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Eng.

Ahmad H Almashaikh

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


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E-Mail ahmad.private.mashaikh@gmail.com
Facebook : Ahmad H Mashaikh
Mobile: 00972598053163

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Cisco Certified Network


Associate
.
CCNA
:
: IP EIGRP, VLANs, Ethernet,
ACLs.
) (On Line

IP
). (WAN

.
:
: CCNA CCNA 200-120 , 200-125
: ) (ICND1 and ICND2
Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 1 and 2
CCNA 200-120:
CCNA :

.
IPs IP .
WLAN
.
.


CCNP .CCDP
3

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

) Level ( 1

Networking Fundamentals

Networking Fundamentals
5 ......................................................................
11.......................................................
12..............................................Network Architectures
17............................ Physical Media
25...................................................................... Protocols
27................................................................................................... OSI
45........................................................................................
51..............................................
53..........................................................
55.................................................................................
59..................................................................
61....................................................
71........................................................................................
82............................................................IPv4 Header / IPv6 Header

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh



.
ARPANET Advanced
Research Project Agency Net .
) (NSF National Science Foundation
ARPANET
1991
) (www ) (www (World
) Wide Web 3991 ) (ISOC
() 1.111.111 1991
Netscape Navigator. 1996 ()
.

() 111. 1111 :
:
. .
:




. .

LAN


) (Satellite WAN
PAN
.
5

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: :

Local Area
Network LAN
.
500
hub switch
.

.
.

.

:
.1
.1
.3
.1

.5

. Mesh networks
.Star networks
.Bus networks
.Tree networks
.Ring Topology

.
:


.


.


.

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
- 1 .
- 1 .
- 3 .
- 1 .
- 5 .




.

.
.

:
- 1
.
- 1 .
- 3

.
-1
.

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Types of Networks by Geographical Area

)Local Area Networks - (LAN

)Wide Area Networks - (WAN

)Campus Area Networks - (CAN

)Personal Area Networks - (PAN

)Metropolitan Area Networks - (MAN

)Wireless Local Area Networks - (WLAN

)Global Area Networks - (GAN

)Storage Area Networks - (SAN

:



.
8

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
: LAN


, ,

.

: WAN



.

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: CAN

.

: PAN 11

.

: MAN



) (MAN ) (LAN
.

11

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: WLAN


.

: GAN
.

11

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: SAN

.


Network Architectures
:

Peer to Peer Networks

Client / Server Networks

Peer to Peer -
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 20
.Workgroup
-6 .
12

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Client / Server -1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 .
-6 .


Physical Network Topologies


.

13

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Bus Topology



Terminator
.Backbone

: Star Topology





.

14

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Ring Topology



.

: Mesh Topology




.

15

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Point to point Topology





.

: Point to Multipoint Topology






.

: Hybrid Topology Network


.

16

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Physical Media


.

:
Coaxial Cable .1 .
Twisted Pair Cable .1 .
Fiber Optic Cable .3 .

Fiber Optic Cable Twisted Pair Cable

Coaxial Cable


:
: Coaxial Cable -1
,

. .
.
. 15 - 5 ,
.
.
.
.
. Ethernet ,

.
17

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-1 :

. 1929
1941 AT&T
. 1941
.
-3 :
.

.
, .

. .

.
.
.
.
-4 : .
.
.

.


.
.
-5 :




18

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.



:

Thick net Thin


net.

Thin net Thick net.

511 mbps31 Thick


311 mbps31 Thin
: Twisted Pair Cable -2

.

:
-1 Shielded Twisted Pair / STP

.

19

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-2 Unshielded Twisted Pair / UTP


,
UTP 6 :

Cat 1

Cat2

4.

Cat3

10.

Cat4

16.

Cat5

100.

Cat5

1000

.
Cat6

1000 .
21

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Category 6
1 .
STP UTP :
. . . UTP : . . STP : UTP
) (Straight cable

) (Crossover cable

Rj-45 :

21

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

STP UTP RJ- 45

-1 : fiber optic cables


,


.

:
-1 : Core
.
-2 : Cladding
.
-3 : Buffer coating
.

22

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
. . 100 200000 .

.

23

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


:
single mode fiber

.

micron 9 1 0,001
nm.1.55-1.3
multi -mode fibers

.
micron 5..6 .
:
-1 ( 100/ )
200,00/.
-1
.
-3 .
-1 .

.
-5 .
-6 .
:


.

24

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Protocols


.
Port 0 65535
0 Port 1024
.
:DNS - Domain Name System


IP
. IP
:DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
IP Hosts
Workstation TCP/IP
) (IP address conflict IP
( )
.
:SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol

IETF ()

.
:NTP - Network Time Protocol

. 123
.UDP
:FTP - File Transfer Protocol
,
.
25

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:POP - Post Office Protocol



. POP
:SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

ESMTP Extended SMTP
:SSL - Secure Sockets Layer
Secure Socket Layer SSL
.
:HTTPS - Secure HTTP
) (HTTPS
/
.
.
.
:HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

) (www
. HTML
:IP - Internet Protocol
IP
) (Network Layer osi
) (packet
.
:LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

TCP/IP
.

26

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:. ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol


Ping Packet
Internet Groper
Troubleshoot

Ping Packets 32 bit Echo Packet

.
:ARP - Address Resolution Protocol
Address Resolution Protocol
) (ARP
-
.
:RARP - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
) (Reverse ARP : RARP
ARP
. RARP
:PPTP - Point to Point Tunneling Protocol
PPP Point to Point Protocol
.
) (Data Layer . TCP/IP
:TCP - Transmission Control Protocol

IP /
).(TCP/IP
:UDP -User Datagram Protocol

.

27

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSI
Open Systems Interconnection
: OSI Source device
.Destination device
.
) (ISO 1983 , 7498
.
:
) (Layers.

.
4 :



)(Routing
1994 .
.

.
.
:
.1
.2
.3
.4

.
.
VoIP.
.
28

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: OSI
Provides a standard for hardware development

Allows for modular software development


Speed development of new technology

: OSI Layers
-1 Troubleshooting.
-2 . Encapsulations
-3 OSI

,

, Ping



Tcp/ip OSI

physical ) data link . ( Tcp
-4 OSI
.
-5
.
-6
.

29

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

( ) 7 :
. ,
7- Application layer
6- Presentation layer
5- Session layer
4- Transport layer
3- Network layer
2- Data link layer
1- Physical layer

31

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSI Layer :

.

7- Application layer

Google Chrome Mozilla
Firefox
FTP Client
Outlook Application layer
Application
layer
. Application layer
Mozilla Firefox Outlook

Application layer .

))Application
: Application layer -

SNMP , DNS , FTP , LDAP , LMP , NTP , HTTP , DHCP ,


Open VPN , SMTP , POP3 , IMAP , WAE , WAP , SSH, Telnet
, SIP , PKI , SOAP , rlogin , TLS / SSL .

31

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

6- Presentation layer




.

Application layer
Presentation layer
png , jpeg
, gif .

Presentation layer
: Presentation layer -
JPEG , MPEG , ASCII , EBCDIC , HTML , AFP , PAD , NDR ,
RDP , PAD , AVI .
: .
:
.

32

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

5- Session layer



Session


Session

) (single

( )half duplex


,
( ) Full duplex



()Full duplex

: Session layer -
SAP, RTP, NFS, SQL, RPC, NETBIOS NAM, NCP, SOCKETS,
SMB, NETBEUI, 9P.
33

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

4-Transport layer


TCP Connection oriented protocol



, UDP Connectionless


UDP

TCP
.

Transport layer -
TCP: Transmission Communication Protocol
UDP: User Datagram Protocol
34

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Transport layer
.
-3 , flow control Error correction
flow control Sequencing

Acknowledgments .

Flow-control
-. TCP
. or UDP
-3 .
-:

) ) 0 to 1024
.



.
35

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

36

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

TCP : UDP
TCP: Transmission Communication Protocol


Three Way handshake
, .



.
Connection Based


.

. TCP

UDP :
UDP Connectionless
TCP

.Three Way handshake

TCP Connection-Oriented

.
37

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

UDP: User Datagram Protocol





.


.TCP

. TCP

UDP : TCP
UDP TCP UDP
TCP
.
UDP
TCP
.
TCP UDP :
FTP = Port 21, Telnet = Port 23, SMTP = Port 25, DNS = Port 53,
TFTP = Port 69, SNMP = Port 161, RIP = Port 520.
38

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

3- Network layer
Packet
Packet Transport layer
segment Network layer
segment Packet IP
Packet
routing
RIP , EIGRP , OSPF
.BGP

: Network layer -
IPv4, IPv6 , IPx , ICMP , IPsec , IGMP,CLNP,EGP,EIGRP,IGRP,IPx
SCCP, GRE, OSPF, ARP, RIP, Routed-SMLT




.
39

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

2-data link layer



.
) (Packet ) (FRAME
) (binary data
.
() .
) (Interface Message Processor IMP
.

.
.


.
.
:
Logical Link Control LLC Bits
Bytes Frames Frame
Logical Network Topology
Token ring star Frame
== Frame
== Media Access Control MAC :
Mac Address
Frame
.
:
.1
.1
.3
.1

.
.
).(IMP
.
) RAM ) .

41

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Data link layer

1-Physical layer

,
Frame
Frame BITS

.

Physical layer

41

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Data link layer - Physical layer

Application layer
Presentation layer
Session layer
Transport layer
Network layer
Data link layer
Physical layer

Data
Data
Data
Segment
Packet
Frame
Bites

Application layer
Presentation layer
Session layer
Transport layer
Network layer
Data link layer
Physical layer

PC
PC
PC
Switch Core
Router
Switch , HUB
NIC, Cable
42

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


OSI Layers
TCP/IP
. TCP/IP


.TCP/IP

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
,1970
DARPA .

.
TCP/IP Hardware
Software
.
:

.

.
.
43

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.


.

.

TCP/IP
TCP/IP
.
TCP/IP

TCP/IP :
(SMTP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
.
) File Transfer Protocol (FTP .
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
)World Wide Web (www

PC

.
Linux )(php

) (ASP
). (HTML

.
.
.
TCP/IP Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol TCP
.
44

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSI
OSI .
TCP/IP : IP
IP
IP.

.
: SOCKETS
TCP/IP
.
.
TCP/IP .



.
): (TCP/IP
Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
TCP/IP
DHCP
IP IP
( )


IP 32
8
131,107,2,200 8
1 255 ()
: TCP/IP

Application

Transport

Internet
Network Interface
45

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Network Devices
:
-1 : HUB
,

.




.
.
Physical Layer
.
. HUB
Passive Hub -1 .
Active Hub -1 .
Hybrid Hub -3 .
Smart (intelligent) Hub -1 .

46

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-. : Switch

Bridge Physical
Layer Data Link Layer OSI

Switch


.
Switch : Hub
-1

8
5

.

Mac-Address

Frame Mac-Address
Frame Broadcast
.
-1 ) . ) One to One
-3 .Collision Domain
-1 .OSI
-5 Mac-Address-Table .
-6 .Mac-Address
-7 .ffff.ffff.ffff
-8 .
47

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -1 : Repeater



.

Twisted pair 91


91 .

48

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-1 : Router
. Newtork Layer
:
-1 10.0.0.0
192.168.1.0

.
-1
Source Destination
.
: ADSL
ADSL .
Router -

Modem -

49

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-5 : Gateway
OSI

Router
Gateway
.
Gateway :
: External Gateway -1
.
: Internal Gateway -1

Gateway .
Gateway

51

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-6 : Bridge LAN
Routing Table
.
Bridge

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -7 : NIC
NIC
( )Transceiver NIC NIC
MAC Address
.

NIC = Network Interface Card

-1
-1
-3
-1

. OSI
.

.CSMA/CD
.

51

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Methods of Sending Data in the Physical Media
Networks

.
Simplex

Half Duplex

Full Duplex

52

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)(Simplex

.
)(Half Duplex

.

.



.
)(Full Duplex

.
.
.



.

53

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Methods of Sending Data in the Network

Any Cast IPv6
.

Unicast

.

--------------------------------------------------------------------Multicast

51 15
.

--------------------------------------------------------------------54

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Broadcast

.

--------------------------------------------------------------------Any cast



Broadcast
Broadcast IPv6 . Any cast

: Any cast : -1 .
-1 DDOS
.
-3 .
-1
.
55

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Collision Domain
:
,


.
Hub Repetar
LAN Switch
Router .
:

.
: ,
,
.
:
: Router Broadcast
. Collision Domain
: Switch , Collision Domain
.Broadcast
: Hub Broadcast .Collision Domain
Broadcast Domain : Collision Domain
: Broadcast Domain
IP Broadcast Domain
.
: Collision Domain
.
56

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

HUB
One Collision Domain


,
5
6 5
5
1 6 7

6 , ) ) IP
Broadcast , ffff.ffff.ffff
. Mac Address -
, .
Broadcast Domain 1
Collision Domain 1

57

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

,


, Mac Address
Broadcast .
, .
Broadcast Domain 1
Collision Domain 4

58

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:

1
A . B
Broadcast A and B . Collision Domain 3 Broadcast Domain 2
Collision Domain 5
CD : BD

Collision Domain
.Broadcast Domian

59

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Cisco Three Layers Hierarchical Model


.
:


1- Access Layer
2- Distribution Layer
3- Core Layer

:
-1 : Access Layer
,

.

.
-. : Distribution Layer
Access Layer ) (Vlan
.
-1 : Core Layer
Distribution
.
:
ACCESS Layer

DISTRIBUTION Layer

CORE Layer

700 routers

4000 switches

6500 switches

1900 Switches

3600 routers

8500 switches

2820 Switches

4000 routers

12000 router

4000 switches

6500 switches

1700 routers

61

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Cisco Three Layers Hierarchical Model

61

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


IP Address - IPv4 / IPv6

Internet protocol

IPv4 Address

.
32 bit
Octet
.
8
255
8 .
bit Byte
IP
.
: Bit 0 1

.OSI
: Byte
8
0 1 8
:
)00000000) 8
8 Bit Byte

32
.
62

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IP
.
-1 :Binary System 0 1
:
Octet 8 bits Octet 8 bits Octet 8 bits Octet 8 bits

00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
IP 8
32 .
-1 : Decimal System
0 255
:

0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
IP
8 32
8 0
8
:
0.0.0.0 IP
00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
.
255.255.255.255 IP
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
.
:
255.255.255.255 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
0.0.0.0 = 00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
63

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IP Address Class

A , B , C , D , E
A , B , C D , E
:
A B C
.
:Class D .
:Class E .

A , B , C , D , E :

IPv4
IP
.
: Class A A 1 126 0 127
0 127 A
1 126 0 127 .
64

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

A
:
N. H. H. H

10.0.0.0
N Network H Host A
126 A 16,777,216
.
Subnetmask A 255.0.0.0 .Subnetmask
: Class B B 128 . 191
B
, :

N. N. H. H

150.1.0.0
N Network H Host B
65,534 B
16,384 .
Subnetmask B 255.255.0.0 .
: Class C C 192 . 223
C
, :

N. N. N. H

192.168.1.0
N Network H Host C
2,097,152 C
255 .
65

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Subnetmask C 255.255.255.0 .

.



IP
.

8 byte 8 bit

8 IP

.

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

.
: . IP


8 .
0 7 :
2^0 = 1
2^1 = 2
2^2 = 4
2^3 = 8
2^4 = 16
2^5 = 32
2^6 = 64
2^7 = 128
66

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1 1 111

255 8 byte :

255 = 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1

:
255.255.255.255
8
byte . 32 byte

.
192.168.50.1
8
.
-1 .
-1
0 . 1
-3 .
: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 0 0 000

1 1

192
192 192 128
128 1 128
128 192 192
192 64
1 , 64 128 + 64= 192
67

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

192

192
128 + 64 1

.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1

0 1 0 0 000

168
168
128 64 168
128 32 8
128 + 32 + 8 = 168
168 1
128 32 8 .
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 0010

0 0

50
50
32 16 2 50
32 + 16 + 2=50 50
1 32 , 16 , 2
0 .
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1
1
0 .


:
8
:
68

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

192.168.50.1
:
Decimal System :192.168.50.1
Binary System: 11000000. 10100000.00110010.00000001

172.16.1.1 B :
Decimal System :172.16.1.1
Binary System: 10101100. 00010000.00000001.00000001

126.50.1.1 A :
Decimal System :126.255.240.20
Binary System: 01111110.11111111.11110000.00010100

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IP

:

00000000 = 0
10000000 = 128
11000000 = 192
11100000 = 224
11110000 = 240
11111000 = 248
11111100 = 252
11111110 = 254
11111111 = 255
69

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IPv4
-3 Private IPv4 Address

.
-3
-.
-1
-4

1.0.0.0 : A 126.255.255.254
: B 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.254
192.168.0.0 : C 192.168.255.254
239.0.0.0 : D

-. Loop Back Interface


, .
127.0.0.1
-1 APIPA
. IP
APIPA = Automatic Private IP Addressing
169.254.0.0
-4 : E 239 254
-8 ,
.
Reserved Multicast Address 224.0.0.0
-5 General Broadcast Address
255.255.255.255
.
-7 ISP

Public IP Address .
:


.
71

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Class Full / Class Less

Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D


255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
255.0.0.0

0-127
128-191
192-223
224-239

/8
/16
/24
/8

Class Full / Class Less :


: Class Full
ip: 10.0.0.0 / 8 /8
ip
. Class Full
: Class Less
Subnetting VLSM

ip : 10.0.0.0/16
Class Less

.
: Class Full / Class Less

Class Full
-1 IP Classes .
-2 Subnet Mask
.
-3 Packet
. Routing Table
Class Less
-1
. VLSM
-2 Subnet Mask
.
-3 Packet Default Router
.
71

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


IP Subnetting
:Subnetting ,
IP .

-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

IP
A

Subnetting

.
:
Broadcast



Broadcast
.
.
.
.
.

72

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.
) 10.0.0.0/8 ) A 10.0.0.0/8 255.0.0.0
8
.

8 :
10.0.0.0/8 255.0.0.0
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1
1
^
5 .
128 , 64 , 32 1
^
:
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1
2^1 = 2 2
2^2 = 4 4
2^3 = 8 8
8 3
5

.
Subnet mask 255.224.0.0
. 128 + 64 + 32 = 224
CIDR /8
/11 11 /8
. 1 + 1 + 1 + 8 = 11
:Block size
Block size 32
64 Block size .
73

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


10.0.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.0.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10. 31.0.1

10.31.255.254

10.31.255.255


10.32.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.32.0.1

10.63.255.254

10.63.255.255


10.64.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.64.0.1

10.95.255.254

10.95.255.255


10.96.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.96.0.1

10.127.255.254

10.127.255.255

74

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


10.128.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.128.0.1

10.159.255.254

10.159.255.255


10.160.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.160.0.1

10.191.255.254

10.191.255.255


10.192.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.192.0.1

10.223.255.254

10.223.255.255


10.224.0.0/11 255.224.0.0

10.224.0.1

10.255.255.254

10.255.255.255

75

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

) 192.168.1.0/24 ) C 192.168.1.0/24 255. 255. 255.0


8
.

8 :
192.168.1.0/24 255.255.255.0
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1
1
^
8 .
128 , 64 , 32 1
^ :
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1
2^1 = 2 2
2^2 = 4 4
2^3 = 8 8
8

.
Subnet mask 255.255.255.224
. 128 + 64 + 32 = 224
CIDR /24
/27 27 /24
. 1 + 1 + 1 + 24 = 27
A
.

76

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


192.168.1.0/27 255. 255. 255.224

192.168.1.0/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.1

192.168.1.30

192.168.1.31


192.168.1.32/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.33

192.168.1.62

192.168.1.63


192.168.1.64/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.65

192.168.1.94

192.168.1.95


192.168.1.96/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.97

192.168.1.126

192.168.1.127

77

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


192.168.1.128/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.129

192.168.1.158

192.168.1.159


192.168.1.160/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.161

192.168.1.190

192.168.1.191


192.168.1.192/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.193

192.168.1.222

192.168.1. 223


192.168.1.224/27 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.255

192.168.1.254

192.168.1.255

78

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IPv6
Internet Protocol Version 6
128 bit
Octet 16
hexadecimal
16
.IPv6
: IPv6 ) ) IPv4
IPv6
). (IPv4
: IPv6
-1 BroadCast
Any Cast
.
-1
IPsec
IPsec .
-3
.
-1
.
-5 IP Header v6 IP Header v4
IP Header .
-6 DNS , BGP, OSPF, :
.DHCP RIPng, EIGRP ,IGMP , UDP ,TCP
-7 340
4.3 .
79

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: IPv6
Unicast, Multicast, Any Cast

BroadCast Any Cast .
fec80:0000:0000:0000:0c41:1536:3f57:fef5 IPv6

64 bit Network ID
64 bit .Host

IPv6 Address
Format :
2005:0005:0100:0000:0000:0000:0000:070
,

,

.
2005:0005:0100:0:0:0:0:070
,
0005
:
2005:5:100:0:0:0:0:70


Colon :: :
2005:5:100::70
: 4 Colon
2005:5::100::70 Colon
.
81

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IPv6
Private IPv6 Address
Link-Local Unicast Address = APIPA -3
APIPA
.Link-Local Unicast Address
.Unique-Local Address = Private IP Address -.
, Private IP Address
.Unique-Local Address
Global Unicast Address = Public IP Address -1

Public IP Address Global
.Unicast
Multicast Address ff02::1 -4
224.0.0.0
. ff02::1
Loopback interface ::1 = 127.0.0.1 -6
Loopback interface
127.0.0.1 . :1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IPv4 IPv6
, Transition IPv4 to IPv6

81

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IPv4 : IPv6
: Dual Stack -1 IPv4
IPv6

IPv4
IPv6
.

: NAT Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) -.



IPv4
IPv6


.
: NAT
NAT-PT
.

82

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: IPv6 Over IPv4 Tunels -3


IPv6


IPv4


.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

IPv4 Header / IPv6 Header


IP Header Header
Header




Header
IPv4 Header IPv6 Header
.
IPv4 Header
IPv6 Header .
:IPv4 Header 32 byte .20 byte
:IPv6 Header 32 byte .40 byte
:
83

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IPv4 Header / IPv6 Header

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IPv4 Header , . IPv6 Header


IPv4 Header 14 .
Version , IHL , Type of Service , Total Length , Identification ,
Flags , Fregment Offset , Time to live , Protocol , Header
Checksum , Source Address , Destination Address , Options ,
Padding .

.
:Version
IPv4
Header .4 bit
:IHL IP 32 bit
. 4 bit
84

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Type of Service

. 8 bit
: Total Length
.16 bit
: Identification
. 16 bit
: Flags
. 3 bit
: Fregment Offset

. 13 bit
: Time to live



. 8 bit
: Protocol
. 8 bit

: Header Checksum


.
: Source Address IP
. 32 bit
: Destination Address IP
. 32 bit
:Options
0 .32
85

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Padding :Data


.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

IPv6 Header
:IPv6 Header
IPv4 Header 14 8
8 .
:Version
IPv6
Header .4 bit
: Traffic Class Type of Service
.Traffic Class
: Flow Label
.
: Payload Length Total Length
Payload Length .
: Next Header Protocol Next
Header .
: Hop Limit Time to live Hop
Limit .
: Source Address IP
128 bit
32 bit . 128 bit
: Destination Address IP
128 bit
128 bit .
Checksum, Option, Fragmentatio :
86

Level ( 2 )

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Routing Networks

Routing Networks
88................................................ Router Devices
90.......................................................
91...............................Cisco Modes DevicesNetwork Architectures
93.................................................................Basic Command Router
95......................................................Install packet tracer
98...........................................................................Router Passwords
104.......................................................................Password Recovery
111............................................Remote Access , Telnet
119................................................................................Routing
124.......................................................................Static Routing IPv4
141..................................................................Dynamic Routing IPv4
141.............................................Routing Information Protocol RIP
155...................................................Open shortest Path First OSPF
204.............Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol EIGRP
213...........................................................
215...........................................................EIGRP Metric Calculation
217.............................................................Autonomous System (AS)
220............................................................................Passive Interface
238.................................................................Dynamic Routing IPv6
87

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Devices Router

.
: Router Components -
-3
-.
-1
-4
-6
-5
CPU = Central Processing Unit
Memories
RAM = Random access memory
ROM = Read-Only memory
Flash Memory
NVRAM = Non Volatile Random access memory


88

123456-

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Interface
-1

-2

-3
-4

:Console Port
Console

.
:Auxiliary Port

.
:LAN Interfaces
.
:WAN Interfaces

.


: Port Serial
DCE = Data Communication Equipment -1
DTE = Data Terminal Equipment -.
:
) (DCE ) (DTE
) (Cisco 2522 .
) (DCE/DTE

89

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Cisco Router Boot Sequence
:



.
-1
-1
-3
-1
-5
-6

: Boot Sequence
Post = Power on self-Test
Boot Strap
ISO = Internetwork OS
RAM
Startup Configuration
NVRAM RAM
Running Configuration
.

91

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Cisco Modes Devices

:
. -1 . -. . -3
-3
User Exec Mode
Router >
Privilege Exec Mode
Router > Enable
Router #
Global Configuration Mode
Router # Config Terminal
Router (config) #
-.
Interface Configuration Mode
Router (config) # interface fast Ethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) #
Sub Interface Configuration ) (
Mode
Router (config) # interface fast Ethernet 0/1.1
Router (config-subif) #
Routing Protocol Mode
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
Router (config-router) #

91

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-1
Setup Mode
Continue with configuration dialog? [Yes/no]:
Rommon Mode
> Rommon 1


Cisco IOS


:
:IOS .
:IOS XE IOS

.
:IOS-XR
.
:NX-OS .

92

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Basic Command
Router
Router
Router
Router
Router

>?
> enable
# disable
> terminal history size

All Command
To get to Privileged Mode
To get back to User Mode
To set the command buffer
size
Router > terminal no editing
To disable advanced editing
features
Router > show history
To show the command buffer
Router # config t
Enter global configuration
mode
Router # show version
View IOS version
Router # show interface
Display interfaces on router
and their status
Router # show ip interface brief
Check interface status
Router # show ip protocol
Display ip protocol info
Router # show protocol
Display which protocols are
configured on the router
Router # show flash
View IOS version, size of
IOS, and free space in
FLASH
Router # show running-config
View current configuration
file (RAM)
Router # show startup-config
View saved configuration file
(NVRAM)
Router # show processes cpu
View CPU utilization
Router # show processes
View info about programs in
RAM
Router # reload
Reboot the router and reload
the startup config from
NVRAM
Router(config) # no ip routing
Disable IP routing on a router
(enabled by default)
Router(config)# hostname Router1 Give the router a hostname
Ctrl+A
To move to the beginning of
the command line
93

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Ctrl+E

To move to the end of the


command line
Ctrl+F
To move forward one
character
Ctrl+B
To move back one character
Ctrl+W
To move forward one word
Ctrl+U
To erase a line
Ctrl+R
To redisplay a line
Router # Ctrl+Z
Ends configuration mode and
returns to privileged mode
Router # show ip route
View the IP routing table
Router # debug ip rip
View RIP Debug
Router # debug ip igrp events
View IGRP Debug
Router(config) # no router rip
Disable RIP routing
Router # copy flash tftp
Backup IOS to file server
Router#copy tftp flash
Upgrade the IOS from the
file server
Router # copy running-config tftp Copy running config file
from RAM to TFTP
Router # copy tftp running-config Copy startup config file from
TFTP to RAM
Router # copy tftp startup-config Copy startup config file from
TFTP to NVRAM
Router # erase startup-config
Erase the configuration file in
NVRAM [run initial config
dialog]
Router(config)# boot system flash Tell router which IOS file in
(ios_filename)
Flash to boot from
Router(config) # boot system tftp Tell router which IOS to
(ios_filename) tftp_ip_address
request from the TFTP server
(fallback)
Router(config) # boot rom
Tell router to boot from IOS
in ROM
Routerconfig) # service password- Passwords can be encrypted
encryption
Routerconfig) # no service
To de-encrypt the passwords
password-encryption

94

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Install packet tracer


.
: Packet Tracer ,


.

......
-1
-1
-3
-1
-5


. Next
.Next
Next . Install
.
.Finish

https://www.itechtics.com/download-cisco- ..........
/packet-tracer-6-2-free-direct-download-link
95

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

96

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
Router -3
Switches -.
Hubs -1
Wireless Devices -4
Connection -6
End Devices -5
-7
-8
-9
-01
-00
-01
-01

97

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router Passwords
And Password Recovery
:

Console
.

Console

.

No :
98

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # line console 0
Router (config-line) # Password cisco123
Router (config-line) # login
:

. Port Console Aux .99

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Ctrl + C Router # .

: Aux :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # line aux 0
Router (config-line) # Password cisco456
Router (config-line) # login
:

111

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

. Port Aux . : Enable


:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # enable password cisco789
:

:
:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # service password-encryption
:

Service password-encryption

- : .

111

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router # show running-config

112

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

. Enable

.
Router (config) # enable secret cisco789

113

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh



:
Router # copy running-config startup-config
.

Enter
, Enter
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Password Recovery
.

114

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
-1
-1

-3
-1

Console .


Ctrl + C .
.Rommon

Rommon > confreg 0x2142 Enter
Rommon > reset
.

:
.
: Ctrl
+ C . Rommon

115

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Ctrl + C . Rommon

Rommon > confreg 0x2142 :


Rommon > reset
.

116

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

No :
:
Router > enable
Router # copy startup-config running-config
:

117

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Enter .
:
Router # show running-config

Router (config) # no enable secret

Router (config) # line console 0
Router (config-line) # no password
Console
Router (config-line) # exit

Router (config) # line aux 0
Router (config-line) # no password
Aux
Router (config-line) # exit

Router (config) # no service password-encryption

Router (config) # config-register 0x2102

Router (config) # end

Router # Copy running-config startup-config

118

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Show running-config -
.

OK
.

119

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Show running-config .
- Enable .

. Console Port , Aux Port

111

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Remote Access , Telnet

: Telnet
TCP/IP

.
) (Telnet TCP/IP , TCP/IP
) (Telnet

Online
. ( Database , chat ) Services
Telnet Server Telnet Clients .
Telnet Clients Telnet Serve r,
.
. Telnet
, Local Logon
. Telnet
: ) (Telnet ) (Telnet ()
:

) (Telnet ) (Telnet
.
111

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Telnet .1 Telnet
Source Telnet
.
.1 Telnet FTP Client
.Telnet
.3 Telnet POP Mail
POP
Mail . Post Office Protocol
Telnet TCP .Port 23 Telnet
Cisco Packet Tracer Student .
LAB



vty
PC 2
. vty
112

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.IP : 19.168.1.1 -3
Mask : 255.255.255.0 -.
GY : 192.168.1.100 -1
Interface FastEthernet 0/0 -4
.
, .
PC 2
IP :192.168.1.1 -3
Mask : 255.255.255.0 -.
GY : 192.168.1.100 -1

0/0
vty .
:
113

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

No

:
Router > enable
Router # show ip interface brief

114

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Interface fast Ethernet 2 0/0 0/1 0/0


.
:Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown

0/0 up

.
Router (config-if) # end
Ctrl + C

Router # show ip interface brief :

115

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

192.168.1.100 0/0 up up .
vty .
vty :
: . vtyRouter > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # line vty 0
0 0 4
Router (config-line) # password cisco123
Router (config-line) # login
Router (config-line) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
116

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

PC 2 Command Prompt :

Command Prompt DOS


.
.117

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

- :

:PC > telnet 192.168.1.100



. 789
vty

SSH
vty
.
118

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Routing

: Routing

, Packet
.
: Packet
.
: Packet


Interface

Routing Table .
: Routing Table
Routing Table
Packet
.

-1
-2
-3
-4

-5

-6

: Routing Table

( ) .
.
IP TCP/IP
.
IP
( )
( ) .
) (route print
) (command prompt
.route delete, route change , route add :
" .

119

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
:
-1
-2
-3
-4

-5

: Network ID

: Network mask mask IP network
IP
: Gateway
: Interface Interface
"
Interface
: Metric

: Directly attached network IDs metric


.
router
IP address
data link layer Ethernet token-ring
.

:

Routing Table

Direct
Connected

Default
Routing

Static Routing

Distance Vector

RIP v1, RIPv2


v2

Dynamic
Routing

Link Status

IGRP

EIGRP
121

OSPF

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: :Direct Connected -1

, " " C
( )Connected ) (0
.
:Static Routing -1


,
" " S ( )Static
) (1 ) )0
.
:Default Routing -3




, ( ( 1
" " S ip : 0.0.0.0 mask :
0.0.0.0 Gy : 192.168.1.100
.
:Dynamic Routing -4



,





.
121

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Dynamic Routing Dynamic Protocols



Packet
.
-1
Link Status Protocol

OSPF EIGRP
.
-2
Distance Vector

IGRP RIP v1 RIP v2
.
:Dynamic Routing -3 Interior
Gateway Protocols Exterior Gateway
Protocols
, .

Classful Classless
, IP .
122

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Routing Protocols
Routed Protocols :
:Routing Protocols Packet ,
Network Layer 3 OSI
, Packet
.
: Routed Protocols Data
,
. Routing Table
:

.

Routing

123

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Static Routing IPv4


:Static Routing Cisco Packet Tracer
Student
:

. . ) : Network ( 1
IP: 192.168.1.0/24 .
Mask: 255.255.255.0 .
GY: 192.168.1.100
f0/0 .

:
PC 0
IP: 192.168.1.1 .
Mask: 255.255.255.0 .
124

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

GY: 192.168.1.100 .

) : Network ( 2
IP: 192.168.2.0/24 .
Mask: 255.255.255.0 .
GY: 192.168.2.200
f0/0 .

:

125

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

PC 1
IP: 192.168.2.1 .
Mask: 255.255.255.0 .
GY: 192.168.2.200 .

) : Network ( 3

Router 0 f0/1
Router 1 Router 1
f0/1 . Router 0
126

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IP: 10.0.0.0/8 .
GY: 10.0.0.1 f0/1
.Router 0
GY: 10.0.0.2 f0/1
.Router 1
Mask: 255.0.0.0 .
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Router 0

No ................
- 192.168.1.0/24

127

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown

192.168.1.100 . f0/0 . Router (config-if) # exit f0/1 .10.0.0.1 .

128

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown

10.0.0.1 . f0/1
. Router (config-if) # end
RAM .NVRAM
Router # copy running-config startup config

Router 0 f0/0 192.168.1.0/24 f0/1


129

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

10.0.0.0/8
Router 1 .
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Router 1
No ................
192.168.2.0/24Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.200 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown

192.168.2.200 . f0/0 . Router (config-if) # exit f0/1 .10.0.0.2 .


131

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown

. f0/1 10.0.0.2
. Router (config-if) # end
.NVRAM RAM
Router # copy running-config startup config
131

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router 1 f0/0 192.168.2.0/24 f0/1


10.0.0.0/8 .


192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24
10.0.0.0/8

Static Routing

.

:
Router # show ip interface brief

Up or Down
Router # show ip route

Router # show ip protocol

Router # show running-config

.

132

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router 0

:
Router # show ip route
Router 0

10.0.0.0/8 192.168.1.0/24
" " C ,
192.168.2.0/24


192.168.1.0/24 Router 1
Router 1
:

133

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Router 1

Router # show ip rout

192.168.1.0/24
.
Static Routing : Router 0 ............. :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2

10.0.0.2
192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24

. Router 1
Router (config) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config

134

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router 0


Router # show ip route
192.168.2.0/24 .
: Router 0

192.168.2.0/24 10.0.0.2/8
135

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router 0 Router1
192.168.1.0/24 .
[1/0] 192.168.2.0/24 Next Hop
] [1/0

.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Router 1

:
Router # show ip route
Router 1

192.168.1.0/24
.
Static Routing : Router 1 ............. :
136

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router > enable


Router # config t
Router (config) # ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1
Router (config) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config


Router # show ip route
. 192.168.2.0/24
Router 1

137

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24
10.0.0.0/8 .


Ping .
Ping
:
Router 0 Ping 10.0.0.2 Router 1
Success ping
5 packet packet 4 packet.
ping 192.168.2.200 packet
5 packet 192.168.2.200
:
Router 0

Router 0 :

138

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router 1

ping PC 0 192.168.1.1 ping PC 1


192.168.2.1 :
PC 0

139

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

PC 1 192.168.2.1 4 packet .
ping PC 1 192.168.2.1 ping PC 0
192.168.1.1 :

PC 0 192.168.1.1 4 packet .
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ . Static Routing

.
Static Routing
Router (config) # ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1


.
Router (config) # ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1
141

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config) # ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 f0/1





.
.

Dynamic Routing IPv4




RIP = Routing Information Protocol
: RIP IGP
,
RIP
.
RIP2 ,
( (OSPF
IS-IS RIP IPv6
RIPng) RIP ) .1997
141

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: RIP
) (Bellman-Ford
1967 . ARPANET
:RIP ,
. RIP
( ) .
15 RIP.
RIP . RIP
UDP . 520.
Application
. Layer
Distance Vector
. Protocol

.Routing Table
RIP . 120
) (Metric Hop Count
.
15 .
RIP
.
: Distance Vector
RIP 15 15
15
15 . Hop Count
RIP
, RIP
.......
142

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

PC 1
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.4.0/24 PC 4

,
.
: Administrative distance

Administrative distance
, Routing protocol Administrative
distance
AD
.

143

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Administrative distance .

: Metric
AD metric
RIP metric
EIGRP
Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load
metric , OSPF bandwidth
AD metric.

144

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

EIGRP RIP show ip route Router 0 :

RIP Table AD EIGRP EIGRP


192.168.9.0 3
metric .
AD metric
, .

145

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

- ) RIPv1 , RIPv2 , RIPng ) RIP :

RIPv1

RIPv2

15

15

120

120

255.255.255.255

224.0.0.9

RIPv1
255.255.255.255
4 4
RIPv1 1 2
RIPv1 1
2 Broadcast 255.255.255.255
1
2 3 4 3 4 RIPv1
3 IS-IS 4
OSPF

1 2
RIPv1
RIPv2 .
RIPv2 224.0.0.9

RIPv2
146

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R1 R2
RIPv2 R1 R2
224.0.0.9
RIPv2 .
RIPv1

RIPv2

- Distance Vector Protocol

RIPv1 Classfull VLSM . Subnetting


RIPv2 Classless VLSM . Subnetting
: RIP 30

RIP

EIGRP
OSPF .
: RIP -1 Update Timer
30
RIP
30 .
147

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-1 Route Invalid Timer


180
.
-3 Hold Down Timer
180 .
-1 Route Flash Timer
240
.
: RIP ConfigurationRouter > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # router rip
Router (config-router) # version 2
Router (config-router) # network 200.0.0.0
Router (config-router) # network 100.0.0.0

RIP Configuration
RIP

-1
-1
-3

-1

-5


RIPv2 ........
:
. 192.168.5.0/24
. 192.168.10.0/24
10.0.0.0/8
192.168.5.0/24 192.168.10.0/24
.RIPv2
RIPv2 R1 R2

.
R1 R2


.
148

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: R1 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.5.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end

149

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R1

. RIPv2
:
Router # config t
Router (config) # router rip
Router (config-router) # version 2
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.5.0
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0

RIPv2 R1 R2 .
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
151

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R2 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end

R2

.RIPv2
:
151

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router # config t
Router (config) # router rip
Router (config-router) # version 2
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.10.0
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0

RIPv2 R2 .Router (config-router) # end


Router # copy running-config startup-config
RIPv2

R1 R2 :
Router # show ip route

R1

192.168.10.0/24 10.0.0.2 , RIPv2 ( . ( R


------------------------------------------------------------------------------Router # show ip route

152

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R2

192.168.5.0/24 10.0.0.1 , RIPv2 ( . ( R


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2 Ping R1
R2 Packet

.
R1 Router # ping 10.0.0.2
R2 !!!!!
..... .

R1

!!!!! .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

153

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R2

!!!!!
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Packet Packet .

: RIP EIGRP
OSPF

RIP
EIGRP OSPF
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------154

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF
Open shortest Path First

) : ( OSPF link
state . Link State
Routing

Autonomous System . OSPF
OSPF IGP = Interior
Gateway Protocol .
: link
state .
) (BGP
.
: OSPF )(IP
( ) .
.

.

155

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF , -
,- .
,

) (LSDB .
LSDB OSPF
OSPF
.
( ) ,
, .
.
, OSPF ,
.
32 , ,
, IPv4.
, ( 0) 0.0.0.0
OSPF
,


OSPF. ,
(ABR). ABR

.
OSPF UDP ,
. 89
, , RIP
(BGP) . OSPF .


OSPF
OSPF .OSI Layer
.IGP = Interior Gateway Protocol
156

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.Standard
. Link State Protocol
.Open Source
SPF = Shortest Path First OR Dijikstra
.Algorithm
.IP = Internet Protocol
IPx . Apple Talk
SPF .
. Has Unlimited hop count
.
.Administrative Distance 110
VLSM . Subnetting
Classless .
4 Load
.Balancing to 4 equal Paths
Triggerd Update and
.Periodic Update
: ) (Topology Table
) (Neighbor Table ). (Routing Table

.Area
.Cost
it is the Metric .



.
OSPF OSPF Routers
224.0.0.5 . OSPF DR 224.0.0.6

,OSPF Tables OSPF


-3 Adjacency Database OR Neighbor Table

157

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF


OSPF .
:
Router # show ip ospf neighbors
-. Topology Table LSDB
= Link State Data Base


,



,
OSPF




.
:
Router # show ip ospf database
-1 Routing Table OR Forwarding Database

,




158

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh



.
:
Router # show ip ospf route
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OSPF Area , OSPF


Area : OSPF

.Area0
:
Area 0
Area 0
Area 1 , Area 2 , Area 3
Area 0
. Area 0
159

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: AreaBackbone Area OR Transit Area -3



Area 1 , Area 2 Area 0 Area 1 ,
. Area 2
Regular Area OR Non backbone Area -.
Area 0 Area 1
Area 0 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OSPF Routers
OSPF

OSPF
.
5 : OSPF :Backbone Router -3
Area 0
. Backbone Router
161

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Internal Router -.
Area 1 Backbone
Router . Area 1
Area Border Router = ABR -1
Area
Area Area 0
Area 100 Area 0 Area 100
ABR .
Autonomous System Border Router = ASBR -4
OSPF OSPF
OSPF
OSPF .
Designated Router = DR -6
(DR):
.

) (DR ) (NBMA .
NBMA
.
Backup Designated Router = BDR -5
)BDR( :
) ( DR
) . ( DR

161

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF Networks Types


OSPF
Point to Point Network -3
OSPF
.

BMA = Boradcast Maulti-access Network -.



DR . DBR

NBMA = No Boradcast Maulti-access Network -1



Frame Relay . MPLS

162

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies


OSPF

OSPF



OSPF
5
.
: Down State -3
OSPF

OSPF
Hello
Packets
Hello Packets 224.0.0.5 Multicast
Point to Point Broadcast

Frame Relay
.Unicast

163

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Init State -. OSPF


Hello Packets
OSPF
OSPF

Adjacency Database OR Neighbor
.Table

:Two Way State -1


Hello Packet
Unicast Reply Router ID

Adjacency
Database OR Neighbor Table Two
.Way State

164

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Exstart State -4
DataBase Description DBD

.

: Exchange State -6
DBD Router ID
Summary DBD


Sequence numbers
. DBD
-1 DBD Link-
State Acknowledgment .LSAck
-2 Router
..
up-to-date .. Link-
State Request LSR ..
LSR . Loading State
-3
Link-State Update LSU ..
Router LSAck
..
area .. Routers
. Full-State
165

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

( )1

( )2

166

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF
OSPF Packet Types
OSPF .
5 .
LSA 0x80000001 0x7FFFFFFF . LSA
: Hello Packets -1

.

: Hello Packets
1- Router ID
2- Router Priority
3- Hello (default 10s for broadcast network, default 30s for nonbroadcast network) and dead (4 times of hello) timers.
4- Authentication password.
5- Area ID
6- Subnet Mask
7- Designated router and backup designated router is ip address
8- Known neighbours
Hello Packets
.
: Router ID -1
OSPF . BMA
Router ID . Neighbor Adjacency Database
167

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router # show ip ospf interface


Router ID
..........

: Router Priority -1
OSPF ).Priority Default (1
:
Router # show ip ospf neighbor

168

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Hello (default 10s for broadcast network, default 30s for non- -1
broadcast network) and dead (4 times of hello) timers.


.
-1
default 10s for broadcast network
.
-1 PPP
MPLS Frame Relay
default 30s for non-broadcast network
.
-3 40
4 itmes of hello 10
4
.
:
.

:
Router # show ip ospf interface

169

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Authentication password -1
.
:
Router # show ip ospf interface

: Area ID -5 Area 0
Area 100 .

171

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Subnet Mask -6
.
: OSPF
Wildcard Mask Wildcard Mask .

: Designated router and backup designated router is ip address


-7
DR and BDR
.
.........
Router # show ip ospf neighbor

: Known neighbours -8

.

171

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: DBD = Data Base Description -. Packets



OSPF
Packets

Packet .

:DBD Header
Header 31 Bit
Header Hello Packets
.
OSPF Packet Header
: DBD
1-Version , 2- Type, 3-Packet Length , 4- Router ID , 5- Area ID,
6- Checksum, 7-AuType, 8-Authentication, 9- Data

172

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.
:Version -3 OSPF
.
:Type -.
:

Hello Packets .
Data base Description .
Link State Request .
Link State Update .
Link State Acknowledgment .

:Packet Length -3 OSPF


.Header
:Router ID -1
OSPF .
: Area ID -5
ID .
: Checksum -6 .
: AuType -7

.
: Authentication -8
.
: Data -9

.
173

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: LSR = Link State Request -1


,

LSR




LSR

.

:LSR Header
Header 32 Bit
Header
.LSR
Link State Request
: LSR
1-Link State Type
2-Link State ID
3-Advertising Router

174

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Link State Type -1


.
LSDB
.
Routing Table
.
Neighbor Table
.
:Link State ID -2
.
:Advertising Router -3

.

175

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:LSU = Link State Update -1 Link State


Advertisemant
OSPF .LSU

:LSU
Header Header 32 Bit
.
Link State Update
: LSU
1- LS Age
2- Options
3- LS Type
4- Link State ID
5- Advertising Router
6- LS Sequence Number
7- LS Checksum
8- Length
9- LSA body / LS type

176

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.
: LS Age -1 LSA
. 2 bits
: Options -1 OSPF
OSPF .1 bits
: LS Type -1 LSA
.1 bits
: Link State ID -1
OSPF IP
.4 bits
:Advertising Router -5
IP .4 bits
: LS Sequence Number -6 LSA
LSA
.4 bits
: LS Checksum -7 LSA LSA
.
: Length -8 LSA .
: LSA body / LS type -9 LSA
LSA LSA Packet Header
LSA body / LS type
. LSA
LSU LSA Link State Advertisemant
11 LSA .

177

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Types of link-state advertisements

LSA Type 1 = Router LSA


LSA Type 2 = Network LSA
LSA Type 3 = Summary LSA = ABR LSA
LSA Type 4 = Summary LSA = ASBR LSA
LSA Type 5 = External LSA
LSA Type 6 =Multicast OSPF LSA
LSA Type 7 = External LSA for NSSA
LSA Type 8 = External Attributes
LSA Type 9 = Intra Area Prefix
LSA Type 10 = Area Local Opaque
LSA Type 11 = AS Opaque
:
:LSA Type 1 = Router LSA LSA
LSA
.
: LSA Type 2 = Network LSA LSA
broadcast
.
178

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: LSA Type 3 = Summary LSA = ABR LSA


Area


Area
.
: LSA Type 4 = Summary LSA = ASBR LSA
ASBR
Router ID ABR . ASBR
: LSA Type 5 = External LSA

Area
Area
.
: LSA Type 6 =Multicast OSPF LSA
.
: LSA Type 7 = External LSA for NSSA
. OSPF
:LSA Type 8 = External Attributes
BGP OSPF
OSPF OSPFv3
IPv6 address .
: LSA Type 9 = Intra Area Prefix
.
:LSA Type 10 = Area Local Opaque

.OSPF
: LSA Type 11 = AS Opaque
.
179

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

11 7
7 :

. Types of link-state advertisements


:LSAck = Link State Acknowledgement -5

header LSA headers
LSA
LSA headers
.

:LSAck
Header Header 32 Bit
.
181

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF

.background network



181

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.
R1 R2



.
Hello
Packets .OSPF Header

Router Dead Interval : 40 seconds


40
.
182

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R2 DBD R2 :

OSPF Header LSA


,
,
OSPF IPv4
Src 10.0.0.1 . Dst 10.0.0.2
LSA Type 1 , LSA Type 2. LSA Type 3 ,
183

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R2 DBD R1 LSR R1
. R2

LSA .
R2 LSA . LSU

184

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


header LSA headers
LSA
LSA headers
.

Attached Router
.

185

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

DR and BDR

:
.
:Priority -3 Priority
Priority Default 1 0
255 0
DR BDR
Priority Default 1 Priority Default 2
DR Priority Default 2
Priority Default 1 BDR
Priority Default 1
RID .
:RID -. Router ID Priority
RID
OSPF
OSPF

10.10.10.10
11.11.11.11 DR
Router ID 11.11.11.11
DR BDR
.
186

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Loopback IP Address -1




100.100.100.100
200.200.200.200
DR BDR
.
:High Physical Interface -4
fastehternet
giga ethernet OSPF
DR BDR .

DR DR
OSPF DR
Broadcast
.
: BMA
Frame
Relay PPP
DR
.BMA
: DRother DR BDR DRother Two
, Way State DR BDR . Full State
OSPF DR BDR . DRother
:224.0.0.5 DRother
.
:224.0.0.6 DR BDR
.
187

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF DR BDR

OSPF











.
: DR


.

188

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF RIP EIGRP Subnet Mask


RIP Wildcard Mask
, OSPF Process id
OSPF

Process
id .
Process id 1 65,535 Subnet Mask Wildcard Mask :
: Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0
: Wildcard Mask 0.0.0.255
: OSPF ConfigurationRouter > enable
Router # config t
Process id

Router (config) # router ospf 1

Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0


Router (config-router) # network 15.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Router # show ip route

Router # show ip ospf neighbor

Router # show ip ospf database

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------189

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF Configuration, Network BMA


OSPF
OSPF 7
.
7
Area :
.1 . 192.168.1.0/24
.1 . 192.168.2.0/24
.3 . 192.168.3.0/24
.1 . 192.168.4.0/24
.5 . 192.168.5.0/24
.6 . 192.168.6.0/24
.7 10.0.0.0/8 Area 0
.


OSPF


DR BDR 10.0.0.0/8
DR . BDR

191

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: R1 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router ospf 1
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R2 R1
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R2 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
191

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # no shutdown


Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router ospf 1
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R3 R2
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R3 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.3 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
192

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config) # router ospf 1


Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R4 R3
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R4 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.4 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router ospf 1
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R5 R4
.
193

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: R5 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.5 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.5.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router ospf 1
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.5.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R6 R5
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R6 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.6 255.0.0.0
194

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # no shutdown


Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.6.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config) # router ospf 1
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.6.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R6
OSPF .
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.
OSPF O O . OSPF

R1 :Router > enable


Router # show ip route

195

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R1

7
R1
OSPF
OSPF

7 ,
. OSPF
R2 :Router > enable
Router # show ip route

196

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R2

7 R2 .

10.0.0.0/8 Area 0

10.0.0.0/8
10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2
BMA
.
R3 R4 R5 R6
:
Router > enable
Router # show ip route

197

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R3

R4

198

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R5

R6

7 Backbond
Area 0 10.0.0.0/8 .
DR BDR
OSPF :
199

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF R1 :
Router # show ip ospf neighbor
R1

R1 DR

DR R2
DR
BDR 192.168.3.1
.
R2 .
Router # show ip ospf interface
R2

DR 192.168.1.1
R1
.
BMA Point-to-Point
.

211

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF Configuration, Network Point-to-Point


OSPF
OSPF 3
.
3
Area :
.1 . 192.168.1.0/24
.1 . 192.168.2.0/24
. 150.0.0.0/8
.3


OSPF


DR BDR 10.0.0.0/8
DR . BDR

R1
OSPF

.

211

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: R1 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router ospf 1
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R2 R1
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R2 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
212

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # no shutdown


Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router ospf 1
Router (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
Router (config-router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R2
.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- R1 Ping R2 !!!!!
.....
...........R1

!!!!! R2 .
DR . BDR
R1

R2

213

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

EIGRP
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol


.Cisco Routing Protocol
EIGRP Enhance to IGRP
EIGRP .EIGRP
EIGRP
Link Status Protocol
.Distance Vector
Netxt Hop Count 224
. EIGRP
Dual
.
.

.Triggered Update
Periodic Update

.
.224.0.0.10
OSPF
EIGRP .
= Autonomous System
AS OSPF .Area
Administrative distance 90 EIGRP
EIGRP

.
214

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.
.
.MD5
.IP, Apple Talk , IPx

.
EIGRP UDP . TCP
.Network Layer 3
Summarization .
CIDR . VLSM
.Classless

EIGRP
EIGRP Table
-3 Neighbor Tabe

EIGRP

. EIGRP
:
Router # show ip ospf neighbors
-. Topology Table

Metric .
:
Router # show ip ospf topology
-1 Routing Table OR Global Routing Table


.
:
Router # show ip route
215

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

EIGRP
EIGRP Packet Types
Hello Packets, Update Packet, Query Packet, Relpy Packet, ACK Packet

EIGRP .
5 .
-1 : Hello Packet





EIGRP




216

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Hello Packets
EIGRP Message Format
.
Encapsulated EIGRP Message :
1- Data Link Frame Header, 2- IP Packet Header, 3- EIGRP
Packet Header , 4- Type / Length / Values Types.


.
:Data Link Frame Header -1
MAC
Destination Address MAC Source Address
.
: IP Packet Header -1 IP Packet
IP Source
Address IP Destination Address
.EIGRP
217

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: EIGRP Packet Header -3


AS Header
Header 31 Bit
.
:Type / Length / Values Types -1
EIGRP Message
.Message Format
: EIGRP Packet Header
Header Header 31 bit :

Header .
1- Version
2- Opcode
- Flags
- Sequence
- Ack
- Autonomous System Numbers
3- Check sum
4- TLVs / EIGRP Message
:218

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Version .
: Opcode
.
: Flags Header .
: Sequence .Header : Ack AS AS .
:Autonomous System Numbers .
: Check sum .
: TLVs
.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ : Update Packet -.


EIGRP


.

219

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

ACK

.
: Query Packet -1


Dual ACK
.

: Relpy Packet -4 . Query Packet


: ACK Packet -6
.

211

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: EIGRP
.
Hello Packet 5
15 .
BMA= Broadcast Multiaccess Network /
Point to -Point

Frame Relay , MPLS 60
180
.
NBMA = Non Broadcast Multiaccess
Triggered Update Periodic: Update
: Triggered Update
.
: Periodic Update
.
- 224.0.0.10 . Multicast

211

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

EIGRP
EIGRP Neighbor Adjacencies

7
.
1- Hello Packet
2- Hello + Update
3- Ack
4- Modify Topology Table
5- Update
6- Ack
7- Modify Topology Table
EIGRP ,
AS AS 1
AS 1
.

212

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


EIGRP Successor, Feasible Successor Routes

EIGRP .
.Successor
.Feasible Successor

213

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

214

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

EIGRP Metric Calculation

215

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

216

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

AS = Autonomous System

:AS

AS EIGRP
AS

Exterior .
AS AS : : Interior Gateway Protocol
AS

AS .AS
: Exterior Gateway Protocol

AS AS 100 AS 200

EGP
, BGP .
AS 100 AS 200 AS
AS
EGP , BGP . AS

217

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

EIGRP Key Technologies


EIGRP
)Neighbor Discovery / Recovery (NDR
)Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP
)Diffusion Update Algorithm (Dual
)Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM

1234-

:Neighbor Discovery / Recovery





Hello Packets
.
:Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)
Packet Packet
EIGRP
.
:Diffusion Update Algorithm (Dual)
EIGRP


.
:Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM)
EIGRP Network Layer 3
IPx
. AppleTalk

218

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

EIGRP Load Balancing


EIGRP

:Load Balancing .


.
: Load Balancing .


R2 R3
R1
.

219

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Passive Interface

: Passive Interface
.
Passive
Interface .
R1
HOST1
... R1
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
Router (config -router) # passive-interface fastethernet 0/1

f 0/1 R1 .HOST1
: EIGRP

.

221

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: EIGRP ConfigurationRouter > enable


Router # config t
Router (config) # router eigrp 1

AS number 1

Router (config-router) # network 192.168.1.0


Router (config-router) # network 192.168.2.0
Router (config-router) # exit
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Router # show ip route

Router # show ip eigrp topology

Router # show ip eigrp neighbors

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

EIGRP Configuration, Network BMA


EIGRP
EIGRP 7
.
7
AS :
.1 . 192.168.1.0/24
.1 . 192.168.2.0/24
.3 . 192.168.3.0/24
.1 . 192.168.4.0/24
.5 . 192.168.5.0/24
.6 . 192.168.6.0/24
.7 100.0.0.0/8
.
.8 . AS 1
221

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh



EIGRP

.

R1 : :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 100.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
222

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-router) # network 100.0.0.0


Router (config-router) # network 192.168.1.0
Router (config- router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R2 R1
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R2 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 100.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
Router (config-router) # network 100.0.0.0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.2.0
Router (config- router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R3 R2
.
: R3 223

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 100.0.0.3 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
Router (config-router) # network 100.0.0.0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.3.0
Router (config- router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R4 R3
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R4 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 100.0.0.4 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
224

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # exit


Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
Router (config-router) # network 100.0.0.0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.4.0
Router (config- router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R5 R4
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R5 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 100.0.0.5 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.5.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
225

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-router) # network 100.0.0.0


Router (config-router) # network 192.168.5.0
Router (config- router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R6 R5
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R6 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 100.0.0.6 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.6.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router eigrp 1
Router (config-router) # network 100.0.0.0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.6.0
Router (config- router) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
R6
. EIGRP

226

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh



.
: EIGRP D
D .EIGRP
R1 :Router > enable
Router # show ip route
R1

R1
7 R1

EIGRP
EIGRP

7 ,
. EIGRP
R2 :227

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router > enable


Router # show ip route
R2

R2 7 R2
.
100.0.0.0/8


100.0.0.0/8
100.0.0.1 100.0.0.2

BMA
.
R3 R4 R5
R6
:
Router > enable
Router # show ip route

228

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R3

R4

229

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R5

R6

231

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


7
100.0.0.0/8 EIGRP
.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IPv4
IPv6 :
IP Address v6 -3
Static Router IPv6 -.
Routing Information Protocol Next Generation (RIPng) -1
Enhanced Interior Gateway (EIGRP) -4
Open Shortest Path First (OSPFv3) -6
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- :

Static Router IPv6


Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (configt) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (configt) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (configt-if) # ipv6 address fec0::1/64
Router (configt) # ipv6 route fec0:1::/64 2005::2
Router (configt) # show ipv6 route
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IPv6
.

231

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

. : 3 -1
-1
-3

fec1::1/64
fec2::1/64
2001::1 /64


.




.

R1 : :
Router> enable
232

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address 2001::1/64
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address fce1::1/64
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
:R1

: R2 :
233

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router> enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address 2001::2/64
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address fce2::1/64
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config

: R2

,

.
234

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R1 : :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 route fec2::/64 2001::2

Router (config) # do show ipv6 route

R1
: R1

C

S
S Static L
APIPA

FEC1::2/64
FEC2::2/64
.2001::1/64
235

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R2 :
:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 route fec1::/64 2001::1

Router (config) # do show ipv6 route

R2
:R2

R1 R2
R1


Ping :
R2 R1 !!!!! .

236

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IPv6 :



. EIGRP , OSPFv3 , RIPng

237

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Dynamic Routing IPv6


Routing Information Protocol Next Generation
))RIPng
:RIPng RIP RIPng
RIPng
RIPng Port
521 UDP Process ID
. Multicast Group FF02::9
: RIPng
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # ipv6 router rip 1

Process ID

Router (config-rtr) # exit


Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 rip 1 enable
Router (config-if) # exit

Router (config) # show ipv6 router

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- , RIPng
Process ID Process ID
.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . : 3 .1
.1
.3

fec1::1/64
fec2::1/64
2001::1 /64

238

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.


RIPng

.

R1 : :
Router> enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # ipv6 router rip 1
239

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-rtr) # exit


Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address 2001::1/64
Router (config-if) # ipv6 rip 1 enable
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address fec1::1/64
Router (config-if) # ipv6 rip 1 enable
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
RIPng :R1
: R2 :

241

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router> enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # ipv6 router rip 1
Router (config-rtr) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address 2002::1/64
Router (config-if) # ipv6 rip 1 enable
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address fec2::1/64
Router (config-if) # ipv6 rip 1 enable
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
RIPng
:R2

241

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

RIPng


R1 :
Router (config) # show ipv6 route

R1 RIPng R
] [120/2 .
R2 RIPng .
Router (config) # show ipv6 route

R2 RIPng . R
242

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Opne Shortest Path First (OSPFv3


:OSPFv3 OSPF
OSPF OSPFv3

IPsec Authentication Encryption
FF02::5 / FF02::6
OSPFv3 OSPF
.224.0.0.5 / 224.0.0.6
: OSPFv3
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # ipv6 router ospf 1

Process ID

Router (config-rtr) # router-id 200.200.200.200


Router (config-rtr) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # show ipv6 route
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- , OSPFv3
Process ID
Area ID
.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . - : 3

.1
.1
.3

fec1::1/64
fec2::1/64
2001::1 /64
243

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.


OSPFv3
.

R1 : :
Router> enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # ipv6 router ospf 1
Router (config-rtr) # router-id 100.100.100.100
Router (config-rtr) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
244

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # ipv6 address 2001::1/64


Router (config-if) # ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address fec1::1/64
Router (config-if) # ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
.OSPFv3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: R2 :
Router> enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # ipv6 router ospf 1
Router (config-rtr) # router-id 200.200.200.200
Router (config-rtr) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ipv6 address 2001::2/64
Router (config-if) # ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
245

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0


Router (config-if) # ipv6 address fec2::1/64
Router (config-if) # ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- OSPFv3


R1 :
Router (config) # show ipv6 route
R1

R1 OSPFv3 O
] [110/2 .
R2 OSPFv3 .
246

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config) # show ipv6 route


R2

R2 OSPFv3 . O
Router # show ipv6 ospf neighbor , R1
R1

R1 DR R2 .
R2

R2 .BDR
Router # show ipv6 ospf neighbor / Router # show ipv6 ospf database
247

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Enhanced Interior Gateway (EIGRP)

:EIGRP

Interior IPv6,
Gateway
FF02::A 224.0.0.10
.AS Router-ID
: OSPFv3
Router (config) # ipv6 unicast-routing
Router (config) # ipv6 router eigrp 1
Router (config-rtr) # router-id 1.1.1.1
Router (config-rtr) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ipv6 eigrp 1
Router (config-if) # end
Router # show ipv6 route
Router # show ipv6 eigrp interfaces
Router # show ipv6 eigrp neighbors
Router # show ipv6 eigrp topology
248

Process ID

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Routing Loops Avoidance






.
:
1- Maximum Hop Count
2- Split Horizon
3- Route Poisoning
4- Hold Downs
5- Periodic Updates Triggered Updates
.



.
249

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Maximum Hop Count




RIP , EIGRP
.

: Split Horizon

.

:Route Poisoning RIP


RIP
,

Route Poisoning Matric
16 .Next Hop

251

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Hold Downs RIP


180
180 180
.

: Periodic Updates Triggered Updates








.

251

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Border Gateway Protocol (BGP


Baisics

: BGP

ISP



.
:)Interior gateway routing (IGP
OSPF ,
.EIGRP , RIP,
)Exterior gateway routing (EGP


BGP , EGP
.
BGP TCP 179
.
. BGP
.
252

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

BGP
.
BGP . EGP
BGP AS
. EIGRP

.
BGP .Path Vectory
TCP
.
BGP Peers Table , Topology Table
.Routing Table
BGP .
BGP
BGP .

.
BGP .
BGP .
Application TCP
. Port 179
BGP
, BGP

.

30 Sec
AS
5 Sec .

.
Admin distance 20 BGP Ex
BGP In . Admin distance 200
. Vlsm , CIDR , Classless

. Split-horizon
253

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: BGP
Single homed Customers


.

Multi homed Coustomers



.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BGP Table , BGP


BGP BGP .
1- Neighbor Table
List of BGP Neighbors BGP peers, Configured statically
2- BGP forwarding database table
List of all Networks learned from each neighbor
3- IP routing table
List of best paths to destination networks
254

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: :Neighbor Table
.BGP
:BGP forwarding database table
BGP
.
:IP routing table
BGP
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------BGP Messages
BGP
BGP

:

3- Update Message
4- Keepalive Message

1- Open Message
2- Notification Message

BGP
.
: Open Message
ID.
: Keepalive Message
60 Sec
.
255

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Update Message
.
: Notification Message
.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BGP Startup Operation , BGP

BGP

.
:Idel State
.
:Active 1 State
.Active
:Connect State
.
:Open Sent
.
:Active 2 State
.
:Open Confirm
.
:Established State
.
256

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

BGP Synchronization

:Synchronization BGP
Rule IBGP
IGP
.
Synchronization
Router (Config-Router) # no synchronization
Disables BGP Synchronization so a router can advertise routers
in BGP without lerning them in IGP , but make sure that you
make all restrictiong to avoid black holes .
BGP Split horizone rule : Avoid routing loops inside the AS

Loops


.Loops Network
Full Mesh Fashion (sessions between all BGP neighbors) to avoid
split horizon rule.
: Full Mesh Fashion


:
-3 AS AS AS.
Route reflector -1 .
257

Level ( 3 )

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Ethernet LANs and Switches


Ethernet LANs and Switches
260..............................................Ethernet LANs
263....................................Ethernet Frame Format
270...................................................................................Switch
277.....................................Cisco Switch Configuration Command
278.....Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
295.....................................................VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP)
308.......................................................................Router on a Staick
311..........................................Switch Port Modes
314...................................................Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
326............... STP switch port states
328...............Optimizing Spanning Tree Protocol
329...............................................Per Vlan Spanning Tree (PVST)
333...............................................................................Port Channel
339.................................................................Ether Channel
340................... Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
356................................... Network Address Translation (NAT)
367............................First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRP)
377............................................. Network Time Protocol (NTP)

258

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Ethernet LANs


:Local Area Network = LAN

.

: Ethernet Token
Ring
.

, WAN . Router
:

,


.
259

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Ethernet
) (frames
) (workstations ) (LANs 1
physical layer 2 data link layer
OSI Model
- 1 OSI - ,
-
2 OSI - MAC Address
).( Data Link Layer
0979


.
: Ethernet : Mbps Fast Ethernet : 10
Mbps Giga Ethernet : 100 Gbps 10 Giga
Ethernet 1 . Gbps 10
: Ethernet
Ethernet = 10 MB | Fast Ethernet = 100 MB
Giga Ethernet = 1 GB | Ten Giga Ethernet = 10 GB
): (Medium

) (Data Rate:
(Coaxial Cable) :
ThickNet 10 Mbps 10
BaseBand , ) (Network Span
2500 , 100
500 Base5 10
Base 5 .
ThinNet 5
Mbps 10 BaseBand ,
) (Network Span 925 ,
30 500 Base2 10
Base 2
261

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

,
.
10
Broad36 1.1-1.4 Mbps 10
BroadBand , )(Network Span
3600 1800.
Twisted Pair : Shielded Twisted Pair
) (STP ) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP
.
UTP 1.6-1.4
Mbps 10 BaseBand ,
) (Network Span 500 100
. BaseT 10.
UTP Mbps 100 Mbps 100
Gigabit .
(Optical Fiber) : UTP
) (switches hubs
.
IEEE :
802.3x = Full Duplex
802.3ae = 10 GB
802.3at = POE
802.3u = 100 MB
8023ab = 1 GB

261

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Ethernet Frame Format



:Ethernet Frame Format
,
26 6 .

Header Header 26 bytes


6
.
Ethernet Frame Header
. Header
1- Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter Fields
2- Destination MAC Address Field
3- Source MAC Address Field
4- Length/Type Field
5- Data and Pad Fields
6- Trailer Field / Frame Check Sequence Field
:

Header Tralier
Data and Pad
Header ,
.
262

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter Fields


Preamble Bytes 7
Source Destination
.
DS = Destination MAC Address Field
Destination MAC Address Bytes 6
,
Data Link Layer 2
MAC Address
, ) (Uni Cast ) (Multi Cast
). (Broad Cast
AS = Source MAC Address Field
Source MAC Address Field
Bytes 6 MAC Address Frame
Frame
.
: Length / Type Field
Length/Type Field


0800 IP
, protocol 8137
. Protocol IPX
: Data and Pat Field
Data and Pad Fields

Framing Data Link Layer 3
Network Layer 4
IP Packets .
263

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Trailer Field / Frame Check Sequence Field


Bytes 4
Frame Check Sequence FCS
) (Cyclic Redundancy Check CSC
DA
FCS ,
FCS .
Destination Address DA Source
Address SA Type Header .
.
: Ethernet 802.3 :

Length Bytes 2
MAC- client data . data
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Carrier Sence Multiple Access with Collision Detection CSMA/CD

264

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: A B C D Medium
Segment.. A B ,
A
MAC D A
( C D ) .
) (BroadCast
.
.
: ""
Carrier
..
. :
(
) .
:
..

,
) (grambled
/
) (back off time/delay

.
Segmentation :
Segment Collision Domain


Multiple Collision Domain
.
Segmentation :
Segmentation
..
, () ..

265

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


:
)(Data Terminal Equipment DTE
.
(Data communication
) equipment DCE
( Repeater
Hub) Bridge Switch Routers
Segment
Network Interface Cards NICs
.
Hub :
Hub Frame

Segment

.
Bridge :
Bridge Hub


.. Bridge Hub
.
Bridge

( ) ( ).
Switch :
Switch Ports
DCE - Hub Switch - DTE -
. Switch
Node Switch
) (Switched Networks Collision Free .

266

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Switch ..
Segment Switch
port

.
Switch : Full Duplex technology Half
Duplex Technology
Half Duplex port switch
DCE DTE NIC
.
Full Duplex port
..
Mbps 100 Full Duplex
. Mbps 200
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Media Access Control OR Mac Address

)(Media Access Control


(LAN).

.

. ) (Data Link OSI
: Ethernet Hardware
)adapter address , physical hardware address Address (EHA
address.
267

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

TCP/IP
IP ) (ARP Address Resolution
Protocol ) , (IPv4) (NDP Neighbor Discovery
Protocol (IPv6). broadcast
Ethernet ( Frame )
. Data
link OSI
.
:
IEEE 802 MAC-48
.
( )- ():
. : address2 01:23:45:67:89:ab
address1 01:23:45:67:89:ab Cisco
,

. ab 0123,4567,89 : .
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MAC Address Table
:

.
Forward filter Table
Content Addressable Memory Physical Address MAC
Address Table

268

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Switch

: Switch Hub

Source MAC Address
.
: Source MAC Address

.

One
, Collision Domain

Mb 100
.

269

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Switch Three function


1- Address Learning
2- Filtering / Forwarding Deision
3- Loop Avoidance


.
Address learning :

MAC - Address
Broad Cast: ffff.ffff.ffff


....

271

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Filtering / Forwarding Deision :


Frame



.....
Frame PC1 PC2 PC3
Frame Switch
Frame
.

271

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Frame Frame
PC2 PC3
....

Frame .........
272

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

PC3 PC1 Frame Frame



....

Frame Frame PC1


Port 1 ..........

Frame PC1 .
273

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Loop Avoidance :
( ) Switch

STP .

Loop

274

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Frame ()Switch

Frame
:
1- Store and Forwarding
2- Cut Through
3- Fragment Free
Store and Forwarding : :Error Checking -0 Frame
Header.
: Automatic Buffering -2

Header FCS check Frame
,
.Buffering
Cut Through -3 :
: Rapid Frame Forwarding -1

.
: Fragment Free -2 Header

.Fragment
275

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Cisco Switch Configuration


Command

Switch > ?
show mac address-table address

All Command
Displays MAC address table
information for the specified
MAC address
show mac address-table agingDisplays the aging time in all
time
VLANs or the specified
VLAN.
show mac address-table count
Displays the number of
addresses present in all
VLANs or the specified
VLAN.
show mac address-table dynamic Displays only dynamic MAC
address table entries.
show mac address-table interface Displays the MAC address
table information for the
specified interface.
show mac address-table learning Displays MAC address
learning status of all VLANs
or the specified VLAN.
show mac address-table static
Displays only static MAC
address table entries.
show mac address-table vlan
Displays the MAC address
table information for the
specified VLAN.
end
Return to privileged EXEC
mode.
show mac address-table learning Verify the configuration.
[vlan vlan-id | interface interface
slot/port]
copy running-config startup(Optional) Save your entries
config
in the configuration file.

276

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN


: Vlan


Vlan Vlan

.
Vlan :
Vlan 1, Vlan 2, Vlan 3 .

Vlan 1 ip: 192.168.1.1


Vlan 2 ip: 192.168.2.1
Vlan 3 ip: 192.168.3.1
277

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Vlan 1 Vlan
2 Vlan 3

. Vlan
: Vlan .
Vlan : Subnetting -1 Subnetting IP Address
IP Address A,B,C
.
Vlan -2
.
: Vlan -1 . BroadCast
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 ,

.Vlan
Vlan -6 BroadCast Domain
BroadCast Domain
.
---------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------

Vlan
Type of Vlan
Vlan .
1- Data Vlan
2- Default Vlan
3- Native Vlan
4- Voice Vlan
5- Management Vlan

278

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Data Vlan Vlan


,
,
.

: Default Vlan Vlan


,
Vlan
Default Vlan
, STP, CDP, VTP,

.

: Native Vlan Default Vlan


Native Vlan IEEE 802.1Q
Tag 4 byte
.

: Voice Vlan Network Voice


Voice Vlan Voice

Voice Vlan . Network Voice

: Management Vlan
HTTP
Telent , SSH , SNMP . Vlan

279

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Vlan
Vlan ID Range
Vlan Vlan ,
,
.
1- Normal Range From 1 up to 1005
2- Extended Range From 1006 up to 4096
Normal Range 1 1005
1005
1005
Vlan
,
Extended Range 1006
4096

4096 .
-------------------------------------------------- ------------- --------------------

Vlan Switch Port Modes


Vlan
.1- Static Vlan Port
2- Dynamic Vlan Port

281

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Static Vlan Port


Vlan , Vlan
.
: Dynamic Vlan Port

.Vlan

Vlan
Vlan Port Type
Vlan .
1- Access Port , 2- Trunk Port
: Access Port -1
. Native Vlan
: Trunk Port -2

Vlan Frame
Vlan . Trunk
: Trunk Port
Vlan 1 Vlan 1
Vlan 1
,
Trunk
Vlan
Trunk ,
:

281

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Trunk Port
SW2 SW3 Vlan 200
Trunk Port
. Vlan
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Trunk Port
Frame Trunk Port .
1- Inter-Switch Link (ISL) , 2- IEEE 802.1Q
) : Inter-Switch Link (ISL
, Frame Frame
ISL header ISL header 26
byte Vlan
.
ISL header .

ISL header .282

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

DESTINATION ADDRESS (DA) FIELD


TYPE FIELD
USER DEFINED FIELD
------------------------------------------------------------------------------SOURCE ADDRESS (SA) FIELD
LENGTH FIELD
AAAA03 (SNAP) FIELD
HIGH BITS SOURCE ADDRESS (HSA) FIELD

------------------------------------------------------------------------------VLAN - DESTINATION VIRTUAL LAN ID FIELD


BPDU FIELD
INDEX FIELD
RES FIELD

.
: DESTINATION ADDRESS (DA) FIELD 40 bits ,
.
: TYPE FIELD 4 bits , .
Encapsulated Frame

Type Value

Ethernet

0000

Token-Ring

0001

FDDI

0010

ATM

0011

283

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: USER DEFINED FIELD 4 bits .Ethernet


ISL header :

: : SOURCE ADDRESS (SA) FIELD Source MAC Address


, Frame . 48 bits
: LENGTH FIELD 16 bits : HIGH BITS SOURCE ADDRESS (HSA) FIELD ISL header :

: : VLAN - DESTINATION VIRTUAL LAN ID FIELD 15 bits Virtual


LAN ID
284

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

frame trunk VLAN



VLAN .
: BPDU FIELD 1 bit STP VTP , CDP
Frame

, Frame network loops
.
: INDEX FIELD ,
.
: RES FIELD FDDI
Token Ring Ethernet .16 bits
IEEE 802.1Q -1
ISL
IEEE 802.1Q , ISL IEEE
802.1Q Tag Frame 4 byte
ISL Encapsulation Frame 26 byte
IEEE 802.1Q
Tag Frame Frame
.
: IEEE
.ISL
Frame format : encapsulate , .

285

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

. IEEE 802.1Q
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Vlan Switch
Vlan Configuartion
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # vlan 2

Switch (config-vlan) # name IT


Switch (config-vlan) # exit
Switch (config-vlan) # vlan 3
Switch (config-vlan) # name PMP
Switch (config-vlan) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 2
Switch (config-if) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/7
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 3
Switch (config-if) # exit
Switch (config) # exit

Switch # copy running-config startup-configt


286

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Vlan , :
Vlan Trunk Port .

-1
-2
-3

:
192.168.1.0/24
Vlan 2 . Name IT
192.168. 2.0/24
Vlan 3 . Name HR

.


Vlan
Vlan .
: Vlan 2 Vlan 1
, 1002 , 1003
, 1004 , 1005

.
287

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------: SW 1 :
Switch> enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # vlan 2
Switch (config-vlan) # name IT
Switch (config-vlan) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 2
Switch (config-if) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/2
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 2
Switch (config-if) # exit
Switch (config) # vlan 3
Switch (config-vlan) # name HR
Switch (config-vlan) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/3
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 3
288

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Switch (config-if) # interface fastethernet 0/4


Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 3
Switch (config-if) # end
Switch # copy running-config startup-config
SW 1

vlan 2 vlan 3
:
Switch # show vlan

289

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

vlan 2 vlan 3 , vlan


2 vlan 3

...
Ping vlan 2 vlan 3 ,
vlan 2 Command
Prompt
vlan 3 .

Request timed out .


vlan 3


.
SW 1 SW 2
. Trunk

291

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: SW 2 :
Switch> enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # vlan 2
Switch (config-vlan) # name IT
Switch (config-vlan) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 2
Switch (config-if) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/2
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 2
Switch (config-if) # exit
Switch (config) # vlan 3
Switch (config-vlan) # name HR
Switch (config-vlan) # exit
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/3
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 3
Switch (config-if) # interface fastethernet 0/4
Switch (config-if) # switchport access vlan 3
Switch (config-if) # end
Switch # copy running-config startup-config

291

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 2

vlan 2 vlan 3
:
Switch # show vlan

vlan 2 vlan 3 , vlan 2


vlan 3
,
SW 2 SW 1
292

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Trunk

Trunk .
SW 1 : :
Switch> enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/24
Switch (config-if) # switchport mode trunk
Switch (config-if) # end
Switch # copy running-config startup-config

switchport mode trunk down


up ,
.
: trunk .
SW 2 SW 1 . trunk
293

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VTP
VLAN Trunk Protocol

: VTP
, VTP Vlan
,Vlan
Vlan
VTP


Trunk port Frame .
VTP Vlan ,
Vlan
Vlan
,


. VTP

294

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:VTP Mode VTP


.

VTP Mode
1- VTP Server
2- VTP Client

Client 3- VTP Transparent Server

: : VTP Server -0
VTP Domain
Vlan
Vlan
.
: VTP Client -1
,

,Vlan
.
: VTP Transparent -1
VTP VTP
Server VTP Client
VTP Server .VTP Client

295

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: VTP Domain


,
, VTP VTP Domain 1
VTP Domain 2 VTP
. Domain

: VTP Pruning .

296

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: VTP Advertisements
,

.

VTP Advertisements

.
297

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: VTP Revision Number .

VTP Frame Structure


VTP

298

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:VTP Version VTP : : VTP Version 1 .Token Ring Vlans


: VTP Version 2
: VTP Version 3
.
VTP VTP ,
.
1- VTP Domain Name
2- VTP Password
3- VTP Version

VTP Version

299

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VTP
VTP Configuartion

VTP Server
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # vtp domain ABC

Switch (config) # vtp version 2


Switch (config) # vtp mode server
Switch (config) # vtp password 123
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------VTP Client
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # vtp domain ABC

Switch (config) # vtp version 2


Switch (config) # vtp mode client
Switch (config) # vtp password 123
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. VTP
Switch # show vtp status
Switch # show vtp password
311

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VTP Configuration LAB


VTP
Vlan , :
Vlan VTP Server
Trunk Port
.

.1
.2
.3
.4

:
192.168.1.0/24
Vlan 2 . Name IT
192.168. 2.0/24
Vlan 3 . Name HR

.
SW 1 VTP Server
SW 2 ,SW 3 VTP Client
.

VTP Server
VTP .
311

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VTP Vlan
, VTP

.
SW 1 : :
Switch > enable
Switch # config t

Switch (config) # vtp domain ABC


Switch (config) # vtp version 2
Switch (config) # vtp mode server
Switch (config) # vtp password 123
Switch (config) # end
Switch # copy running-config startup-config

SW 1 VTP Server

: Vlan
SW 1 , vtp
. VTP Server
312

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

vtp SW 1 Vlan vtp


.
SW 1 Vlan HR , IT .
SW 1

vtp SW 1 .VTP Server

,
VTP .
SW 2 VTP . SW 2
313

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 2

: SW 2 :
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # vtp domain ABC
Switch (config) # vtp version 2
Switch (config) # vtp mode client
Switch (config) # vtp password 123
Switch (config) # end
Switch # copy running-config startup-config

314

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 2 Vlan .
SW 2

Vlan vtp , SW 2
SW 1 , SW 2
Trunk Port ,
SW 1
.
SW 1 : Trunk Port

SW 1 Trunk Port f0/1 , f0/2 SW 2


SW 3 .
315

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 2 :
SW 2

.
.
SW 3
:

. VTP316

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router on a Staick

:Router on a Staick Vlan


Vlan ,
Vlan

Gy .
: Router on a Staick Vlan ,


Vlan Router on a
Staick .
Vlan

,
Gy
,

Router on a Staick .

317

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router on a Staick Configuration


Router on a Staick

Router > enable


Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0.1
Router (config-subif) # encapsulation dot1Q 2

subif

Router (config-subif) # ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Router on a Staick VLAN ,
Router on a Staick
.

318

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: . Trunk Port
: R1
:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0.1
Router (config-subif) # encapsulation dot1q 2
Router (config-subif) # ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
Router (config-subif) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0.2
Router (config-subif) # encapsulation dot1q 3
Router (config-subif) # ip address 192.168.2.100 255.255.255.0
Router (config-subif) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0.3
Router (config-subif) # encapsulation dot1q 4
Router (config-subif) # ip address 192.168.3.100 255.255.255.0
Router (config-subif) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0.4
Router (config-subif) # encapsulation dot1q 5
Router (config-subif) # ip address 192.168.4.100 255.255.255.0
Router (config-subif) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
319

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

f0/0 , Router on a Staick


Trunk Port
...
f0/24
:
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/24
Switch (config-if) # switchport mode trunk
Router on a , Staick Gy
. Vlan
....

.....

Router # Show ip interface brief

f0/0
. Vlan
: Vlan 1
Vlan 2 Router on a
. Staick
Router on a Staick .
311

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


Switch Port Modes

,
, .
1- Dynamic Desirable
2- Trunk
3- Access
4- Dynamic Auto Access
5- No Negotiate
6- DTP = Dynamic Trunking Protocol
: Dynamic Desirable
Trunk Port ,

.
: Dynamic Desirable
Access
Access .Dynamic Desirable
: Trunk Trunk Port
.
: Access Access
.
: Dynamic Auto Access
Access Access
Trunk .Trunk
: No Negotiate
.
311

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

312

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

STP
Spanning Tree Protocol

:STP


STP



STP
.
.Data Link Layer STP juniper .
STP IEEE . 802.1D
,
,

,
.
313

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: STP -3 . Root Bridge


-. . Non Bridge

Root Bridge , Non Bridge


.
BPDU = Bridge
Protocol Data Units
,
,
.
: BPDU
BPDU
Root Bridge .
:Bridge ID
Root Bridge Non Bridge
Bridge ID ..
1- Bridge Prioirty , 2- MAC Address
Bridge ID ................................
314

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Bridge Prioirty
, 0 to 65535 .Default Value = 32768
: Mac Address
.
- : Root Bridge

BPDU
Bridge Prioirty MAC Address
, Prioirty
Prioirty
, Root Bridge Prioirty
Mac Address
BPDU

Root Bridge
.
: STP Root Bridge
,


.
315

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

STP Prot Cost Values


, Cost
Cost STP Prot ,
.

: STP Port
1- DP = Designated Port
2- RP = Root Port
3- BP = Block Port
: DP = Designated Port Root
Bridge .
: RP = Root Port
Non Bridg
Root Bridge .
: DP RP
RP Non Bridg .
: BP = Block Port .Cost

316

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

, STP
STP
.
SW 1 , SW 2
2 ,
STP
, Root Bridge

:

Root Bridge , SW 1
Prioirty 32768 SW 1 , SW 2

SW 1 MAC
Address : 0000.0000.0000.1 MAC SW 2
Address : 0000.0000.0000.2 SW 1

Root Bridge
, SW 1
Root
Bridge .

317

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 1
: STP
:
Switch > enable
Switch # show spanning-tree
SW 1

Root Bridge DP = Designated Port


, SW
2 .
SW 2 :SW 2

, Non Bridg F 0/1 RP = Root Port


Root Bridge ,
F 0/ 2 BP = Block Port
STP loop

.
.STP

Root Bridge Non Bridg
,
318

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Root Bridge , SW 2
Prioirty 32768 SW 1 , SW 2 , SW 3

SW 1
MAC Address : 0000.0000.0000.2 SW 2
MAC Address : 0000.0000.0000.1 MAC SW 3
Address : 0000.0000.0000.3 SW
2 Root
Bridge , Non Bridg Cost

Cost 19 .
SW 1 : STP
-

:
Switch > enable
Switch # show spanning-tree
319

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 1

SW1 , Non Bridg F 0/1 RP = Root Port


Root Bridge
, Root Bridge F 0/ 2 = DP
Designated Port SW3 .Non Bridg
- SW 2 :

Root Bridge SW 2 DP = Designated Port


,
SW3 .
- SW3 :

SW3 , Non Bridg F 0/1 BP = Block Port



,
F 0/2 RP = Root Port
Root Bridge
.Root Bridge

.STP
321

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 1 , SW 2 , SW 3 , SW 4
2 ,
, STP

, Root Bridge

:

Root Bridge
, SW 1
Prioirty 32768 SW 1 , SW 2 , SW 3 ,
SW 4
SW 1
MAC Address : 0005.5EAE.6CBB
MAC Address : 000A.F3EE.0929 SW 2
MAC Address : 0060.47C9.E392 SW 3 SW4
, MAC Address : 00D0.BAC0.2BBA
SW 1
Root Bridge , Non Bridg
Cost
Cost 19 ,
SW 3 SW
321

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

4 SW 3 SW 1
SW 2
SW 4 ,
SW 3 SW 4 Cost 57
SW 3
SW 1 Cost 19
SW 1 SW 2 Cost 38
SW 2 SW 4 Cost 38
Cost 57 .
SW 1
: STP
:
Switch > enable
Switch # show spanning-tree
Root Bridge SW 1 DP = Designated Port
,
SW 2 .
SW 2 :SW 1

322

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

, Non Bridge SW 2
.
SW 2
-

.
Fa0/1 Desg FWD SW 4
Root Bridge .Non Bridge
Fa0/2 Root FWD Root SW 1
.Bridge
Fa0/3 Desg FWD SW 4 .
Fa 0/4 Altn BLK
.Root Bridge SW 1

STP
,

.

323

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 3 : , Non Bridge SW 3
.
SW 3

.
SW 4 :SW 4

324

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 4 .
Fa0/1 Root FWD SW 1
.Root Bridge
Fa 0/4 Altn BLK
Root Bridge SW 1 .Non Bridge
STP


. STP
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STP switch port states

30
, .
Blocking
Listening
Learning
Forwarding
Disabled

325

12345-

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.
: Blocking
.

Blocking
30 :

: Listening Access
Trunk 15
.
: Learning 15
Access

.

: Forwarding
.
:Disabled
.

326

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Optimizing Spanning Tree Protocol


STP

STP ,
, STP
.
1- Port Fast
2- Uplink Fast
3- Backbone Fast
4- RLQ BPDU = Root Link Query
:Port Fast
30 sec Listening,
Learning
30 sec
.
: Access ,
.
: Uplink Fast

.
:
.
: Backbone Fast

RLQ BPDU

.
327

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Per Vlan Spanning Tree


PVST
:PVST
PVST
STP
Vlan

.Load Balancing

328

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol


RSTP

: RSTP STP
,802.1w
STP 20 Sec
RSTP 6 Sec
STP .Root Bridge
. RSTP . STP
STP RSTP .
STP switch port states
1- Blocking , 2- Listening , 3- Learning , 4- Forwarding , 5- Disabled
RSTP switch port states
RSTP Blocking Listening
Discarding Listening
15 Sec .

329

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

1- Discarding
2- Learning
3- Forwarding
RSTP bridge port roles
Root
Designated
Alternate Root
Backup
Disabled

12345-

RSTP
: 1- Point to Point
2- Shared
3- Edge

331

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Link Type

331

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Port Channel

: Port Channel .

STP
Loop ,

Port Channel ,
,
.

100 Mb Port Channel


400 Mb .
: .Trunk .OSI332

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

, 100 mb / 100 mb , 10 mb /100 mb / 1000 mb


.
,
.
. . Logical Port STP
, Logical Port
Physical Port .

Port Channel Protocols


1- Port Aggregation Protocol (PagP) - Cisco

333

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

2- Limk Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) - IEEE 82.1AD


IEEE .
.

- :


100 mb , STP
. Root Bridge
Port Channel
400 mb
.
Port Channel Configuration
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # interface range fastethernet 0/1 4
Switch (config-if-range) # channel-group 1 mode desirable
Switch (config-if-range) # channel-protocol pagp
334

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 1 :
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # interface range fastethernet 0/1 4
Switch (config-if-range) # channel-group 1 mode desirable
Switch (config-if-range) # channel-protocol pagp
Switch (config-if-range) # end
Switch # copy running-config startup-config

. SW 2
SW 2 :
Switch > enable
Switch # config t
Switch (config) # interface range fastethernet 0/1 4
Switch (config-if-range) # channel-group 1 mode desirable
Switch (config-if-range) # channel-protocol pagp
Switch (config-if-range) # end
Switch # copy running-config startup-config

. SW 2


.400 mb

335

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

SW 1 Port Channel .
:
Switch > enable
Switch # show running-config
SW 1

SW 1 F 0/1 , F 0/2 , F0/3, F0/4 channel-


protocol pagp
.
: STPSwitch # show spanning-tree

336

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

STP SW 1 , Root Bridge


Port Channel
400 mb .
SW 2 Port Channel .
:
Switch > enable
Switch # show running-config
SW 2

SW 2 F 0/1 , F 0/2 , F0/3, F0/4 channel-


protocol pagp
.
: STP STP SW 2 , Non Bridge
Port Channel
400 mb .
337

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Ether Channel

:Ether Channel Port Channel


.
:Port Channel .
: Ether Channel

Port
. Channel
Ether Channel
Ether Channel
.

338

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol = DHCP


IP HOST
Workstations TCP / IP
) (IP address conflict
IP ( )
.
DHCP :
. -
) (Client-Server DHCP
. System Administrator
DHCP
DNS BOOT DHCP ) (MAC
IP DHCP BOOTP .
: DHCP 1-Static Configuration
2-Dynamic Configuartion

3-Alternate Configuartion

.


IP
IP
.
339

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Static Configuration
,
,

.

: Dynamic Configuartion

DHCP
DHCP ,
DHCP

.

341

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Alternate Configuartion
Static Dynamic
,
Alternate ,
Alternate APIPA
.
Alternate Configuartion

DHCP :
1- IP Address
2- Subnet Mask
3- IP Default Gateway
4- DNS Server
5- WINS
6- Time
IP ) (DHCP Lease Stages .
341

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IP :

.
1- Client Sends a DHCP Discover Broadcast
2- Server Sends a DHCP Offer Unicast
3- Clinet Sends a DHCP Request Broadcast
4- Server Sends a DHCP ACK Unicast
: Client Sends a DHCP Discover Broadcast
, IP
, Broadcast
, IP
DHCP , IP
Offer
.
:Server Sends a DHCP Offer Unicast
IP Unicast
IP
DHCP
.
: Clinet Sends a DHCP Request Broadcast
DHCP
IP DHCP IP

, IP
IP .IP
:Server Sends a DHCP ACK Unicast
, IP DHCP .

342

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

DHCP DORA

DHCP UDP :
Server DHCP . UDP Port 67
DHCP Client . UDP Port 68
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- :DHCP 50% )(renew
DHCP IP
87.5% DHCP
DHCP DISCOVER
IP .
:DHCP Relay Agents DHCP

DHCP
DHCP

Broadcast DHCP
DHCP Relay Agents

DHCP
DHCP Relay Agents

.
343

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Client Reservation DHCP


IP IP
DHCP MAC
Address :
-1 -1 MAC IP
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DHCP
DHCP Configuration
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ip dhcp excuded-address 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.50
Excuded-address
.

Router (config) # ip dhcp pool HR


Router (dhcp-config) # network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0


Router (dhcp-config) # default-router 10.0.0.100
Router (dhcp-config) # dns-server 10.0.0.99
Router (dhcp-config) # end
Router # show ip dhcp binding

DHCP Server
DHCP Server
.
. -1 DHCP Server .
-1 A
. 10.0.0.0/8
344

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-3 DNS .10.0.0.99/8 IP
-1 IP . GY : 10.0.0.100/8
-5 IP
DHCP Server .

:
:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.100 255.0.0.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # ip dhcp pool HR
Router (dhcp-config) # network 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
345

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (dhcp-config) # default-router 10.0.0.100


Router (dhcp-config) # dns-server 10.0.0.99
Router (dhcp-config) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
:
DHCP Server
.
Router # show ip dhcp binding

IP 10.0.0.1
.
IP DHCP Server .
346

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IP DHCP Server :
PC 2 Static DHCP
IP 10.0.0.2
DNS .

DHCP :

347

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router # show ip dhcp binding

IP DHCP
DHCP
.
DHCP :
DHCP :
-1 DHCP
.
-2 .IP 192.168.1.0/24
-3 . IP 192.168.2.0/24
-4 DNS .
-5 IP .

348

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

DHCP :

DHCP Server
:

,
,
.

,

Host-NM-10/100 ,

,

349

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

,
............
,
.

DHCP
:
IP , Fast Ethernet 0/0
....

351

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IP , Fast Ethernet 0/1 ......

DHCP .......
351

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Services DHCP :
Pool Name , IP Gy

352

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

DNS Start
IP Address SubnetMask
. Add
: DHCP
Off .ON

......
DHCP .

:
,

.
IP PC
.1
PC1 .192.168.1.0/24
353

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

IP DHCP .
Laptop 1 IP .

354

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Network Address Translation


)(NAT

: NAT
Private IP
Public IP
Defult Gateways (
) ,



.
: NAT


1- Static NAT One To One


2- Dynamic NAT Group To Group
3- PAT NAT One To Group


.
: NAT
-1 .
-1 .
-3 .
355

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Static NAT
Private IP
Public IP
Static NAT
Private IP Public IP

Private Network Public Network


,
Src 10.0.0.15 Dest
200.0.0.10 200.0.0.10


123.0.0.0/24
NAT
,
10.0.0.15




.
Static NAT Private IP Public IP
Public IP .
356

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Dynamic NAT NAT Pool


Public IP ,





.

Pool , Public IP

NAT Pool
.


NAT
Pool
.
357

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:PAT NAT

Public IP


.

NAT PAT
NAT
NAT PAT
.
: NAT NAT
.


RIP
NAT PAT


358

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh




.
NAT Names
NAT
1- Global Address = Public Address
2- Local Address = Private Address

359

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Inside Outside
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NAT

Static NAT Configuration


Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ip nat inside source static 192.168.1.9 52.53.54.55
IP IP .Public IP
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dynamic NAT Configuration


Router > enable
Router # config t
361

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config) # access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255


Router (config) # ip nat pool IT 52.53.54.1 52.53.54.40 netmask
255.255.255.0
Pool
ISP netmask
. Pool
Router (config) # ip nat inside source list 1 pool IT
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAT NAT Configuration


Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
Router (config) # ip nat pool IT 65.65.65.1 65.65.65.10 netmask
255.255.255.0
Router (config) # ip nat inside source list 1 pool IT overload
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


NAT PAT .
192.168.1.0/24
.
192.168.50.0/24
RIPv2 .
192.168.2.0/24
. NAT




NAT


361

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

NAT

.
: NAT

NAT NAT
. RIP
:
NAT

. NAT


R2 :
. RIPv2
: inside , outside
.
:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
362

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.50.1 255.255.255.0


Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # router rip
Router (config-router) # version 2
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.50.0
Router (config-router) # network 192.168.1.0
Router (config) # ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.50.2
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip nat inside
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip nat outside
Router (config) # access-list 1 permit 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
Router (config) # ip nat pool IT 65.65.65.1 65.65.65.10 netmask
255.255.255.0
Router (config) # ip nat inside source list 1 pool IT overload
Router (config) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
NAT-PAT RIPv2 NAT-PAT
RIPv2

363

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


. NAT-PAT
R1 Ping .R2

R2
.
R1 .

Router # show ip route

R RIPv2 * S default gateway




0.0.0.0
.
R2 .

364

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R1
R2
NAT PAT .
Packet
192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24
R1
NAT PAT
Router # debug ip nat .
.

192.168.1.1 65.65.60.1
.
:

365

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

NAT

Packet
IP NAT




.

First Hop Redundancy Protocols = FHRP

:FHRP

IP

366

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.
IP .

- : FHRP

)1- Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP


)2- Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP
)3- Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP
FHRP

.

367

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: HSRP

Gateway


IP



.
: HSRP .
:HSRP version HSRP .

HSRP version 1

IPv4 224.0.0.2 all


routers UDP Port 1985
) (00:00:0c:07:ac:XX

.

HSRP version 2


IPv4 IPv6
) IPv6 ff02::66 IPv4 224.0.0.102 (HSRP
UDP Port 1985
()00:05:73:a0:0X:XX( IPv4 00:00:0c:9f:fX:XX
.IPv6
: HSRP : Actice
: Standby
.
368

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Actice
priority . Actice
: HSRP HSRP
10 ,
224.0.0.2 all routers
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HSRP
HSRP Configuration
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # standby 1 priority 90
Virtual IP

Router (config-if) # standby 1 ip 10.0.0.0

Group

Router (config-if) # standby 1 preempt

HSRP HSRP
.
:
192.168.1.0/24 .
192.168.2.0/24 .
:

369

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-1
-1
-3

R1 f 0/0 192.168.1.3/24 f 0/1


. 192.168.2.2/24
R2 f 0/0 192.168.1.2/24 f 0/1
. 192.168.2.3/24
Virtual IP 192.168.1.1/24
.192.168.2.1/24
: Gy
192.168.1.1 Gy
.192.168.2.1

R1 HSRP .
:
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/0

Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0


371

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # no shutdown


Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # standby 1 ip 192.168.1.1

Virtual IP

Router (config-if) # standby priority 90


Router (config-if) # standby 1 preempt

Group

Router (config-if) # exit


Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # standby 1 ip 192.168.2.1

Virtual IP

Router (config-if) # standby priority 90


Router (config-if) # standby 1 preempt

Group

Router (config-if) # end


Router # copy running-config startup-config
. R2 R1 : R2 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
371

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # exit


Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.3 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # no shutdown
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # standby 1 ip 192.168.1.1
Router (config-if) # standby priority 90
Router (config-if) # standby 1 preempt
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # standby 1 ip 192.168.2.1
Router (config-if) # standby priority 90
Router (config-if) # standby 1 preempt
Router (config-if) # end
Router # copy running-config startup-config
HSRP R1 R2

. Actice

Gy




.

372

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.
:
Router # show standby brief

R1 Virtual IP

. R2
HSRP
R1 :
Router # show standby

373

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

- :

:
Gy 192.168.1.1

.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- :VRRP HSRP

.
HSRP
:
HSRP Active
. Standby
VRRP Master
. Backup
Active = Master, Standby = Backup
374

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSPF and EIGRP using IP Protocol Virtual Mac Address = 00-00-5E-00-01-XX


224.0.0.18 Hello Packet -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VRRP
VRRP Configuration
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Router (config-if) # vrrp 1 priority 90
Router (config-if) # vrrp dby ip 11.1.1.1
Router (config-if) # vrrp 1 preempt

375

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: GLBP
OSI
Load Balancing
.

) Active Virtual Gateway (AVG .


) Active Vritual Forword (AVF .
. Multicast ip 224.0.0.102
. UDP Port 3222
.Mac Address 0007.B400.XXYY

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GLBP
GLBP Configuration
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # glbp 1 priority 100
Router (config-if) # glbp ip 12.1.1.1
Router (config-if) # glbp 1 preempt

376

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Network Time Protocol (NTP


: NTP
, .
NTP UDP .123
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NTP
NTP Configuration
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ntp server 192.168.1.100
Router (config) # ntp authentication-key 1 md5 cisco
Router (config) # ntp update-calendar
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- :
:

377

Level ( 4 )

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

WAN

WAN
379........................................................Wide Area Networks WAN
386 ......................Point to Point Protocol PPP
388 ...................................................Authentication Methods PPP
394.................... Frame Relay Protocol
405.................................Multi Protocol Label Switching MPLS
408................................Virtual Private Network VPN

378

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Wide Area Networks (WAN

: WAN






.
: WAN
.
WAN


WAN

379

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Packets
.
WAN OSI Layer .
WAN .
WAN Connection Types
.
Leased Line, 2- Circuit Switching, 3- Packet Switching
: Leased Line -3
ISP Leased Line

.

: Leased Line

.



Leased Line .
Leased Line

.Leased Line

381

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Leased Line
. HDLC , PPP
) : High Level Data Link Control (HDLC



.
HDLC
. IP Header
HDLC .
HDLC -1 6
.


.
HDLCv2 -1 7
Proprietary
.

: Flag Frame

.8 bits
381

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Address IP
.8 bit
: Control
Flow Control
.8 bit
: Protocol
PPP, HDLC .LLC Header
: Data
.
: FCS
FCS

.
: Flag


.
Circuit Switching -. Circuit-
Switching


.

: Circuit Switching -1 Reverse Charging



.
-1 Call
.Redirect
382

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-3

.
: Circuit Switching -1
.
-1




.
-3


.
-1
.
: Packet Switching -1





.

Serial
)Data Communication Equipment(DCE


383

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.
: Packet Switching -1
.
-1
.
-3

.
.
-1 .
-1 .
-3 .
.
: X.25 Packet-
Switching Data Communication Equipment
) (DCE )Data Terminal Equipment (DTE
X.25
Router . Gy
X.25
OSI Layers :
-1 Physical Layer
.
-1 Data-Link Layer
.

384

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-3
. Packets

:

Full Duplex
.


DCE
DTE , X.25
.HDLC



.
X.25
Packet-Switching
. OSI Layers

Physical Layer, Data-Link Layer, Network Layer

385

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Point to Point Protocol (PPP


: PPP WAN
Data Link OSI Layers
HDLC
PPP
.HDLC
PPP Header Header
HDLC .

Header HDLC
Header , PPP
HDLC
PPP ,
Header HDLC
Header PPP Header
, :
386

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Feature
HDLC PPP
Error detection
Yes
Yes
Error recovery
No
Yes
Standard Protocol Type field
No
Yes
Default on IOS Serial links
Yes
No
No
Yes
Supports synchronous and as
asynchronous links
PPP .HDLC-

PPP .

-1 , Network Control Protocol


) (NCP Encapsulation
PPP
Network Layers IP , IPx , Apple Talk
.
-1 ) Link Control Protocol (LCP

PPP
. PPP
-1 Negotiation
.
-1 Authentication
.
-3 Compression
.
-1 Error Detections
Header

.
-5 Multilink
.
387

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

PPP Authentication Methods



PPP

PPP


Authentication
.
Authentication :Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) -3

User Name and Passowrd
Authentication

PPP

Authentication
User Name and Passowrd

.
:
Clear Text .
388

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) -.




User Name and Passowrd


User Name and Passowrd
. MD5



.
: Leased Line Configuration389

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Leased Line Configuration



Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # hostname R1
Router (config) # interface Serial 1/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 223.255.255.254 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # encapsulation ppp
Router (config-if) # ppp authentication chap or pap
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # username R2 Password cisco123
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Serial Cable
ppp

:

391

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh






.
.

223.255.255.0 ppp
.
R1 :
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # hostname R1
Router (config) # interface Serial 0/3/0
391

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router (config-if) # ip address 223.255.255.253 255.255.255.0


Router (config-if) # encapsulation ppp
Router (config-if) # ppp authentication chap
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # username R2 Password cisco123
R1

: R1 # copy running-config startup-config

R1 : R2
392

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: R2 Router > enable


Router # config t
Router (config) # hostname R2
Router (config) # interface Serial 0/3/0
Router (config-if) # ip address 223.255.255.254 255.255.255.0
Router (config-if) # encapsulation ppp
Router (config-if) # ppp authentication chap
Router (config-if) # exit
Router (config) # username R1 Password cisco123

: R2 # copy running-config startup-config


393

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Frame Relay Protocol


:Frame Relay Packet Switching




Frame

56 kbps , 45 kbps

.
: Frame Relay
-1 .
-1 .
-3 .X.25
-1 ANSI CCITT/ITU
Frame Relay Forum
. Frame Relay
-5
.WAN
-5 Connection-Oriented
(Permanent Virtual )PVC
Circuit .
-7 PVC
.Frame Relay
394

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Frame Relay
-1
-1
-3
-1
-5
-6

.
.
.
ISDN
.
.
.

: Frame Relay
-1
-1
-3

-1

.
DLCI
. Frame Relay
Frame Relay
PVC
.

Frame .

-5 Switch
DLCI
.
-6




In-Band Congestion Signaling






.
395

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:Frame Relay
-1
.
-1 .
-3
.
Frame Relay :
-3



Customer
) Termination Equipment (CTE PVC
, . Frame Relay Service Point
-1 .
:CTE Frame Relay
.


Frame Relay
Frame Relay
. Frame Relay
: Frame Relay
-3 Full
. Mesh

396

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-1 Partial Mesh
.Topology

-3 Hub and Spoke Topology



.

Frame Relay Frame Relay



Frame Relay
Frame Relay




Frame
Relay .
397

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Frame Relay
Frame Relay
Frame Relay
Frame Relay


RIPv2 , EIGRP , OSPF
.
- :

:
-1 . Frame Relay
-1 .
-3
. Frame Relay
-4
Frame Relay
-5 RIPv2
.
-6 Frame Relay Frame
.Relay
398

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: (R1)
IP Address Private Network f0/0 192.168.1.1/24
IP Address Serial 0/0/0.103 172.20.3.1
IP Address Serial 0/0/0.102 172.20.1.1
Serial 0/0/0.103
Serial 0/0/0.102
DLCI 102
DLCI 103
: (R2)
IP Address Private Network f0/0 192.168.3.1/24
IP Address Serial 0/0/0.201 172.20.1.1
IP Address Serial 0/0/0.203 172.20.2.1
Serial 0/0/0.201
Serial 0/0/0.203
DLCI 201
DLCI 203
: (R3)
IP Address Private Network f0/0 192.168.2.1/24
IP Address Serial 0/0/0.301 172.20.1.1
IP Address Serial 0/0/0.302 172.20.2.1
Serial 0/0/0. 301
Serial 0/0/0. 302
DLCI 301
DLCI 302
399

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
R1
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # hostname R1
R1 (config) # interface serial 0/0/0
R1 (config-if) # encapsulation frame-relay
R1 (config-if) # interface serial 0/0/0.102 point-to-point
R1 (config-subif) # frame-relay interface-dlci 102
R1 (config-subif) # ip address 172.20.1.1 255.255.255.252
R1 (config-subif) # interface serial 0/0/0.103 point-to-point
R1 (config-subif) # frame-relay interface-dlci 103
R1 (config-subif) # ip address 172.20.3.2 255.255.255.252
R1 (config-subif) # interface serial 0/0/0
R1 (config-if) # no shutdown
R1 (config-if) # exit
R1 (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
R1 (config-if) # ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1 (config-if) # no shutdown
R1 (config-if) # exit
R1 (config) # router rip
R1 (config-router) # version 2
R1 (config-router) # network 192.168.1.0
R1 (config-router) # network 172.20.1.1
R1 (config-router) # network 172.20.3.2
R1 (config-router) # end
R1 # copy running-config startup-config
411

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R1 .
R2
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # hostname R2
R2 (config) # interface serial 0/0/0
R2 (config-if) # encapsulation frame-relay
R2 (config-if) # interface serial 0/0/0.201 point-to-point
R2 (config-subif) # frame-relay interface-dlci 201
R2 (config-subif) # ip address 172.20.1.1 255.255.255.252
R2 (config-subif) # interface serial 0/0/0.203 point-to-point
R2 (config-subif) # frame-relay interface-dlci 203
R2 (config-subif) # ip address 172.20.2.2 255.255.255.252
R2 (config-subif) # interface serial 0/0/0
R2 (config-if) # no shutdown
R2 (config-if) # exit
R2 (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
R2 (config-if) # ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
R2 (config-if) # no shutdown
R2 (config-if) # exit
R2 (config) # router rip
R2 (config-router) # version 2
R2 (config-router) # network 192.168.3.0
R2 (config-router) # network 172.20.1.1
R2 (config-router) # network 172.20.2.2
R2 (config-router) # end
R2 # copy running-config startup-config
411

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

R2
.
R3
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # hostname R3
R3 (config) # interface serial 0/0/0
R3 (config-if) # encapsulation frame-relay
R3 (config-if) # interface serial 0/0/0.301 point-to-point
R3 (config-subif) # frame-relay interface-dlci 301
R3 (config-subif) # ip address 172.20.3.1 255.255.255.252
R3 (config-subif) # interface serial 0/0/0.302 point-to-point
R3 (config-subif) # frame-relay interface-dlci 302
R3 (config-subif) # ip address 172.20.2.2 255.255.255.252
R3 (config-subif) # interface serial 0/0/0
R3 (config-if) # no shutdown
R3 (config-if) # exit
R3 (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
R3 (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
R3 (config-if) # no shutdown
R3 (config-if) # exit
R3 (config) # router rip
R3 (config-router) # version 2
R3 (config-router) # network 192.168.2.0
R3 (config-router) # network 172.20.3.1
R3 (config-router) # network 172.20.2.2
R3 (config-router) # end
R3 # copy running-config startup-config
412

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Frame Relay
.
Frame Relay :

Config Serial :

413

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

DLCI

DLCI Frame Relay
.

Add


.
Packets Successful
Faill
.

414

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Successful
:


.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

)Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS

:MPLS WAN

MPLS Frame Relay
MPLS
OSI Layers
IP IP
Packets
Frame .
MPLS

.
415

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

MPLS

Frame Relay, ATM, or Ethernet.
.
.
.
) (RVSP
(CR-LDP).


.
.

.
RSVP ) (CR-LDP
Cisco
.
: MPLS :Provider Router (P) -3 .ISP
:Provider Edge (PE) -.
.
:Customer Edg (CE) -1
LAN .WAN

416

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

MPLS : Label
MPLS Label
Header


MPLS Label
MPLS Routing
Table
MPLS Label
Label .
Label Label :
Layer 2 Header [MPLS Header] IP Packets
32 bits MPLS Header
:

: -1
ISP




.
-1



.
417

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VPN
Virtual Private Network

: VPN

Remote Access

VPN VPN

VPN




VPN .
: VPN


VPN
.
418

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VPN :






.

:


VPN



VPN

. VPN
IP Public
.
419

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VPN
GateWay
Target Network
Clients
.



)(Tunneling
.

:VPN Tunneling
VPN
.
:)Point T Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP
)Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP
.)Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP
)VPN, Security Protocol (IPSec
411

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

VPN , VPN .
-1 Authentication
.
-1 Data Integrity
.
-3 Confidentiality

.
-1 Anti Reply

.
: VPN
-1 Cost Saving VPN
VPN
. IP Public
-1 Remotely Connection

. VPN
-3 Scalability
.
-1 Security

VPN
.

411

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: VPN
VPN
:
: VPN
Dial up VPN
)Point to point VPN (IP VPN
Site to Site VPN
)Site to Multi Site VPN (DM VPN
MPLS VPN

12345-

Dial up VPN .3
VPN


Dial up VPN
.

Point to point VPN (IP VPN) ..


VPN VPN

.

412

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Site to Site VPN .1






Point to point VPN
.

Site to Multi Site VPN (DM VPN) .4




.

413

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

MPLS VPN .6
MPLS VPN
.

414

Level ( 5 )

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Networks Security


416.........................................................Access Control Lists (ACL)

422 .......................................................Switch Security

424 .............................................Authentication Methods

425..........................................................Network security

427.........................................................................Firewall

415

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Access Control Lists (ACL

: ACL



.
: ACL -1
.
-1
.
-3 ACL Filtering
.
-1 OSI Layer .
-5
.ACL
-6 .
-7
.
-8 ACL
.
-9 ACL Premit , Deny
.
-11 .
416

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-11 WildCard Mask . ACL


- : ACL

1-Standerd , 2- Extended , 3- Name ACL


ACL
.
: Standerd



Source IP Address . 1-99
: Extended
Web Server
http Telnet

. Destination IP Address , Source IP Address
: Name ACL
.
:ACL A . B . C . D Address to match 172.16.10.0 0.0.0.255
Any Source Host Any

Any

A Single Host Address

Host

host 172.16.10.5

Deny

Premit
:
Premit
.

417

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

ACL Configuration
ACL
Standard

/ Extended ACL Configuration

Standard
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # access-list 1 deny host 172.16.10.5
Router (config) # access-list 1 permit any
Router (config) # interface fastetherent 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip access-group 1 out
Router (config-if) # exit
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Standard Name ACL
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ip access-list standard internet
Router (config-std-nacl) # deny host 172.16.10.5
Router (config-std-nacl) # permit any
Router (config) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip access-group internet out
Router (config-if) # exit
418

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Extended
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # access-list 10 deny host 172.16.10.5 host
192.168.1.1 eq http
Router (config) # access-list 10 permit ip any any
Router (config) # interface fastetherent 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip access-group 10 in
Router (config-if) # exit
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Extended Name ACL
Router > enable
Router # config t
Router (config) # ip access-list extended http
Router (config-std-nacl) # deny tcp host 172.16.10.5 host
192.168.1.1 eq http
Router (config-std-nacl) # permit ip any any
Router (config) # exit
Router (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0
Router (config-if) # ip access-group 100 in
Router (config-if) # exit

419

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

ACL
:
:
-1
-1
-3
-1

192.168.1.0/24 .
172.16.1.0/16 .
10.0.0.0/8 ACL
.
.

:Router > enable


Router # config t
Router (config) # access-list 101 deny ip host 10.0.0.2
192.168.1.2 0.0.0.255
Router (config) # access-list 101 permit ip any any
Router (config) # interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router (config) # ip access-group 101 in
Router (config) # exit
Router # copy running-config startup-config
421

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

ACL Extended 10.0.0.0/8


192.168.1.0/24 .
10.0.0.0/8 .

10.0.0.0/8
192.168.1.0/24
ACL
172.16.1.0/16
.

172.16.1.0/16


ACL 10.0.0.0/8
.

421

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Switch Security

: Switch Security



.
:

.
-1
.

)Trucking Dynamic Protocol (TDP




Hub Broad Cast
Hub



.

422

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
Switch (config) # interface fastetherent 0/1

Switch (config) # interface fastetherent 0/1-10

Switch (config-if-range) # switchport mode trunk
Trunk
Trunk Trunk .
:
Switch (config-if-range) # switchport mode access
Switch (config-if-range) # switchport nonegotiate

-------------------------------------------------------------------- -1


. Port Security
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/10

Switch (config-if) # switchport port-security maximum 1

? Switch (config-if) # switchport port-security mac-address

? Switch (config-if) # switchport port-security violation

-3 Vlan


.
-1
.
423

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-5 Vlan 1

Vlan .
-6 Vlan Vlan
Vlan
Vlan .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Authentication Methods

: Authentication


.
-1
. Something You Know
-1
. Something You have
-3
. Certifcate Authority
-1 CHAP
.

424

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-5 Kerberos
Tickets

Kerberos
.
-6 PAP

. Kerberos
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Network security

:

:
.
.

.
:


.

:

425

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.

.
.

.
.
.
:
: Data Confidentiality



: .
: Data Integrity



:


100 1000000
.
:Availability








.

426

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Firewall ,

: Firewall
/

.

,

:
.
-

.
.

() .
.

.
.
"
" .

427

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Packet Filters
1988 )(DEC

.
AT&T
.
) (packets
.
(
"" .




) (TCP) (UDP .
) (TCP ) (UDP
" " (

.
: Stateful Filters


.
:
.
): (Application Layer Firewall

AT&T "
) (Application Layer Firewall
) (Proxy server
DEC . SEAL

428

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

) Level ( 6
Troubleshooting


Troubleshooting 430 .........................
434............................IPv4 / IPv6
435....................................................Access List ACL
436..............................
437.........................Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP
440.............................................................................................Syslog
441.................................
442.............................Router Ways With Packets
443..................................Vlans Allowed in Trunked Interface
444.........................................Software - Defined Networking SDN
446.........................................................Virtualization
450........................................................................Cloud Technology
457.........................................................................Quality of service
461..........................................................Wireless LAN

429

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Troubleshooting

:






OSI
Show
,

.

.
-1
-1
-3
-1
-5
-6

OSI
.
TCP/IP . OSI

.

.

.

:
Backup , SNMP , Syslog , Wire shark , NetFlow
431

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

OSI



.



.
-1 Application
Remote Control


.
431

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-1 Presentation





.
-3 Session

Session

.
-1 Transport
TCP , UDP

FTP ,
TFTP .
-5 Network


.
-6 Data Link

Data Link .
-7 Physical


.

432

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.
:
.
Router # show controllers serial 0/0/0

.
Router # show ip interface brief

.
Router # show running-config


.
: Vlan Problems

.
Switch # show van
Vlan
.
Switch # show interfaces trunk
Trunk .
Switch # show vtp status
VTP .
Switch (config) # no spanning-tree vlan 1,2,3,4
STP
Vlan .
Switch (config) # interface fastetherent 0/5
433

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Switch (config-if) # spanning-tree portfast


Portfast .
Switch # show spanning-tree
. STP
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IPv4 / IPv6





.
-1
-1
-3
-1

-5


.

.

.


.

Subnet
Mask .

434

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

-6
192.168.1.1
.
-7 DHCP
:
DHCP

Pool
.

DHCP
DHCP
.

DHCP


DHCP
DHCP Realy Agent
DHCP .
DHCP
DHCP




Pool .
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ACL - Access List
Router # show access-lists / Router # show ip access-lists
Router # show ip interface
435

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


. ACL

: NAT Router # show running-config


Router # show ip nat translations
: Static Routing Router # show ip route
Router # show ipv6 route
Router # ping
Router # traceroute
: Dynamic Routing
RIP Trobleshooting
Router # show ip route
Router # show ipv6 route
Router # show running-config
Router # ping
Router # traceroute
436

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Router # show ip route


OSPF Trobleshooting
Router # show ip route
Router # show ipv6 route
Router # show ip ospf database
Router # show ipv6 ospf database
Router # show ip ospf neighbor
Router # show ipv6 ospf neighbor
Router # show running-config
Router # ping
Router # traceroute
EIGRP Trobleshooting
Router # show ip route
Router # show ipv6 route
Router # show ip eigrp database
Router # show ipv6 eigrp database
Router # show ipv6 eigrp neighbor
Router # show running-config
Router # ping
Router # traceroute
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

437

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: SNMP

.
1- SNMP Manager , 2- SNMP Agent , 3- Management Info Base
: SNMP Manager .SNTP
: SNMP Agent
.SNTP
: Management Info Base
SNTP
).Object ID (OID

: SNMP1- SNMPv1 , 2- SNMPv2c , 3-SNMPv2u , 4-SNMPv3


438

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: SNMP1- GET , 2- Respinse , 3- Get Next , 4- Set , 5- Traps , 6- Inform


: GET SNMP Manager SNMP
Agent .
: Respinse .
: Get Next .
: Set SNMP Manager
IP .
: Traps
.
: Inform .

SNMP UDP 161. , 162

439

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Syslog

: Syslog


. Action
UDP . Port 514 .)Spluck , Kiwi Syslog( Syslog441

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Syslog Levels
.

Emergencies
Alerts
Critical
Error
Warning

6- Notifications
7- Informational
8- Debugging
12345-

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Switch Ways With Frames


441

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

1- Cut-Through


.
2- Store and Forward

.
3- Fragment-Free

64 .
Router Ways With Packets

1- Process Switching


.
2- Fast Switching

442

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

443

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Vlans Allowed in Trunked Interface

: Vlans Allowed
Vlan Vlan
Trunk Interface
Trunk Interface Vlan

.
Switch (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1
Switch (config-if) # switchport trunk allowed vlan 1-2

444

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

)Software - Defined Networking (SDN



:
The control plane

The Data
plane .
OpenFlow
Control plane . Data planes
: SDN
SDN
SDN


.
SND




. virtualization

445

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

.

SDN
.

.

.

.


.
. GMPLS , MPLS


.

.

446

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Virtualization ,







Vm Citrix
.




.
:
:
Paravirtualization , Binary Translation , Emulation
: Emulation
Emulation

Super Nintendo
Playstation Atari 2600

.
447

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Paravirtualization PV
Sun
.
. PV xBSD
.

: Binary Translation BT
XYZ
BT .

.

448

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:




.



. Virtual Machine Manager
VMM VT 4
""
.
:

4
VMPTLRD

.
VMLaunch . VMResume
VMResume .
VMLaunch Virtual Machine Control Structure
.

Bitmaps VMCS
. 32
VMResume
.
449

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:





.
:




.

:




.

IBM

.
451

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Cloud Technology

:





.


Cloud Tech

.

451

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Cloud Technology

. IP
DNS

.

session id
.
.




() .

.

.
, :
) (Autonomic Computing "
.
) (Client-server model
()




.




Transaction
. processing

452

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Cloud infrastructure

"
Infrastructure as a Service
) (hardware virtualization

.

( ) .

.
: Cloud
-

, .
,
,
,
, .
.
Cloud
.

. Cloud
.
453

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Cloud Computing Types


.
: Public Cloud



.
:

.
( )

.Gov Cloud
:
" " .



Payment
.Card Industry Data Security Standard
454

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

() :
.
( )
"
hybrid cloud computing
ibm hp
(VMware)

.
.
.

Hybrid Web Hosting


.
: Private Cloud



.
:Cloud engineering

.

.
.
: cloud storage




.

.
.

455

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

: Cloud computing security


.

.

.
.

. "
) (Cloud Security Alliance
.
:

,


. :
. . :


.
: Data protection


.
:
) (segregation of duties


.

456

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:

) (Identity management
.federation services
:


.
:

.
:

.
:
.
:
:

.

.

.
.
.
.
.
457

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Quality of service

QOS


.

.
.




.
.


.
.
.
.

.

"
" .

.
458

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.

.
.

.

.
) (QoE
"" " .

.
: QOS

.
" " . " "
"" .
DiffServer ( )
.

"" "" . :
. :
.

:
:
.

.
.

459

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:

.

.
:
.

.
.
:

.
.

.
. isochronicity
:

. .
:
:
.
.

.
.
.

.
461

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.

.

. ''.
/
.

.

.
.
:

.
. .


.



.
.


60


.

.
461

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

Wireless LAN

:


. .
: Networks Wireless

LAN ) (Local Area Network




:


WLAN




: Wide Area Network WAN
Wireless LAN WLAN
.

462

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.

Wireless
LAN


.

) (WLAN
( )

2004

WLAN wireless local
area network radio
frequency RF .
.
1115
:
- 1 ) (wireless computer cards
.
.
- 2 ) (access point
.

.
:


.
:

.
463

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh


.
- -
.

.


.

:
) (wirelessness

.
:

.
:

( )


:

.
:

.
: PCI
100 200 2004 30
.
:
464

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh

:
.

Ethernet

.
Wired
Equivalent Privact WAP Wi
Fi Protected Access WPA
.
:


Lakehead


.
: IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
:
:
Infrared IR
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum FHSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum DSSS

.
MAC: .
: Distributed Coordination Function
Point Coordination Function MAC Layer

.

465

Eng. Ahmad H Almashaikh





.
:
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101
Official Cert Guide By Wendell Odom
CCENTCCNA ICND1 100-101 Official Cert
Guide By Wendell Odom
)Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching (200-120
Official Cert Guide Library
Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching How to Master

466