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Dr P A Sleigh

P.A.Sleigh@leeds.ac.uk

Dr CJ Noakes

C.J.Noakes@leeds.ac.uk

January 2008

Module web site:

www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Unit 1: Fluid Mechanics Basics

Flow

Pressure

Properties of Fluids

Fluids vs. Solids

Viscosity

3 lectures

Unit 2: Statics

Hydrostatic pressure

Manometry/Pressure measurement

Hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces

3 lectures

Unit 3: Dynamics

The continuity equation.

The Bernoulli Equation.

Application of Bernoulli equation.

The momentum equation.

Application of momentum equation.

7 lectures

Laminar and turbulent flow

Boundary layer theory

An Intro to Dimensional analysis

Similarity

4 lectures

Lecture 1

Unit 1

School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds.

CIVE1400 FLUID MECHANICS

Dr Andrew Sleigh

January 2008

Objectives:

The course will introduce fluid mechanics and establish its relevance in civil engineering.

Develop the fundamental principles underlying the subject.

Demonstrate how these are used for the design of simple hydraulic components.

Civil Engineering Fluid Mechanics

Why are we studying fluid mechanics on a Civil Engineering course? The provision of adequate

water services such as the supply of potable water, drainage, sewerage is essential for the

development of industrial society. It is these services which civil engineers provide.

Fluid mechanics is involved in nearly all areas of Civil Engineering either directly or indirectly.

Some examples of direct involvement are those where we are concerned with manipulating the

fluid:

Sea and river (flood) defences;

Water distribution / sewerage (sanitation) networks;

Hydraulic design of water/sewage treatment works;

Dams;

Irrigation;

Pumps and Turbines;

Water retaining structures.

And some examples where the primary object is construction - yet analysis of the fluid

mechanics is essential:

Flow of air in buildings;

Flow of air around buildings;

Bridge piers in rivers;

Ground-water flow much larger scale in time and space.

Notice how nearly all of these involve water. The following course, although introducing general

fluid flow ideas and principles, the course will demonstrate many of these principles through

examples where the fluid is water.

Lecture 1

Unit 1

Module Consists of:

Lectures:

20 Classes presenting the concepts, theory and application.

Worked examples will also be given to demonstrate how the theory is applied. You will be

asked to do some calculations - so bring a calculator.

Assessment:

1 Exam of 2 hours, worth 80% of the module credits.

This consists of 6 questions of which you choose 4.

2 Multiple choice question (MCQ) papers, worth 10% of the module credits (5% each).

These will be for 30mins and set after the lectures. The timetable for these MCQs and

lectures is shown in the table at the end of this section.

1 Marked problem sheet, worth 10% of the module credits.

Laboratories: 2 x 3 hours

These two laboratory sessions examine how well the theoretical analysis of fluid dynamics

describes what we observe in practice.

During the laboratory you will take measurements and draw various graphs according to the

details on the laboratory sheets. These graphs can be compared with those obtained from

theoretical analysis.

You will be expected to draw conclusions as to the validity of the theory based on the

results you have obtained and the experimental procedure.

After you have completed the two laboratories you should have obtained a greater

understanding as to how the theory relates to practice, what parameters are important in

analysis of fluid and where theoretical predictions and experimental measurements may

differ.

The two laboratories sessions are:

1. Impact of jets on various shaped surfaces - a jet of water is fired at a target

and is deflected in various directions. This is an example of the application of

the momentum equation.

2. The rectangular weir - the weir is used as a flow measuring device. Its

accuracy is investigated. This is an example of how the Bernoulli (energy)

equation is applied to analyses fluid flow.

[As you know, these laboratory sessions are compulsory course-work. You must

attend them. Should you fail to attend either one you will be asked to complete

some extra work. This will involve a detailed report and further questions. The

simplest strategy is to do the lab.]

Homework:

Example sheets: These will be given for each section of the course. Doing these will greatly

improve your exam mark. They are course work but do not have credits toward the module.

Lecture notes: Theses should be studied but explain only the basic outline of the necessary

concepts and ideas.

Books: It is very important do some extra reading in this subject. To do the examples you

will definitely need a textbook. Any one of those identified below is adequate and will also

be useful for the fluids (and other) modules in higher years - and in work.

Example classes:

There will be example classes each week. You may bring any problems/questions you have

about the course and example sheets to these classes.

Lecture 1

Unit 1

Schedule:

Lecture

Month

Date

Week

January

15

16

Extra

22

23

29

30

12

13

10

19

February

Day

Tue

s

Time

Unit

3.00 pm

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

Plane surfaces

3.00 pm

Curved surfaces

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

3.00 pm

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

Bernoulli

3.00 pm

Flow measurement

MCQ

20

26

27

13

14

11

15

12

8

Vacatio

n

15

17

16

18

22

10

19

23

10

20

29

11

surveyin

g

13

12

March

16

April

30

11

Viscosity, Flow

double lecture

Flow calculations

Unit 2: Fluid Statics

Pressure

General

MCQ

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

Weir

3.00 pm

Momentum

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

3.00 pm

Wed

9.00 am

Calculation

3.00 pm

Boundary Layer

Tue

s

3.00 pm

Applications

Design study 02 - Gaunless + Millwood

Applications

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

Friction

3.00 pm

Dim. Analysis

Wed

Tue

s

9.00 am

3.00 pm

Revision

4.00 pm

MCQ

MCQ

21

3.00 pm

4.00 pm

11

12

3.00 pm

Pressure, density

Wed

Dim. Analysis

9.00 am

Lecture 1

Unit 1

Books:

Any of the books listed below are more than adequate for this module. (You will probably not

need any more fluid mechanics books on the rest of the Civil Engineering course)

Mechanics of Fluids, Massey B S., Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Fluid Mechanics, Douglas J F, Gasiorek J M, and Swaffield J A, Longman.

Civil Engineering Hydraulics, Featherstone R E and Nalluri C, Blackwell Science.

Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chadwick A, and Morfett J., E & FN Spon Chapman & Hall.

http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/cive/FluidsLevel1

There is a lot of extra teaching material on this site: Example sheets, Solutions, Exams,

Detailed lecture notes, Online video lectures, MCQ tests, Images etc. This site DOES NOT

REPLACE LECTURES or BOOKS.

Lecture 1

Unit 1

Take care with the System of Units

As any quantity can be expressed in whatever way you like it is sometimes easy to become

confused as to what exactly or how much is being referred to. This is particularly true in the field

of fluid mechanics. Over the years many different ways have been used to express the various

quantities involved. Even today different countries use different terminology as well as different

units for the same thing - they even use the same name for different things e.g. an American

pint is 4/5 of a British pint!

To avoid any confusion on this course we will always use the SI (metric) system - which you will

already be familiar with. It is essential that all quantities are expressed in the same system or

the wrong solutions will results.

Despite this warning you will still find that this is the most common mistake when you attempt

example questions.

The SI System of units

The SI system consists of six primary units, from which all quantities may be described. For

convenience secondary units are used in general practice which are made from combinations

of these primary units.

Primary Units

The six primary units of the SI system are shown in the table below:

Quantity

SI Unit

Dimension

Length

Mass

Time

Temperature

Current

Luminosity

metre, m

kilogram, kg

second, s

Kelvin, K

ampere, A

candela

L

M

T

I

Cd

In fluid mechanics we are generally only interested in the top four units from this table.

Notice how the term 'Dimension' of a unit has been introduced in this table. This is not a

property of the individual units, rather it tells what the unit represents. For example a metre is a

length which has a dimension L but also, an inch, a mile or a kilometre are all lengths so have

dimension of L.

(The above notation uses the MLT system of dimensions, there are other ways of writing

dimensions - we will see more about this in the section of the course on dimensional analysis.)

Lecture 1

Unit 1

Derived Units

There are many derived units all obtained from combination of the above primary units. Those

most used are shown in the table below:

Quantity

Velocity

acceleration

force

energy (or work)

power

pressure ( or stress)

density

specific weight

relative density

viscosity

surface tension

SI Unit

m/s

m/s2

N

kg m/s2

Joule J

N m,

kg m2/s2

Watt W

N m/s

kg m2/s3

Pascal

P,

N/m2,

kg/m/s2

kg/m3

N/m3

kg/m2/s2

a ratio

no units

N s/m2

kg/m s

N/m

kg /s2

ms-1

ms-2

Dimension

LT-1

LT-2

kg ms-2

M LT-2

kg m2s-2

ML2T-2

Nms-1

kg m2s-3

ML2T-3

Nm-2

kg m-1s-2

ML-1T-2

kg m-3

ML-3

kg m-2s-2

ML-2T-2

1

no dimension

N sm-2

kg m-1s-1

Nm-1

kg s-2

M L-1T-1

MT-2

The above units should be used at all times. Values in other units should NOT be used without

first converting them into the appropriate SI unit. If you do not know what a particular unit means

- find out, else your guess will probably be wrong.

More on this subject will be seen later in the section on dimensional analysis and similarity.

Lecture 1

Unit 1

There are three ways of expressing density:

1. Mass density:

=

mass of fluid

volume of fluid

(units: kg/m3)

2. Specific Weight:

(also known as specific gravity)

= g

(units: N/m3 or kg/m2/s2)

3. Relative Density:

a standard mass density

subs tan ce

=

H2 O( at 4 c)

the maximum mass density for water (which occurs

o

at 4 c) at atmospheric pressure.

(units: none, as it is a ratio)

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 1

Unit 1

Pressure

Convenient to work in terms of pressure, p,

which is the force per unit area.

Force

pressure =

Area over which the force is applied

F

p=

A

Units: Newtons per square metre,

N/m2, kg/m s2 (kg m-1s-2).

Also known as a Pascal, Pa, i.e. 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Also frequently used is the alternative SI unit the bar,

where 1bar = 105 N/m2

Standard atmosphere = 101325 Pa = 101.325 kPa

1 bar = 100 kPa (kilopascals)

1 mbar = 0.001 bar = 0.1 kPa = 100 Pa

Uniform Pressure:

If the pressure is the same at all points on a surface

uniform pressure

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 1

Unit 1

directions.

ps

B

A

px

D

x

py

No shearing forces :

All forces at right angles to the surfaces

Summing forces in the x-direction:

Force in the x-direction due to px,

Fx x = p x Area ABFE = p x x y

Force in the x-direction due to ps,

( sin =

y

= pss z

s

= psy z

s )

Lecture 1

10

Unit 1

Fx y = 0

To be at rest (in equilibrium) sum of forces is zero

Fx x + Fx s + Fx y = 0

p xxy + ( psyz ) = 0

p x = ps

Summing forces in the y-direction.

Force due to py,

y

Component of force due to ps,

s

( cos

= x

x

= pssz

s

= psxz

s )

Fy x = 0

Force due to gravity,

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 1

11

Unit 1

1

= g xyz

2

To be at rest (in equilibrium)

Fy + Fy + Fy + weight = 0

y

s

x

1

2

The element is small i.e. x, x, and z, are small,

so x y z, is very small

and considered negligible, hence

p y = ps

We showed above

px = ps

thus

p x = p y = ps

Pressure at any point is the same in all directions.

This is Pascals Law and applies to fluids at rest.

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 1

12

Unit 1

p2, A

Area A

Fluid density

z2

p1, A

z1

Force due to p1 on A (upward) = p1A

Force due to p2 on A (downward) = p2A

Force due to weight of element (downward)

= mg= density volume g

= g A(z2 - z1)

Taking upward as positive, we have

p1 A p2 A gA( z2 z1 ) = 0

p2 p1 = g( z2 z1 )

Lecture 1

13

Unit 1

increase in height

p2 p1 = g( z2 z1 )

With liquids we normally measure from the

surface.

Measuring h down from the

free surface so that h = -z

z

h

y

x

giving p 2 p1 = gh

Surface pressure is atmospheric, patmospheric .

p = gh + patmospheric

Lecture 1

14

Unit 1

pressure as the datum

Pressure quoted in this way is known as

gauge pressure i.e.

Gauge pressure is

pgauge = g h

the pressure in a perfect vacuum.

Pressure measured above

a perfect vacuum (zero)

is known as absolute pressure

Absolute pressure is

pabsolute = g h + patmospheric

Lecture 1

15

Unit 1

Boyles Law

pV = constant

Ideal gas law

pV = nRT

where

p is the absolute pressure, N/m2, Pa

n is the amount of substance of gas, moles

R is the ideal gas constant,

(or equivalently m3 Pa K1 mol1).

Lecture 1

16

Unit 1

What makes fluid mechanics different

to solid mechanics?

Fluids are clearly different to solids.

But we must be specific.

Need definable basic physical

difference.

Fluids flow under the action of a force,

and the solids dont - but solids do

deform.

fluids lack the ability of solids to

resist deformation.

fluids change shape as long as a

force acts.

Take a rectangular element

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 2 17

Unit 1

F

C

are know as shearing forces.

A Fluid is a substance which deforms continuously,

or flows, when subjected to shearing forces.

for fluids at rest:

on it, and

any force must be acting perpendicular to the fluid

Lecture 2 18

Unit 1

Fluids in motion

Consider a fluid flowing near a wall.

- in a pipe for example Fluid next to the wall will have zero velocity.

The fluid sticks to the wall.

Moving away from the wall velocity increases

to a maximum.

velocity profile

Change in velocity with distance is

velocity gradient = du

dy

Lecture 2 19

Unit 1

there is usually a velocity gradient.

Under normal conditions one fluid

particle has a velocity different to its

neighbour.

Particles next to each other with different

velocities exert forces on each other

(due to intermolecular action )

i.e. shear forces exist in a fluid moving

close to a wall.

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 2 20

Unit 1

this shearing force.

This may give us an understanding of

what parameters govern the forces

different fluid exert on flow.

We will examine the force required to

deform an element.

Consider this 3-d rectangular element,

under the action of the force F.

Lecture 2 21

Unit 1

x

b

F

B

A

y

F

C

F

A

F

C

Lecture 2 22

Unit 1

A

E x

F

C

A = z x

Shear stress, , is the force per unit area:

F

=

A

The deformation which shear stress causes is

measured by the angle , and is know as

shear strain.

Using these definitions we can amend our

definition of a fluid:

In a fluid increases for as long as is applied the fluid flows

In a solid shear strain, , is constant for a fixed

shear stress .

Lecture 2 23

Unit 1

rate of shear strain is directly

proportional to shear stress

time

= Constant

If a particle at point E moves to point E in

time t then:

for small deformations

shear strain =

x

y

=

=

(note that

x

= u is the velocity of the particle at E)

t

Lecture 2 24

Unit 1

So

= Constant

u

y

du

= velocity gradient.

dy

The constant of proportionality is known as

the dynamic viscosity, .

in differential form this is

giving

du

=

dy

which is know as Newtons law of viscosity

Newtonian Fluid

(sometimes also called real fluids)

Newtonian fluids have constant values of

Lecture 2 25

Unit 1

Non-Newtonian Fluids

Some fluids do not have constant .

They do not obey Newtons Law of viscosity.

They do obey a similar relationship and can

be placed into several clear categories

The general relationship is:

u

= A + B

y

For Newtonian fluids A = 0, B = and n = 1

Lecture 2 26

Unit 1

Bingham plastic

Pseudo plastic

plastic

Shear stress,

Newtonian

Dilatant

Ideal, (=0)

Rate of shear, u/y

flow commences.

Bingham plastic: As with the plastic above a minimum shear

stress must be achieved. With this classification n = 1. An

example is sewage sludge.

Pseudo-plastic: No minimum shear stress necessary and the

viscosity decreases with rate of shear, e.g. colloidal

substances like clay, milk and cement.

Dilatant substances; Viscosity increases with rate of shear

e.g. quicksand.

Thixotropic substances: Viscosity decreases with length of

time shear force is applied e.g. thixotropic jelly paints.

Rheopectic substances: Viscosity increases with length of

time shear force is applied

sudden large change in shear they behave like plastic

Viscosity

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 2 27

Unit 1

du

dy

The unit Poise is also used where 10 P = 1 Pas

Water = 8.94 104 Pa s

Mercury = 1.526 103 Pa s

Olive oil = .081 Pa s

Pitch = 2.3 108 Pa s

Honey = 2000 10000 Pa s

Ketchup = 50000 100000 Pa s (non-newtonian)

Kinematic Viscosity

= the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density

Units m2/s

Water = 1.7 106 m2/s.

Air = 1.5 105 m2/s.

Lecture 2 28

Unit 1

Flow rate

Mass flow rate

mass

dm

=

m& =

dt time taken to accumulate this mass

A simple example:

An empty bucket weighs 2.0kg. After 7 seconds of

collecting water the bucket weighs 8.0kg, then:

mass flow rate = m

& =

time taken to collect the fluid

8.0 2.0

=

7

= 0.857kg / s

Lecture 2 29

Unit 1

More commonly we use volume flow rate

Also know as discharge.

The symbol normally used for discharge is Q.

discharge, Q =

volume of fluid

time

A simple example:

If the bucket above fills with 2.0 litres in 25 seconds,

what is the discharge?

2.0 10 3 m3

Q=

25 sec

= 0.0008 m3 / s

= 0.8 l / s

Lecture 2 30

Unit 1

If we know the discharge and the diameter of a

pipe, we can deduce the mean velocity

um t

x

Pipe

area A

Cylinder of fluid

Mean velocity is um.

In time t, a cylinder of fluid will pass point X with

a volume A um t.

The discharge will thus be

volume A um t

Q=

=

time

t

Q = Aum

Lecture 2 31

Unit 1

A simple example:

If A = 1.210-3m2

And discharge, Q is 24 l/s,

mean velocity is

Q

um =

A

=

2.4 10 3

12

. 10 3

= 2.0 m / s

Note how we have called this the mean velocity.

This is because the velocity in the pipe is not

constant across the cross section.

x

u

um

umax

area gives the discharge, applies to all situations

- not just pipe flow.

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lecture 2 32

Unit 1

Continuity

This principle of conservation of mass says matter

cannot be created or destroyed

This is applied in fluids to fixed volumes, known as

control volumes (or surfaces)

Mass flow in

Control

volume

mass says

Mass entering =

per unit time

per unit time

of mass in

control vol

per unit time

the control volume, so

Mass entering =

Mass leaving

Lecture 2 33

Unit 1

mean velocity and write

For incompressible, fluid 1 = 2 =

(dropping the m subscript)

A1u1 = A2 u2 = Q

This is the continuity equation most often used.

It will be used repeatedly throughout the rest of

this course.

Lecture 2 34

Unit 1

Unit 1: Fluid Mechanics Basics

Units

1.

A water company wants to check that it will have sufficient water if there is a prolonged drought

in the area. The region it covers is 500 square miles and various different offices have sent in

the following consumption figures. There is sufficient information to calculate the amount of

water available, but unfortunately it is in several different units.

Of the total area 100 000 acres are rural land and the rest urban. The density of the urban

population is 50 per square kilometre. The average toilet cistern is sized 200mm by 15in by

0.3m and on average each person uses this 3 time per day. The density of the rural population

is 5 per square mile. Baths are taken twice a week by each person with the average volume of

water in the bath being 6 gallons. Local industry uses 1000 m3 per week. Other uses are

estimated as 5 gallons per person per day. A US air base in the region has given water use

figures of 50 US gallons per person per day.

The average rain fall in 1in per month (28 days). In the urban area all of this goes to the river

while in the rural area 10% goes to the river 85% is lost (to the aquifer) and the rest goes to the

one reservoir which supplies the region. This reservoir has an average surface area of 500

acres and is at a depth of 10 fathoms. 10% of this volume can be used in a month.

a) What is the total consumption of water per day?

b) If the reservoir was empty and no water could be taken from the river, would there be

enough water if available if rain fall was only 10% of average?

Lecture 1

35

Unit 1

Fluid Properties

1. The following is a table of measurement for a fluid at constant temperature.

Determine the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.

du/dy (s-1)

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

-2

0.0 1.0 1.9 3.1 4.0

(N m )

Lecture 1

36

Unit 1

2. The density of an oil is 850 kg/m3. Find its relative density and

Kinematic viscosity if the dynamic viscosity is 5 10-3 kg/ms.

Lecture 1

37

Unit 1

3. The velocity distribution of a viscous liquid (dynamic viscosity = 0.9 Ns/m )

2

the distance from the plate in m).

What are the shear stresses at the plate surface and at y=0.34m?

Lecture 1

38

Unit 1

4. 5.6m3 of oil weighs 46 800 N. Find its mass density, and relative density, .

5.

poises. What is this value in Ns/m2 and Pa s units?

Lecture 1

39

Unit 1

6.

In a fluid the velocity measured at a distance of 75mm from the boundary is 1.125m/s.

The fluid has absolute viscosity 0.048 Pa s and relative density 0.913. What is the

velocity gradient and shear stress at the boundary assuming a linear velocity distribution.

Lecture 1

40

Unit 1

Continuity

Section 1

Section 2

By continuity

A1u11 = A2 u2 2

As we are considering a liquid (incompressible),

1 = 2 =

Q1 = Q2

A1u1 = A2u2

If the area A1=1010-3 m2 and A2=310-3 m2

And the upstream mean velocity u1=2.1 m/s.

What is the downstream mean velocity?

Lecture 1

41

Unit 1

as in the figure below,

Section 1

Section 2

Lecture 1

42

Unit 1

1

3

When incompressible

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

Lecture 1

43

Unit 1

40mm takes 30% of total discharge and pipe 3 diameter 60mm.

What are the values of discharge and mean velocity in each pipe?

Lecture 1

44

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

We have the vertical pressure relationship

dp

dz

pressure as the datum

Ug ,

gauge pressure i.e.

integrating gives

p = -Ugz + constant

Gauge pressure is

pgauge = U g h

z

the pressure in a perfect vacuum.

y

x

a perfect vacuum (zero)

is known as absolute pressure

Ugh constant

Absolute pressure is

patmospheric

pabsolute = U g h + patmospheric

constant

so

Ugh patmospheric

p

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

Section 2: Statics 35

Section 2: Statics 36

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

Ugh

If pressure is quoted in head,

the density of the fluid must also be given.

Example:

head of water of density, U = 1000 kgm-3

Use p = Ugh,

500 u 103

1000 u 9.81

p

Ug

and head to measure pressure

The simplest manometer is an open tube.

This is attached to the top of a container with liquid

at pressure. containing liquid at a pressure.

h1

3

500 u 10

3

h2

50.95m of water

3.75m of Mercury

13.6 u 10 u 9.81

In head of a fluid with relative density J = 8.7.

The tube is open to the atmosphere,

remember U = J u Uwater)

3

500 u 10

586

. m of fluid J = 8.7

8

7

.

u 1000 u 9.81

Section 2: Statics 37

atmospheric so it measures gauge pressure.

Section 2: Statics 38

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

An Example of a Piezometer.

Pressure at A = pressure due to column of liquid h1

pA = U g h 1

can be measured by a Piezometer of height 1.5m?

And if the liquid had a relative density of 8.5 what

would the maximum measurable gauge pressure?

pB = U g h 2

1. Can only be used for liquids

2. Pressure must above atmospheric

3. Liquid height must be convenient

i.e. not be too small or too large.

Section 2: Statics 39

Section 2: Statics 40

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

Equality Of Pressure At

The Same Level In A Static Fluid

P

Fluid density

Area A

z

pr, A

pl, A

Face L

Face R

weight, mg

cross sectional area = A

We have shown

pl = pr

mass density = U

right end pressure = pr

pl

p p Ugz

pr

pq Ugz

and

forces in the x direction is zero.

pl A = pr A

so

p p Ugz

pp

pl = pr

Pressure in the horizontal direction is constant.

pq Ugz

pq

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

Section 2: Statics 31

Section 2: Statics 32

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

We know:

and gases to be measured

U is connected as shown and filled with

manometric fluid.

is the same at any horizontal level.

pressure at B = pressure at C

pB = pC

Important points:

1. The manometric fluid density should be

greater than of the fluid measured.

Uman > U

pressure at B = pressure at A + pressure of height of

liquid being measured

pB = pA + Ugh1

they must be immiscible.

pressure at C = pressure at D + pressure of height of

manometric liquid

Fluid density

D

h2

A

h1

B

patmospheric giving

pB = pC

Manometric fluid density

man

Section 2: Statics 41

Section 2: Statics 42

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

Nothing changes.

The manometer work exactly the same.

pressure of fluid density U = 700 kg/m3, and the

manometric fluid is mercury, with a relative density

of 13.6.

What is the gauge pressure if:

a) h1 = 0.4m and h2 = 0.9m?

b) h1 stayed the same but h2 = -0.1m?

BUT:

(usually mercury , oil or water)

And Liquid density is much

greater than gas,

Uman >> U

and the gauge pressure given by

pA = Uman gh2

Section 2: Statics 43

Section 2: Statics 44

Section 2: Statics

Using a U-Tube Manometer.

Section 2: Statics

pressure at C = pressure at D

pC = pD

at both ends to measure pressure difference between

these two points

pC = pA + U g ha

pD = pB + U g (hb + h) + Uman g h

pA + U g ha = pB + U g (hb + h) + Uman g h

Fluid density

hb

E

h

A

involving U can be neglected,

ha

D

pA - pB = Uman g h

Manometric fluid density man

Section 2: Statics 45

Section 2: Statics 46

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

difference measuring

In the figure below two pipes containing the same

fluid of density U = 990 kg/m3 are connected using a

u-tube manometer.

What is the pressure between the two pipes if the

manometer contains fluid of relative density 13.6?

Fluid density

Fluid density

B

ha = 1.5m

Problem: Two reading are required.

Solution: Increase cross-sectional area

of one side.

Result:

One level moves

much more than the other.

p2

p1

diameter D

hb = 0.75m

h = 0.5m

diameter d

z2

Datum line

z1

difference of a gas of (p1 - p2) as shown,

we know

p1 - p2 = Uman g h

Section 2: Statics 47

Section 2: Statics 48

Section 2: Statics

the left side to the right

= z2 u ( Sd2 / 4)

Section 2: Statics

movement cannot be read.

Volume moved

Area of left side

z 2 Sd 2 / 4

z1

fluid.

SD 2 / 4

d

z2

D

Result:

2

d

Ug z 2 z 2

p1 p2

d

Ugz 2 1

D

Result:

p1 p2 Ugz2

movement along the

manometer arm - easier to read.

Inclined manometer

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

Section 2: Statics 49

Section 2: Statics 50

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

p1

p2

diameter d

diameter D

er

ad

e

eR

al

Sc

z2

Datum line

z1

An inclined manometer is required to measure an air

pressure of 3mm of water to an accuracy of +/- 3%.

The inclined arm is 8mm in diameter and the larger

arm has a diameter of 24mm. The manometric fluid

has density Uman = 740 kg/m3 and the scale may be

read to +/- 0.5mm.

What is the angle required to ensure the desired

accuracy may be achieved?

height change of the manometric fluid.

p1 p2

Ugz2

but,

z2

p1 p2

x sin T

Ugx sin T

further by a greater inclination.

Section 2: Statics 51

Section 2: Statics 52

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

Choice Of Manometer

Burrs cause local pressure variations.

Disadvantages:

x Slow response - only really useful for very slowly

varying pressures - no use at all for fluctuating

pressures;

x For the U tube manometer two measurements

must be taken simultaneously to get the h value.

x It is often difficult to measure small variations in

pressure.

x It cannot be used for very large pressures unless

several manometers are connected in series;

x For very accurate work the temperature and

relationship between temperature and U must be

known;

x Pressures at any equal depths in a continuous

fluid are equal

x Pressure at a point acts equally in all

directions (Pascals law).

angles to that boundary.

Pressure is force per unit area.

Pressure p acting on a small area GA exerted

force will be

Advantages of manometers:

x They are very simple.

F = puGA

calculated from first principles.

right-angles to the surface.

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

Section 2: Statics 53

Section 2: Statics 54

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

F =p A1

1 1

F =p A

2 2 2

F =p A

n n n

plane is the sum of the forces on the

small elements i.e.

R p1GA1 p 2 GA2 p n GAn pGA

and

This resultant force will act through the

centre of pressure.

For a plane surface all forces acting

can be represented by one single

resultant force,

acting at right-angles to the plane

through the centre of pressure.

Section 2: Statics 55

the surface.

The resultant force will be given by

R pressure u area of plane

R = pA

Curved submerged surface

Each elemental force is a different

magnitude and in a different direction (but

still normal to the surface.).

It is, in general, not easy to calculate the

resultant force for a curved surface by

combining all elemental forces.

The sum of all the forces on each element

will always be less than the sum of the

individual forces, pGA .

Section 2: Statics 56

Section 2: Statics

zGA is known as

general plane surface in a liquid.

O

O

Fluid

density

plane PQ about the free surface.

elemental

area A

Resultant

Force R D

G

area A

x

C

zGA Az

area A

Sc

(centroid)

an element GA, depth z,

p = Ugz

zGA

So force on element

Ax sin T

about a line through O

(as

Ug zGA

x sin T )

Section 2: Statics 57

Section 2: Statics

through the centre of pressure, C, at a depth D.

How do we find this position?

Take moments of the forces.

UgAz

UgAx sin T

Section 2: Statics 58

Section 2: Statics

Sum of moments

Moment of R about O =

The moment of R will be equal to the sum of the

moments of the forces on all the elements GA

about the same point.

R u S c = UgAx sin T S c

Ug sin T s 2 GA

plane measure from the point O is:

s GA

2

Sc

Ax

the summation term?

UgzGA

Ug s sin T GA

Ug sin T s 2 GA

Equating

UgAx sin T S c

Force on GA

u sinT

F = UgzGA

Section 2: Statics

Ug s sin T GA u s

Ug sin T GAs 2

2nd Moment of Area , Io,

of the plane

(about the axis through O)

total moment as

Section 2: Statics 59

Section 2: Statics 60

Section 2: Statics

Io

s 2GA

for many common shapes.

area?

2nd moment of area is a geometric property.

It can be found from tables BUT only for moments about

an axis through its centroid = IGG.

along the plane measure from the point O is:

Sc

Section 2: Statics

about a different axis.

and

D S c sin T

Section 2: Statics 61

Section 2: Statics 62

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

nd

through the centroid of some common

shapes.

Io

I GG Ax 2

Shape

equation for the

position of the centre of pressure

Area A

about

an axis through the centroid

bd

bd 3

12

bd

2

bd 3

36

SR 2

SR 4

Rectangle

b

Sc

D

I GG

x

Ax

I

sin T GG x

Ax

Triangle

h

G

h/3

Circle

(In the examination the parallel axis theorem

R

G

4

Semicircle

G

Section 2: Statics 63

SR

R

(4R)/(3)

01102

.

R4

Section 2: Statics 64

Section 2: Statics

An example:

Find the moment required to keep this triangular

gate closed on a tank which holds water.

1.2m

Section 2: Statics

For vertical walls of constant width

it is possible to find the resultant force and

centre of pressure graphically using a

D

2.0m

pressure diagram.

1.5m

pressure and depth:

p = Ugz

So we can draw the diagram below:

gz

z

2H

3

R

p

gH

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

Section 2: Statics 65

Section 2: Statics 66

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

surface linearly by p = Ugz, to a

maximum at the base of p = UgH.

The area of this triangle represents the

resultant force per unit width on the

vertical wall,

i.e. the resultant force acts

2

H.

horizontally through the point z

3

For a vertical plane the

depth to the centre of pressure is given by

Area

1

u AB u BC

2

1

HUgH

2

1

UgH 2

2

2

H

3

R

1

UgH 2

2

( N / m)

the pressure diagram.

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

Section 2: Statics 67

Section 2: Statics 68

Section 2: Statics

UgAz

oil o

UgAx sinT

Ug H u 1

H

sinT

2

0.8m

1.2m

water

1

UgH 2

2

g0.8

Section 2: Statics

of liquids are held in tanks (e.g. oil floating on water).

For example:

the moment method:

I

sin T o

Ax

g1.2

force on this vertical wall of a tank which has oil

floating on water as shown.

Io

I GG Ax 2

1u H3

H

1 u H

12

2

H3

3

H 3 / 3

D 2

H / 2

2

H

3

Section 2: Statics 69

Section 2: Statics 70

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

If the surface is curved the resultant force

must be found by combining the elemental

forces using some vectorial method.

top of a curved base.

E

Calculate the

C

B

components.

G

O

FAC

RH

force and direction.

Rv

dimensions we will only look at one vertical

plane)

Section 2: Statics 71

such as ABC is also in equilibrium.

Section 2: Statics 72

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

The sum of the horizontal forces is zero.

C

B

above a curved surface is:

RH = Resultant force on the projection of the

curved surface onto a vertical plane.

RH

FAC

We know

1. The force on a vertical plane must act

horizontally (as it acts normal to the plane).

no shear forces in a static fluid

So:

AC and AB as shown.

pressure of the projection of

the curved surface onto an vertical plane.

AC is the projection of the curved surface

AB onto a vertical plane.

resultant forces and point of action.

Hence we can calculate the resultant

horizontal force on a curved surface.

Section 2: Statics 73

Section 2: Statics 74

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

Resultant force

E

combining the vertical and horizontal

components vectorialy,

C

B

G

Resultant force

2

RH

RV2

Rv

so the vertical component can only be due to

the weight of the fluid.

So we can say

The resultant vertical force of a fluid above a

curved surface is:

RV = Weight of fluid directly above the curved

surface.

It will act vertically down through the centre of

gravity of the mass of fluid.

Section 2: Statics 75

horizontal is

R

T tan 1 V

RH

the horizontal line of action of R H and the

vertical line of action of RV .

Section 2: Statics 76

Section 2: Statics

determination of the forces on dam walls or curved

sluice gates.

resultant force of water on a quadrant gate as

shown below.

Section 2: Statics

curved surface?

This situation may occur or a curved sluice gate.

C

B

G

1.0m

FAC

RH

A

R

Rv

when the fluid is above.

Section 2: Statics 77

Section 2: Statics 78

Section 2: Statics

Section 2: Statics

Horizontal force

Vertical force

C

B

G

FAC

RH

A

A

Rv

The horizontal reaction force RH

The force on the vertical plane AB.

The resultant horizontal force, RH acts as shown in

the diagram. Thus we can say:

curved surface is:

RH = Resultant force on the projection of the

curved surface onto a vertical plane.

Section 2: Statics 79

keep this in equilibrium?

If the region above the curve were all

water there would be equilibrium.

Hence: the force exerted by this amount of fluid

must equal he resultant force.

curved surface is:

Rv =Weight of the imaginary volume of fluid

vertically above the curved surface.

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics

Section 2: Statics 80

Section 2: Statics

are calculated in the same way as for fluids

above the surface:

Resultant force

Section 2: Statics

experiences force from fluid below.

A 1.5m long cylinder lies as shown in the figure,

holding back oil of relative density 0.8. If the cylinder

has a mass of 2250 kg find

a) the reaction at A

b) the reaction at B

E

2

RH

RV2

The angle the resultant force makes to the horizontal

is

R

tan 1 V

RH

Section 2: Statics 81

Section 2: Statics 82

Fluid Dynamics

Objectives

Dr P A Sleigh:

P.A.Sleigh@leeds.ac.uk

x steady/unsteady

x uniform/non-uniform

x compressible/incompressible flow

Dr CJ Noakes: C.J.Noakes@leeds.ac.uk

January 2008

Module web site: www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Unit 1: Fluid Mechanics Basics

Flow

Pressure

Properties of Fluids

Fluids vs. Solids

Viscosity

3 lectures

Unit 2: Statics

Hydrostatic pressure

Manometry / Pressure measurement

Hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces

3 lectures

Unit 3: Dynamics

The continuity equation.

The Bernoulli Equation.

Application of Bernoulli equation.

The momentum equation.

Application of momentum equation.

7 lectures

Laminar and turbulent flow

Boundary layer theory

An Intro to Dimensional analysis

Similarity

4 lectures

3.Introduce the Continuity principle

4.Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation

5.Use the continuity equations to predict pressure

and velocity in flowing fluids

6.Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid

7.Demonstrate use of the momentum equation to

predict forces induced by flowing fluids

Lecture 8

98

Fluid dynamics:

Flow Classification

classified under the following headings

same way as the motion of solids

By use of the fundamental laws of physics and the

physical properties of the fluid

Some fluid flow is very complex:

e.g.

x Spray behind a car

x waves on beaches;

x hurricanes and tornadoes

x any other atmospheric phenomenon

99

Lecture 8

uniform:

Flow conditions (velocity, pressure, cross-section or

depth) are the same at every point in the fluid.

non-uniform:

Flow conditions are not the same at every point.

steady

Flow conditions may differ from point to point but

DO NOT change with time.

unsteady

Flow conditions change with time at any point.

with varying degrees of success

(in some cases hardly at all!).

- a river for example conditions vary from point to point

we have non-uniform flow.

which analysis gives very accurate predictions

then we have unsteady flow.

Lecture 8

100

Lecture 8

101

Conditions do not change with position

in the stream or with time.

E.g. flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at

constant velocity.

Density will change as pressure changes.

Conditions change from point to point in the stream but

do not change with time.

E.g. Flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the

inlet.

- provided that changes in pressure are small - we

usually say the fluid is incompressible

- it has constant density.

Three-dimensional flow

In general fluid flow is three-dimensional.

At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are

the same, but will change with time.

E.g. A pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump

pumping at a constant rate which is then switched off.

Unsteady non-uniform flow

Every condition of the flow may change from point to

point and with time at every point.

E.g. Waves in a channel.

In many cases the greatest changes only occur in

two directions or even only in one.

Changes in the other direction can be effectively

ignored making analysis much more simple.

- the most simple of the four.

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidLevel1

Lecture 8

102

Lecture 8

103

Two-dimensional flow

not across the cross-section.

one direction at right angles to this.

varying in time but not across the cross-section.

E.g. Flow in a pipe.

by curved lines on a plane.

Below shows flow pattern over a weir.

But:

Since flow must be zero at the pipe wall

- yet non-zero in the centre there is a difference of parameters across the

cross-section.

Pipe

Ideal flow

Real flow

Possibly - but it is only necessary if very high

accuracy is required.

Lecture 8

x steady

x incompressible

x one and two-dimensional flow

104

Lecture 8

105

Streamlines

Lines joining points of equal velocity - velocity

contours - can be drawn.

to that boundary

x The direction of the streamline is the direction of

the fluid velocity

Here are 2-D streamlines around a cross-section of

an aircraft wing shaped body:

x Streamlines can not cross each other

x Any particles starting on one streamline will stay

on that same streamline

x In unsteady flow streamlines can change position

with time

into or out of the solid surface.

not change.

must be along the boundary.

Lecture 8

106

Lecture 8

Streamtubes

has a streamline passing through it.

as a streamtube

107

cannot cross a streamtube wall.

x A streamtube is not like a pipe.

Its walls move with the fluid.

x In unsteady flow streamtubes can change position

with time

x In steady flow, the position of streamtubes does

not change.

the plane of the paper):

Lecture 8

108

Lecture 8

109

m

dm

dt

Flow rate

Mean velocity is um.

mass

time taken to accumulate this mass

Q = Au m

We usually drop the m and imply mean velocity.

Continuity

per unit time

per unit time

Also know as discharge.

Mass flow in

Control

volume

Increase

of mass in

control vol

per unit time

discharge, Q

the control volume, so

volume of fluid

time

Mass entering = Mass leaving

per unit time

per unit time

Q1 = Q2 = A1u1 = A2u2

Lecture 8

110

Lecture 8

Applying to a streamtube:

111

velocity and write

(it cannot cross the streamtube wall).

2

u2

U1 A1um1

U2 A2 um2

Constant

m

A2

(dropping the m subscript)

1

u1

A1

Mass entering =

per unit time

U1GA1u1

A1u1

Mass leaving

per unit time

U2GA2 u2

U2GA2u2

U1GA1u1

A2 u2

Constant

m

It will be used repeatedly throughout the rest of this

course.

dm

dt

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidLevel1

Lecture 8

112

Lecture 8

113

Water flows in a circular pipe which increases in diameter

from 400mm at point A to 500mm at point B. Then pipe

then splits into two branches of diameters 0.3m and 0.2m

discharging at C and D respectively.

1.5 m3/s

the discharges at C and D and the velocities at B and C?

Solution:

Draw diagram:

Qin = Qout

1.5 + 1.5 = 3

Qout = 3.0 m3/s

2. What is the inflow?

C

dB=0.5m

B

dC=0.3m

dA=0.4m

vA=1.0m/s

u = 1.5 m/s

A = 0.5 m2

dD=0.2m

u 3.

= 0.2 m/s

A 4.

= 1.3 m2

u = 1.0 m/s

A = 0.7 m2

vD=0.8m/s

5.

Q = 2.8 m3/s

Point

Velocity m/s

Diameter m

Area m

Q m/s

1.00

0.4

0.126

0.126

0.64

0.5

0.196

0.126

1.42

0.3

0.071

0.101

0.80

0.2

0.031

0.025

Q = 3.72 m3/s

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidLevel1

Lecture 8

114

Lecture 8

115

potential head =

total head = H

Restrictions in application

of Bernoullis equation:

Unit 3: Fluid Dynamics

x Flow is steady

The Bernoulli equation is a statement of the

principle of conservation of energy along a

streamline

x Friction losses are negligible

It can be written:

p1 u12

z

Ug 2 g 1

streamline, (not conditions on two different

streamlines)

H = Constant

instant in time!

Pressure

Kinetic

Potential

energy per energy per energy per

unit weight unit weight unit weight

Total

energy per

unit weight

conditions are approximately satisfied, the equation

gives very good results.

they are often referred to as the following:

pressure head =

p

Ug

velocity head =

u2

2g

Lecture 8

116

Lecture 8

117

distance AA =

B

B

A

z

m

Ua

mg

energy due to its height z above a datum and kinetic energy

due to its velocity u. If the element has weight mg then

potential energy = mgz

potential energy per unit weight =

kinetic energy =

pm

U

p

Ug

Summing all of these energy terms gives

Pressure

Kinetic

Potential

Total

unit weight unit weight unit weight

u2

2g

energy per

unit weight

or

will flow, moving the cross-section, so work will be done. If the

pressure at cross section AB is p and the area of the crosssection is a then

force on AB = pa

when the mass mg of fluid has passed AB, cross-section AB

will have moved to AB

volume passing AB =

m

Ua

1 2

mu

2

mg

Ug

pa u

p u2

z

Ug 2 g

the system does not change, thus the total head does not

change. So the Bernoulli equation can be written

p u2

z

Ug 2 g

H Constant

therefore

Lecture 8

118

Lecture 8

_______________

like that joining points 1 and 2 below.

119

The Bernoulli equation is often combined with the

continuity equation to find velocities and pressures

at points in the flow connected by a streamline.

Example:

Finding pressures and velocities within a

contracting and expanding pipe.

or

p1 u12

z

Ug 2 g 1

p2 u22

z

Ug 2 g 2

energy gains (e.g. from a pump) along the streamline. It can be

expanded to include these simply, by adding the appropriate

energy terms:

Total

energy per

unit weight at 1

Loss

Total

Work done

weight at 2

p1 u12

z

Ug 2 g 1

weight

weight

Energy

supplied

per unit weight

p2 u22

z h wq

Ug 2 g 2

Lecture 8

u1

u2

p1

p2

section 1

section 2

the above tube.

The section diameters are d1=100mm and d2=80mm.

The gauge pressure at 1 is p1=200kN/m2

The velocity at 1 is u1=5m/s.

The tube is horizontal (z1=z2)

What is the gauge pressure at section 2?

120

Lecture 8

121

section 1 with section 2.

p1 u12

p2 u22

z1

z2

Ug 2 g

p2

Ug 2 g

p1

U

2

(u12 u22 )

A1u1

A2u2

u2

A1u1

A2

Continuity principle together to solve the problem.

Use of this combination is very common. We will be

seeing this again frequently throughout the rest of

the course.

situations not just the pipe flow.

d1

u1

d2

7.8125 m / s

measurement from tanks, within pipes as well as in

open channels.

So pressure at section 2

p2

200000 17296.87

182703 N / m2

182.7 kN / m2

Note how

the velocity has increased

the pressure has decreased

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidLevel1

122

Lecture 8

Lecture 8

surface to point 2 at the centre of the orifice.

Flow Through A Small Orifice

atmospheric (p1 = 0).

123

again the pressure is atmospheric (p2 = 0).

Aactual

then z1 = h and z2 =0, leaving

2

Vena contractor

h

The edges of the hole are sharp to minimise frictional losses by

minimising the contact between the hole and the liquid.

u22

2g

u2

2 gh

friction losses have not been taken into account.

contract reducing the area of flow.

velocity,

uactual

be known to calculate the flow

Cv utheoretical

usually lie in the range( 0.97 - 0.99)

Lecture 8

124

Lecture 8

125

is

jet area u jet velocity

We have an expression for the discharge from the tank

The area of the jet is the area of the vena contracta not

the area of the orifice.

We use a coefficient of contraction

to get the area of the jet

Aactual

it will take for level in the to fall

The discharge will also drop.

Cc Aorifice

h1

Q

Qactual

Cd Ao 2 gh

h2

Au

Aactual uactual

The tank has a cross sectional area of A.

Cc Cv Aorifice utheoretical

Cd Aorifice utheoretical

The flow out of the tank is

Q Au

Cd Aorifice 2 gh

Q A

Cd = Cc u Cv

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Lecture 8

Gh

Gt

126

Lecture 8

A

Cd Ao 2 gh

127

Submerged Orifice

What if the tank is feeding into another?

Gh

Gt

Area A1

Area A2

h1

Gh

A

Cd Ao 2 g h

Gt

h2

Orifice area Ao

Integrating between the initial level, h1, and final level, h2,

gives the time it takes to fall this height

A

h2 Gh

h

Cd Ao 2 g 1 h

1

tank to point 2 at the centre of the orifice,

p1 u12

p2 u22

z1

z2

Ug

Ug

2g

0 0 h1

1/ 2

2 h

1/ 2

2h

u2

2g

Ugh2 u22

0

Ug 2 g

2 g (h1 h2 )

A

>2 h @hh12

Cd Ao 2 g

2A

Cd Ao 2 g

>

h2 h1

Cd Ao u

Cd Ao 2 g (h1 h2 )

depends on the difference in head across the orifice.

Lecture 8

128

Lecture 8

129

pressure at this point.

Unit 3: Fluid Dynamics

At the stagnation point (2): u2 = 0. (Also z1 = z2)

p1 u12

U 2

Pitot Tube

The Pitot tube is a simple velocity measuring device.

p2

streamlines similar to this:

p2

U

1

p1 Uu12

2

2

It could be a static column of fluid.

Some move to the left and some to the right.

The centre one hits the blunt body and stops.

within the pipe can be used as shown below to measure

velocity of flow.

The fluid does not move at this one point.

This point is known as the stagnation point.

Lecture 8

130

Lecture 8

h1

Ugh2

u

h2

The necessity of two piezometers makes this

arrangement awkward.

can then be easily connected to a manometer.

p2

131

1

p1 Uu12

2

1

Ugh1 Uu12

2

2 g (h2 h1 )

1

X

h

A

[Note: the diagram of the Pitot tube is not to scale. In reality its diameter

is very small and can be ignored i.e. points 1 and 2 are considered to

be at the same level]

pressure measurements and the application of the

Bernoulli equation.

The holes on the side connect to one side of a

manometer, while the central hole connects to the other

side of the manometer

Lecture 8

132

Lecture 8

133

pA

p1 Ug X h Uman gh

pB

p2 UgX

pA

pB

p2 UgX

We know that

p2

A pitot-static tube is used to measure the air flow at

the centre of a 400mm diameter building ventilation

duct.

If the height measured on the attached manometer is

10 mm and the density of the manometer fluid is 1000

kg/m3, determine the volume flow rate in the duct.

Assume that the density of air is 1.2 kg/m3.

p1 Ug X h Uman gh

1

p1 Uu12 , giving

2

p1 hg Uman U

Uu12

p1

2

2 gh( Um U )

u1

x Gives velocities (not discharge)

Lecture 8

134

Lecture 8

135

Venturi Meter

p1 u12

z

Ug 2 g 1

discharge in a pipe.

p2 u22

z

Ug 2 g 2

By continuity

velocity of flow and hence reduces the pressure.

u2

gently diverging diffuser section.

u2 A2

u1 A1

A2

about 6

p1 p2

z1 z2

Ug

about 20

u1 A1

2

u12 A1

1

2 g A2

2 g A22

z2

z1

u1

p p2

z1 z2

2g 1

Ug

A2

2

2

A1 A2

datum

Lecture 8

136

Lecture 8

137

Actual discharge takes into account the losses due to friction,

we include a coefficient of discharge (Cd |0.9)

Qideal

u1 A1

Qactual

Qactual

Cd Qideal

Venturimeter design:

Cd u1 A1

the throat. So that pressure rises to something near that

before the meter.

x The angle of the diffuser is usually between 6 and 8 degrees.

p p2

2g 1

z1 z2

Ug

Cd A1 A2

2

2

A1 A2

x Wider and the flow might separate from the walls increasing

energy loss.

x If the angle is less the meter becomes very long and pressure

losses again become significant.

p1 Ugz1

p1 p2

z1 z2

Ug

p2 Uman gh Ug ( z2 h)

U

h man 1

U

the original is rarely greater than 80%.

x Care must be taken when connecting the manometer so that

no burrs are present.

Giving

Qactual

Cd A1 A2

2 gh man 1

U

A12 A22

elevation terms. (z1 or z2)

When used with a manometer

The Venturimeter can be used without knowing its angle.

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Lecture 8

138

Lecture 8

139

Venturimeter Example

A venturimeter is used to measure the flow of water

in a 150 mm diameter pipe. The throat diameter of the

venturimeter is 60 mm and the discharge coefficient

is 0.9. If the pressure difference measured by a

manometer is 10 cm mercury, what is the average

velocity in the pipe?

Assume water has a density of 1000 kg/m3 and

mercury has a relative density of 13.6.

Unit 3: Fluid Dynamics

x It is a device for measuring discharge

x A weir is a notch on a larger scale - usually found in rivers.

x It is used as both a discharge measuring device and a device

to raise water levels.

x There are many different designs of weir.

x We will look at sharp crested weirs.

Weir Assumptions

x velocity of the fluid approaching the weir is small so we

can ignore kinetic energy.

x The velocity in the flow depends only on the depth below the

free surface. u

2 gh

These assumptions are fine for tanks with notches or reservoirs

with weirs, in rivers with high velocity approaching the weir is

substantial the kinetic energy must be taken into account

Lecture 8

140

Lecture 8

141

Rectangular Weir

width b, depth h below the free surface

b

b

constant

discharge through the strip, GQ

2 gh

Au bGh 2 gh

h=H, gives the total theoretical discharge

H

Qtheoretical

2 g bh1/ 2 dh

0

This is different for every differently

shaped weir or notch.

We need an expression relating the width of flow across

the weir to the depth below the free surface.

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Lecture 8

142

H

Qtheoretical B 2 g h1/ 2 dh

0

2

B 2 gH 3/ 2

3

To get the actual discharge we introduce a coefficient of

discharge, Cd, to account for

losses at the edges of the weir

and contractions in the area of flow,

Qactual

2

B 2 gH 3 / 2

3

Cd

Lecture 8

143

V Notch Weir

The relationship between width and depth is dependent

on the angle of the V.

rectangular weir when the river height exceeds the

weir crest. For design purposes a flow rate of 162

litres/s over the weir can be assumed

Cd=0.2, what is the necessary width, B, of the weir?

The width, b, a depth h from the free surface is

T

2 H h tan

2

So the discharge is

Qtheoretical

T

2 2 g tan H hh1/ 2 dh

2

0

H

2

T 2

2 2 g tan Hh 3/ 2 h5/ 2

2 3

5

0

design?

8

T

2 g tan H 5/ 2

2

15

The actual discharge is obtained by introducing a

coefficient of discharge

Qactual

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Lecture 8

144

Cd

8

T

2 g tan H 5 / 2

2

15

Lecture 8

145

Water is flowing over a 90o V Notch weir into a tank

with a cross-sectional area of 0.6m2. After 30s the

depth of the water in the tank is 1.5m.

If the discharge coefficient for the weir is 0.8, what is

the height of the water above the weir?

Unit 3: Fluid Dynamics

We have all seen moving

fluids exerting forces.

x The lift force on an aircraft is exerted by the air

moving over the wing.

x A jet of water from a hose exerts a force on

whatever it hits.

The analysis of motion is as in solid mechanics: by

use of Newtons laws of motion.

is a statement of Newtons Second Law

It relates the sum of the forces

to the acceleration or

rate of change of momentum.

Lecture 8

146

Lecture 8

147

F = ma

from the inlet a distance u1Gt, so

= A 1u1 Gt

The mass entering,

Consider a streamtube:

= U1 A1 u1 Gt

And momentum

A2

u2

A1

u1

= U1 A1 u1 Gt u1

u1 t

Lecture 8

148

Lecture 8

149

nd

By Newtons 2

Law.

An alternative derivation

From conservation of mass

F=

we can write

( U2 A2u2Gt u2 U1 A1u1Gt u1 )

Gt

dm

dt

U1 A1u1 U2 A2u2

m

The rate at which momentum enters face 1 is

U1 A1u1u1 mu

1

Q A1u1 A2 u2

i.e. U1 U2 U , then

U2 A2 u2 u2 mu

2

F QU (u2 u1 )

the stream tube is

U2 A2 u2 u2 U1 A1u1u1 mu

2 mu

1

So

F m ( u2 u1 )

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Lecture 8

150

Lecture 8

151

velocities in the same direction

i.e. a one dimensional system.

either one is known as the momentum equation

u2

F m ( u2 u1 )

F QU ( u2 u1)

u1

in the direction of the flow of the fluid.

directions of the co-ordinate axes.

The force in the x-direction

Fx

m u2 cosT2 u1 cosT1

m u2 x u1 x

or

Fx

UQu2 cosT2 u1 cosT1

UQu2 x u1 x

Lecture 8

152

Lecture 8

153

Fy

m u2 sin T2 u1 sin T1

m u2 y u1 y

Total force

on the fluid

or

Fy

UQu2 sin T2 u1 sin T1

UQ u2 y u1 y

F

F

these components

Fy

rate of change of

momentum through

the control volume

m uout uin

or

UQuout uin

FResultant

in the direction of the velocity.

Fx

Fresultant

Fx2 Fy2

Fy

tan 1

Fx

Lecture 8

154

Lecture 8

155

FR = Force exerted on the fluid by any solid body

touching the control volume

Forces on a Bend

FB = Force exerted on the fluid body (e.g. gravity)

in the vertical or horizontal plane

turning through an angle of T.

outside the control volume

is given by the sum of these forces:

y

p2 u

2 A2

FT = FR + FB + FP

x

1m

p1

u1

45

A1

by the fluid

on the solid body

touching the control volume is opposite to FR.

So the reaction force, R, is given by

R = -FR

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Lecture 8

156

Lecture 8

157

a force will act on the bend.

The outlet pipe from a pump is a bend of 45q rising in the vertical plane (i.e. and

internal angle of 135q). The bend is 150mm diameter at its inlet and 300mm diameter

at its outlet. The pipe axis at the inlet is horizontal and at the outlet it is 1m higher. By

neglecting friction, calculate the force and its direction if the inlet pressure is 100kN/m2

and the flow of water through the pipe is 0.3m3/s. The volume of the pipe is 0.075m3.

[13.95kN at 67q 39 to the horizontal]

supply pipes. The bend must be held in place

to prevent breakage at the joints.

system

y

p2 u

2 A2

(thrust block) must withstand.

1m

p1

Step in Analysis:

45

u1

A1

2.Decide on co-ordinate axis system

3.Calculate the total force

4.Calculate the pressure force

5.Calculate the body force

6.Calculate the resultant force

p1 = 100 kN/m2,

Q = 0.3 m3/s

T = 45q

Lecture 8

158

d1 = 0.15 m

d2 = 0.3 m

A1 = 0.177 m2

A2 = 0.0707 m2

in the x direction

FP

UQu2 x u1 x

UQu2 cosT u1

by continuity A1u1

A2 u2

Q , so

u1

0.3

16.98 m / s

S 015

. 2 / 4

u2

0.3

0.0707

FT x

159

T1

FT x

Lecture 8

0,

T2

FP x

p1 A1 cos 0 p 2 A2 cos T

FP y

p1 A1 sin 0 p 2 A2 sin T

p1 A1 p 2 A2 cos T

p 2 A2 sin T

but not at the outlet

we can use the Bernoulli equation

to calculate this unknown pressure.

4.24 m / s

p1 u12

z

Ug 2 g 1

p2 u22

z hf

Ug 2 g 2

4193.68 N

where hf is the friction loss

In the question it says this can be ignored, hf=0

FT y

UQ u2 y u1 y

UQ u2 sin T 0

1000 u 0.34.24 sin 45

is 1m above the inlet.

Taking the inlet level as the datum:

z1 = 0

z2 = 1m

899.44 N

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Lecture 8

160

Lecture 8

161

So the Bernoulli equation becomes:

16.982

4.24 2

100000

p2

0

10

.

1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81

1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81

p2 2253614

. N / m2

FP y

FR x FP x FB x

FT y

FR y FP y FB y

FT x FP x FB x

FR x

FP x

FT x

. cos 45 u 0.0707

4193.6 9496.37

1770 11266.34

5302.7 N

9496.37 kN

2253614

. sin 45 u 0.0707

FT y FP y FB y

FR y

11266.37

5 Calculate the body force

The only body force is the force due to gravity. That

is the weight acting in the -ve y direction.

FB y

1290156

. N

And the resultant force on the fluid is given by

FRy

FResultant

Ug u volume

1290156

. N

FRx

FR

FB x

2

Rx

2

Ry

F

5302.7 2 1290156

. 2

13.95 kN

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Lecture 8

162

Lecture 8

.

1290156

tan 1

5302.7

67$ 39'

the opposite direction

FR

Unit 3: Fluid Dynamics

FR y

tan 1

FR x

67.66$

163

i.e. the force the plate will have to apply to stay in

the same position.

13.95 kN

1 & 2 Control volume and Co-ordinate axis are

shown in the figure below.

y

u2

u1

u2

Lecture 8

164

Lecture 8

165

In the x-direction

FT x

FR x FP x FB x

FT x 0 0

FT x

UQu2 x u1 x

FR x

UQu1 x

UQu1 x

Exerted on the fluid.

the forces in the y-direction cancel.

FT y

the opposite direction

If the plane were at an angle

the analysis is the same.

But it is usually most convenient to choose the axis

system normal to the plate.

The pressures at both the inlet and the outlets

to the control volume are atmospheric.

The pressure force is zero

FP x

FP y

FB y

u2

0

u1

As the control volume is small

we can ignore the body force due to gravity.

FB x

FR x

u3

Lecture 8

166

Lecture 8

167

in the x direction

analysis is simpler.

UQu2 u1 cosT

FT x

by continuity u1

Q

, so

A

u2

(in the direction of flow) remain constant.

U

FT x

Q2

1 cosT

A

u2

x

FT y

UQu2 sin T 0

u1

Q2

A

The pressure at both the inlet and the outlets to the

control volume is atmospheric.

1 & 2 Control volume and Co-ordinate axis are

shown in the figure above.

Lecture 8

FP x

168

FP y

0

Lecture 8

169

No body forces in the x-direction, FB x = 0.

In the y-direction the body force acting is the weight

of the fluid.

If V is the volume of the fluid on the vane then,

UgV

FB x

FR2 x FR2 y

FR

FR y

tan 1

FR x

(This is often small as the jet volume is small and

sometimes ignored in analysis.)

the opposite direction

FT x

FR x FP x FB x

FR x

FT x

U

FR

Q2

1 cosT

A

FT y

FR y FP y FB y

FR y

FT y

Q2

A

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Lecture 8

170

Lecture 8

171

SUMMARY

u2

2

is a statement of Newtons Second Law

For a fluid of constant density,

1

Total force

on the fluid

rate of change of

momentum through

the control volume

m uout uin

u1

UQuout uin

Fx

Fy

UQ u2 y u1 y

UQu2 sin T2 u1 sin T1

these components

in the direction of the velocity of fluid.

Fy

FResultant

FT = FR + FB + FP

FR = External force on the fluid from any solid body

touching the control volume

FB = Body force on the fluid body (e.g. gravity)

FP = Pressure force on the fluid by fluid pressure

outside the control volume

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Lecture 8

Fresultant

Fx

Fx2 Fy2

I

172

Fy

tan 1

Fx

Lecture 8

173

30m with a velocity of 3m/s. This water main is fitted with a

horizontal bend which turns the axis of the pipeline through

75q (i.e. the internal angle at the bend is 105q). Calculate

the resultant force on the bend and its angle to the

horizontal.

Unit 3: Fluid Dynamics

a rigid foundation. The jet of water, rectangular in section,

75mm wide and 25mm thick, strike the vane with a velocity

of 25m/s. Calculate the vertical and horizontal components

of the force exerted on the vane and indicate in which

direction these components act.

45q

25q

Lecture 8

174

strikes a flat plate, the normal of which is inclined at 30q to

the jet. Find the force normal to the surface of the plate.

Lecture 8

175

vertically upwards at a sprung target that deflects the water

at an angle of 120 to the horizontal in all directions. If a

500g mass placed on the target balances the force of the

jet, was is the discharge of the jet in litres/s?

diameter into the atmosphere. The water leaves the hose

through a nozzle with a diameter of 30mm at its exit. Find

the pressure just upstream of the nozzle and the force on

the nozzle.

Lecture 8

176

Lecture 8

177

Unit 4

Unit 4

Real fluids

Dr P A Sleigh

P.A.Sleigh@leeds.ac.uk

viscous effects, they:

Dr CJ Noakes

C.J.Noakes@leeds.ac.uk

x have stresses within their body.

January 2008

Module web site:

www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

shear stress and velocity gradient:

Flow

Pressure

Properties of Fluids

Fluids vs. Solids

Viscosity

3 lectures

Unit 2: Statics

Hydrostatic pressure

Manometry/Pressure measurement

Hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces

3 lectures

Unit 3: Dynamics

The continuity equation.

The Bernoulli Equation.

Application of Bernoulli equation.

The momentum equation.

Application of momentum equation.

7 lectures

Laminar and turbulent flow

Boundary layer theory

An Intro to Dimensional analysis

Similarity

4 lectures

W v

du

dy

is proportional to the velocity gradient

- the rate of change of velocity across the flow.

For a Newtonian fluid we can write:

Lectures 16-19

du

dy

(or simply viscosity).

Here we look at the influence of forces due to

momentum changes and viscosity

in a moving fluid.

178

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

179

Unit 4

what would we expect to happen?

This

Middle: Medium flow

Bottom: Fast flow

Top:

Middle:

Bottom:

Laminar flow

Transitional flow

Turbulent flow

Laminar flow:

Motion of the fluid particles is very orderly

all particles moving in straight lines

parallel to the pipe walls.

this

Turbulent flow:

Motion is, locally, completely random but the

overall direction of flow is one way.

or this

At what speed does the flow pattern change?

And why might we want to know this?

Lectures 16-19

180

Lectures 16-19

181

Unit 4

by Osbourne Reynolds

in a classic experiment in fluid mechanics.

Unit 4

expression

Uud

P

U = density,

d = diameter

u = mean velocity,

P = viscosity

flow type for any fluid.

This value is known as the

Reynolds number, Re:

Re

Lectures 16-19

182

Uud

P

Laminar flow:

Transitional flow:

Turbulent flow:

Re < 2000

2000 < Re < 4000

Re > 4000

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

183

Unit 4

U kg / m3 , u m / s,

P Ns / m2 kg / m s

Re

Uud

P

have the following properties:

water density

pipe diameter

(dynamic) viscosity,

kg m m m s

1

m3 s 1 kg

U = 1000 kg/m3

d = 0.5m

P = 0.55x103 Ns/m2

It has no units!

A quantity with no units is known as a

non-dimensional (or dimensionless) quantity.

laminar i.e. Re = 2000

dimensional analysis.)

Re

The Reynolds number, Re,

is a non-dimensional number.

u

u

Lectures 16-19

184

Uud

P

2000

Ud

1000 u 0.5

0.0022 m / s

Lectures 16-19

185

Unit 4

turbulent i.e. Re = 4000

Unit 4

We can give the Re number a physical meaning.

Re

u

Uud

P

4000

reasons for the changes from laminar to

turbulent flow.

0.0044 m / s

typical pipe diameter = 0.015m,

Re

0.0733 and 0.147m/s.

inertial forces

viscous forces

(when the fluid is flowing faster and Re is larger)

the flow is turbulent.

in a piped water system.

(slow flow, low Re)

they keep the fluid particles in line,

the flow is laminar.

fluids of greater viscosity

e.g. in bearing with oil as the lubricant.

Uud

P

Lectures 16-19

186

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

Laminar flow

187

Unit 4

x Re < 2000

no energy losses due to friction

x low velocity

x Dye does not mix with water

x Fluid particles move in straight lines

x Simple mathematical analysis possible

energy is lost by flowing fluids due to friction.

Transitional flow

x medium velocity

pressure (or head) loss.

Turbulent flow

x Re > 4000

slows the flow.

x high velocity

x Dye mixes rapidly and completely

x Particle paths completely irregular

x Cannot be seen by the naked eye

x Changes/fluctuations are very difficult to

detect. Must use laser.

x Mathematical analysis very difficult - so

experimental measures are used

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Lectures 16-19

188

Lectures 16-19

189

Unit 4

pressure (head) loss due to the energy lost by

the fluid overcoming the shear stress.

Unit 4

incompressible fluid flowing in the pipe,

area A

Upstream pressure is p,

Downstream pressure falls by 'p to (p-'p)

driving force = Pressure force at 1 - pressure force at 2

is higher than the pressure at 2.

pA p 'p A

in terms of the forces acting on the fluid?

'p A

'p

Sd 2

4

= W w u area of pipe wall

= W wSdL

Lectures 16-19

190

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

191

Unit 4

R

'p

Sd

4

'p

W wSdL

Ww 4 L

At the wall

R 'p

2 L

Ww

x pipe diameter

x shear stress at the wall

At a radius r

W

W

r 'p

2 L

r

Ww

R

This is valid for:

x steady flow

x laminar flow

x turbulent flow

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Lectures 16-19

192

Lectures 16-19

193

Unit 4

with velocity of flow and hence with Re.

Unit 4

with various fluids measuring

the pressure loss at various Reynolds numbers.

A graph of pressure loss and Re look like:

impossible to measure.

For laminar flow we can calculate

a theoretical value for

a given velocity, fluid and pipe dimension.

In laminar flow the paths of individual particles

of fluid do not cross.

Flow is like a series of concentric cylinders

sliding over each other.

And the stress on the fluid in laminar flow is

entirely due to viscose forces.

As before, consider a cylinder of fluid, length L,

radius r, flowing steadily in the centre of a pipe.

pressure loss and Re can be expressed as

laminar

'p v u

2 .0 )

Lectures 16-19

194

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

'p A 'pSr 2

'p r

L 2

ur

'p 1

r dr

L 2P

'p r 2

C

L 4P

r = R (the pipe wall) u = 0;

du

P ,

dy

'p R 2

L 4P

laminar:

point distance r from the centre

shearing forces equal the pressure forces.

W 2Sr L

Unit 4

expression for velocity,

r

r

195

ur

du

P

dr

'p 1

R2 r 2

L 4P

(of the form y = ax2 + b )

so the velocity profile in the pipe looks similar to

Giving:

'p r

du

P

L 2

dr

'p r

du

dr

L 2P

v

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

196

Lectures 16-19

197

Unit 4

Unit 4

in terms of the velocity of the flow, write

pressure in terms of head loss hf, i.e. p = Ughf

The flow in an annulus of thickness Gr

GQ ur Aannulus

Mean velocity:

S (r Gr )2 Sr 2 | 2SrGr

Q/ A

GQ

'p 1

R 2 r 2 2SrGr

L 4P

Ugh f d 2

32 PL

'p S R 2

R r r 3 dr

L 2P 0

Aannulus

'p SR 4

L 8P

Hagen-Poiseuille equation:

'p Sd 4

L128P

hf

32 PLu

Ugd 2

Pressure loss is directly proportional to the

velocity when flow is laminar.

'p Sd

L 128P

It justifies two assumptions:

1.fluid does not slip past a solid boundary

2.Newtons hypothesis.

for laminar flow in a pipe

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

198

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

199

Unit 4

Boundary Layers

Recommended reading: Fluid Mechanics

by Douglas J F, Gasiorek J M, and Swaffield J A.

Longman publishers. Pages 327-332.

This is known as free stream flow.

e.g. the bed of a river, or the wall of a pipe,

is brought to rest by the shear stress to

This gives a, now familiar, velocity profile:

This is known as fully developed flow.

umax

Free stream flow

zero velocity

Wall

A maximum at the centre of the flow.

The profile doesnt just exit.

It is build up gradually.

Some question we might ask:

Starting when it first flows past the surface

e.g. when it enters a pipe.

Lectures 16-19

Are there any changes in flow as we get there?

Are the changes significant / important?

200

Lectures 16-19

201

Unit 4

Unit 4

G = distance from wall to where u = 0.99 umainstream

It reaches a maximum in fully developed flow.

The G increase corresponds to a

drag force increase on the fluid.

As fluid is passes over a greater length:

* by friction between the fluid layers

the thickness of the slow layer increases.

fluid nearer to the solid surface along.

The mechanism for this dragging

may be one of two types:

Lectures 16-19

202

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

(the forces which hold the fluid together)

203

Unit 4

If the viscous forces were the only action

the fluid would come to a rest.

velocity gradient du/dy, is large

particles in a constant motion within layers.

Eventually they become too small to

hold the flow in layers;

shear stress, W = P (du/dy), is large.

The force may be large enough to

drag the fluid close to the surface.

velocity gradient reduces and

shear stress decreases.

Eventually it is too small

to drag the slow fluid along.

Up to this point the flow has been laminar.

The fluid motion rapidly becomes turbulent.

Momentum transfer occurs between fast moving

main flow and slow moving near wall flow.

Thus the fluid by the wall is kept in motion.

The net effect is an increase in momentum in the

boundary layer.

This is the turbulent boundary layer.

This part of the boundary layer is the

laminar boundary layer

Lectures 16-19

204

Lectures 16-19

205

Unit 4

Viscous shear forces are large.

Possibly large enough to cause laminar flow.

This region is known as the laminar sub-layer.

Unit 4

Uud

Re

Laminar flow:

Re < 2000

it is next to the wall.

It is very thin a few hundredths of a mm.

Turbulent flow:

Re < 4000

Re > 4000

Despite its thinness, the laminar sub-layer has vital

role in the friction characteristics of the surface.

In turbulent flow:

Roughness higher than laminar sub-layer:

increases turbulence and energy losses.

Laminar flow: profile parabolic (proved in earlier lectures)

The first part of the boundary layer growth diagram.

In laminar flow:

Roughness has very little effect

Boundary layers in pipes

Initially of the laminar form.

It changes depending on the ratio of inertial and

viscous forces;

i.e. whether we have laminar (viscous forces high) or

turbulent flow (inertial forces high).

Laminar and the turbulent (transitional) zones of the

boundary layer growth diagram.

Length of pipe for fully developed flow is

the entry length.

Laminar flow

|120 u diameter

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

206

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

Unit 4

Divergent flows:

Positive pressure gradients.

Pressure increases in the direction of flow.

207

* increases the turbulence

increases the energy losses in the flow.

unstable

momentum that it is brought to rest,

and possibly reversed in direction.

Reversal lifts the boundary layer.

Convergent flows:

x Pressure decreases in the direction of flow.

u1

u2

p1

p2

p1 < p2

u1

u1 > u2

u2

p2

p1

p1 > p2

u1 < u2

x Turbulence reduces.

This phenomenon is known as

boundary layer separation.

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

208

Lectures 16-19

209

Unit 4

Unit 4

Tee-Junctions

velocity drop

(according to continuity)

pressure increase

(according to the Bernoulli equation).

Velocities at 2 and 3 are smaller than at 1.

Pressure at 2 and 3 are higher than at 1.

Causing the two separations shown

Y-Junctions

Tee junctions are special cases of the Y-junction.

Increasing the angle increases the probability of

boundary layer separation.

Venturi meter

Diffuser angle of about 6q

A balance between:

* length of meter

* danger of boundary layer separation.

Lectures 16-19

210

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

Bends

211

Unit 4

Slow flow, Re < 0.5 no separation:

vortices form.

above.

Pb > Pa causing separation.

Pd > Pc causing separation

vortices detach alternately.

Form a trail of down stream.

Karman vortex trail or street.

(Easily seen by looking over a bridge)

Localised effect

Downstream the boundary layer reattaches and

normal flow occurs.

Boundary layer separation is only local.

Nevertheless downstream of a

junction / bend /valve etc.

fluid will have lost energy.

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

Caused Tacoma narrows bridge to collapse.

Frequency of detachment was equal to the bridge

natural frequency.

212

Lectures 16-19

213

Unit 4

Unit 4

Aerofoil

Normal flow over a aerofoil or a wing cross-section.

pressure distribution is as below

so transverse lift force occurs.

Velocity maximum at Y.

Pressure dropped.

Adverse pressure between here and downstream.

Separation occurs

Lectures 16-19

214

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

boundary layer separation occurs on the top

Pressure changes dramatically.

This phenomenon is known as stalling.

215

Unit 4

Examples:

Exam questions involving boundary layer theory are

typically descriptive. They ask you to explain the

mechanisms of growth of the boundary layers including

how, why and where separation occurs. You should also be

able to suggest what might be done to prevent separation.

The plane will suddenly drop from the sky!

Solution:

Prevent separation.

1 Engine intakes draws slow air from the boundary

layer at the rear of the wing though small holes

2 Move fast air from below to top via a slot.

Lectures 16-19

216

Lectures 16-19

217

Unit 4

Unit 4

It gives qualitative results which only become quantitative

from experimental analysis.

Unit 4: The Effect of the Boundary on Flow

Application of fluid mechanics in design makes use of

experiments results.

Results often difficult to interpret.

can be described by familiar properties.

relevant data.

These are all known as dimensions.

mathematical analysis.

Specific uses:

x Allows most to be obtained from experiment:

of the dimension

Experiments necessary to complete solution

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

218

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

Unit 4

quantities:

length

=L

Quantity

SI Unit

mass

=M

velocity

m/s

ms-1

LT-1

=T

acceleration

m/s2

ms-2

LT-2

force

N

kg ms-2

M LT-2

kg m2s-2

ML2T-2

time

force

=F

temperature

=4

219

kg m/s2

energy (or work)

Joule J

N m,

kg m2/s2

power

interested in with three:

pressure ( or stress)

density

L, T

specific weight

Watt W

N m/s

Nms-1

kg m2/s3

kg m2s-3

relative density

the other, i.e.

viscosity

surface tension

F = MLT-2

M = FT2L-1

ML2T-3

Pascal P,

N/m2,

Nm-2

kg/m/s2

kg m-1s-2

kg/m

N/m

kg m

-3

ML-1T-2

ML-3

kg/m2/s2

and one of M or F

Dimension

kg m-2s-2

ML-2T-2

a ratio

no units

no dimension

N s/m2

N sm-2

kg/m s

kg m-1s-1

M L-1T-1

-1

N/m

Nm

kg /s2

kg s-2

MT-2

Lectures 16-19

220

Lectures 16-19

221

Unit 4

Dimensional Homogeneity

Unit 4

from Dimensional Analysis?

have the same dimensions.

A single equation,

of a problem to each other.

2

B 2 gH 3/ 2

3

An example:

L (LT-2)1/2 L3/2 = X

L (L1/2T-1) L3/2 = X

L3 T-1 = X

depends on the following physical properties?

on both sides.

diameter,

(velocity of the plane),

fluid density,

fluid viscosity,

P

Dimensional homogeneity can be useful for:

Lectures 16-19

222

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

223

Unit 4

From this list we can write this equation:

We will use the strategic method based on:

F = I ( d, u, U, N, P )

or

Buckinghams S theorems.

0 = I ( F, d, u, U, N, P )

1st S theorem:

A relationship between m variables (physical properties

such as velocity, density etc.) can be expressed as a

relationship between m-n non-dimensional groups of

variables (called S groups), where n is the number of

fundamental dimensions (such as mass, length and time)

required to express the variables.

F

Nd P

,

,

Uu 2 d 2 u Uud

So if a problem is expressed:

I ( Q1 , Q2 , Q3 ,, Qm ) = 0

to decide what experimental measurements to take.

I ( S1 , S2 , S3 ,, Sm-n ) = 0

In fluids, we can normally take n = 3

(corresponding to M, L, T)

Lectures 16-19

224

Lectures 16-19

225

Unit 4

Unit 4

2nd S theorem

An example

variables plus one of the remaining variables.

Choice of repeating variables

on a propeller blade, we have the equation

0 = I ( F, d, u, U, N, P )

n = 3 and m = 6

There are m - n = 3 S groups, so

Some rules which should be followed are

I ( S1 , S2 , S3 ) = 0

x In combination they must contain

all of dimensions (M, L, T)

dimensionless group.

They are:

x measurable,

It is usually possible to take

U, u and d

This freedom of choice means:

many different S groups - all are valid.

There is not really a wrong choice.

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

226

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

Unit 4

We can now form the three groups

according to the 2nd theorem,

S1

U a1 u b1 d c1 F

S2

U a2 u b2 d c2 N

S3

U a3 u b3 d c3 P

227

U a1 ub1 d c1 F

In terms of dimensions

M 0 L0 T 0

3 a1

1 b1

M L L T L

c1

M L T 2

must be equal on each side.

for M:

0 = a1 + 1

a1 = -1

for L:

We use the principle of dimensional homogeneity to

equate the dimensions for each S group.

0 = -3a1 + b1 + c1 + 1

0 = 4 + b1 + c1

for T:

0 = -b1 - 2

b1 = -2

c1 = -4 - b1 = -2

Giving S1 as

S1

S1

Lectures 16-19

228

U 1u 2 d 2 F

F

Uu 2 d 2

Lectures 16-19

229

Unit 4

Group S 2

a2

b2

Unit 4

groups.

M 0 L0T 0

c2

U u d N

3 a1

1 b1

M L L T L

M 0 L0T 0

c1

T 1

for M:

U a3 ub3 d c3 P

3 a3

1 b3

M L L T L

c3

ML1T 1

0 = a3 + 1

a3 = -1

for M:

0 = a2

for L:

0 = -3a2 + b2 + c2

0 = -3a3 + b3 + c3 -1

for L:

b3 + c3 = -2

0 = b2 + c2

0 = -b3 - 1

for T:

for T:

0 = -b2 - 1

b3 = -1

b2 = -1

c3 = -1

c2 = 1

Giving S3 as

Giving S2 as

1

S3

S2

Uu d N

S2

Nd

u

S3

Lectures 16-19

230

P

Uud

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

231

Unit 4

Once identified the S groups can be changed.

I ( S1 , S2 , S3 ) = 0

F

Nd P

,

,

Uu 2 d 2 u Uud

0

Taking the defining equation as:

I ( S1 , S2 , S3 Sm-n ) = 0

F

Uu 2 d 2

Nd P

,

u Uud

to form a new group to replaces one of the existing.

E.g. S1 and S2 may be combined to form S1a = S1 / S2 so the defining

equation becomes

I ( S1a , S2 , S3 Sm-n ) = 0

*

*

*

Will have little effect on physical performance

Should be identified during experiments

I ( S1 ,1/ S2 , S3 1/Sm-n ) = 0

iii. A group may be raised to any power.

I ( (S1 )2, (S2 )1/2, (S3 )3 Sm-n ) = 0

x A S group would be missing.

behavioural changes.

S2 = I ( S1 , S3 Sm-n )

should be done with great care.

I ( S1 , 1/S2 ,( S3 )i 0.5Sm-n ) = 0

Lectures 16-19

232

Lectures 16-19

233

Unit 4

Unit 4

Common S groups

An Example

Q. If we have a function describing a problem:

I Q, d , U , P , p 0

d 2 p 1 / 2 dU 1 / 2 p 1 / 2

I

U 1/ 2 P

Show that Q

They can be related to physical forces.

Ans.

Other common non-dimensional numbers

dP d 4 p

,

QU UQ 2

or ( S groups):

Reynolds number:

Uud

Re

inertial, viscous force ratio

1

U 1/ 2 Q

S 2a ,

S 2 d 2 p1/ 2

Euler number:

p

En

Uu 2

dP U 1/ 2 Q

P

S 1a S 1S 2 a

QU d 2 p1/ 2 dU 1/ 2 p1/ 2

Froude number:

u2

Fn

gd

1/ 2

1/ 2

d p

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

Mach number:

u

Mn

c

1/ 2

dU p

or

2

Weber number:

Uud

We

1/ 2

dU p d p

,

P

QU 1/ 2

I 1 / S 1a , S 2 a I

Lectures 16-19

234

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

235

Unit 4

Kinematic similarity

Similarity

It exists if:

i. the paths of particles are geometrically similar

ii. the ratios of the velocities of are similar

measurements from models to the full scale.

Three types of similarity

which exist between a model and prototype:

Vm L m / Tm O L

Velocity

Vp L p / Tp OT

Geometric similarity:

The ratio of all corresponding dimensions

in the model and prototype are equal.

Acceleration

For lengths

Lmodel

Lm

OL

Lprototype

Lp

Discharge

For areas

Amodel

L2m

O2L

Aprototype L2p

am

ap

Qm

Qp

Lm / Tm2

L p / Tp2

L3m / Tm

L3p / Tp

Ou

OL

O2T

O3L

OT

Oa

OQ

patterns are the same.

Lectures 16-19

236

Lectures 16-19

237

Unit 4

Unit 4

Dynamic similarity

Measurements taken from a model needs a scaling law

applied to predict the values in the prototype.

the ratios of all forces are the same.

Fm

Fp

M m am

M pa p

Force ratio

2

Um L3m O L

2 OL

O

O

u

U L

U p L3p O2T

OT

An example:

O U O2L O2u

moving through a fluid.

R, is dependent on the following:

the controlling S group

is the same for model and prototype.

U

ML-3

ML-1T-1

R

Uu 2 l 2

R

In open channel i.e. river Froude number is

often taken as dominant.

Lectures 16-19

P:

So

U pupd p

Pp

l:(length) L

I (R, U, u, l, P ) = 0

So Re is the same for

model and prototype:

Um um dm

Pm

LT-1

u:

Uul

Uul

Uu 2 l 2I

i.e. it is applicable to prototype and

a geometrically similar model.

238

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

239

Unit 4

Example 1

Rm

Um um2 lm2

water tunnel to determine the forces acting on the real prototype. A

1/20th scale model is to be used. If the maximum allowable speed of the

prototype missile is 10 m/s, what should be the speed of the water in

the tunnel to achieve dynamic similarity?

Um um lm

Pm

Rp

U p u p2 l p2

Um um dm U p u p d p

U puplp

Pp

Pm

Rm / Um um2 lm2

R p / U p u 2p l p2

I Um um lm / P m

IU puplp / P p

um

Assuming dynamic similarity, so Reynolds number are

the same for both the model and prototype:

U pupd p

Pp

Um um dm

Pm

Pp

up

U p d p Pm

Um d m P p

Pm = Pp and Um = Up so

um

up

dp

dm

10

1

1 / 20

200 m / s

so

Rm

Rp

Um um2 lm2

U p u 2p l p2

This is one reason why model tests are not always done

at exactly equal Reynolds numbers.

OR

U and P ratios would be used in the above.

OU O2u O2L

Lectures 16-19

240

Lectures 16-19

241

Unit 4

Example 2

Unit 4

tunnel operating at a pressure of 20 times atmospheric. The aeroplane

will fly at 500km/h. At what speed should the wind tunnel operate to give

dynamic similarity between the model and prototype? If the drag

measure on the model is 337.5 N what will be the drag on the plane?

moving through air:

Uul

Uu 2 l 2I

um

um

up

0.5u p

Uu 2 l 2I Re

um

1 1

20 1 / 10

250 km / h

up

U p d p Pm

Um d m P p

Rm

Rp

Uu l

Uu l

Rm

Rp

20 0.5

1 1

2 2

2 2

p

2

2

.

01

0.05

Rp

1

Rm

0.05

20 u 337.5 6750 N

Pm = Pp

For an ideal gas is p = URT so the density of the air in the

model can be obtained from

pm

pp

20 p p

pp

Um

Um RT

U p RT

Um

Up

Um

Up

20U p

Lectures 16-19

242

Lectures 16-19

Unit 4

243

Unit 4

For practical reasons it is difficult to build a geometrically

similar model.

A model with suitable depth of flow will often be far too

big - take up too much floor space.

Keeping Geometric Similarity result in:

x the bed roughness becomes impracticably small;

x laminar flow may occur (turbulent flow is normal in rivers.)

Solution: Abandon geometric similarity.

Typical values are

1/100 in the vertical and 1/400 in the horizontal.

Resulting in:

x local detail of flow is not well modelled.

The Froude number (Fn) is taken as dominant.

Fn can be the same even for distorted models.

CIVE 1400: Fluid Mechanics. www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/FluidsLevel1

Lectures 16-19

244

Lectures 16-19

245

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