Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20


Electrical & Electronics Technology


Unit 1 - Cells and Batteries PART 2

Unit-1 Cells and Batteries
Interconnection of Cells- Series and parallel, Instruments and tools used for
battery testing, Battery bank installation, testing and commissioning. Types of lead
acid battery- Liquid vented, Tubular- Sealed or VRLA AGM & Gel, Applications
of Nickel cadmium & Lithium ion cells.


Internal Resistance of a cell

Electrical & Electronics Technology

It is the resistance offered by the cell to the flow of current. A cell possesses
internal resistance because of the resistance of
Terminals of the battery
The factors affecting internal resistance of a cell are
a) Size of electrodes
b) Distance between the plates
c) Number of electrodes

Generally there are two types of charging such as constant current and
constant voltage method.
Constant current method
In this method of charging the batteries are connected in series and
connected to a circuit as shown in fig. The charging current is kept constant
throughout the charging period by adjusting the rheostat in the circuit as the
battery voltage goes up.
In order to avoid excessive gassing or over heating the charging may be
carried out in two steps, an initial charging of comparatively higher current and a
finishing rate of low current. The current at which the battery is charged is decided
by the ampere hour capacity. Usually the charging current shall be 1/8th of the Ah
During the charging period, the temperature of the electrolyte should not
exceed beyond 40 to 450C because of the danger of plate buckling. So the


Electrical & Electronics Technology

temperature of electrolyte is carefully watched and if the temperature approaches

danger limit the charging current should be reduced.

In this system, a number of batteries can be connected in series with the

battery charger. The voltage of the battery charger should be greater than the total
voltage of the battery. Otherwise the battery will discharge through the circuit.
This type of charging system is used only for
1) newly constructed battery
2) completely discharged battery
3) Battery which is kept idle for a long period.
Constant voltage method


Electrical & Electronics Technology

In this method, the voltage of the battery is kept constant by varying the
current. Initially the charging current is very high and decreases as the battery
charges. The time of charging is reduced to half and increases the capacity
compared to constant current method. But the efficiency is low.
Trickle charging

Due to leakage action and other open circuit losses, a fully charged battery
losses its charge even when open circuit. Hence to keep the battery always in
charging condition, the battery is charged by a very small current for a long
period. This type of charging is called trickle charging.

Connection of Battery
a) Series connection
Batteries are connected in series for obtaining more e.m.f than that of one
battery. In this method, the negative terminal of first battery is connected to the
positive terminal of the second battery and negative of the second battery to
positive of the third and so on, such connection is called series connection. In this
connection the total voltage is the sum of the individual battery voltages. But same
current flows in all the batteries. Due to this the charge capacity of series
connected batteries is as same
as the charge capacity of a
single battery.
Total e.m.f ET = n. E
n = number of battery.
E= E.M.F of one cell.
b) Parallel connection
Batteries are connected in parallel for obtaining more current or current for
more time than that with one battery. If the positive terminals of all batteries are

connected together and negative terminals of

Electrical & Electronics Technology


all batteries are connected together, such

connection is called parallel connection. In
this connection the total current is the sum of
the individual battery current and the total
voltage is the voltage of one battery. In
parallel connection, the total capacity of the
battery bank (group of batteries) will be equal
to the sum of the capacities of individual
ET = E

Tools and Instruments used for testing &

maintenance of battery
The following tools required for battery maintenance
Pliers (to open nuts& bolts, tie the wires & hold live wires)
Wire cutter to cut & strip the wire
Spanner 12-13 ( To open nut bolts of contacts)
Cleaning brush ( To clean battery contact terminals)
Polish paper (To clean the rough contact surface)
The following are the commonly used instruments used for battery testing
Battery Hydrometer (For measuring the specific gravity of electrolyte)


Electrical & Electronics Technology


Battery Tester & multimeter (Used for checking the voltage, current &
internal resistance)

Clamp meter (Clipping type

multi meter to measure voltage, current and resistance not by physical
connection but by clamping on the wire connected)

Battery Fault Detection


Electrical fault Detection


Electrical & Electronics Technology

The electrical faults can be detected with the help of multi meter and battery tester.
We can check voltage and current using this meter.

The battery bank installation and commissioning is mainly of 2 types

1) Replacing old battery bank by new batteries
2) Installation and commissioning of complete new battery bank

In the first case all infra-structure for battery installation will be there. But in
the second case ensure the availability of infra structures such as battery room,
battery charger, Battery stand, cabling from charger to battery and from battery to
load. The following steps are involved in the battery bank installation and
For replacement of old battery banks, ensure that the battery bank is
isolated from all loads.
Switch OFF the charger connected to the battery.
Remove all cables, inter cell/row connectors.
Place the new batteries on the battery stand. While doing this the
polarity of batteries should be confirmed.
Connect the inter cell connectors and charger to the battery cables &
make it ready for initial charging.
Do the initial charging till cell voltage reaches 2.35 V 2.45V. Take
hourly reading of cell voltage, sp. Gravity and temperature.
Once the cell voltage reaches 2.35 V 2.45V reduce charging current to
finishing rate and continue charging by keeping the total input AH
rating same.


Electrical & Electronics Technology

While charging the temperature should not exceed 500C. If it exceeds

this value, stop charging allow temperature to come down to 400C and
continue charging.
After reaching full charge, keep batteries idle for 4 hrs and then
discharge the batteries as per specification mentioned(C/10 or C/20)
after isolating from the charger.
Record cell voltage, sp. Gravity & temperature of all cells. Make sure
that no cell over discharged. Then recharge again and again note down

all the parameters. If sp. Gravity of any cell falls below standard value,
then adjust the sp. gravity by adding conc.H2SO4.
Again recharge the batteries and keep them on float charging.

Test Instruments Required

1. Multimeter.
2. Battery loading unit.
This is capable of providing a constant current load to the battery under test.

Commissioning Test Procedure

1. Battery Charger
1. Visual Inspection: The battery charger cleanliness to be verified. Proper
cable termination of incoming AC cable and the outgoing DC cable and the
cable connection between battery and charger to be ensured. A stable
incoming AC supply to the battery charger is also to be ensured.
2. Voltage levels in the Float charge mode and the Boost charge mode to be set
according to specifications using potentiometer provided.
3. Battery low voltage, Mains Off, charger Off etc., conditions are simulated
and checked for proper alarm / indication. Thus functional correctness of the
battery charger is ensued.

Electrical & Electronics Technology

4. After the boost charging duration, the battery charger is to be put in float
charging (trickle charge) mode for continuous operation.

Some chargers automatically switch to float charge mode after the charging
current reduces below a certain value.

5. Voltage and current values are recorded during the boost charging and floatcharging mode.
This test establishes the correct operation of the battery charger within the
specified voltage and current levels in various operational modes.

2. Battery Unit
1. Mandatory Condition: The battery set should have been properly charged as
per the commissioning instructions of the battery manufacturer for the
duration specified.
2. Visual Inspection: Cleanliness of battery is checked and the electrolyte level
checked as specified on the individual cells. The tightness of cell connections
on individual terminals should be ensured.
3. Individual cell voltages to be recorded before the start of the test.
4. Loading of the battery to be started at the specified current value.
Individual cell voltages of the battery set are to be recorded every half
an hour.
5. It is to be ensured that all the cell voltages are above the end-cell
voltage specified by the manufacturer.
If any of the cell voltages falls below the threshold level specified by the
manufacturer, this cell number is to be noted and the cell needs to be
6. Test set automatically stops loading after set duration (or) when
minimum voltage reached for the battery set.
7. Test to be continued until the battery delivers the total AH capacity it
is designed for.
Value of AH and individual cell voltages to be recorded every half an hour.

Acceptance Limits

Electrical & Electronics Technology

This test establishes the AH capacity of battery set at required voltage.

The acceptance limit for the test is to ensure the battery set is capable
of supplying the required current at specified DC voltage without breakdown
for the required duration.
Types of Lead Acid Batteries
Tubular Batteries



provides high performance,





maintenance costs. Unique







sacrificing battery cycle life,


maintaining normal

watering intervals
Positive plate: It is a tubular plate which can prevent the active material from
falling off. The grid of positive plate is Pb-Sb Multi-Alloy
Separator: With the combined application of porous rubber and porous PVC, the
separator has high porosity and good corrosion-resistance
Acid-Proof bolt: It is of a special shape of funnel having the function of filtering
acid smog and retarding flame. It can measure the density and temperature of
electrolyte. The design life of the battery is more than 20 years. Ensuring sufficient
electrolytes for battery discharge


Electrical & Electronics Technology

Positive plate Tubular plate with die cast Pb-Ca alloy grid

Negative plate Balanced Pb-Ca grid for improved recombination efficiency

Separator Leaf shape rubber separator

Electrolyte Dilute high purity sulphuric acid of 1.240 specific gravity

Pillar seal 100% factory tested, proven two layers epoxy resin seal

Relief valve Complete with integrated flame arrestor


Maintenance convenient.

Non-Spill able construction design.

Transparent containers, convenient to observe.

Special filter installation for acid fog proof.

High quality and high reliability.

Super long service life.

Special pole sealed technology.

Super reliability.



Electric Utilities

Control Equipments

Security Systems

Medical Equipments

UPS systems

Railroad Utilities

Photovoltaic Systems

Renewable Energy Systems



Electrical & Electronics Technology

Tubular Vs Normal Battery

Tubular Batteries

Normal Flat plate batteries

Life expectancy 4 to 5 years

Maximum 3 years

Low water loss

Needs frequent water topping up

Cyclic Life is High

Low cyclic life

Operate consistently even at high

Useful only at recommended


temperature conditions.

Suitable for High end applications.

Not recommended for heavy


Complex design.

Simple design.

High Price.

Affordable price.

Fast charging battery.

Charges slowly compared to tubular


Recommended for high productive

Recommended for small homes and


budget-conscious people.

Highly reliable


Unique Design Features and Benefits

Higher energy density than flat plate positive plate constructed batteries means
better performance



Electrical & Electronics Technology

Greater surface area optimizes active material utilization which allows for

higher voltages under load, resulting in superior performance in high rate

and cold storage applications.
It resist corrosion which is superior to gravity cast flat plate construction
and improves battery life
Uniform distribution of active material and weight is achieved through a wet
filling process which enhances plate uniformity
Round, non-woven tubular gauntlets provide superior resistance to active
material shedding
Fully enveloped separators reduce the chance of short circuiting
1" sediment space to prevent short circuits
Rubber terminal bushings absorb impact and shock on rough floors.
Nickelcadmium battery
The nickelcadmium battery (Ni-Cd
battery or NiCad battery) is the most
commonly used alkaline rechargeable
battery. They use nickel hydroxide Ni
(OH)2 for the positive electrode (cathode),
metallic cadmium Cd as the negative





potassium hydroxide KOH electrolyte.

Poly vinyl chloride is used as separator.
The abbreviation Ni-Cd is derived from
the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd).



Electrical & Electronics Technology

NiCd batteries are used in cordless and wireless telephones, emergency

lighting, and other applications. With a relatively low internal resistance, they can
supply high surge currents. This makes them a favourable choice for remotecontrolled electric model airplanes, boats, and cars, as well as cordless power
tools and camera flash units.
Larger flooded cells are used for aircraft starting batteries, electric vehicles,
and standby power.

It facilitates fast charging and has a longer life.

It allows charging at low temperatures.
It is the most rugged battery that can withstand both electrical and mechanical
abuse and it is normally used for heavy duty industrial applications.
Their small size and high rate discharge capacity made portable tools and other
consumer applications practical for the first time.
Low internal resistance (less than half the equivalent NiMH cells)
Wide temperature range (Up to 70C)
Typical cycle life is over 500 cycles.
The sealed nickel-cadmium cell can be stored in the charged or discharged
state without damage.
The electrolyte is commonly available, low cost potassium hydroxide KOH.
Available in a large variety of sizes and capacities.

Low energy density.

Memory effect and not eco friendly due to the use of Cadmium.


Electrical & Electronics Technology

Cadmium is a high cost heavy metal and its use in consumer products is now
deprecated on environmental grounds.
Low cell voltage of 1.2 Volts compared with primary alkaline cells 1.5 Volts.

Motorized equipment
Power tools
Two way radios
Electric razors
Commercial and industrial portable products
Medical instrumentation
Emergency lighting
Lithium ion Battery
A lithium-ion Battery is also a
secondary storage battery.


ions move from the negative electrode

(cathode) to the positive electrode of
Li-ion cell during discharge and back
when charging. This metal case holds
a long spiral comprising three thin
sheets pressed together:

A Positive electrode

A Negative electrode



A separator

Electrical & Electronics Technology

Inside the case these sheets are submerged in an organic solvent that acts as
the electrolyte. Ether is one common solvent. The separator is a very thin sheet of
micro perforated plastic. As the name implies, it separates the positive and
negative electrodes while allowing ions to pass through. The positive electrode is
made of Lithium cobalt oxide, or LiCoO2. The negative electrode is made of
carbon. When the battery charges, ions of lithium move through the electrolyte
from the positive electrode to the negative electrode and attach to the carbon.
During discharge, the lithium ions move back to the LiCoO2 from the carbon.
The movement of these lithium ions happens at a fairly high voltage, so each
cell produces 3.7 volts. This is much higher than the 1.5 volts typical of a normal
AA alkaline cell.
Light weight because the electrodes of a lithium-ion battery are made of
lightweight lithium and carbon.
Less loss: A lithium-ion battery pack loses only about 5 percent of its charge
per month.
Lithium-ion batteries can handle hundreds of charge/discharge cycles.
Very high energy density. A typical lithium-ion battery can store 150 watthours of electricity in 1 kilogram of battery .A lead-acid battery can store
only 25 watt-hours per kilogram.



Electrical & Electronics Technology

They start degrading as soon as they leave the factory. They will only last

two or three years from the date of manufacture whether you use them or

They are extremely sensitive to high temperatures.

More expensive.

There is a small chance that, if a lithium-ion battery pack fails, it will burst
into flame.





include mobile

phones, laptops and tablets, digital

phones and


cameras and camcorders and torches











as cordless

drills, sanders, saws and a variety of garden equipment.

Electric vehicles: Because of their light weight, Li-ion batteries are used for
propelling a wide range of electric vehicles such as aircraft, electric
cars, hybrid


advanced electric


chairs, radio-controlled

models, model aircraft and telecommunications applications.

Valve regulated Lead-Acid Battery
Valve-Regulated Sealed Lead-Acid Battery (VRLA BATTERY) is a new type




system. . It is a backup battery

for portable equipment and office
and factory automation. VRLA
battery has high power density,
low self-discharge, and provides
high performance while remaining economical to use. In addition to these


Electrical & Electronics Technology

advantages, the sealed construction eliminates the necessity to fill it with water.
Thus, this battery is maintenance free.
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Battery

Absorbent Glass Mat commonly known as AGM, is a type of battery under

sealed lead-acid batteries. They are created in a flat, rectangular design. One
feature of AGM batteries is the thin glass fibers interwoven into a mat. This makes
the battery spill-proof, as the fibers containing








composition. Because of this, AGM batteries can

be used without the limitations of hazardous
materials. AGMs unique composition allows the
batteries to produce high currents and longer life



Electrical & Electronics Technology

span. The technology also minimizes internal resistance and helps the battery to
survive low temperatures. Users can benefit from AGMs deep cycling capability.


Used for military aircrafts and UPS (uninterrupted power supply) because
of its weight, safety and long-lasting power.

AGM batteries are used in powering cars and car accessories such as
steering wheels, windshields and heated seats.

Used for motor homes and robotic applications.

Advantages of AGM Batteries

Low internal resistance

Longer, efficient usage

Ability to survive low temperatures

Spill proof

Water retention

Faster charging time

Disadvantages of AGM Batteries

More expensive than other batteries

Its performance and capacity gradually declines in time

AGM batteries are sensitive to overcharging

They are less eco-friendly when compared to other batteries because of its
reduced electrolyte



Gel Battery

Electrical & Electronics Technology

The gel battery is similar to A G M battery, the difference is the use of silica
gel instead of fibrous silica gel.