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Unit 6: Gases

Vapour Pressure



Change of State

Above the surface of any liquid substane, some molecules


of the substance will exist as a gas.
In a closed container phase equilibrium will eventually
occur. For every molecule that escapes to the gaseous
phase one rejoins the liquid phase.

ppt 07

Zumdahl 10.8, 10.9

equilibrium


Vapour pressure can be affected by temperature - higher


temperature means more molecules in the gaseous phase.
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Dry Ice
Water Vapour vs Steam

Q: Why is a fog produced around solid carbon dioxide


(- 78C)?
A: Cold CO2 vapour is coming into contact with water
vapour in the air causing it to condense out into droplets.
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Volatile Liquids


Liquids with high vapour pressures are said to


be volatile.

High vapour pressure results from a low boiling


point, which causes large numbers of molecules
to evaporate or sublimate.

Vapour pressure depends on IMFs


(intermolecular forces).

VOCs - Volatile Organic Compounds


are organic chemicals that have a
high vapour pressure at SATP.

Heating & Cooling Curves




When a solid is heated & eventually vapourized, a graph


of the temperature versus time heated can look like this:

Water

Boiling Point


Pressure cookers allow for decreased


cooking time.

The boiling point of a liquid is the


temperature at which its vapor pressure is
equal to the pressure of the gas above it.

the value of the bp can


be altered by pressure.
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Q: How?
A: Theyre sealed to hold steam in
 increases inside pressure
 increases the boiling point of water
 decreases cooking time

Phase Diagrams


If you try to cook a hard-boiled


egg on a mountain top . . .

Summarizes the P & V conditions at which a substance is


stable as a solid, liquid, or gas in a closed container.

Lines are boundaries between phases (states in this


case).

. . . it will take 30 minutes instead of the regular 10.


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Changes of State in a Phase Diagram

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Triple point

The P & T under which all three phases can exist


at the same time.

For water 0.01 C and 0.006 atm

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Critical point

Water is Special
pressure

1.0
atm

Above the critical point (a temperature),


increasing the pressure on gas molecules cannot
make them into a liquid because they have too
much kinetic energy.
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temperature

0 C

100. C

Negative slope of
solid/liquid phase
boundary indicates
something special about
water.
Melting point decreases
with increased pressure.
More pressure makes
melting ice easier.
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Q: Why are skates slippery on ice?

Practice
 p505

#87, 89, 93

A: Skating is possible because ice under a skate blade


experiences high pressure which lowers its mp and it
liquefies (friction also contributes when the skater is
moving.)
video: Ice & Pressure

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