
Pulse, Echos, and Goo
vs
The Applicability of Ultrasound in Determining Mechanical
Properties of Materials
Which one is good or bad?
A Comparison of Extended Surfaces
vs.
Enhancing Convective Heat Transfer using triangular and
cylindrical Extended Surfaces
Which one is good or bad?
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Federal University of Technology,


Minna

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Abstract or executive summary is always part of the


front pages of any written presentation
Abstract is a miniature version of the proposal
It comes first and should stand alone
Structure ~ 200 words (use word count in MS Word
to make sure that your abstract is not too long!)
What will be done
How it will be done
The expected primary results
The significance of the results
Quantitative with uncertainties
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Abstract

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

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Introduction

Content of Abstract
Contains essential information only it is brief!
Covers research highlights
Gives the research problem and/or main objective
of the research
Indicates the methodology /methods used
Gives an idea of the proposed findings and
conclusions

Background of the study or research


Introduce the main concept behind the research
Should not be generalizing anything at this stage
You should be specific on the concept or content of your
research

Purpose - What you will do and why you will do it


Clearly state goals
You must use scientific literature to justify the
what and why
Scope - Range, how much, limits of applicability of
what you will do

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Federal University of Technology,


Minna

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Federal University of Technology,


Minna

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Introduction

Literature Review (see Module 3)


Reviewing of the literature provides an overview of the
topic and references related to what is currently known
(unknown) about the topic
It helps the researcher gain good knowledge in the field of
inquiry
It should contain what is already known and the gaps
about the research topic
It also helps the researcher to have insight on different
methodologies/methods that could be applied
It is important to make it coherent, relevant and easily
readable knowledge
Provides background for the problem or puts the problem
into historical perspective

Make sure you answer these questions:


Why does it matter? importance?
Why is more information needed?
What has been done on this problem before?
Whats the point of the research?
What was your contribution?
Introduction should be short about one or two pages
You want your reader to fully understand the
significance of your research
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Prof. Okey Ugweje

This is a very important and pivotal section and


everything else in the study is centered around it

As much as possible, clearly state the problem you are


trying to solve
a.w.a brief description of the proposed solution
Discussion of why it is worthwhile to address this problem
Justification, by direct reference to previous work, that the
problem is previously unsolved
This statement tells the reader what to expect from your
research

The objective of the proposed study should be stated


very clearly
The objective should be specific, achievable and
measurable
Too many objectives to be avoided
Even just one clearly stated relevant objective would
be good enough

By making direct reference, you must demonstrate

If there is more than one objective the objectives


should be presented in the appropriate order of
importance

(a) that problem has not been previously solved


(b) that problem is worth answering
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Aims and Objectives

Statement of the Problem (see Module 4)

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Aims and Objectives

Motivation

Aims and Objectives should be

Purpose of the study


Why will you be doing this research?

Clear and specific

Justify why you think this problem is worth studying

Useful and do-able tasks

Did your research proposal pass the so what test?

Limited in scope
Related to a question or sub-questions

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Federal University of Technology, Minna

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Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


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Justification

Methodology - 1

Can you present cogent reason why we should allow


you to conduct this research.

The proposal should also present the methodology to


be adopted in the research

Can you show supervisor that this is not a waste of


time for everybody

It should describe the procedures to be adopted to


solve the problem, measure effects, analyze the data
Your methodology should be systematic, a step-bystep method of solving the research problem
It is essential to discuss procedures clearly and
completely with considerable amount of details.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

351

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

352

Methodology - 2

Methodology - 3

This may include:

Description of process
Proposal should include the details of all processes
to be adopted in the study
How exposures, outcome variables are going to be
measured should be described in detail
A brief description of how the data will be collected
and processed
What statistical tests of significance would be used?

Study design
Study population / Sampling specifications
Sample size needed
Instrumentation
Specific procedures
Algorithm, flowchart, .

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

353

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

354

Contribution of Research

Methodology - 4
Time Frame & Work Schedule
The proposal should include the sequence of tasks
to be performed, the anticipated length of time
required for its completion

What are the contributions you will make to the


knowledge space
After your research, what will your contribution to
knowledge space be?

It can be presented in tabular or graphic form (Gantt


chart)
Flow charts and other diagrams are often useful for
highlighting the sequencing and interrelationship of
different activities in the study

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

355

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

356

Outline of Thesis

Results

In this section, briefly describe the outline of the


whole thesis. What will be in Chapter 2, 3, 4, ..

An idea of the expected result could be discussed in


your proposal
Any preliminary result whatsoever should be
presented and discussed
This will add validity to your proposal

Then you may attach a complete outline of your


thesis (see example below).

How does the preliminary finding support your


hypothesis or the problem?
What do they mean?
How have you interpreted your findings?

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

357

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Tell them what you said


Summarize of your proposal
Start with a restatement of objectives
Summarize the most salient points of your proposed
research
What you are proposing to do (the problem)
Again describe briefly the methods
State the expected results

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

358

Summary and Conclusion

Summary and Conclusions

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

359

Conclude your proposal


What are the perceived challenges
Weaknesses and strengths of your proposed
research
Possible applications of study (how it can be used)

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

360

References (see Module 3)

References

Validity of your research


Recall that References and citation are just as
important as any other part of your proposal
References are the empirical support for claims in a
research that are not directly observed by you
They are needed for researchers to remain empirical
in their descriptions of topics
Cite sources whenever you are quoting,
paraphrasing, or summarizing work that is not yours
When you use an idea from a book, paper, website,
etc., you need to cite that idea
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

361

Writing Research Proposals - 1

Citing:
Shows your credibility as a researcher
Gives proper credit to authors and researchers
Protects you from accusations of plagiarism
Please use applicable approved citation/referencing
style
Any scientific proposal without citation and
references is unacceptable
Your proposal will be REJECTED if it lacks proper
and approved citation and referencing
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Writing Research Proposals - 2

Review other proposal before you begin not easy to


find examples
Get an idea how others write proposal
Some writings are not readable dont repeat
mistake
Begin writing with sections you know the best
Its ok if the way you think is not linear
Write first whatever comes up into your mind
But, do not forget to revisit it again later on
You can jump from one part to another if it feels
comfortable to you

Arrange your proposal into sections

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

362

363

Start re-organize your writing into a certain structure


Do not hesitate to move paragraph around
Make sure you cover all parts of a proposal in that
structure
Print each draft on a different version
Once you feel exhausted, print the version & read it
Find someone to go over what you have written
Make comments whenever you feel necessary

Federal University of Technology, Minna

364

Writing Research Proposals - 3

Writing Research Proposals - 4

Enhanced your writing with picture, graphic, table,


etc.
A picture is worth a thousand words
Dont forget to provide captions and numbers for your
figures, graphics, tables, etc.
Figures need captions, always below and numbered!
Tables need captions, always on top and numbered!
Remember to refer to Figures and Tables in your text
describing them
Do not include a Figures or Tables in your proposal
without describing them

Example of a Figure

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

365

Writing Research Proposals - 5

Figure 1. A cat with human instincts


Federal University of Technology,
Minna

366

Writing Research Proposals - 6

Example of a Table

Make your writing clear and unambiguous


Make sure you have written complete sentences
Make sure your sentences make a paragraph
Make sure each paragraph in a section are
interrelated and that the discussion flows from one
paragraph to another
Make a bridging sentence to move to another
paragraph as well to another section
Avoid one sentence paragraphs

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

367

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

368

Writing Research Proposals - 7

Writing Research Proposals 8

Use similar or parallel wording whenever possible


Be consistent in choosing words
Explain the difficult word
Make sure you understand each word you choose
to use

Use table of contents to help you focus on your draft


Start writing a table of content according to the
structure of your document
Make sure you balance the content of each section
Do not hesitate to re-arrange the proposal after
writing a table of content, and vice versa

Using simple and correct English synthesis and


grammar will be appreciated.
You will not be graded on vocabulary.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

If you are proficient with MS Word, you can generate


Table of Content easily

369

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

370

Sample Outline

Writing Research Proposals - 9

Sample Outline

Before you submit your proposal, make sure you read


it again and again and again .
Here is the catch: If you do not understand what you
write, how do you expect others to understand it?
It is suggested that you ask your friends and
colleagues to read it before you submit to your
supervisor

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

371

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

372

Sample Outline

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Sample Outline

373

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Sample Outline

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

374

Sample Outline

375

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

376

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

377

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

378

Your Role as the Researcher?


Look out for the unexpected: positive and negative

Source: Planning and writing your Research Proposal, by


Caroline Malthus, Te Puna Ako Learning Centre
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

379

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

380

Your role as the researcher

Your role as the researcher

Problems may not be where you think they are

Listen to your supervisors


You cannot graduate without
him/her
Use any available support
Experts in the field
Other researchers
Research committees
Learning center

Source:PlanningandwritingyourResearchProposal,byCaroline
Malthus,Te Puna Ako LearningCentre
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

381

Accept feedback and rewrite your


proposal whenever applicable
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Methodology

Federal University of Technology, Minna

382

Plagiarism - 1

FinallyAvoid Plagiarism
Humans are natural copiers

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Paraphrase!!!
383

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

384

Plagiarism - 2

Plagiarism - 3
Among other things, plagiarism refers to taking
others work and representing it as if it were your
own

All knowledge in your head has either been copied


from some place or originally discovered by you
Most knowledge was copied. This is true in most
settings

In academics this is bad because with plagiarism:

General knowledge is copied

One cannot assess students performance accurately

Most teachers lectures are copied knowledge

The person who makes his or her livelihood by


scholarly pursuit is being robbed of credit

Human culture would not exist without our keen ability


to copy!
Humans are natural copiers, but that is not what is
meant by the term plagiarism.
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

It masks the lineage of ideas and facts.


Plagiarism is to academics as pension Scam is to
Nigerian Civil Servants.

385

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Plagiarism - 4

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

386

Plagiarism - 5
To avoid plagiarism:
1. Document every source for information that is not
general knowledgethis includes facts and ideas
2. Cite every time a fact or idea is used unless it is clear
that one citation is referring to a group of facts/ideas
3. If you quote material, put quotation marks around the
quoted stuff and include a page number within the
citation
4. It is alright to paraphrase material, but you still have
to cite from where the paraphrased material came
5. When in doubt, cite the source

Lineage of Ideas:
Original sources of research are all the proof we
have for some facts. Without the paper trail of
academic thought:
People could pass off incorrect ideas as facts
We would have to keep re-proving theories
Contexts that generated facts and ideas get lost
Research becomes highly inefficient as it
becomes incredibly difficult to find full
information on a topic.

Improper citing is grounds for rejection of Proposal


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

387

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

388

Research Methodology

Congratulations!YourProposalhasbeen
accepted!!Nowwakeupanddoit!!!

Module 6
Research Report
If research was not written up, did it
really occur?
Prof.OkeyUgweje

FederalUniversityofTechnology,Minna

389

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Reports - 1

A RR is written for the purpose of communicating the


findings of research, in a manner that is clear, easy to
read and to use

A research report (RR) presents the results of


research, but more importantly provides a persuasive
argument to readers of what you have done
A RR is a completed study that reports an
investigation or exploration of a problem, identifies
questions to be addressed, and includes data
collected, analyzed, and interpreted by the researcher
Federal University of Technology, Minna

390

Research Reports - 2

The purpose of the written report is to present the


results of your research, but more importantly to
provide a persuasive argument to readers of what
you have found

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

391

Research reports must be complete, well organized


and carefully drafted if their contents are to contribute
to fields in which the research efforts are made
An essential means of communication to the peers
the value of the research work done

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

392

Research Reports - 3

Functions of the Research Report

Apart from the fact that the report should be written in


clear and understandable language, it must be well
laid out and follow mandated style

It serves as a means for presenting in an organized


manner
the problem studied,
methods and techniques used for collecting and
analyzing data,
the findings,
conclusions and
Recommendations for further studies
It provides factual base for formulating policies and
strategies relating to the subject matter studied.

Such structure should be sufficiently concise but at


the same time adequately detailed
It should contain both general discussion and specific
treatment of the material without confusing the reader

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

393

Functions of the Research Report

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

394

Characteristics of an ideal Research Report

It serves as a basic reference material for future use


in developing research study in the same or related
area
It is used to evaluate researchers ability and
competence to do research
It is used for judging the quality of the completed
research project

An ideal report should have the following properties:


Should be presented in a systematic and attractive
manner
Should be clear and easily understandable
titles, photographs and graphs should be used
wherever necessary
proverbs and exaggerations should be avoided.
The analysis of facts should have logical and
scientific base so that no one should have the doubt
that the report is based on assumption ideas.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

395

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

396

Characteristics of an ideal Research Report


All the sources of information should be cited so
that any person can verify the facts on the basis of
described sources
Difficulties and problems faced during research
work should necessarily be described to avoid any
artificiality. Such guidelines are very helpful and
advantageous for further and future researchers
An ideal report also indicates the points useful for
research in future
Suggestions provided should be unbiased, creative
and useful.
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

397

Precautions for Writing Research Reports


Report should be long enough to cover the subject
but short enough to maintain interest
In fact, report should not be means to learning more
and more about less and less.
A research report should always sustain readers
interest
Abstract terminology and technical jargon should be
avoided in a research report
The report should be able to convey the matter as
simply as possible - report should be written in an
objective style in simple language
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

398

Precautions for Writing Research Reports

Classification of Research Report

Readers are often interested in acquiring a quick


knowledge of the main findings and as such the
report must provide a ready availability of the
findings
For this purpose, charts, graphs and the statistical
tables may be used for the various results
The layout of the report should be prepared strictly in
accordance with writing rules
The report should be free from grammatical mistake

Research Reports can be classified in a variety of


ways namely
Technical report
Popular report
Interim report
Summary report

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

399

In all cases, the audience to whom a research report


is addressed has to be kept in view in the preparation
of a research report

Federal University of Technology, Minna

400

Technical Report

Popular Report

Technical report is essentially technical in nature


and written in technical language.
It may contain technical appendix for methodological
details, copies of measuring instruments, scale,
programs, simulation process, etc.

Popular report is for audience like executives,


administrators and other non technical users

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

401

Avoid complicated statistical techniques that will be


difficult to understand
Table, graphical, and pictorial representations should
be wherever possible

Interim Report

Summary report is generally prepared for the


consumption of the lay audience

It contains narration of what has been done so far


and what was the outcome
It presents a summary of the findings of that part if
analysis which has been completed

Federal University of Technology, Minna

402

Summary Report

Interim report will be a suitable kind of a report to


present data as and when the phase of the project
work gets completed.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

403

It is written in non-technical, simple language with a


liberal use of pictorial charts
It contains brief reference to the objectives of the
study and major findings and their implications.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

404

Types of Technical Research Reports

Steps in writing Research Report - 1

Dissertation and theses proposals


Dissertations and theses reports
Journal articles
Conference proposals/papers
Reports for policy makers and schools

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

After the data analysis is over, report writing cannot


be started abruptly
It requires careful pre-planning involving the following
consolidations and steps:
1. The target audience (Public/Children/Scientists etc.)
2. The communication characteristics of the audience
(Level of Knowledge).
3. The intended purpose of the report (Award of
Degree/Project/Diploma, etc.)
4. The type and scope of report (M.Sc./Ph.D./Scope and
Limitations)
5. The style of reporting (simple/clear)
405

Steps in writing Research Report - 2

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

406

Writing the Research Report - 1

6. The format of the report (always varies according


to the type of report)
7. Outline of the contents (what to cover and what
not)
8. Style of writing
9. Proper footnotes and bibliography
10.Proper citation and referencing

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

407

1. Begin writing the report as soon as you can


Do not leave it until you have finished your data
collection before you start writing up
Many sections, can be drafted during or even before
data collection
2. Write down ideas as soon as you get them, rather than
leaving them to the writing-up stage
Keep a research diary where you can safely note any
ideas
Not all of your ideas will be useful, but it is certain that
some of them will be!
Do not imagine that you will be able to remember these
ideas at a later date
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

408

Writing the Research Report - 2

Writing the Research Report - 3

3. Be aware of nature of report and intended audience


For student research project, ensure you adhere to criteria
laid down by your institution in terms of content,
presentation, length and so on
For a journal, ensure that your research fits the scope of the
journals objectives as well as its editorial requirements
For a report on consultancy, ensure that you are clear about
the requirements of your audience

5. Make sure before you begin writing that you make


backups of your work at every available opportunity
Whatever you do, do not assume that whatever you
save on a hard drive will be safe!
You should keep your backups in a separate
location
As a further safety measure, print out what you
have written so far at regular intervals.

4. You will not be able to write the final report out first time
Reports may be rewritten a number of times before it
reaches completion
Plan for at least 2 iteration of your research report
Do not be discouraged when the first draft is not perfect.
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

409

Stages of Writing Report - 1

410

3. Throughout the duration of the research you should be


collecting together the information necessary to complete
the report, such as your review of literature, analysis of
the primary data, list of references and so on.

2. Identify any predetermined requirements, for example


maximum word length, formatting, such as double
spacing or required referencing style, and so on.
Ideally you should familiarise yourself with past
projects, etc. so that you have an idea of the final
product before you start.
Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Stages of Writing Report - 2

1. First clarify the nature of the report, and its intended


audience
If any examples of past reports are available, read
as many as you can both good and bad!

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

411

4. Prepare an outline plan of the report.


At least this should include a list of chapter headings,
sub-heading and more detail if possible.
The more detailed your initial outline, the easier you will
find the process of writing up the first draft of the report.
5. Write a first draft of the report. You should not anticipate
the first draft being your final submission!
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

412

Stages of Writing Report - 3

Structure of Written Presentation - 1

6. Evaluate the content of the first draft, either through


reading it yourself or, preferably, getting somebody else to
read it with a critical eye.

A RR has a number of clearly defined sections


Your audience, purpose, and contents should
influence the organization and format
Your professor or supervisor may have very specific
guidelines
Your school may have a format you must follow
A journal may have a format you must follow
Request for proposal may indicate required
guidelines

7. Rewrite and re-evaluate the report as appropriate. You


may need to do this more than once!
8. Final editing and proof reading.
Once you have got this far, the temptation is to skip
over the final proof reading and simply submit the
project.
Do carefully read over to check spelling and grammar.

Carefully consider your decisions

9. Submission of the report!


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

413

Structure of Written Presentation - 2

Middle:
Describe how activity was performed and what was
found
End:
Summarize - tell what it means
Did you meet goals, recommendations, difficulties,

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

414

Structure of Written Presentation - 3

Beginning:
Discuss the activity and why activity is important provide context

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

RRs generally include these sections in this order:


1. Title Page
1. Front Pages
2. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Acknowledgements
3. Main Body
4. Contents
List of Tables
4. Conclusion
List of Figures
5. References
5. Introduction
6. Literature Review
6. Appendices

Please note that there


are many variants
415

Prof. Okey Ugweje

7. Methodology
8. Results and Discussion
9. Conclusions
10. Reference List
11. Appendices

Federal University of Technology, Minna

416

Structure of Written Presentation - 4


Start with broad
knowledge base

Front Pages

Abstract
Intro

Narrow to focus
of report

Results
Discussion

Broaden again,
relate back to beginning

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Conclusions

Federal University of Technology, Minna

417

Title page
Signature Page
Declarations
Letter of Transmittal
Dedications
Acknowledgement
Abstract / Executive Summary
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Glossary/Acronyms

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Abstract

Federal University of Technology, Minna

418

The Abstract an example

Always comes first


Microcosm of entire paper contains key information
of the research
Contains essential information only it is brief!
Covers research highlights
Gives the research problem and/or main objective
of the research
Indicates the methodology used
Presents the key findings and conclusions

High speed electronic beam switching is a desirable


feature of smart antennas.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Copyright: David Thiel 2009


Federal University of Technology, Minna

419

Copyright:
Thiel 2009 Minna
Federal
UniversityDavid
of Technology,

The Abstract an example 1

The Abstract an example 1

High speed electronic beam switching is a desirable


feature of smart antennas. Most smart antennas are
too large for most applications and require significant
power during normal operations.

High speed electronic beam switching is a desirable


feature of smart antennas. Most smart antennas are
too large for most applications and require significant
power during normal operations. A thirteen element
switched parasitic antenna was optimised for gain,
speed and beam coverage.

Copyright: David Thiel 2009


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Copyright:
Thiel 2009 Minna
Federal
UniversityDavid
of Technology,

Copyright: David Thiel 2009


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Copyright:
Thiel 2009 Minna
Federal
UniversityDavid
of Technology,

The Abstract an example 1

The Abstract an example 1

High speed electronic beam switching is a desirable


feature of smart antennas. Most smart antennas are
too large for most applications and require significant
power during normal operations. A thirteen element
switched parasitic antenna was optimised for gain,
speed and beam coverage. Antenna characteristics
were determined at 1.8 GHz by finite element
modelling and measurements on a prototype.

High speed electronic beam switching is a desirable


feature of smart antennas. Most smart antennas are
too large for most applications and require significant
power during normal operations. A thirteen element
switched parasitic antenna was optimised for gain,
speed and beam coverage. Antenna characteristics
were determined at 1.8 GHz by finite element
modelling and measurements on a prototype. The
antenna had a gain of +9.8 dBi, a footprint of less
than one half wavelength squared and was switched
ion less than 100 s.

Copyright: David Thiel 2009


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Copyright:
Thiel 2009 Minna
Federal
UniversityDavid
of Technology,

Copyright: David Thiel 2009


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Copyright:
Thiel 2009 Minna
Federal
UniversityDavid
of Technology,

The Abstract an example 1


High speed electronic beam switching is a desirable
feature of smart antennas. Most smart antennas are
too large for most applications and require significant
power during normal operations. A thirteen element
switched parasitic antenna was optimised for gain,
speed and beam coverage. Antenna characteristics
were determined at 1.8 GHz by finite element
modelling and measurements on a prototype. The
antenna had a gain of +9.8 dBi, a footprint of less
than one half wavelength squared and was switched
ion less than 100 s. This is a better performance
compared to previous antennas.

The Abstract an example 2


Another Example:
Wavelet packet based MC/MCD-CDMA communication system
M. M. Akho-Zahieh and O. C. Ugweje
A novel wavelet packet based multicarrier multicode coded
division multiple access (CDMA) system is developed and
analyzed. The effect of wavelet family and the number of wavelet
packets superstream are investigated in terms of signal-to-noise
plus interference ratio. Performance of the system is compared to
several CDMA based systems. Results show that the system
performs significantly better than other systems.

Copyright: David Thiel 2009


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Copyright:
Thiel 2009 Minna
Federal
UniversityDavid
of Technology,

Prof. Okey Ugweje

426

Introduction

The Abstract a general guide


2 sentences on the wider field context and
significance
2 sentences on the research method
2 sentences on the results and conclusions.

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Introduction of the topic / An overview of the report


WHAT you have done aims/objectives/scope
WHY you have done it Motivation & justification
HOW you have done it structure/ signposting.
Limitations, Assumptions, Methods/Methodology
Chaptalization/Sectionalization
You want your reader to fully understand the
significance of your research

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal
Copyright:
UniversityDavid
of Technology,
Thiel 2009 Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

428

The Body

Literature Review (see Module 3)

Literature Review

What do we know.

Methodology

What we do not know (research gap)

Experimental and/or Theoretical Methods

How your study fits the research gap

Source of data

What you may expect to find (hypotheses).

Data collection techniques

Relate the literature to your study.

Data processing and analysis technique

Be critical if appropriate.

Presents and interprets data


Results and Discussion

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

429

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Methodology

You have to explained the rationale behind your chosen


means of collecting information
Are your research methods the most appropriate given
your chosen hypothesis or research question, and your
subsidiary questions or objectives?
Are you making assumptions? You know what you did in
terms of research methods have you expressed
yourself clearly and given adequate details? Would
someone else be able to replicate your study on the basis
of the information you have given?

Is it repeatable to the reader?

Federal University of Technology, Minna

430

Methodology

Information needs
Research design
Research strategy
Methods
Sample
Procedure
Analysis

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Any limitations? Anything you might have done


differently?
431

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

432

Results

Discussion
Assesses and comments on research results
Explanation for Results
Discuss the implications of your results in light of your
research objectives.
Comments on unexpected results, offering hypothesis
for them
Comparison to literature
Your research should build on existing knowledge so
refer back to the literature review
Does your research confirm previous studies? Deviate
from them?
Common error: Discussing your own findings without
any reference to existing knowledge.

There is no one correct way to present your results.


Some ways could be:
Address each hypotheses, research questions
By independent and dependent variable
By research method
By participant (qualitative interviews)
Visual representation of results is good:
Graphs, tables, diagrams, charts
Points out the most significant portions of findings
Indicates key trends or relationships
Highlights expected and/or unexpected findings
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

433

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Do your findings find support in the literature?

Summarize the most salient points of your research


(tell the reader what you found out about your topic)
Conclusions
What are the key findings?
Should relate to aims/objectives in introduction.
What remains to be learned?
Weaknesses and shortcomings of study
Strengths of study
Possible applications of study (how it can be used)
Recommendations
May include recommendations for future research

Were your findings predicted by the literature?


How does your research add to the literature?
If your findings differed from expectations, then are
there any possible explanations why?
Does the particular theory or model you have used
still hold true in light of your research?
If the theory or model seems flawed, then how can it
be refined in light of your research?

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

434

Summary and Conclusion

Discussion

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

435

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

436

References (see Module 3)

Appendices

Must be consistent with text


Use approved style
IEEE (Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers)
Engineering, Science, Information Technology,
APA (American Psychological Association)
psychology, education, and other social sciences
MLA (Modern Language Association)
literature, arts, and humanities
AMA (American Medical Association)
medicine, health, and biological sciences
Chicago Citation Style:
Widely used by all subjects in the "real world" by books,
magazines, newspapers & non-scholarly publications
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

437

Abstract lacks specific detail


Introduction no justification, aim and objectives unclear
Literature review not related to the research question,
no critical awareness, limited sources, limited relevance,
inappropriate theory.
Methodology lacking specific detail, justification, limited
awareness of reliability, validity, generalisability
Results focus on graphs, limited analysis, lacking
relevance
Discussion not revisiting the literature, simply repeating
results, lack of awareness of the implications of the
findings
Conclusions unrelated to results/discussion.
Federal University of Technology, Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

438

Writing style - Dos and Donts

Key Weaknesses

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Must relate to the research (directly or indirectly)


Copies of data collection instruments
Technical details on sampling plan
Complex tables
Derivations
Programs / Algorithm
Simulations
Interview transcripts
Questionnaires/ Question tallies
Printouts, program scripts, etc.

439

Use Past tense


Third person
Usually timing of events is not included unless it is
essential to data collection
Sections and subsections (one level? two level? three
level?).
Quotes from other authors not common!

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal
Copyright:
UniversityDavid
of Technology,
Thiel 2009 Minna

Writing style - Dos and Donts


No

DONTS (RED FLAGS)

Engineers and Scientist usually have mathematical


expressions in their studies

DOS

Use contracted forms

Use full forms

Use colloquial expressions

Use written expressions

Repeat the same expression if


possible

Delete or use a different expression,


e.g., a pron

Repeat the same meaning in


different words unnecessarily

Delete semantic repetition

Use questions in the text body

Use direct statements

Use omnibus words

Use precise expressions

Use multi-word phrasal verbs or


verb phrases

Use single-word verbs

Use first and second persons

Use third persons

Use personal-opinion
expressions

Delete them

10

Use choppy sentences

Use compact phrases and Ss involving


coordination and/or subordination

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Creating Equations

These expressions must be well presented


Use standard forms for scalar symbols (often lower case,
italics, not-bold) and vector symbols (upper-case, bold).
The symbols must be the same font on every occasion
used in the equations and in the main text.
All symbols must be defined.
MS Equation editor allows for equation creation.
There are standard upper-case and lower-case type
settings.

Federal
Copyright:
UniversityDavid
of Technology,
Thiel 2009 Minna

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Methodology

General Presentation Weaknesses

Federal
Copyright:
UniversityDavid
of Technology,
Thiel 2009 Minna

Word limits not adhered to


Inappropriate formatting
Inappropriate use of visual material
Incorrect spelling and grammar
Lack of signposting/linking.

Thesis/Dissertation
Thedistinguishingmarkofgraduateresearch
isanoriginalcontributiontoknowledge

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

443

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

444

What is Thesis? - 1

What is Thesis? - 2

A thesis or dissertation (hereafter thesis) is a major


written work reporting on an identifiable piece of
research conducted by a candidate for a higher
degree

A research oriented thesis is a valuable artifact


They are retained in the libraries of universities where
they were submitted and are made available in full or
abridged format as the original report of a research
project

A thesis today, therefore, is a right of passage


It is an unabridged documented evidence that the
candidate is capable of conducting independent
research and of reporting its findings
It is the usual requirement for higher degrees such as
PhD, MSc., MA, MBA, JD, MD or DDS
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

445

Although it is true that the thesis written by most


researchers ends up NOT being their most significant
contribution, it is NOT true that theses are not
significant contributions

Prof. Okey Ugweje

What is Thesis? - 3

Federal University of
Technology, Minna

446

What is Thesis? - 4

A Thesis is a formal document whose sole purpose is


to make an original contribution to knowledge
Thesis must show 2 important things:
Identified a worthwhile problem or question which
has not been previously answered
Solved the problem or answered the question
Your contribution to knowledge generally lies in your
solution or answer

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

447

To make an original and useful contribution to


knowledge, thesis must answers these questions:
What is the research question?
Is it a good problem to solve?
Is it a useful problem to work on?
Has the problem been solved before?
Did the Thesis convince the audience that the
question was adequately answered?
Has the Thesis made an adequate contribution to
knowledge?

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

448

What is Thesis? - 5

What is Thesis? - 6

A Thesis is an argument
An exposition of an original piece of research
The product of an apprenticeship
Probably the largest (most self-indulgent) piece of
work youll ever do
Something that could be published:
E.g. at least one paper in a scholarly journal
but you will probably never publish the whole thesis

Theses are largely free from page limitation


They usually contain a wealth of background or general
information (pertinent to the topic) and are extremely
useful for quickly learning about a given subject matter
They must contain a sizeable literature review and must
provide easy to follow evidence and description of the
method used, data collected, controls placed, etc.
As such well-written theses tend to be excellent sources
of learning how to design and conduct research
Many Institutions mandate the style of writing to
follow in a Thesis

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

449

Prof. Okey Ugweje

What is Thesis? - 7

Federal University of Technology, Minna

450

Quality of Thesis Research

A Thesis is an attempt to persuade


The key to persuasion is organization
A picture is worth a thousand words
Don't use a 1000 words where 500 will do
It can assert an argument, explain a topic, and/or
analyze an issue
It is specific in presenting the writer's position
It limits both scope and topic of the paper
It captures the reader's interest and focuses that
interest on the topic

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Does it meet publication standards?


Will it be useful in your school?
Will it advance knowledge?
Will it add scholarly knowledge about a topic or
research problem?
Will it help address some pressing educational,
scientific, social, problem?

451

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

452

Master's Thesis vs. PhD Dissertation

Statement of the Problem

Different expectations for Master's theses and for


Doctoral dissertation
The significance and level of discovery in Doctoral
dissertation
Ph.D. requires a more difficult problem to be solved,
and consequently more substantial contributions
Contribution to knowledge of a Master's thesis can be
an incremental improvement in knowledge, or
application of known techniques in a new area.
The format is the same for Masters and Ph.D.

A clear Statement of the Problem is essential to


original and worthwhile contribution to knowledge
Originality and value of your contribution requires
thorough review of the existing literature on the
subject, and on closely related subjects
By making direct reference, you must demonstrate
(a) that problem has not been previously solved
(b) that problem is worth answering

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

453

Please refer to Module 4 and 5 for details


Federal University of Technology,
Minna

454

Thesis Structure - 1

Thesis Structure - 2

Any formal document requires a framework


The Outline of a Thesis is the necessary framework
As a formal document, every item in a Thesis
must be in the appropriate place
Your audience, purpose, and contents should
influence the structure/organization/format
Your school may have a format you must follow
Your supervisor may have very specific guidelines
you must adhere to
Your department or college or faculty may have
specific requirements also

A Thesis Outline is the framework for writing your


thesis
It consist of one or more pages containing
Title
Chapter headings,
Sub-headings,
Required numbering methods
Some notes, descriptions and comments on what
is involved

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

455

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

456

Thesis Structure - 3

Thesis Structure - 4

The outline involves logical thinking and reasoning


Thesis Outline also suggest the scope of your
research
Once outline is generated, you are in a better position
to write your Thesis
After outline is generated, your new aim is just to
write a paragraph or section about one of your
subheadings

Once you have an outline, present to your supervisor


for approval
This step is important as it gets you started in your
research and write-up
It also serves as a notice of approval of your Thesis
Supervisor may need a copy of the Outline for
reference
Also outline must be shared with co-adviser and other
committee members

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

457

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Thesis Structure - 5

Front Pages
Abstract
First Chapter
Introduction
Thesis Body
Background/Literature Review/Fundamentals
Several
Methodology
Chapters
Data Presentation & Interpretation
Experiment/Simulation
Discussion of Results
Last Chapter
Summary and Conclusions
References
Appendices

Body
End

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

458

Sample Organization of Thesis

Beginning
AThesis

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

459

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

460

Front Pages

Title page
Signature Page
Declarations
Dedications
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Acronyms

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Front Pages - Acknowledgments


You should acknowledge:
1. Any significant technical help that you have received
from any individual
2. The source of special equipment, cultures, or any
other material
3. Any outside financial assistance, such as grants,
contracts or fellowships
You may show proposed wording of Acknowledgement
to the person whose help you are acknowledging

Should not prepare these


pages until research
report is completed

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

461

Front Pages Others

462

Always comes first


Microcosm of entire paper contains key information
of the research
Contains essential information only it is brief!
Covers research highlights
Gives the research problem and/or main objective
of the research
Indicates the methodology used
Presents the main findings and conclusions

No particular format needed for the following front


pages
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Acronyms
Federal University of Technology,
Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Front Pages Abstract (see Module 5)

For the following front pages, please see approved


format from NTNU
Signature Page
Declarations
Dedications

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

463

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

464

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 of your thesis should be the expanded
version of your proposal containing the following
1.1 Introduction
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Motivation
1.4. Justification
1.5. Methodology
1.6. Contribution of Research
1.7. Outline of Thesis

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

In Chapter 2, you should present your detailed


literature review or background study
It is expected that the literature review will be
complete
Please refer to Module 3 for detail analysis of
Literature review

465

Chapters 3, 4, 5, .

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

466

Results and Discussions - 1

The rest of the chapters will contain different topics


based on the actual research conducted
Regardless of the research, there must be results and
discussions

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Assesses and comments on research results


Visually and textually represents research findings
Visual representation of results:
Graphs, tables, diagrams, charts, maps,
What do they mean ?
How have you interpreted your findings?
This part of the Thesis is fundamental, where you
must spell out clearly and systematically an argument
that will lead to a conclusion.

467

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

468

Results and Discussions - 2

Results and Discussions - 3

Explanation for Results


Comments on unexpected results, offering
hypothesis for them
Indicates key trends or relationships
Highlights expected and/or unexpected findings
Comparison to literature
Does your research confirm previous studies?
Deviate from them?
Explanation for how info can be applied in broader
context

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Visual Design
A reports visual design can make or break its
communication success
Visual Design includes:
Use of graphs and other graphics
Use of white space

469

Results and Discussions - 4

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

470

Results and Discussions - 5

Graphics:
Should be used to illustrate specific points
Should be incorporated in a way that is natural to
reports content/context
Should be explained fully in text using references
such as Fig. 1 shows
Should be cited if taken from a source

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Graphics a caveat
Graphics do not speak for themselves!
For this reason, textual information should come
before graphics.
General layout should focus readers on key
information
Use white space to guide readers attention
Created through use of headings, subheadings,
and visuals

471

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

472

Summary and Conclusion - 1

Summary and Conclusion - 2

Summarize the most salient points of your research


(tell the reader what you found out about your topic)
Start with a restatement of objectives
Again describe briefly the methods
State the important results
Describe the extent to which you achieved what you
set out to do
State the important conclusions
You may include possible weaknesses/limitations of
the methodology and interpretations

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

Reflections on the project


How well did you performed at different stages of
the project?
What would you do differently next time and why?
What was learned through the research
What remains to be learned
Possible applications of study (how it can be used)
Recommendations for the future
what would you recommend doing next?

473

Prof. Okey Ugweje

References/Bibliography

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

474

Appendices

Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging


the sources of information and ideas that you have
used in your document
References are the empirical support for claims in a
Thesis that are not directly observed in the research
They are needed for researchers to remain empirical
in their descriptions of topics
References or Works Cited are just as important
as any other part of your Thesis

Appendices
Derivations
Programs
Simulations
Interview transcripts
Questionnaires
Screen dump
Printouts, and previous reports

Please refer to Module 3 for Details


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

475

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology,


Minna

476

Research Methodology

Research Result Publication


Ways research results may be published
1. A thesis/dissertation

Module 7

2. A journal article
3. A conference paper

Oral Research
Presentation

4. An article in a trade or scholarly periodical


5. An Institutional research report
6. A research monograph

Great Speakers arent born, they


are trained

Please refer to Module 8 for Details


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

477

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

478

LearningObjectives
Explain presentation
State the features of a good presentation
Identify the elements of presentation
Itemize the tips and techniques for great
presentations

Presentation is the Killer Skill we take into


the real world. Its almost an unfair
advantage.
-- Ethan Rasiel & Paul N. Friga, The McKinsey Mind
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

479

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

480

Why Give A Presentation?

WhyGiveAPresentation?

Instructional Techniques of Presentation

A presentation is a way of communicating ideas and


information orally to an audience

Instruct
Lecture

Presentation is a skill developed through experience


and training

Discussion
Brainstorming
Role Play

Three Main Purposes of Oral Presentation

Exercises

Inform
Persuade

Great presentations require some preplanning and


preparations

Educate

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

481

Preparing the Presentation - 2

482

What is the context of my speech?

What is the purpose of the presentation?


Who will be attending?
What does the audience already know about
the subject?
What is the audience attitude towards me
(e.g., hostile, friendly)?
What was most difficult about this
concept/idea? Most interesting?
Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Preparing the Presentation - 3

To prepare a presentation, ask yourself the following


questions:

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

483

Location?
Time constraints?
Audience?
Format?

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

484

Preparing the Presentation - 4

The Presentation Sequence

How can I incorporate an example of how this


idea/concept is used in the real world?

How will I create an introduction that will engage my


audience?
What is the best way to conclude my presentation?

Build Rapport
Open Your Presentation
Present Main Points
Conclude Your Presentation

The following are important


Content
Audio-visual Aids
Delivery

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

485

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Number of Slides

Features of a Good Presentation

As few as possible

Content
Contains info that people need

Do not use more than required

Account for how much info the audience can absorb


in one sitting

Omit irrelevant items

Logical beginning, middle, and end

The audience will appreciate a small number of


slides, handled well, rather than a large number
not properly explained

Sequenced and paced so that the audience can


understand it

Large number of slides induces PowerPoint


Fatigue Syndrome

Structure

Prof. Okey Ugweje

486

Federal University of Technology, Minna

487

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

488

Completing the Opening

Opening Your Presentation


A good presentation starts out with introductions and
an icebreaker such as a story, interesting statement
or fact, joke, quotation, or an activity to get the group
wormed up
Introduce yourself
Why should they listen
Get attention, build more rapport, introduce topic
Humor or Short story
Startling statistic
Make audience think
Invite participation
Get audience response

Clearly define or explained your topic


If informative

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

489

If persuasive

Whats the problem


Who cares
Whats the solution

Federal University of Technology, Minna

490

Keep Slides Non-cluttered - 2

Keep Slides Non-cluttered - 1


Avoid too much data/info on one slide

To much info on one slide

Do not show schematics that are too detailed

C
A

Omit unnecessary or irrelevant information

0 scans

128 scans

Rh123

Rh123 retention
(mean % of Fafter/Fbefore)

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Clear parameters for content within time

100
80
60
40
20
0

CMXRos

Rh123 Rh123 Rh123


+CMXRos +CCCP
Irr

Rh123
-

0 scans

128 scans

High d e lta-p s i-m (% ce lls )

D
100
80
60
40
20
0
Rh123 + CMXRos

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

491

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Rh123

492

Slides must be Easy to Read - 1

Keep Slides Non-cluttered - 3


To much info on one slide
Rh123 retention
(mean % of Fafter/Fbefore)

C
100
80
60
40
20
0

Rh123 Rh123 Rh123


+CMXRos +CCCP
Irr

Rh123
-

High de lta-ps i-m (% ce lls )

D
1 00
80
60
40
20
0
Rh1 23 + CM XRos

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Rh1 23

Avoid abbreviations that are not defined


Figure 1. CMXRos photosensitization on a
subpopulation of mitochondria induces rapid m loss
in non-irradiated mitochondria. (C) Quantitative
determination of Rh123 retention in non-irradiated
mitochondria of cells. Control cells to indicate either high
m and low m were either treated without or with
CCCP (20 M) respectively (n=20, n=15 respectively),
loaded with Rh123 but not photoirradiated (Irr-). Other cells
loaded with Rh123 alone (n=13) or with Rh123 and
CMXRos (n=9) were subjected to partial irradiation (Irr+).
Three regions of interest in the non-irradiated zone from
each cell were arbitrarily selected to determine the
fluorescence intensity of Rh123 in pixel units. The mean
fluorescence intensity ( SEM) of Rh123 in each cell was
obtained by averaging the pixel values of the three regions
of interest. Measurements were taken before and after
partial irradiation. The fluorescence intensity of Rh123
retained in non-irradiated mitochondria (Fafter) following
irradiation was expressed as a percentage of the initial
fluorescence intensity (Fbefore) in the same cell prior to
irradiation. Cells containing non-irradiated mitochondria
with Rh123 retention values above 60% and below 20%
were considered as manifesting high m or loss of m
respectively. No cells tested showed intermediate levels of
Rh123 retention. (D) Fraction of cells manifesting high
m in non-irradiated mitochondria (see above). Cells were
loaded with Rh123 and CMXRos (n=21) or Rh123 alone
(n=16). Black bars indicate cells before irradiation. Open
bars indicate cells after 128 scans under partial irradiation
condition.

Federal University of Technology, Minna

493

Do Not use lab jargon that are not conventional and


widely in use
Ask yourself if the audience can be reasonably
expected to understand the terms you use on the
slides

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

494

Proper Sizes of Text and Graphics

Slides must be Easy to Read - 2


Font sizes must be big enough

Use the available space properly

Font sizes should be proportional to the size of the


room

Keep the font sizes large and readable


Make sure the graphics are big enough

You want to make sure that the audience at the


back can see your slide

Dont show a very small image or table surrounded


by a sea of blank space

Dont use black font on dark backgrounds


Avoid the serif fonts, small fonts, skinny like
Times New Roman, or Courier
Use Sans-serif fonts like Arial
(use bold if it needs to be very small)
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

495

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

496

Better Size of Graphic


Rh123 retention
(mean % of Fafter/Fbefore)

Rh123 retention
(mean % of Fafter/Fbefore)

Improper Size of Graphic

100
80
60
40
20
0

Rh123 Rh123 Rh123


+CMXRos +CCCP
Irr

Rh123
-

100
80
60
40
20
0

Rh123 Rh123 Rh123


+CMXRos +CCCP
Irr

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

497

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Order of display items

Avoid shuffling through items during a presentation:


the audience will (rightly) think you are not
properly organised

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

498

Decoration

Make sure the order is correct before you start


If an item needs to be repeated during a presentation,
make sure there is a duplicate in the correct place

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Rh123

499

Make sensible use of colours and borders


Dont let PowerPoint Backgrounds dominate your
data or statements

It is the content that the audience should remember,


not the colours and the special effects!

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

500

Effective Presentation Techniques

Presentation Style
Body Language
Posture
Gesture
Mannerism
Position
Enthusiasm
Vocal qualities
Projection

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Body Language - 1

Projection
Modulation
Use of Text
Speed of speech and
presentation
Clarity of presentation
Use of pointing Devices

Federal University of Technology, Minna

501

Your body communicates different impressions to the


audience
People not only listen, they watch you
Displaying good posture tells the audience that you
know what you are dong
A good posture helps you to speak more clearly and
effectively

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Body Language - 2

Federal University of Technology, Minna

502

Body Language - 3

Throughout your presentation, display:


Eye contact
Facial Expression
Gestures
Posture and body orientation
Proximity
Voice

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Your hands are effective tools for directing attention.


Use them but dont abuse them
Eye contact is a vital part of any person-to-person
communication. Try not to stare
Feel free to move about in your area but avoid
wandering
If your audience has to turn in their seats to see
you, youve gone too far

503

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

504

Posture

The Body of the Presenter


How you use the space that you have available is
important.

Stand upright
not hunched

How much contact can you have with your audience


and are you able to freely move about?

Hands should be in use for the talk


not in pockets
not behind your back

What types of visual aids are available to you?

Face the audience


dont turn your back on them,
especially when pointing to the screen

How do you deal with anxiety?

You are telling them a story!


Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

505

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Gestures

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Mannerisms

Use your hands to make points

Avoid distracting mannerisms

Bodily movements help to keep the audience


interested

This applies to involuntary hand movements


or to bodily movements

Its like having a conversation with someone


that imaginary person?

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

506

Watch other people give lectures or seminars and


youll see some strange things!

507

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

508

Position

Enthusiasm

Sitting down to give presentations is not a good idea

Look and act interested


but dont overdo it!

Stand so the audience can see you

Be positive in your approach

Dont stand between the projector and the screen


if you cast a giant shadow
Avoid blocking the view of a substantial proportion of
the audience

If you dont look interested, your audience can


hardly be expected to be motivated to listen to the
talk

Be aware of the needs of the audience,


at all times

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

509

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Voice Projection

Federal University of Technology, Minna

510

Voice Modulation

The audience must hear you clearly especially


those sitting at the back!

Dont speak in a monotone


vary voice and expression

Vocal qualities

You can use voice modulation to:

Vocal Techniques (The Voice)

emphasise important points

Volume (Loudness)

indicate uncertainties

Tone (A characteristic of a sound)

insert a bit of humour

Pitch (How high or low a note is)


Pace (How long a sound lasts)

Monotonous presentation can be wrongly


interpreted as lack of enthusiasm!

Project your voice to an imaginary person


standing at the back wall of the room
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

511

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

512

Clarity of Expression

Use of Notes
Dont read from prepared text

Avoid abbreviations or lab jargon

Avoid reading the words straight off a slide

If you think your work is very specialised, briefly


explain basic concepts
in terms of the make-up of
the audience

Use your notes as prompts or reminders


The slides will contain cues to help you explain and
elaborate

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

513

Ask yourself if the audience can be reasonably


expected to understand the terms you are using

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

514

Speed of Speech

Use of Pointing Devices


Point to the specific part of the slide you are talking
about

Dont talk too fast


the audience needs to be able to follow

Avoid vague waving of the pointer in the general


direction of the screen

Dont
talk
too
slowly

the audience may get distracted or


even sleepy

When using a laser pointer, you may need to hold it in


two hands to avoid the shakes

Just talk at a natural pace


Why bother to make elegant visual aids if you dont
use the material properly?

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

515

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

516

Visual Aids

Speed of Presentation

Visual aids assist in your presentation but they should


never upstage you or be the sole focus of the
presentation
Visual aids make the abstract concrete - Equations,
diagrams, reactions, complex procedures
Sometimes you cant describe things properly; you
just have to show them
Simplicity is beautiful and much easier to work with
PowerPoint and other slide-show presentation aids
are powerful tools
Avoid large blocks of text and overly complicated
diagrams

Move through in a well-paced manner


Give each slide its due time..
... but not more than is needed
Avoid overly long Introductions
Dont rush the results and conclusions (losing the
take home message!)

Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

517

Challenges of Good Presentation

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

518

Dealing with Nervousness - 1


Be prepared

Nerves

Plan and rehearse

Habits

Deep breathing!

Questions

May sound naff, but it works


Engage with your audience
Makes you feel more relaxed
Know the room.
Be at your physical and mental best when speaking.
Dont expect perfection

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

519

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

520

Dealing with Nervousness - 2

Dealing with Questions

Practice as many times as possible, this gives you


the chance to feel the rhythm of the presentation and
correct any difficulties.

Questions show people are listening!

Before you speak, tighten and release your muscles.


This gives the extra adrenaline something else to do.

Try and anticipate questions

Take a few slow deep breaths before starting to


speak. Breathing is key!

What if I dont know the answer?

Allow time to deal with them


Decide when to answer them
Dont be afraid to stop and think
Open it to the floor
Take details and answer later
Repeat the question back if you dont understand it

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

521

Features of Poor Presentation - 1

Federal University of Technology, Minna

Federal University of Technology, Minna

522

Features of Poor Presentation - 2

Little/no eye contact


No engagement with the audience
Mumbling
Often because not engaging with audience
Reading from a paper
Too fast, monotone
Little/no structure
Lack of clarity
Too much information
Bad visual aids
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Prof. Okey Ugweje

You are the important part of your presentation!


So dont let the visual elements of your presentation
say it all.
Never write all the information on your PowerPoint
Never read out everything that is on a PowerPoint
PowerPoint serve as a prompter for you

523

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

524

Conclusions

Research Methodology

Summarise the main points of your presentation


Relate these back to the initial question

Module 8

Link these to the specific aims


Outline the implications

Publishing Your
Research

THIS IS THE TAKE HOME MESSAGE


Try to do this on one slide

Publish or Perish
-- an old saying in the academic circles

Do not finish your presentation without it!


Do not let your audience leave without it
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

525

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

526

Importance of Publishing Research


Findings

Motivation and Responsibilities of


Publishing Research Findings

The primary motivation for academics to publish is to


serve themselves; to save their own careers

1. Sharing Knowledge
Research costs money and those who supply the
money must get something of value in return
2. Knowledge Increase
Knowledge is the only commodity in the world that
actually increases in value and extent only when
shared. Your duty is to increase knowledge.
Through research the totality of the human body of
knowledge increases.
Human knowledge belongs to all humanity, it must be
shared and made available publicly.

The converse of this statement might be true


Lack of publication does not serve the career of the
average researcher or academics
In most cases there are higher motivations and
responsibilities that results in publishing research
findings

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

527

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

528

Research Methodology

Motivation and Responsibilities of


Publishing Research Findings
3. We must share our experiences with our colleagues
to assist them in their quests.
4. We must expose our work to critique by those who
can evaluate our work in terms of value, interest and
accuracy.

Journal

5. We must publish so that we can give credit to those


whose work has been instrumental in us arriving at
our findings.
6. In academia, your professional value can only be
evaluated in terms of your research output
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

529

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Research Result Publication

Federal University of Technology, Minna

530

Journal Papers - 1
Each discipline has a number of journals where the
research findings may be published. Two categories:

It is usually a lot easier to write


Thesis or Dissertation or Research
Reports than it is to write Journal
Paper.

1. Peer reviewed
2. Non- peer-reviewed
A peer-reviewed journal is one in which the articles
submitted for publication are reviewed by a panel of
experts peers who read and evaluate the suitability
of publication of the material
Only peer-reviewed publications are of significance
as scientific research publication

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

531

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

532

Research Methods

Journal Papers - 2
A journal should have predictable and suitable
sections with the right headings and content
organized in a logical and predictable order
Most journals do dictate or recommend a particular
structure
There are formats explicitly or implicitly for each
journal and for many types of research reporting

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

533

Conference Proceedings

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

534

Conferences Proceedings - 1

Conferences Proceedings - 2

Almost every discipline also has a number of


conferences associated with it. Conferences may be:

Usually a set of proceedings are published which


contains the copies or abstracts (sometimes full text)
of the various or all of the presentations

1. Commercially or trade oriented


2. Professionally/scholarly oriented, or
3. Research oriented
Professional/scholarly conferences provide
opportunities for high level professionals and scholars
to get together and exchange ideas, methods and
techniques attend tutorials or to establish
collaboration
Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

535

Research oriented conferences are the venues where


a dynamic discipline exposes the world to the
research work-in-progress or emerging research
directions
Research oriented conferences are usually in the
form of a series of paper presentations by the
researchers or their close associates

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

536

Conferences Proceedings - 3

Conferences Proceedings - 4

These papers are usually peer-reviewed and


although accommodation is usually made that the
work is still in progress or that stringent validation
may not have been performed on the results,
nevertheless, effort is made that only robust and high
quality work is presented

Conference papers are usually limited in terms of


page numbers allowed and the presentation slides
used during the presentation

The reputation and the quality of a conference is only


a function of the quality of the peer-review performed

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

537

References
[1] M. Punch, Politics and Ethics in Qualitative Research. In Denzin, N & Y
Lincoln (editors): The Handbook of Qualitative Research. CA, Sage, 1994
[2] W. S. Howell, The empathic communicator. University of Minnesota:
Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1982
[3] K-L. Thomson and R. V. Solms, Towards an Information Security
Competence Maturity Model, in Computer Fraud & Security, May 2006
[4] K-L. Thomson, R. von Solms and L. Louw, Cultivating an Organizational
Information Security Culture, in Computer Fraud & Security, October 2006.
[5] R. Klopper, The Case for Cyber Forensic Linguistics. Alternation Vol. 16,
No. 1, pp. 261-294, 2009
[6] R. Klopper and S. Lubbe, Using Matrix Analysis to Achieve Traction,
Coherence, Progression and Closure in Problem-Solution Oriented
Research Alternation Special Edition 4, 403 419, 2011

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

539

Each conference usually has its own styles, rules and


requirements pertaining to how a paper is prepared,
reviewed, published and presented.
Of course all the rules of good writing style pertinent
to journal papers also apply to conference papers.

Prof. Okey Ugweje

Federal University of Technology, Minna

538