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1Layout and Formatting

Formatting refers to the way you enter paragraph and line breaks, indents, spaces,
typefaces and punctuation marks. By observing a few basic text-formatting rules, you can
help us transform the pages of your manuscript into a final book that looks attractive and
professional.
Paragraph Breaks and Indents
To view all of the spaces, hard returns and tabbed areas in your manuscript as symbols,
select the Show All character () in your Microsoft Word toolbar. If you can't find this
character in your toolbar, hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys and press the 8/* for the same
results.
Paragraphs
Paragraphs are separated with one paragraph mark (). This is also referred to as a hard
return, usually accessed by pressing Enter on your keyboard. Lines within a paragraph must
continue (or wrap) at the margin; lines should not be broken with paragraph marks or
manual line breaks.
First-Line Indents
The first paragraph in each chapter or part should not be indented. However, the first line of
all other paragraphs should be indented with one tab.
Indents
To indent a block of text, such as a passage from a referenced source, highlight the section
of text you want indented, select "Format" in the toolbar and choose the "Paragraph"
option in most word processors. Indent the paragraph on the left and right each by one-half
of an inch (0.5").
Single-Line Indents
To indent individual lines, such as in a poem or a recipe, use two tabs.
Dashes, Hyphens, and Ellipses
Dashes, ellipses, and other special characters are found under the "Insert" menu of your
word-processing program, under "Symbol/Special Characters." (See the punctuation section
of Part III to learn more about when to use these marks.)
Do Not Use Double Dashes (--) to express a pause in a thought or duration of time.
Instead, use the longest dash, called an em dash () or an ellipsis () to separate thoughts
or clauses within a sentence. To type an em dash, hold the Ctrl and the Alt key and type a
hyphen, or hold down the Alt key while typing 0151. See instructions below for typing an
ellipsis.

Use En Dashes () (the longer dash) to separate periods of time or numbers. To type an en
dash, hold the Ctrl key and type a hyphen, or hold down the Alt key while typing 0150.
Use Hyphens (-) (on your keyboard) to separate two words that are usually linked with a
hyphen.
Ellipses Hold Ctrl + Alt + the period key.
Italics
By going to the font settings in your word-processing software (under "Format" in the
toolbar), or by holding down Ctrl + i, you may apply italic type for the following reasons:

Titles of books, magazine articles, movies, plays, television shows, and other titles of
major works

Words with emphasis (use sparingly)

Foreign words and phrases

2 Formatting to Avoid
ALL CAPS
Do not use all caps for emphasis, for titles or for contents pages. WORDS TYPED IN ALL
CAPS ARE DIFFICULT TO READ. Use italics instead.
Underlining
Underlined text usually looks old-fashioned. Use italics to express emphasis or to indicate
key terms instead, but even then, use sparingly.
Centered Text
Limit the use of centered text. It looks overly formal and can be hard to read.
Manual Hyphenation
Do not manually hyphenate words that break at the end of a line. Both your wordprocessing software and our book-design software will automatically hyphenate words when
necessary.
Quotation Marks
Straight quotation marks (") are not acceptable substitutions for traditional quotation marks
(). When straight quotes appear, please exchange them with curly quotes (called smart
quotes). Microsoft Word may be set to display smart quotes by default through
the AutoCorrect menu. Please consult the Help menu of your word-processing software
for more information. Or correct individual straight quotation marks as follows: for a smart
open quote, press Alt + 0147. For a smart closed quote, press Alt + 0148.

3Parts of Your Self-Published


Book
Including all of the necessary parts of a book and putting them in the right order is the first
step to making your book credible and professional. The inside of your book, which we call
the book block, is divided into three main sections: the front matter, book block text, and
back matter. Please make sure that the manuscript you submit to iUniverse includes all
three sections combined into a single document and in the correct format. See a detailed
explanation and breakdown of all parts of your book below, followed by a checklist to help
you ensure your book includes all the necessary sections.
Front Matter
Front matter introduces your book to your readers. The front-matter section, which appears
before the main text, comprises a few pages that include the book's title, the author's
name, the copyright information and perhaps even a preface or a foreword. Use the list of
common front matter pages below to identify those pages that are suitable for your book.
Half Title Page
The half title page is the first page of your book and contains your title only. This page does
not include a byline or subtitle. The designer will add this to your book layout.
Series Title Page
Use the second page of your book to list any of your previously published books by title. It
is customary to list the books chronologically from first to most recently published. Listing
the title only is standard, but in nonfiction works, you may also list the subtitle if you feel it
is essential. A common way to begin this page is, "Also by [author's name] ..."
Title Page
The title page is the part of your book that shows your full book title and subtitle, your
name, and any co-writer or translator. iUniverse will add its logo and locations at the
bottom of the page. The designer will add this to your book layout, although if you have a
specific idea of how you want this to look, you may include it.

Copyright Page
The copyright page contains the copyright notice, which consists of the year of publication
and the name of the copyright owner. The copyright owner is usually the author but may be
an organization or corporation. This page may also list the book's publishing history,
permissions, acknowledgments and disclaimers.
Please note: iUniverse provides you with a standard copyright page that incorporates your
individual information and the ISBN (International Standard Book Number).
(Table of) Contents
A table of contents is the part of a book that is usually used only in nonfiction works that
have parts and chapters. A contents page is less common in fiction works but may be used
if your work includes unique chapter titles. A table of contents is never used if your
chapters are numbered only (e.g., Chapter One, Chapter Two). If your book requires a
contents page, please make sure it lists all the chapters or other divisions (such as poems
or short stories) in your manuscript. Chapter listings must be worded exactly as they are in
the book itself.
Please do not include page numbers in your contents page; iUniverse will add page
numbers during the formatting stage.
List of Illustrations
If your book includes several key illustrations that provide information or enhance the text
in some way, consider creating a page that lists them. If this material is included simply for
comic relief or as a visual aid, a page listing may not be necessary. Just as with the table of
contents, you won't need to list the page numbers.
List of Tables
If your book includes several key tables that provide information or enhance the text in
some way, consider creating a page that lists them. If this material is included simply as a
visual aid, a page listing may not be necessary. Just as with the table of contents, you won't
need to list the page numbers.
Foreword
The foreword contains a statement about the book and is usually written by someone other
than the author who is an expert or is widely known in the field of the book's topic. A
foreword lends authority to your book and may increase its potential for sales. If you plan to
include a foreword, please arrange to have it written and included in your submitted
manuscript. A foreword is most commonly found in nonfiction works.
Preface
The preface usually describes why you wrote the book, your research methods and perhaps
some acknowledgments if they have not been included in a separate section. It may also
establish your qualifications and expertise as an authority in the field in which you're
writing. Again, a preface is far more common in nonfiction titles and should be used only if
necessary in fiction works.

Acknowledgments
An acknowledgments page includes your notes of appreciation to people who provided you
with support or help during the writing process or in your writing career in general. This
section may also include any credits for illustrations or excerpts if not included on the
copyright page. If the information is lengthy, you may choose to put the section in the back
matter before or after the bibliography.
Introduction
The introduction describes something about the main text that your reader should know
before proceeding to read the book. Unlike a preface, which usually addresses the
qualifications of the author, an introduction refers to the main body of the work itself. For
example, if there are questions at the conclusion of each chapter, here is where you might
prepare the reader and give tips on how best to use them. The introduction may also
describe, in more detail than a preface, the research, methods and overall concept of the
book.
List of Abbreviations or Chronology
If many abbreviations are used or if a few are used frequently, a list is useful. Its location
should always be given in the table of contents. Alphabetize terms by the abbreviation, not
by the spelled-out form.
Back Matter
Your book submission is not complete unless it includes the information that goes into the
back of your book, or back matter. Does your book require notes? An index? A resource list?
To help you decide, we've provided the following descriptions for each of the common back
matter sections.
Appendix
An appendix includes any data that might help clarify the text for the reader but would
have disrupted the flow of the main text had it been included in an earlier part of the book.
Some items included here might be a list of references, tables, reports, background
research and sources, if not extensive enough to be included in a separate section.
Notes
If your main text requires notes to amplify or document certain passages throughout the
text, please arrange the notes by chapter in a notes section. Footnotes would more likely be
included in the references section, described below.
Glossary
A glossary comprises alphabetically arranged words and their definitions. Be sure to include
one if you use terminology that is not generally known to the average reader or if you coin
new words or phrases to explain your ideas.
Bibliography or References
Both the bibliography and reference sections list the sources for works used in your book.
Be sure to arrange the sources alphabetically by the author's last name. For samples and

guidelines on proper layout, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, or consult
the notes provided by the University of WisconsinMadison.
List of Contributors
A list of contributors is useful for a multiauthor work where only the volume editors name
appears on the title page. You should arrange entries alphabetically by last name, but do
not invert them (John H. Doe, not Doe, John H.). If its necessary, you may also add brief
biographical notes and academic affiliations for each entry.
Index
The index is an alphabetically ordered list of words and terms used for referencing your
text. Please keep in mind that the computer-generated keyword index that lists a page
number for a key term every time it occurs in your book tends to be overly long and has no
logical organization other than alphabetization. On the other hand, a professional indexer
analyzes your entire book, anticipates subject items your reader will most likely want to find
and lists them in an intuitive, accessible manner. For applicable titles, iUniverse offers for
purchase the optional editorial service of a professional indexer who considers the focus,
purpose, audience and organization of your book to create an industry-standard, two-level
index that is fully copy edited and proofread. Check out our Power of Indexing information
to understand how important indexing is for your book.
Resources
Often, readers want to buy products or join organizations in the field in which you've
written. A list of organizations and associations, manufacturers and distributors, Web sites
and other sources are invaluable to your readers.

8 Page Design Fundamentals for a Professional-Looking


Novel
We all know the importance of a good first impression. Its true for books, too.
Weve compiled some basic tips that will help make your books pages inviting
and readable.
Youve invested a lot of time and effort into writing your novel and the way it
looks should reflect that effort. If your pages look clumsy or amateurish, you
might scare readers away before they have a chance to fall in love with your
prose. And, once theyre in, you want the page design to help them alongnot
get in their way.

Page design is a fine art, but dont despair. Even if you arent a professional
designer, there are simple things you can do to make your pages look more
polished. Pull any bestseller or classic off your shelf and youll see all of the
following principles brought into play. Use them yourself, and your book will
belong with the best.

1. Keep the margins roomy

Page margins are a common problem in books by first-time self-publishers. It


can be tempting to cram as much text as possible on a page to reduce a books
page count, but dont do it.
Tight margins make pages look cramped and intimidating. Even worse, some of
your text can get lost in the gutter, or inside edge, meaning the reader has to
torture your book, prying it open just to read it. A nice, roomy margin all the way
around the page makes the book feel more inviting, allows the reader to hold it
comfortably, and leaves space for notes or marks.
How much margin is enough? For a 5 x 8 inch book, try 5/8 (.625) to start. For
a 6 x 9 book, 3/4 (.75) is more appropriate. Make the inside margin slightly
larger so words dont fall into the gutter (this is especially important for longer
books, which have deeper gutters). There are some detailed resources online if
you want to explore this topic in depth.
2. Choose readable fonts

What is a readable font? For a book, we mean a typeface that is easy on the
eyesnot only attractive at first glance, but comfortable to read over a hundred
pages or more.
This is one area where the tried-and-true is still best. Fonts
likeGaramond, Janson,Caslon, or Minion have very long pedigrees in the book
world. You see them everywhere, because they were designed specifically for
use in books. They draw the eye along a line of type, grouping letters for easier
recognition as words. You cant go wrong with any of these fonts.
If you want to branch out, look for fonts that are easy to read in paragraphs
fonts with an even look, with some (but not too much) contrast between thick
and thin lines. Dont be afraid of being boring. When you read, you should see
the words, not the font. You can always add spice by choosing a livelier font for
your cover, title page, chapter titles, and other accents.
3. Use a comfortable type size and leading

Once you have your font, start looking at the size of the type on the page. Make
it too big, and youll wind up with one of those large print editions. Too small,
and the average reader will need a magnifying glass.
Many modern books are set in 11-point type, but thats not a hard-and-fast rule.
Slightly different letter shapes make some fonts look bigger or smaller than
others. Count the number of letters or words that fit on a line. Aim for about 10
15 words per line (be sure to check several different lines of text, not just one!).
Leading is the space between lines (or, more accurately, the distance from the
bottom of one line to the bottom of the next line). If youre using a professional
tool like Adobe InDesign, you have very fine control over leading. Start with
the automatic setting and tweak it as needed. If your software doesnt allow
such fine control, compare single-spaced text and 1.5-spacing to see which
looks best.
Print out the same page at a bunch of different font settings and decide which is
easiest to read on paper. Then ask a friend for a second opinion.
4. Justify your text

In typography, to justify a paragraph means to set it so the text runs right up


to both the left- and the right-hand margin, making a nice, even rectangle. All
word processors and layout platforms have this option.
It may seem a bit odd at first. Most of us are used to writing documents with
only the left margin aligned, while the right edge is raggedeach line is a
different length. But look at almost any professionally designed novel and youll
see justified text. The idea is that straight margins make very long chunks of
text easier to read. Your eye is not distracted by the uneven edge, and can focus
on the flow of the words.
5. Indent the first lines of paragraphs

The beginnings of new paragraphs should always be easy to see on the page.
Otherwise, your text just looks like a big, run-on block of words. Indenting the

first line by a quarter-inch will usually do the trick. Half an inch is probably too
much.
Some writers, especially those familiar with web design, separate paragraphs
with a blank line. Thats a good practice for text displayed on a screen, but, in
the pages of a novel, its better to indicate new paragraphs by indenting the
first line.
6. Use running heads (and/or footers)

A running head is optional, but its the sort of detail that makes a book design
feel complete. This is the little heading that appears above the main text block
on every page. Running heads anchor the text and help readers navigate the
book.
A running head typically contains information, usually the books title and
authors name. Sometimes, the chapter title might appear instead. The headers
are usually different on left-hand and right-hand pages (author on the left, book
title on the right, to give a common example).
Theres some leeway here. You can center the header or align the information to
the inside margin with page numbers aligned to the outside margin. Sometimes
page numbers appear in the footer (below the text block) instead of the header.
These are small decisions that can have a big effect on the look of your pages.
7. Give chapter openings special treatment

Chapter beginnings are different from other parts of your book and have their
own set of standards:

Start each chapter on a new page. Some books go further and start each chapter
on a right-hand page, but that really isnt necessary (except for the first
chapter;always start your novel on a right-hand page).
Start the text about one-third of the way down the page, with the chapter
number above. It is not necessary to write out the word Chapter, often just a number
is fine.

Style the chapter numbers and/or titles so theyre distinct from the text. You
might want to reuse the font from your cover here to give the book unity. Whatever
font you choose, make sure it looks good above the body text.

Omit any running headers from the pages that start new chapters (leaving them
in is a common rookie mistake).

You also dont need to indent the very first paragraph in a new chapter. If your
software supports drop-caps, give that a try. You can also try formatting the first few
words of the first sentence in all capital letters or small-caps.

All of these flourishes help to establish the sense that one part of your story has
ended and a new phase is beginning.
8. Mark scene breaks with a blank line

Often, chapters have changes of scene in the middle. The easiest way to
indicate this is with a single blank line between paragraphs. This helps the
reader to reset and understand that the perspective has changed.
If you want to go a step further, consider making the break a little wider and
placing a small ornament in the center. Keep it simple and this can be a fun,
subtle way to reinforce the mood or theme of your book.

Format a Book In Word Book Structure:


Front Matter
When you format your book for hard copy printing, you should follow the structure as shown
in the diagram below. As I said previously, there are no hard and fast rules that dictate how
a book must be structured, but the structure discussed here is one thats been around for a
few hundred years.

NOTE: Although you do not need to follow this structure for a PDF ebook (its not applicable
for Kindle and ePubs), it can be beneficial to structure your PDF ebook like this. You can
then use it as a selling point: mention that the ebook is formatted for double-sided printing.
Following are examples of the different pages from the fictional work, To Cut a Long Story
Short, by Jeffrey Archer. These are included for illustrative purposes, and naturally your
decision to use a traditional book structure is entirely up to you. Keep in mind that you, as
an author, will be judged by the quality of your content, as well as the quality of your book
design.

4 Half Title

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

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The Half Title is the first page you see when you flip open a book, and usually contains only
the title of the book (sometimes this page is omitted, and the book starts with the Title
page). This is a right-hand page, and the back (left-hand page) is blank. Lately, the first few
pages may be testimonials of people praising the book.

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Title page (Frontispiece)

The Title page (or Frontispiece) is the second page of the book, and this contains the title, a
sub-title (if there is one), the authors name, and the publishers name and logo. In some
books this will be the first page. This is also a right-hand page, and the back can be blank,
or contain the Edition Notice.

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Edition Notice (or Copyright page)

The Edition Notice contains the copyright notice, legal notices, publication information,
printing history, cataloguing information from a national library, and an ISBN that uniquely
identifies the book. In a commercial book, you will often find a line of numbers, some of
which may appear to be missing these are called the printers key, and indicate the books
print run (not applicable for self publishing).

25

Dedication page

This is the page where the author names the person or people for whom the book was
written. This is a right-hand page, and the back is blank.

26

Table of Contents (ToC)

The ToC is the list of the chapters of your book organized in the order in which the pages
appear. I recommend that the ToC not include items lower than the third level, i.e. only
include up to level 3 headlines. Headline levels are explained later. In Word this will be
generated automatically, using the headlines in your book.
Note that a ToC and Index are not the same.

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List of Figures (non-fiction)

The List of Figures is the list of the graphic images (diagrams, charts, photos, etc.) in your
book, organized in the order in which they appear. This is usually found in non-fiction books
only, and follows the Table of Contents (ToC).

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List of Tables (non-fiction)

The List of Tables is the list of the tables in your book, organized in the order in which they
appear. This is usually found in non-fiction books only, and follows the List of Figures, or the
ToC.

29

Foreword

The Foreword is written by someone other than the author. The Foreword is often written
by a specialist or recognized person in the subject matter of the book, and often written by
someone who has reviewed the book. This is usually a right-hand page.
Note the spelling of Foreword not Forward, or Forword.
This is a common mistake, and a sure indication of an amateur author.

30

Preface

This is written by you (the author) and usually discusses how the book came into being,
how the idea for the book developed, or what the purpose of the book is. The Preface is
usually a right-hand page.

31

Acknowledgments

The Acknowledgements lists the names of those who helped in the creation of the book,
usually mentioning what the person(s) helped with. Sometimes this is part of the Preface.

32

Introduction

The Introduction is the first real content of the book and discusses the purpose of the
book. When your reader reads the Introduction s/he should have a good idea of what the
book is about, and what the benefit of reading it will be to them.

33

Prologue (Fiction)

The Prologue offers a scene directly from the book. The idea of the Prologue is to raise
curiosity and make the reader keep on reading.
The Prologue is usually found in a fictional book.
If you have any questions about the Front Matter, please feel to ask.
In the next post, I discuss the Body and Back Matter.

34 Format a Book in Word: Page Layout


& Margins
By Colin Dunbar
With our page size set, we continue with the global settings, and in this post we cover page
layout and margins.
Open your saved Word document. If you didnt save it, create a new document. I suggest
you save your Word document as well be adding formatting features, and itll be useful to
do them all in the one document.

35

Page Layout

With your page size set, the next setting you need to do is the page layout.
Click the Page Layout tab on the menu bar, then click and open the Size option.

On the drop-down menu, click More Paper Sizes (at the bottom of the menu). The Page
Setup window will display.
Click the Layout tab.

If you are designing a hard copy book its essential to design your pages for doublesided printing. Actually, its a good idea to always design your book like this; even if
youre creating a PDF ebook (you could even use it as a selling point to tell your readers
that the ebook has been designed for double-sided printing, like a real book, which they
can then have spiral bound).
Click the Different odd and even checkbox in the Headers and footers frame (see below).
This will enable you to create different headers and footers for the odd and even pages; this
is often found in a hard copy book.

If youre going to design a PDF ebook that youre going to sell off your site,
click the Different first page check box. This will enable you to insert a cover graphic image
on the first page, and it will be separate from the rest of your book. Or maybe you want to
use Words feature for a cover page. This is not applicable for the design of a hard copy
book, as your cover will be a separate file.
Headers and Footers (From edge). Its not essential to change these settings, unless you
want to create a special book design something that looks very different to the norm.

No need to change the Vertical alignment setting at this


stage. This setting can be changed if you have Section or Part dividers in your book, and
will be discussed later.
Leave the Apply to setting as is at this stage. Your book is still
only one page.
No need to use Line numbers these are usually only used in legal documents, or academic
papers.
I would not recommend using Borders on the content pages of your book it reflects an
amateur look. You could use borders on Part or Section dividers if you want to. Well cover
this later.
When you are done, you can proceed to set your page margins.

36

Page Margins

After your page size and layout is set, the next setting you need to do are the margins.
NOTE: This will usually be done in sequence with all your page layout settings, but I have
explained these steps separately.
Click the Page Layout tab on the menu bar, then click and open Margins.

On the drop-down menu, click Custom Margins (at the bottom of the menu). The Page Setup
window will display.
Click the Margins tab. Choose the margin settings in the relevant fields (see below).

If you are designing your


book for double sided printing (essential for hard copy books, and it can be a good idea
for PDF ebooks as well), keep in mind that you should set your margins differently for Inside
and Outside margins. This is how professional books are designed, and the reason for this is
to allow for the binding. The sizes in the example below are for a 6 x 9 book size.

The use of white space makes your book easier to read, especially if it is non-fiction. For this
reason, when you choose your margin sizes, dont be frugal (but also dont go overboard).
Type the size for the Top, Bottom, Inside, and Outside margins, in the relevant fields.
The Inside margin is the left-hand margin, on a right-hand page; the Outsidemargin is the
right-hand margin, on a right-hand page. Vice versa for left-hand pages.
The Gutter is used if you are going to have your book spiral bound. This is like a no mans
land area, where no text will appear .
After you have made the settings, you can click OK and check what your page looks like. If
its not suitable, return to the Page Setup window and make changes.
The diagram below illustrates the Inside and Outside margins.

NOTE: Usually the Inside margins are wider than the Outside margins, to allow for the
binding.
Only in special circumstances, would you change the Orientation to Landscape.
Multiple pages:

Normal

Mirror Margins

2 pages per sheet

Book fold

In the Pages frame, choose Mirror margins from the Multiple pages drop down menu. This
will automatically create your left and right-hand pages, with the correct margins, as you
develop your book. If your inside and outside margins are the same size, then this option is
not essential you can leave it as Normal but this is not suggested.

The last setting on the Margins screen is the Apply to setting. Again, make sure this is set
for the Whole document.
Youre done with your page setup. That wasnt so tough, right?
When you are done, you can click OK.
Save your Word document.
In the next post, we continue with global settings, and look at Base Font and Line Spacing.

37

DIY Guide To Formatting

38

Bookblock Formatting Guidelines

(With some basic instructions for MS Word)


You dont need to have complicated design software to write your book - there are many
basic word processing programs that you can use to create your document. Some common
examples are MS Word, Open Office, and Pages. Regardless of where you start, your final
result needs to be a PDF where the page size matches your intended trim size, all the fonts
are all embedded, and there are no transparencies.
Consistency is key

When formatting a text on your own, its important to remember that consistency is key. To
that end, you should figure out what you want your pages to look like, and then apply the
settings to the whole document for margins, tabs, font & point size, line spacing, etc.
Dont WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get is not a good rule of thumb for document
formatting. For example:

Do not use the space bar to align your text, use the tab key for any indentations (e.g.
the beginning of each paragraph).

If you want something centered on the page, highlight the text and click on the
centering tool.

Same goes for aligning anything to any part of the page - whether you want
everything left, right or centered, use Words formatting tools instead of the space
bar.

Do not use the Enter key to create a new page. Instead use the Insert Page Break
tool to start a new page.

Do not include images by dragging & dropping or cutting & pasting. Use the Insert
Picture from File option to place images correctly within your document.

Trim size

The trim size is the size of your finished book. Described as width by height in
inches, a standard size is 6 x 9. For your book to print properly, you need to make
sure that your bookblock document size matches your trim size exactly.

Set your trim size by modifying the paper or page size of your document. In MS Word
look under Page Setup or Page Layout, and choose Paper Size. Change from the
default paper size to whatever trim size youve chosen and Apply to Whole

Document. You will likely have to create a custom paper size, as your trim size wont
be one of the preset options.
Trim Size Options

(width x height in inches)


5 x 8
5.5 x 8.5
6 x 9
7 x 10
8 x 10

When establishing your trim size, keep in mind that if your book is over 300 pages long, you
cannot use the trim size 8 x 10.
Your PDF pages must all be exactly the trim size of your final book, and so they cannot
include bleed or crop marks.
Margins
Your margins are the space between your text and the edge of your printed page.
In MS Word under Page Setup or Page Layout, you can set the Top-Bottom-Left-Right
Margins to your taste. We recommend a minimum of at least .8 on all sides, and some
people have margins of up to an inch wide.
If your software allows it, you can also set up mirror margins so that the interior margins of
each page are slightly bigger than the exterior margins. This will provide a gutter between
the edge of the text and the spine, ensuring that your text is not too close to the spine once
the book is bound. In MS Word under Page Setup or Page Layout, you can choose Mirror
Margins and enter your preferences. Try setting the top and bottom margins to 0.8, the
exterior margins to 0.75 and the interior margins to 1.

Tabs
Standard tabs are between .25 to .5. Its a good idea to choose your preferred tab size
and apply that setting to your whole document. That way any tabs used throughout will be
the same size and the document layout will be visually consistent.
In MS Word, under Paragraph, you can modify your Tabs settings.
Line spacing
Single space is discouraged, as it is difficult to read. Double space is wider than necessary,
so 1.15 or 1.25 is suggested.
In MS Word, under Paragraph, you can modify the settings for Line Spacing.
Fonts & Point Size
Choose the font and point size for your body text. Serif fonts are more readable than sans
serif fonts for body text. Standard point size is between 10 pt and 12pt type. Good
suggestions:
Garamond

Palatino

Times Roman

Century

Choose a font and point size for your heads (chapter titles, section heads, etc) that
complements your body text. Using the same font for both usually works well if you bold
and/or increase the size by 2 points or so. Alternatively, you can use a sans serif font for
section heads to complement a serif font in body text. Good suggestions:
Lucida Sans

Verdana

Arial

Calibri

Front, Core and Back Matter


Everything mentioned so far should be consistent throughout the document. However,
there will be certain formatting options that should be applied to some pages and not
others. The best examples are page numbers and headers. Within MS Word, you can use

the Section Break feature to divide your doc into discreet sections and apply different
header/footer settings to each one.
To create a new Section, in MS Word go to Page Layout, Breaks, Next Page.
Front matter

anything leading up to the first page of your text (page one of your book)

title page, copyright page, acknowledgments and dedication, foreword, preface,


introduction, table of contents, and any blank pages.

Core matter

your core text, where page one of your book actually begins.

Back matter

anything after your text ends

afterword, about the author, bibliography, index, glossary, etc.

Keep in mind that Sections in MS Word are portions of the file (a range of consecutive
pages) to which specific settings will apply. For example, you might break your book file up
into Sections so that you can apply page numbers to some pages but not others, or include
different header text for each chapter. Note that if you want to create a new page in a
Section, you can use the Insert Page Break option, but any settings applied to the Section
overall will still appear on that new page. If you want to modify settings from one Section
to the next, select the header or footer portion of your page, review the corresponding
settings in the Header & Footer tools, and modify the Link to Previous, Different First Page,
and Different Odd & Even Pages options.
Headers / Footers

Decide if you want any headers or footers on your text pages some books have the book
title, chapter title or author name at the top or bottom of each page. Keep in mind that you
can choose to insert them on odd or even pages only, so your left and right hand pages can
have different alternating text in the header/footer space.
In MS Word, go to the Insert function to add headers/footers.
As suggested by their names, the header will show up at the top of the page, and the footer
will show up at the bottom. In either case, the header/footer text will appear in the space
between your body text and the edge of the page. For example, if you set up a .8 margin
on all sides, then the header/footer will appear within that .8 margin.
You can choose where the header/footer appears within the marginal space. Make sure that
the header/footer text is still at least 0.25 from the edge of the page. Adding
headers/footers that are too close to the body text can make the page look crowded, so
refer to other books for examples and use your own judgment.
Choose a font that complements your body text font. Try setting it to about 2 points
smaller than your body text size, maybe italicize it, whatever looks good to you.
Consider whether you want them centered on the page or aligned to the outside margins.
Aligning headers/footers to the inside margins is not a good idea, as they will get lost in the
spine. Centering them is easiest, because then the alignment remains the same for every
page. Aligning toward the outside margins is fine, it just means that from a doc settings
perspective, youll have different alignment between even and odd numbered pages.
Page numbers
In MS Word, go to the Insert function to add page numbers.
Consider whether you want your page numbers at the top or bottom of your page, centered
or aligned to the outside of your page. As with headers/footers, aligning page numbers to
the inside margins of your page is not a good idea, as they will get lost in the spine.
Centering at the top or bottom is easiest.

Choose a font that complements your body text. Try using the same point size, or 2 points
smaller (whatever looks best to you).
When you add page numbers to the core matter section of your book, you can start with
the number one, or you can set your first page number to start on whatever number will
incorporate the non-numbered pages in your front matter. If youre unsure, try reviewing
already published books for examples and decide which style you prefer.
Chapters/Sections
Remember to use the Page Break function to start a new chapter within the current section
(any existing header/footer settings will also apply to the new chapter), or the Section
Break function to start a new section (where you can apply new settings without changing
anything about the previous section). Do not hit the enter key until you scroll down to the
next page.
How do you want to begin each chapter or section?

Choose an appropriate point size (bold, larger than your body text).

Consider placement of the chapter heading centered or aligned to the left; at the
top of the page, or farther down?

Consider the chapter drop do you want the first paragraph to start at the top of the
page or 1/3 of the way down?

Do you want first few words or first line of the paragraph to look different indentation, capitalization, drop cap, bold?

Keep in mind that the first chapter or section of any book usually shows up on the
right-hand side of the book (always an odd-numbered page).