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GUIDELINES FOR COMPETENCY BASED

CURRICULLUM
DEVLOPMENT
AND
REVIEW

2015

Preamble?
Executive Summary?
Preface?
Abbreviations?
THE PROCDURE FOR DEVELOPING A COMPETENCY BASED CURRICULLUM

The development of a Competency Based Curriculum shall be in six steps;


a
b

Training Needs Analysis as stated in the curriculum development procedure


Application to Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council

c
d
e

(CDACC) for Approval to develop a CBET a curriculum


Validation by the relevant Sector Skills Advisory Committee (SSAC)
Endorsement by the Curriculum Assessment and Certification Council (CDACC)
Approval by The Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority (TVETA)

Step 1- Training Needs Analysis


An accredited TVET curriculum developer shall conduct a Training Needs Analysis (TNA)
The TNA should:
a

Establish how the curriculum addresses industrial, economic, social and


technological needs of the industry.

determine knowledge, skills, attitudes (competencies) required in the relevant


industry

establish the entry behaviour of trainees for various training levels

establish the mode of delivery of the curriculum

identify the training needs that have not been addressed by the existing curricula

establish the mechanism for coping with emerging trends and challenges in the
industry

identify the availability and competencies of trainers in the industry

assess the availability of resources to achieve the training


2

determine the training requirements of trainees with special needs

establish the findings and feedback derived from implementation of the existing
curricula

project current and future employment patterns for skilled workers

Step 2 -Application to Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council


(CDACC) for Approval to develop a CBET a curriculum
1. Upon completion of the Training Needs Analysis, the curriculum developer will apply to
the Council to be granted permission to develop the curriculum by submitting a proposal.

2. The council shall confirm that each proposal:


1) is nationally recognised;
2) meets an established industry, enterprise, educational, legislative or
community need;
3) provides appropriate competency outcomes and a satisfactory basis for
assessment;
4) meets national quality assurance requirements; and
5) is aligned appropriately to the National Qualification Framework (NQF)
where it leads to a qualification.
6) Assessment and certification would be undertaken by authorized bodies
3. Upon approval of the curriculum outline document proposal, the council shall in
writing grant the developer permission to commence the development process.

Step 3 -Validation by the relevant Sector Skills Advisory Committee (SSAC)

1) The completed curriculum is submitted to the relevant Sector Skills Advisory


Committees (SSAC) for validation.
2) Sector Skills Advisory Committees (SSAC) shall use check list given below for
validation within a specified period.
CDACC CURRICULUM VALIDATION CHECKLIST
NO

TITLE

DESCRIPTION
3

REMARKS/CO

MMENTS
Name of the
qualification

Training Needs
Analysis

State the name(s) of the


qualification(s) that will be awarded
on successful completion of the
course.
The duration of the course in hours.
1. Identify the industry sectors
involved
2. Describe procedure of data
collection and analysis
3. Describe briefly the findings

Curriculm
Design/Format.

Nature and scope of the TVET


curriculum
Composition of the curriculum
development team
Roles and functions of members
Entry behaviour.
The task analysis process used to
derive competencies.
the industry sectors or occupational
Skill areas
Occupational Standards used
competencies required to perform
specified tasks/activities
Sequencing and detailing of tasks
the modules and module units given
objectives of each module
Module duration.
Analysis of occupational competence
Analysis of academic competence

Curriculum
Development

general and specific objectives to be


achieved in each module
course structure

relevance of content
appropriate learning resources
Time allocation for both theoretical
and manipulative skills
mode of delivery and learning
activities
duration for industrial attachment for
each module
competencies to be acquired during
industrial attachment
qualifications and experience of
trainers
specifications of training equipment,
specifications of learning materials

Preparation for
Implementation

Methodology of formative assessment


Methodology of summative
assessment
Procedure of certification
Implementation procedure
Monitoring and Review of the
curriculum
State the identified stakeholders
Induction of stakeholders

5.0 Step 4 -Endorsement by the Curriculum Assessment and Certification Council


(CDACC)
1) The Skills Advisory Committee (SSAC) shall present the validated curriculum together
with the recommendations to the Councils Academic Committee for endorsement.
2) The Councils Academic Committee shall;
1) endorse the curriculum within a specified period of time

2) Return the curriculum with observations to SSAC if it does not meet the
requirement for endorsement

6. Step 5- Approval by the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority
(TVETA)
The Councils Academic Committee shall upon the endorsement of the curriculum, submit it to
TVETA for approval and implementation within a specified period of time
.

COMPETENCY BASED CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS


1

A Competency based curriculum for TVET shall entail training programmes which
take into consideration the market demands and the social and economic needs of the
learners.
The goals and aims of a TVET curriculum should be consistent with relevant
legislation and policy documents on education and training such as: the national goals
of education and training, the National TVET Strategy, the Vision 2030, Sessional
papers and other relevant policy documents. Learning outcomes are derived from
standards which are defined by industry.
A Competency based curriculum shall seek to systematically identify and develop
essential worker competencies, or the knowledge, skills and attitude required for a
particular job

A Competency based curriculum for TVET shall be developed based on set competency
occupational standards.
5

All Curriculum developers shall use the Building blocks Model given below

BUILDING BLOCKS MODEL


6 TVET curriculum development process shall entail interlinked activities ranging from training
needs analysis to review. Seven broad steps have been considered for CBET curriculum
development process;
1. Training Needs Analysis
2. Curriculum Design
3. Content Development
4. Curriculum Implementation
5. Assessment and Evaluation
6. Certification
7. Curriculum Review

TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS

1 A TVET curriculum developer should conduct a Training Needs Analysis (TNA), which is the
first stage in curriculum development process.
2 The TNA should:

establish how the curriculum addresses industrial, economic, social and


technological needs of the industry.

determine knowledge, skills, attitudes (competencies) required in the relevant


industry

establish the entry behaviour of trainees for various training levels

establish the mode of delivery of the curriculum

identify the training needs that have not been addressed by the existing curricula

establish the mechanism for coping with emerging trends and challenges in the
industry

identify the availability and competencies of trainers in the industry

assess the availability of resources to achieve the training

determine the training requirements of trainees with special needs

establish the findings and feedback derived from implementation of the existing
curricula

project current and future employment patterns for skilled workers

CURRICULUM DESIGN

1. The TVET CDACC will oversee the design and development of the all CBET curriculum
2. The curriculum design shall broadly define the nature and scope of the TVET curriculum.
3. The design shall be developed by relevant teams who will use occupational/professional
standards to guide the development of curriculum materials which should be presented in a
modular format.

4. The curriculum development team should comprise at least one person from each of the
following categories:
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Course experts with skill levels of curriculum being developed


TVET trainers registered by TVETA
Curriculum development experts
Relevant industry representatives
Relevant professional bodies
Government policy makers
Relevant industry skills regulators
Accredited Certification bodies

5 The curriculum development team shall ascertain the following:


a

Type or level of programme

Duration of the programme


i

Modular Employable Skills (MES) Short Courses-60 hours to 330 hours

ii

Artisan-990 hours

iii

Craft-1980 hours and

iv

Diploma-2970 hours

Programme pattern-regular, sandwich, part-time

Credits equivalency

e
f

Recognition of prior learning


Entry behaviour
i MES-open
ii Artisan-Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE)
iii Craft- Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) D+( Plus)
iv
Diploma-KCSE C (Plain)

g
h
i
j

Mode of delivery: face to face, learner centred and project based


Occupational competence
Academic competence
Evaluation and certification formative and summative

Minimum training equipment, their specifications and materials


9

6. The curriculum development team shall carry out a task analysis in order to identify the
competencies required to perform specified tasks/activities for the job for which the curriculum
is being developed.
The process of task analysis will involve:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Identification of Learning Tasks


listing the Job/task analysis in relation to each competency
Sequencing of tasks
Task detailing
designing a format for presenting the breakdown of tasks into components
breaking each task into components of knowledge, skills and attitudes

7 A CBET TVET curriculum should be in modular form and the number of modules in a course
specified.
8 Each module shall group specific competencies together based on related tasks at the work
place.
9. Each module should be designed to enable a trainee acquire competencies of a particular task
in the work place.
10. Each module should:
a have a title/theme
b specify module units (subjects)
c have general and specific objectives
d have a discrete code
e specify entry behaviour of trainees
f specify industry sector(s) where the skills are applicable
g be evaluated and a certificate awarded independently by an accredited examining body
h be flexible to allow credit transfer, recognize prior learning and working experience and
career progression
10. The curriculum development team should formulate specific objectives to be achieved by the
trainee by stating each component of a task as a measurable learning outcome.
4.0 CONTENT DEVELOPMENT
1 Module units (subjects) content shall be organized into training packages which should be
derived from the specific objectives formulated at the design stage.
2 The content should be organized into logical subjects or module units.
3 The content areas shall address all the learning domains i.e
a) Cognitive
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b) psychomotor
c) affective
4. Appropriate duration should be given to each module depending on the time required for
the learner to be competent and demonstrate achievement of the learning outcomes.
5. At this stage emphasis is placed on the development of:
1) Instructional Materials
2) Learning Resources
3) Self Checks
4) Performance Tests

5. The training packages/ training guide should specify:


a general and specific objectives to be
achieved
b course structure
c mode of delivery and learning activities
d appropriate learning resources
e minimum specifications of training
equipment
f appropriate assessment methods
g appropriate contact hours for each module
unit
h competencies to be acquired during
industrial attachment
i duration for industrial attachment for each
module
j qualifications of teachers/trainers
6. The curriculum should specify the mode of assessment for psychomotor, cognitive and
affective domains

7. The percentage of module unit contact hours shall be as stipulated below:


Level
Artisan
Craft
Diploma
Degree

Manipulative
Skills
80%(90%)
70%
40%(50%)
30%

Theoretical
Skills
20%(10%)
30%
60%(50%)
70%

5.0 PREPARATION FOR IMPLEMENTATION


1) A TVET curriculum shoul specify the tools, equipment, materials, textbooks, reference
materials and any other materials needed to support training/learning.
2) The training/learning resources should be as per skill standards stipulated by relevant
industry regulators and professional bodies.

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3) Physical facilities shall conform to the standards set by relevant training regulators. The
facilities include workshops, laboratories, theory rooms and libraries among others.
4) A TVET curriculum shall specify the qualifications and experience of trainer.
5) A curriculum developer shall carry out induction of all stakeholders involved in the
implementation of the new curriculum to enable them own the document and the process.
The stakeholders shall include:
a
Government agencies in charge of TVET training
b
TVET Trainers and Technical staff
c
Managers and Administrators of TVET institutions
d
Accredited Certification bodies
e
Relevant industry regulators

GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING SKILLS ADVISORY COMMITTEE (SSAC)


MEMBERS
1
2
3

The Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council (CDACC) shall appoint
Sector Skills Advisory Committee (SSAC) members to be technical arm of the council.
The Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council (CDACC) will appoint
SSAC members competitively
The Sector Skills Advisory Committee (SSAC) members shall be responsible for ensuring
that vocational education and training programmes offered are according to the needs and
demands of the employment market.

TVET CDACC shall provide coordination and secretarial services to the SSACs.

The Sector Skills Advisory Committee (SSAC) members shall represent the skill sectors
identified in the Market/industry.

Every member of the committee shall, unless he/she sooner resigns or otherwise ceases to
hold office, hold office for a period of three years and may be eligible for re- appointment

2.0 The composition of SSAC members will not be more than seven members of whom:i

One represents the interests of vocational education and training institutions;

ii

One is a training specialist appointed by the Council.

iii

One is a representative of the relevant employers/ industry.


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iv

One is a Government policy maker in Technical training

two representatives of the relevant industry skills/professional regulator

vi

one is a curriculum development expert

vii

A representative of the Council Secretary of TVET CDACC shall act


as the secretary to the committee

2. Subject to any general or specific directions by the council or any regulations made under it,
the committee may regulate its own proceedings.
3. Functions of the Sector Skills Advisory Committees (SSAC) will be to;

Advise the Board on the establishment of new vocational trades training and educational
programmes or on the abolition of existing ones.

ii

assess training needs and determine standards for the area of trades the committee is
covering.

iii

draw up training specifications and job description for the trades to be taught.

iv

ensure coordination with related trade training activities.

ensure that the employment market is informed about training activities under the
committees to promote placements for students; and

vi

form sub - committees to work with particular training issues as may be necessary.

A Sector Skills Advisory Committee member shall be;


i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi

a member of a professional/technologist body where applicable


an expert in the relevant skill area
of good moral standing
have an experience of not less than three years in their skill area
meet the requirements of chapter six of the constitution of Kenya
A Kenyan citizen

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GUIDELINES FOR ACCREDITING A CURRICULUM DEVELOPER


1. Curriculum Developer shall be a registered company with perpetual succession and a common
seal and shall, in its corporate name, be capable of suing and being sued or a registered training
institution or a Government Agency or an NGO or an Individual.
2. Curriculum Developer if not an individual shall meet the following conditions before being
accredited by CDAC Council by submitting the following;
1) a list of employees and their qualifications
2) an audited financial statements for the past one year
3) List of directors/managers and their qualifications
4) A tax compliant certificate
3. Curriculum Developer if not an individual shall have qualified employees in curriculum
development with a minimum of a Diploma certificate
4. Curriculum Developer shall meet the requirements of chapter six of the constitution of Kenya
5. Curriculum Developer shall be financially stable to carry out the development using the
CDACC guidelines
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