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Unit 6: Gases

Vapour Pressure

Change of State

Above the surface of any liquid substane, some molecules

of the substance will exist as a gas.
In a closed container phase equilibrium will eventually
occur. For every molecule that escapes to the gaseous
phase one rejoins the liquid phase.

ppt 07

Zumdahl 10.8, 10.9


Vapour pressure can be affected by temperature - higher

temperature means more molecules in the gaseous phase.

Dry Ice
Water Vapour vs Steam

Q: Why is a fog produced around solid carbon dioxide

(- 78C)?
A: Cold CO2 vapour is coming into contact with water
vapour in the air causing it to condense out into droplets.

Volatile Liquids

Liquids with high vapour pressures are said to

be volatile.

High vapour pressure results from a low boiling

point, which causes large numbers of molecules
to evaporate or sublimate.

Vapour pressure depends on IMFs

(intermolecular forces).

VOCs - Volatile Organic Compounds

are organic chemicals that have a
high vapour pressure at SATP.

Heating & Cooling Curves

When a solid is heated & eventually vapourized, a graph

of the temperature versus time heated can look like this:


Boiling Point

Pressure cookers allow for decreased

cooking time.

The boiling point of a liquid is the

temperature at which its vapor pressure is
equal to the pressure of the gas above it.

the value of the bp can

be altered by pressure.

Q: How?
A: Theyre sealed to hold steam in
 increases inside pressure
 increases the boiling point of water
 decreases cooking time

Phase Diagrams

If you try to cook a hard-boiled

egg on a mountain top . . .

Summarizes the P & V conditions at which a substance is

stable as a solid, liquid, or gas in a closed container.

Lines are boundaries between phases (states in this


. . . it will take 30 minutes instead of the regular 10.


Changes of State in a Phase Diagram



Triple point

The P & T under which all three phases can exist

at the same time.

For water 0.01 C and 0.006 atm


Critical point

Water is Special


Above the critical point (a temperature),

increasing the pressure on gas molecules cannot
make them into a liquid because they have too
much kinetic energy.


0 C

100. C

Negative slope of
solid/liquid phase
boundary indicates
something special about
Melting point decreases
with increased pressure.
More pressure makes
melting ice easier.

Q: Why are skates slippery on ice?


#87, 89, 93

A: Skating is possible because ice under a skate blade

experiences high pressure which lowers its mp and it
liquefies (friction also contributes when the skater is
video: Ice & Pressure