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(The Variety of Resources on Earth )
Is rubber an element , a compound or
a mixture? Why?
Rubber is a compound because it consists of
carbon and hydrogen elements which combine
together . Sometimes, other elements (such as
Sulphur and zinc) are added to the natural
rubber to improve its properties.
Is human blood an element, compound
or a mixture? Why?
Human blood is a mixture because it contains
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and
platelets which can be separated physically
through centrifugation.
Diamond and graphite are two forms
of the element carbon. What is the
property of graphite that makes it
suitable for use in pencil lead and
diamond in cutting tools?

Graphite is soft and flakes off easily against
surfaces whereas diamond is a very hard
substance .
Why do metals have high melting and
boiling points ?
The particles in metals are bonded by very
strong intermolecular forces of attraction and it
needs a lot of energy to break the forces.
Therefore, metals have very high melting and
boiling points .
Mira accidentally mixed salt with tea
leaves . Suggest how Mira could separate
the mixture to obtain the tea leaves?
Add water into the mixture and stir it. Then,
filter the mixture to obtain the tea leaves on
the filter paper.
Imagine you are sand papering a piece
of iron . Suddenly, the wind blows in your
direction and some metal shavings enter
your eyes . You visit a doctor
immediately. Predict the separation

method used by the doctor to remove the

metal shavings from your eye .
The doctor will be using a strong magnet (or an
electromagnet) to attract the metal shavings from
the eye .
Imagine that its now the year 2070.
There is no more fossil fuels and a very
limited amount of forest left .
A. Why would there be no more fossil
fuels left on Earth?
B. Where would humans obtain their
sources of energy from?
C. What could humans do to sustain their
lives for the next century?

Humans overexploited fossil fuels which

they did not conserve and preserve .
Renewable energy sources such as the
wind and Sun.
Continue to preserve and conserve the
natural resources .

Explain the meaning of conservation
and preservation of Earths resources?
Conservation means the sustainable use and
management of natural resources to prevent loss,
waste or damage, whereas preservation means the
act of keeping the resources in their original state .
State the importance of conserving
and preserving Earths resources.
To ensure that there will be enough resources for
us as well for future generations, to prevent the
exhaustion of natural resources , to prolong the
existence of natural resources and to prevent the
pollution of natural resources through overexploitation by humans .
10. Suggest ways of reusing and recycling
materials .
Recycling newspaper to reduce the cutting down of
tress, reusing old materials instead of throwing
them away .

An alloy is neither an element nor
compound . It is a mixture . For example,
- Steel is a mixture of iron and carbon
- Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin
- Brass is a mixture of copper and zinc
Earths resources are used directly or
indirectly to meet our basic needs for food ,
clothing and shelter.
Scientists often draw particles as simple
circles. The size of particles in a gold bar is the
same because it contains the same kind of
particles. So gold is an element.
Not all non-metals have low melting and
boiling points . For example , diamonds have
melting and boiling points of 3550 degree
Celsius and 4827 degree Celsius respectively.
Recycling one aluminum can saves enough
energy to power a 100 W light bulb for 20

hours, a computer for 3 hours and a television

for 2 hours .

Importance of recycling:

Save costs
Reduce energy use
Reduce space in landfills
Prevent pollutions of air, water and soil
Promote product innovation and creativity
Delay the use of Earths resources so that they
last longer .

How can green shopping save the planet
- Green shopping means more than just using a
reusable grocery bag when doing your daily
grocery shopping .
- Green shopping also requires the change of
customers thinking when looking for, selecting
and buying products.
- When we look for products , we can shop online
instead of driving to a shopping mall. Hence,
we reduce the use of petrol (fossil fuels) and
cut down air pollution.

When we select products , we choose
products which have the following
characteristics :
- Organic food that uses no synthetic pesticides
and chemical fertilizers that could harm living
things and the environment.
- Use very little or no packaging , or recyclable
- No animal testing or contain substances
extracted from animals facing extinction.
- Use reusable or long lasting items such as
rechargeable batteries and non-disposable
cameras .