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GT13E2

Operation

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System
Training Lesson

ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd

ABCD

ABCD

GT13E2
Operation

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

We reserve all rights in this document and in the information contained therein.
Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties without express authority is strictly
forbidden.
Copyright by ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd 2007
This is a training lesson. It provides overall information about the specific system
only.
To understand the operation concept in detail the project specific documents as
defined in the document reference section have to be included together with this
lesson.
All mentioned / attached values and settings are for information only. Typical
values are used to clarify particular subjects. Settings furthermore are subject to
change site specifically during commissioning.
For actual values please refer to the final plant specific
Operation & Maintenance Documentation.

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ABCD

GT13E2
Operation

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Table of Contents
Document Reference ........................................................................................................................... 4
Typical Documents ........................................................................................................................... 4
O&M Documentation ....................................................................................................................... 4
Lesson Objectives................................................................................................................................ 5
Overview ............................................................................................................................................ 6
System View on Operation Station..................................................................................................... 6
System Function ............................................................................................................................... 7
Function Description............................................................................................................................ 8
Operation and Supervision ................................................................................................................ 10
General......................................................................................................................................... 10
Start-up of the Gas Turboset ........................................................................................................... 10
Normal Operation (Load Operation)............................................................................................... 11
Shutdown ...................................................................................................................................... 12
Rotor Barring ................................................................................................................................. 12
Compressor Off-line Washing ........................................................................................................ 13
Standstill of Gas Turboset ............................................................................................................... 13
Monitoring Equipment ....................................................................................................................... 13
Protection and Fault Causes............................................................................................................... 14
General......................................................................................................................................... 14
Malfunction and possible Causes .................................................................................................... 14
Exercises ........................................................................................................................................... 15
General......................................................................................................................................... 15
Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 15
Component Name, KKS Designation & Function.............................................................................. 16
Operation ..................................................................................................................................... 17
Test Questions for Verification of Learning Progress ......................................................................... 18
Questions: ..................................................................................................................................... 18
Lesson Test Questions Solution Key ................................................................................................. 20
Summary .......................................................................................................................................... 20
Adjustment of the Compressor VIGV System ....................................................................................... 21
Simplified Diagram ........................................................................................................................ 21
Designation of Parts ....................................................................................................................... 22

Table of Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
Figure 6:
Figure 7:
Figure 8:

Operating Station Image including Variable Inlet Guide Vane System (Typical)........................ 6
Adjusting Drive and VIGV Instrumentation (Typical)................................................................ 7
Variable Inlet Guide Vane (Typical) ....................................................................................... 8
Definition of the Angle Position (Typical)................................................................................ 9
VIGV Schedule during Startup (Typical) ............................................................................... 10
VIGV Schedule during Load Operation (Typical) .................................................................. 11
VIGV Schedule during Shut Down (Typical).......................................................................... 12
Angle Transmitter (Typical) ................................................................................................. 13

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Document Reference
Typical Documents

Typical documents are used to clarify aspects described in this lesson. These typical
documents may not show project specific contents, deviations are possible. All
typical documents are clearly identified.

O&M Documentation

O&M Documents are plant specific and form an important part of each training
course. A selection of the most relevant O&M Documents has been made and
included in the training course material. These documents provide a basis for
exercises and personal notes, markings, etc. The most relevant documents for the
operation training are:

P&IDs with legend

GT operating concept

System description

Maintenance manual

The O&M Documents are separated into:

System specific documents

Overall plant specific documents


The system specific documents are in principle not attached to each specific lesson,
whereas the overall plant specific documents can be found in separate sections at
the end of the training manual.

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Lesson Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, the trainee is able to:

State the functions performed by the compressor variable inlet guide vane
(VIGV) system.

Describe the components of the VIGV system.

List the parameters which are monitored.

Describe the protection actions initiated by measurements MBA82 CG001/002.

State the angle position of the VIGVs during:


Standstill of the gas turbine, TAT < 60 C,
Startup,
Operation,
Shutdown,
Rotor barring.

Give the probable causes for the alarm:


Incorrect angle of the VIGVs.

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ABCD

GT13E2
Operation

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Overview
System View on Operation Station

CSXA402945.cdr

Figure 1: Operating Station Image including Variable Inlet Guide Vane System (Typical)

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

System Function

Purpose

Components

The purpose of the compressors Variable Inlet Guide Vane (VIGV) system is to:

Expedite the gas turboset startup, thus ensuring rapid availability of electric
power.

Reduce NOX emissions by optimizing the fuel-to-air ratio at partial power loads.

Adjust the air flow to the compressor according to the requirements of the
thermodynamic cycle.

Enable load control between approximately 60 % load and base load.

The major components of the compressor VIGV system are:

Inlet guide vane row (52 vanes) with adjusting ring.

Linear amplifier (hydraulic cylinder) .

Pilot proportional valve for linear amplifier.

Safety and monitoring equipment.

CSXA402946.cdr

Figure 2: Adjusting Drive and VIGV Instrumentation (Typical)

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Function Description
The angular position of the VIGV row adjusts the air flow through-the axial
compressor, modulating it between start-up and base load conditions.
The row, sometimes called the zero compressor stage, is connected to an
adjustment ring via a tie rod. The adjustment ring, which runs around the
circumference of the compressor housing at the air inlet section, is mounted so that
it can turn. It is driven by a linear amplifier, which is connected to the power oil
system.
A pilot proportional valve regulates the position of the linear amplifier, which is
indirectly monitored by the position (angle) measurement. The proportional valve
allows the VIGV row to assume any position between open and closed.
The angular position of the VIGV row, and the position of the piston inside the
proportional valve are monitored by electric current position converters.
The position of the proportional valve is automatically set in a closed loop by an
electrical signal via an amplifier card from EGATROL.

Tie rod

Adjustment
ring

Angle transmitter

CSXA402961.cdr

Figure 3: Variable Inlet Guide Vane (Typical)


(Continued next page)

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Air flow
Angle
Position 0

Variable inlet guide vanes 0


(fully open position during
base load operation)

Air flow

Air flow

Variable inlet guide vanes -65


(fully closed position)

-30

Variable inlet guide vanes -30


(during start-up and low load
operation)

CSXA220259enA

-65

ABCD
GT13E2
Operation
Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Function Description (continued)

CSXA402948.cdr

Figure 4: Definition of the Angle Position (Typical)

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Operation and Supervision


General

The system must be operated in accordance to the Operation Manual and the
Operation Concept which should be read carefully.

Start-up of the Gas Turboset

Before starting acceleration of the rotor the VIGV start opening by a programmed
characteristic from closed position (angle -65) to open position (angle -0). This is
completed when rotational speed has reached approx. 70 rpm. The VIGVs remain
in this position during the purge cycle of the gas turbine and - if available the heat
recovery steam generator.
After purging, when reaching the sequencer step ignition the VIGV position is
changed to start up position (-30) and remains unchanged during further
acceleration, synchronization and as long as the gas turboset is in lower load
range.

GT13E2 VIGV during start up


100

100
Nominal speed : 3000 rpm / 90%

80

60

60

VIGV position: start -30 / 55.5%

40

40
Purge Speed 835 rpm / 27.6 %

Ignition speed:
Fuel oil 32 % of nominal speed / 950 rpm
Fuel gas 20% of nominal speed / 600 rpm

Speed rpm [ 0 to 3333 / 0 to 100 % ]

VIGV % [ -80 to +10 / 0 to 100 % ]

VIGV position: open / 0 / 88.8 %


80

20

20
VIGV position: closed / -65 / 16.6%

0
Time

CSXA402962.cdr

Figure 5: VIGV Schedule during Startup (Typical)

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Normal Operation (Load Operation)

Load control in the part-load range between minimum load to about 65 % of


relative load is done by increasing the turbine temperature, the VIGV are
maintained in idle position. Between about 65 % of relative load to base load the
air massflow through the gas turboset is increased by opening the VIGV to fully
open position.

max. TAT

max. TIT
0

1200

1100

-5

1000

900

- 10

800

700

- 15

600
TAT

VIGV angle [Deg]

TIT [C], exhaust massflow [kg/s]

TIT

500

- 20

400

300

Exhaust mass flow

- 25

200

100
VIGV angle
- 30

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100
Base load

Idle
Power [% base load]

CSXA402968.cdr

Figure 6: VIGV Schedule during Load Operation (Typical)

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Shutdown

During normal unloading, the operating sequence of the variable guide vanes is in
the reverse order to that during the loading cycle. At about 65 % of relative load the
VGVs are in the start position again. They remain in this position during further
deloading, idle cooling time and shut-down until 35 rpm. Below that rotor speed
the VIGVs change to fully closed position.

GT13E2 VIGV shut down


100

10

90

-10

70
-20
60
Rotor speed 35 rpm
50

-30

VIGV position: -30


-40

40
-50
30

VIGV % [ -80 to +10 / 0 to 100 % ]

Speed rpm [ 0 to 3333 rpm / 0 to 100 % ]

80

VIGV position: -65


-60

20
Rotor speed 33 rpm

-70

10

-80

0
Time

CSXA402963.cdr

Figure 7: VIGV Schedule during Shut Down (Typical)

Rotor Barring

During rotor barring operation the VIGV remains in fully closed position.

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Compressor Off-line Washing

During the spraying cycle the VIGV are fully open, during drying the VIGV close to
idle position.

Standstill of Gas Turboset

The variable guide vane row is in the fully closed position when the gas turboset is
at a standstill.

Monitoring Equipment
Angle
Measurement

The angle of the variable inlet guide vanes is measured by two angle transmitters
and displayed on the Operator Station. The two angle transmitters are mounted
directly to the shaft ends of two variable guide vanes.
An alarm is activated whenever the angle of the VIGV deviates from the required
position.
Protective load shedding of the gas turboset is initiated if the angle continues to
decrease below the preset limit or the difference between the required angle and
feedback (actual angle) exceeds the preset limit.

Figure 8: Angle Transmitter (Typical)


(Continued next page)

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Monitoring Equipment (continued)


Position
Measurement

The spool position of the pilot proportional valves is monitored. This actual position
is transmitted to the amplifier card where the value is compared with the set value
given from EGATROL.

Protection and Fault Causes


General

The protection functions of the control system provide the greatest possible safe
operation at the highest possible efficiency and availability. They operate on three
threshold levels:

Alarm annunciation

Protective load shedding

Trip of gas turboset


All protection interventions must be promptly investigated, the source found and
rectified so that unit can be returned to normal operation as fast as possible.
Annunciation in the case of protection interventions appear on the OS, including
name, KKS code, values and other relevant information to indicate the source of
malfunction.

Malfunction and possible Causes

Incorrect angle of the VIGV


Possible
Linear amplifier or electronic controller defective.
Causes:
Angle transmitter is defective.
Required
Investigate until the source of the problem is found, take all
Action:
actions necessary to bring the gas turboset to normal operation.

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Exercises
General

To be able to understand the exercises the relevant chapter of the following project
specific documents must be studied carefully:

P&ID including legend

Operation concept of the gas turbine

Overview

System &
Components

This section contains the following exercises:

Component name, KKS designation & function

Operation concept of the gas turbine

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Component Name, KKS Designation & Function

Exercise Task

Fill-in the table below with the following information according to the example
given in the first line:

Major components name

KKS number

Short functional description

Exercise Aids

Plant specific P&ID and legend

Group
Time Frame

Each trainee for himself

5 minutes

Component Name

KKS - Number

Component Function

Power oil system

MBX 40

Provides pressurized oil

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Operation

Exercise Task

Describe the VIGV schedule during Startup, Load Operation and Shut down.

Exercise Aids

Plant specific P&ID and legend

Plant Operation Concept

Group work with max. 4 trainees per group

10 minutes

Group presentation in front of class

Group
Time Frame
Presentation

Description
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Test Questions for Verification of Learning Progress

General

The following points are important and shall be taken into account:

The training manual may be used (open book), but first try without looking up in
the manual.

Mark the box in front of each correct statement with a diagonal cross.

One or more or all statements may be correct.


Use this section to verify your learning progress! Review subjects, which are not
clearly understood.

Questions:

Question 01:

Purpose of the variable inlet guide vanes is:


A

Reduction of rotor vibrations by optimizing the air flow into the axial
compressor

Load control in the higher load range of the gas turboset

Reduction of contamination of the axial compressor

Expedition of the start up of the gas turboset

Diverting of a portion of air from the axial compressor which is required


for cooling purposes

Optimization of the fuel-to-air ratio in order to reduce NOX emissions


(Continued next page)

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Questions (continued):
Question 02:

Question 03:

Question 04:

The opening position of the VIGVs are:


A

Proportional to the load between minimum to base load

Proportional to the rotational speed of the gas turboset

Fully open when cleaning agent or water is injected into the compressor
when compressor washing

Is controlled by EGATROL dependent on load output, turbine inlet


temperature and temperature after turbine

Not influenced by ambient conditions

The VIGVs are in closed position:


A

During all the time when compressor washing

As long as TITmax has not attained

As soon as a gas turbine trip is initiated (to prevent a thermal shock of


the hot path parts

During rotor barring operation

When purging the exhaust diffuser and heat recovery steam generator

As long as the blow off valves are open

The actuation range of the VIGVs is defined by:


A

0 to +65

0 to -30

-65 to 0

0 % to - 65 %

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ABCD

GT13E2
Operation

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Lesson Test Questions Solution Key

The correct answers for each question are as follows:


01: B, C, F
02: C, D, E
03: D
04: C

Summary
Objectives
Review

Carefully review the objectives stated on page 5 of this lesson together with the Test
Questions for Verification of Learning Progress.
Note that this lesson is not complete without the system specific and overall plant
Operation & Maintenance Documentation.

Summary

The purpose of the Variable Inlet Guide Vanes I(VIGVs) is mainly to control the load
output of the gas turboset. Below of about 60 % of base load the VIGVs are set at
-30. When increasing the load the VIGVs are opened thus increasing the massflow
of air through the gas turbine. At base load the VIGVs are in fully open position.
The VIGVs further reduce the NOX emissions by optimizing the fuel-to-air ratio at
partial load.
The training lesson describes the main components, how the system functions and
its different operation modes.

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GT13E2
Operation

ABCD

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Adjustment of the Compressor VIGV System


Simplified Diagram
START-UP

CLOSED

LOAD OPERATION

MBA80

GIC(Z)AMBA82 CG002
GC
MBX52 CG001

GIC(Z)AMBA82 CG001

MBX71

MBX40

B
MBX52
AA002

MBA82
AS001

CSXA402965.cdr

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ABCD

GT13E2
Operation

Compressor Variable
Inlet Guide Vane System

Designation of Parts

KKS-No.

Designation

MBA80
MBA82
MBA82 AS001
MBA82 CG001
MBA82 CG002
MBX40
MBX52
MBX52 AA002
MBX52 CG001
MBX71

Compressor
Adjustment mechanism for variable inlet guide vane
Linear amplifier
Measurement of guide vane position
Measurement of guide vane position
Power oil system
Power oil system for variable guide vane adjustment
Control valve for variable guide vane adjustment
Control valve position
Power oil return

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