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DIGITAL SWITCHING SYSTEM

Module 1

Development of
telecommunications
DEEPASHREEA P
EC DEPT

Communications
Communications
The message (data and information) is
communicated via the signal
The transmission medium carries the
signal
Transmission
medium
Sender

Signal

Receiver

Communications
Discussion
The transmission of data from one
computer to another, or from one device to
another. A communications device,
therefore, is any machine that assists data
transmission.
For example, modems, cables, and ports
are all communications devices.
Communications software refers to
programs that make it possible to transmit
data.
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Telecommunications
Telecommunications
The electronic transmission of signals for
communications, including such means as:
Telephone
Radio
Television

Telecommunication medium
Anything that carries an electronic signal and
interfaces between a sending device and a receiving
device

Communications and Telecommunications


In human speech, the sender transmits a
signal through the transmission medium
of the air
In telecommunications, the sender
transmits a signal through the
transmission medium of a cable

Schematic

Types of communication
transmission mode:
Simplex : one way communication ex:
Radio
Half Duplex : Two way communication
shared by single channel ex: walkie Talkie
Full Duplex : Two way communication
simultaneously ex: Telephone

Term in switching
Traffic:In telecommunication system, traffic is
defined as the occupancy of the servering the
network.
There are two types of traffic viz. voice traffic and
data traffic.
For voice traffic, the calling rate is defined as the
number of calls per traffic path during the busy
hour.
In a day, the 60 minutes interval in which the
traffic is highest is called busy hour (BH).
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Development of telecommunication
Telecommunication:
Transporting information by converting it
to electrical signals & transmitting these
over a distance
Electrical communication began with
telegraphy invented by WHEANSTONE
& MORSE
It consisted of point to point
Telephony: ALEXANDER GRAHM BELL
2 way communication
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In telephone conversation,
Initiates call calling subscriber
Call destinated called subscriber

If there are n entities & n(n-1)/2 point


to point links
Network with point to point links
among all entities known as fully
connected network

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Bandwidth requirement of various


application

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A network using point to point connection


is shown.
In the figure, there are 5 entities
and 10 point to point links. In
general case with n entities,
there are n(n-1)/2 links.
e.g., n=5 then 5(5-1)/2 = 10
links
Total number of links L = n(n1)/2

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If 50 entities then 1225 links which is


not practical due to
Large demand for wires
Expensive

Switching system came into


existence

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Figure 1.4 Categories of topology

1.14

Figure 1.5 A fully connected mesh topology (five devices)

1.15

Figure 1.6 A star topology

In telephony two way communication is required


A line from each user station to a central
switching centre which connects the lines together
as required
1.16

Figure 1.7 A bus topology connecting three stations

This cannot be used for telephony


Only one communication can be possible at a time

1.17

Figure 1.8 A ring topology connecting six stations

Bus & ring are used for data communication

1.18

Tree topology
Links are formed in
a tree structure.
Cheaper than
partially
connected;

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Variation of n/w cost with no. Of


exchanges

Average length of customers line,& thus total line


cost, decreases with no. Of exchanges
But cost of providing the exchange increases
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Conversation between customer with two


exchanges is done using junction circuits &
they form junction network
Junction network has mesh configuration
Cost of junction circuit is high & it is
uneconomical to connect all exchanges
directly
So Connection between the customer local
exchanges via central switching centre called
tandem exchange
Junction network has star configuration
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Indirect routing via tandem exchange is cheaper


when traffic is small & distance is short
Multi exchange area usually has direct junctions
between some exchanges, but traffic between
other is routed via tandem exchange
Network of area is a mixture of star network,
joining all local exchanges to tandem
exchanges, & mesh network connecting some of
local exchanges together
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Fig multi exchange area

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Different areas of country are


interconnected by long distance circuit
which form trunk network or toll network
In national network these may not be fully
interconnected one or more high level of
switching centre are introduced, this
produce concatenation of star network
Direct routes are provided where traffic is
high

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National tele communication


network

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There is a direct route between two


exchanges at the same level, there is also a
possible alternative route between them via
exchange
If direct circuit is not available, it is possible
to divert traffic to the indirect route
In older system such changes can be made
by manual ,but in modern switching system
provide automatic alternative routing(AAR)
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If an originating exchange is unable to find


free circuit on direct route to a destination
exchange
Then it automatically routes the call
through the higher level exchange
This happens not only when there are no
direct circuit available due to breakdown
but also when they are all busy
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A national PSTN network


1. Local network ,which connect customer
stations to their local exchanges
2. Junction networks, which interconnects a
group of local exchanges serving an area
& tandem & trunk exchange
3. Trunk network or toll network, which
provides long distance circuits between
local areas through the country
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Totality of 2& 3 is sometimes called the core


network
Inner core trunk network
Outer core junction network

Above this hierarchy there is the international


network which provide circuits linking the
national networks of different countries
The national network is connected to
international network by one by one
international gateway exchange
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Network services
The customer of PTO require many
different services

PSTN
Telex
Private network for voice & data
Cellular & radio network
PDN
Special service network, introduced to
meet special demands of customer
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Relationship of service & bearer network

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These services may use separate switching


centre & the private circuits use transmission
links semi permanently connected together
at network nodes without switching
Different services use a common
transmission bearer network consisting of
junction & trunk circuit
Customers are connected to their local
exchange via the local acess network
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Service provider over telecommunication


network divided into
Teleservices: provision of service depends on
particular apparatus(telephone or teleprinter
Bearer services: which presents the customer
with transmission capacity that can be used for
any desired function(eg. Private circuit)

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Terminology

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Terminology
A switching centre is also called exchange
in U.K, but CO in North America.
An exchange that switches long distance
traffic is called trunk exchange in U.K , but
a toll office in North America
In U.K the customer access network of a
local exchange is usually called local
network
In some other countries local area network
is used to describe the computer network
of multi exchange area
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Regulation
It deals with how the connection & services
provided to the customer through an exchange
In some countries telecommunication operating
companies are privately owned
In USA customer can obtain local service from
the regional operating company
Traffics are regulated by federal communication
commission for long distance traffic
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standards
Standardisation which has made an effective
international network possible is carried out through ITU
ITU classified into 2 main bodies
ITU sector(ITU-T): it includes the study of technical questions,
operating methods& traffics for telephony ,telegraphy ,data
communication
ITU radio communication sector (ITU-R): it studies all technical
& operating questions relating to radio communication,
including point to point communication, mobile services and
broadcasting

ISO produces standards in information


technology
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INTRODUCTION TO TRANSMISSION IN
TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Transmission systems provide circuits between the
nodes of telecommunication network
If a circuit uses separate transmission path for each
direction these are called channels
In general complete channel passes through sending
equipment at a terminal station ,a transmission link ,
which may contain repeaters & receiving station
Signals classified into
Analog
Digital
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For digital signal no. Signal elements


transmitted per seconds is called bauds
Multiplexing:At transmitting end signals
of different channel are combined to form
a composite signal of wider bandwidth
At receiving terminal signals are separated
& retransmitted over the channelsdemultiplexing(or demuxing).

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Multiplexing

ANALOG & DIGITAL


transmission
To transmit analog signal
without distortion the
channel must be linear
Analog signals contain a
range of frequencies
called bandwidth to
convey information
Analog signals can be
transmitted over digital
channel by A to D
conversion
Is relative to niose &
interference

Does not be linear


The information
carried is no. Of signal
elements
transmitted/s is called
signalling rate
Digital signals can be
transmitted over
analog circuit
Has immunity to noise
& interference
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POWER LEVEL
It is convenient to use Logarithmic unit of
power decibel(db)
If output power P2 is greater than input
power P1 then gain in decibels is given by
G = 10 log10 (P2 / P1 )
If P2 < P1 then the loss is
L = 10 log10 (P1 / P2 )
Gain & loss in terms of voltage & current
G= 20 log10 (V2 / V1 ) = 20 log10 (I2 / I1 )
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RELATIVE & ABSOLUTE


POWER
Decibel is a unit of relative power level
To measure absolute power in decibels it is
necessary to specify a reference level
usually 1mW
Eg: to express 1W in dbm we have
10log10 (1W/1mW) =+30dbm=0dbW
: to express 1mW in dbm we have
10log10 (1mW/1mW) = 0dbm= -30dbW
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Power level in analog transmission

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FOUR WIRE CIRCUITS


term four wire implies that there are two
wires carrying the signals in one direction
(go) and two wires carrying them in
opposite direction (return).
the amplifiers (repeaters) are necessary to
compensate the attenuation
As the amplifiers are unidirectional, for
two-way communication, four-wire
transmission is necessary.

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FOUR WIRE CIRCUITS

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ECHOES

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Echo suppresser
Echo canceller

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Stability
BRL is sufficiently small & gain of its amplifier are
suffiently high,
Net gain around the loop may exceed zero & singing will
occur
Net loss Ls = 2[ B+6-G4 ]db =2(B+L2)
Necessary condition for stability is Ls >0 this requires that
L2+B> 0
G2< B where G2= -L2
Gain can be obtained over 4 wire circuit is thus limited by
BRL
BRL is zero when either Z or N is zero or infinite
Then the loss between the return & go channel is only 6db
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Singing point
The singing point of a circuit
is defined as the
maximum gain S that can be obtained without
producing singing
In practise the attenuation of singing path is
deliberately made greater than zero
This provides a safety margin & avoids the attenuation
distortion caused by echoes when circuit is operating
close to signing point, thus from equation
Ls = 2(B+L2)db, (*)
S=B
Singing point given by BRL
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STABILITY MARGIN
it is defined as the max amount of additional
gain M, that can be introduced in each
direction of transmission without causing
singing
Ls-2m=0 from *
M = B+L2db
Thus it is sum of 2 wire to 2 wire loss & BRL
In practise stability margin of 3db is found to
adequate Ls=6db
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Digital transmission
Bandwidth & equalisation
The minimum bandwidth needed to transmit a
digital signal at B bauds was shown by nyquist
to be Wmin = (1/2)B

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If the signal sent through ideal LP n/w with this


cutoff frequency it is possible to detect every
pulse without error,ie no ISI
In practise it is not possible
Nyquist also showed that zero ISI can be obtained
if the channel charges from unity to zero over a
band of frequencies with a gain of frequency
response symmetrical about f=1/2 B
digital transmission system can use gain & phase
equalisation to obtain negligible ISI
An adaptive equaliser automatically adjust itself to
characteristic of transmission path

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NOISE & JITTER


Here v is the detection level The receiver
compares the signal voltage Vs with threshold
voltage of v
If a noise voltage Vn is added, an error occur
if Vn > V
If bipolar signal is used, there 0v is decision
level
An error occurs if Vn > v
The error rate obtained with a 3db lower SNR
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For telephone transmission an error


rate of 1 in 10^3 is intolerable but an
error rate of 1 in 10^5 is acceptable
error rate of the link is inadequate it
is necessary to use an error
detecting or error correcting codes

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Regenerative repeaters
In digital transmission it is possible to use
regenerative repeaters instead of analog
amplifiers
regenerative repeaters samples the received
waveform at intervals corresponding to digital
rate
If the received voltage at sampling instant
exeeds a threshold voltage this triggers a pulse
generator which sends a pulse to next section
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Jitter
Variations in the extracted frequency
can cause a periodic variations of the
times of the regenerated pulses
known as jitter
The tolerance to jitter of any
subsequent equipment in a link must
therefore exceed the amount of jitter
produced by proceeding equipment
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The variation of error probability with SNR for


a unipolar binary signal distributed by
Gaussian noise shown below

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Frequency Division Multiplexing

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11.4 Frequency Division


Multiplexing

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FDM

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FDM
FDM is an analog multiplexing technique that
combines analog signals.
It uses the concept of modulation
At TXR each incoming baseband signal (0<
fm< Fm)from an AF circuit to a balanced
modulator supplied with appropriate carrier
frequency
o/p of this is called DSBSC
Signal sent to BPF it suppresses fc+fm &
transmits only lower side band
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receiving end the incoming signal is


applied to a BPF each of which selects
frequency band containing the signal of one
channel

At

Then signal fed to modulator supplied with


appropriate carrier & output of this
modulator consists of baseband signal &
unwanted high frequency components
LPF used to suppress unwanted components
Baseband signal transmitted to AF circuit

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TDM
Figure 6.12 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

6.66

TDM

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TDM
TDM is a digital multiplexing
technique for combining several lowrate
digital
channels into high-rate one.
Each baseband channel is connected
to transmission path by a sampling
gate which is opened for short
interval by means of train of pulses
Pulses
with
same
repetition
frequency but staggered time shown
in fig

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Common transmission path receives interleaved


pulses modulated by signals of different channels
At receiving end gates are opened by pulses
coincident with those received for transmission
path
So that demodulator of each channel is
connected to the transmission path for its allotted
intervals
Pulse generator at receiving terminal must be
synchronized with that at sending terminal
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Complete waveform transmitted during


each repetition period thus contains time
slot for each channel & one for sync signal
& is called a frame
PLM & PPM not used for line transmission
because of delay distortion & attenuation
causes dispersion of transmitted pulses
They spread in time & interfere with pulses
of adjacent channel causing channel
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crosstalk

PCM

Group of bits representing one sample is called


a word or a byte
8 Bit byte is called an octet
For telephony sampling is carried out at 8khz
& 8 bit coding is used.
Signalling rate is 8*8=64k bauds
Min b.w required is half the pulse rate 32khz is
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needed

Quantising in PCM
PCM produces quantizing distortion which is not
present in analog transmission
This arise because the system can only transmit finite
no. Of samples
If the input signal is large compared with quantizing
step ,the error in successive samples are nearly
random
The spectrum of the distortion products approximated
to Gaussian noise & called quantising noise

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If the coder uses quantising steps of uniform size,


then large amplitude is introduced by large step size
& is reproduced with little distortion

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A small amplitude signal will range over few steps &


a percentage distortion will present in output signal
Quantising SNR varies with the level of input signal

The effect of quantisation noise can be reduced by


smaller quantising steps for small input voltages &
larger step for large input voltages
This process including non uniform decoding process
called instantaneous companding

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PCM primary multiplex


group
PCM system first developed for telephone
transmission over cables originally
designed for audio frequency
Telephone channel are combined by TDM
to form an assembly of 24 or 30 channels
this is called primary multiplex group

This can be used as a building block


for assembling larger no. Of channels
in high order multiplex systems
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30 channel PCM SYSTEM

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Length of frame is 125micro sec


It contain one speech sample from each channel,
together with additional digitals used for
synchronising & signalling
Frame 30 channel system divided into 32 time
slots, each of 8 digit
Total bit rate is 8khz*8*32=2.048Mb/s
Time slot 1 to 15 & 17 to 31 are each allotted to a
speech channel
Time slot 0 is used for frame alignment & time
slot 6 is used for signalling
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24- channel frame format

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Digit rate is 193*8kb/s= 1.544Mb/s


First bit is used for framing is called F bit
The other form 24, 8 bit time slot for speech
signal
on 0dd numbered frames F bit takes
alternating pattern 1,0,1,0,....
Even frames carry the pattern 0,0,1,1,1....
On 6 & 12 of multiframe bit D8 of each
channel time slot is used for signalling for that
channel
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PDH (Plesiochronous digital


hierarch)
Primary multiplex group of 24 or 30 channel is
used as a building block for larger no. of
channels in higher order multiplex system
At each level in the hierarchy several bit stream
known as tributaries are combined by a
multiplexer
In transmission network, which has not
designed for synchronous operation, the i/p to
digital multiplexer will not be exactly
synchronous
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Although they have same bit rate


they originate from different crystal
oscillator & can vary within clock
tolerance & called plesiochronous
Plesiochronous digital hierarchy is
the first generation of higher order
digital multiplex system

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BIT & WORD INTERLEVING

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BIT & WORD INTERLEVING


If i/p to mux are synchronous ie, have same
bit rate & are in phase they can be
interleaved by taking a bit or group of bits
from each in turn
The interleaving can be done by switch that
samples each input under the control of
multiplex group
2 methods of interleaving
Bit interleaving
Word interleaving
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Bit interleaving
One bit is taken from each tributary
in turn
If there are n i/p signal ,each with
rate of Ft bits/s, then combined rate
will be NFt
each element will have a duration
equal to 1/N of an i/p digit.
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WORD INTERLEAVING
Group of bits are taken from each tributary
in turn & this involves the use of storage at
each i/p to hold the bits waiting to be
sampled
Bit interleaving is simpler & chosen for PDH
Word interleaving was chosen for SDH
There are 3 incompatible set of standards
for Plesiochronous digital multiplexing
centre on EUROPE,N. AMERICA ,JAPAN
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EUROPEAN PDH
It is based on 30 channel primary multiplex
Uses bit interleaving
Frame length is 125micros
When N tributeries are combined ,the no. digits
contained in higher order frame > n times no. Digits in
tributary frame, this is because it is necessary to add
extra overhead digits for 2 reasons

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1)frame alignment

Higher order demux recognise the start of


each frame in order to route subsequent
received
digits
to
correct
outgoing
tributaries
A unique code is sent as a frame alignment
word, which is recognised by demux
And used to maintain its operation in
synchronism with incoming signal
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2)Adding extra digits to the frame to


perform justification
Justification process enables MUX & DEMUX to
maintain correct operation ,although the signal
of the tributary entering the MUX may drift
relative to each other
If an input is slow a dummy digit is added to
maintain correct o/p digit rate
if the i/p tributary signal of the tributary speeds
up no justification digit is added
These justification digit must be removed by
DEMUX in order to send correct sequence of
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signals to the o/p tributary

AMERICAN PDH

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PDH multiplex mountain


To separate one channel from aggregate bit stream
a total demuxing process is required called
multiplexing mountain

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SDH
The introduction of integrated digital network
has resulted in transmission system being fully
synchronised & this has led to the emergee of a
new synchronous digital hierarchy
It employs byte interleaving, this allows add/drop
muldexes to
insert or remove lower order
assemblies ,
This new multiplex hierarchy is also called as
synchronous optical n/w[SONET]
SDH uses digit rate 155.52Mb/s & multiples by
factor 4n
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SDH

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SDH frame structure

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Basic SDH signal called synchronous


transport module at level 1 (STM-1)
It has 9 segments with overhead byte at the
start of each
Remaining byte consists of mixture of traffic
& overhead depending on traffic is carried
Total length is 2430bytes with each
overhead using 9 bytes
Overall bit rate is 155.52Mb/s
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Frame is represented as 9 rows & 270 columns


of 8 byte
First 9 columns are section overhead[SOH] such
as frame alignment error monitoring & data
Remaining 261 column comprise payload into
which a variety of signal can be mapped
Each tributary to the multiplex has its own
payload area known as tributary unit or virtual
tributary
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In multiplexing process the byte from a


tributary are assembled into a container & a
path overhead is added to form a virtual
container[VC]
VC travels through the network as a complete
package until it is demultiplexed
Start point of VC indicated by a pointer
The VC together with its pointer constitute
the TU(tributary unit)
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REMOTE SWITCHING UNITS


Because of SDH provides interface for
network management messages in a
standard format, it can lead to a managed
transmission bearer network
The n/w can be reconfigured under s/w
control from remote terminals
The ability of SDH to provide add & drop
mux can lead to n/w structure

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Transmission performance

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telephony
In telephone connection the complete path includes
the air path from talkers mouth to a telephone TXR &
from telephone receiver to listeners each in addition
to telephones & switched connection between them
The overall attenuation of such path expressed in
overall loudness rating(OLR) in db
OLR is measured by comparing the perceived
loudness of the received sound with that from a
standard speech path called intermediate reference
system defined by CCITT

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It is possible to plot curves of % of connections


considered unsatisfactory against overall
loudness rating of the connection

In analog n/w 4 wire connection has nominal


loss
When the component losses are greater than
the nominal value overall loss of connection is
increased
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