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EX LIBRIS

HENRY ROUSE VIETS

^Harvard Medical Library


in the Francis A. Countway
Library of Medicine Boston
VERITATEM PER MEDICIJsfAM QUyERAMUS

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2012 with funding from

Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

http://www.archive.org/details/aretaioukappadokOOaret

THE

SYDENHAM SOCIETY
INSTITUTED
MDCCCXLIII

LONDON
Mnr<-c!i,vi.

.
THE EXTANT WORKS

ARETvEUS. THE CAPPADOCIAN.

EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY

FRANCIS ADAMS,

LL.D.

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR THE SYDENHAM SOCIETY.
M.DCCCLVI.

LONDON:
PRINTED BY WEKTHEIMER AND CO.,
CIRCUS TLACE, FINSBURY CIRCUS.

ADVERTISEMENT.

The

Council of the

ago, having consulted

Aret^cus,

felt

hesitate about

arranged, that
text,

and a

too

Sydenham

nearly

Society,

two years

me respecting a purposed Edition


much honoured by the compliment,

meeting their views; and, accordingly,


I

should undertake to give a

literal translation

it

new Edition

of
to

was

of the

of the same into English.

In the Preface, I have entered so fully into the consideration


of our author's merits as a professional authority, and the characters of the existing Editions, that
to

add anything further on these

it

would be superfluous

points, either in justification

of the Council for engaging in such an undertaking, or of

myself

for

giving them advice to this

be thought of previous Editions,


of

them

effect.

Whatever may

cannot be denied that such

it

as are at all trustworthy, are so scarce

few medical

sive, that

of any one of them.

libraries in the

To supply

and

so expen-

country possess a copy

this desideratum, therefore,

was surely an object highly deserving the attention of a


Society like
for

such

the

Sydenham, which was professedly formed

purposes.

Whether,

indeed,

my

Edition

may

meet the requirements of the present age, remains to be


seen; but, at

no pains

all

to render

events, 1 feel conscious of having spared


it

so.

The reader

that, contrary to the rule followed

will remark,

by me

however,

in the other

works

of a like kind which I have had the honour of executing for

ADVERTISEMENT.

the Society, the matters contained in the annotations are mostly

of a philological nature

nearly everything professional having


In the present

been excluded by the advice of the Council.


instance,

was

it

felt

improved text of the

profession with an
translation

that our primary object was to supply the


original,

running commentary on every chapter,


" Paulus"

or

was given

as

for elaborate annotations

rison of ancient with

treated of,

and a correct

and that there was no necessity either

for

in the

embracing a compa-

modern opinions on the various

subjects

as was done in the two volumes of " Hippocrates."

Although the edition of Kiihn formed the

basis of

mine, I

have admitted the sub-division of the chapters introduced by

Wigan. In orthography and accentuation


conform

to

to the present usage at the

Oxford, except in a few instances,


it

on what

have endeavoured

University Press of
I

have deviated from

conceived to be sufficient grounds.

The Index

constructed very

is

AVigan's, and, like

An
my

when

it, is

much upon

the plan of

merely applicable to the translation.

index to the text would have been valued by so few of


readers, that I did

not think of undertaking so very

formidable a task.
I think

it

my

duty to acknowledge publicly, that in con-

structing the text,


press, I

and in conducting the work through the

have derived much assistance from

my

learned friend,

Professor Geddes, of King's College, Old Aberdeen, who carefully

examined every proof-sheet along with me, and kindly

afforded

me

his opinion

on many important questions con-

nected with the minute structure of the Greek language.

Banchory, April

21st, 1856.

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.


On the age of AKETiEUS,

1.

his doctrines,

and

CHARACTER AS A MEDICAL AUTHOR.

Nothing
which

can be determined respecting the age in

definite

Aret^US

flourished,

tion to the period.

beyond a probable approxima-

When we

take into account

how

emi-

nent both Galen and he were, as professional authorities,


appears singular that neither
slightest allusion to the other.

ing

how voluminous

it

of them should have made the

For, on the one hand, consider-

the works of Galen are, and the frequency

with which he refers to the names of almost every author at


all

distinguished in the literature of medicine, from Hippocrates

down

to his

own

day, one cannot but think

he would have neglected

to

it

mention Aretasus

improbable that
if

the latter

had

when Galen was


own works. And, on
own lifetime, and for

acquired his mature reputation at the time

engaged with the composition of his


the other hand, Galen, both in his

many

centuries afterwards,

was

so indisputably regarded as

the facile princeps of medical authorities,

conceive

it

at

all

likely

that

have treated in an elaborate and

that one cannot

subsequent writer would

critical

manner of the same

subjects, without making any allusion to doctrines which were

then commanding such universal applause.


reconcile these difficulties otherwise than

the two authors must have been

We

cannot, then,

by supposing

contemporaries;

whether from a concealed feeling of

rivalry,

that

and that

or in accord-

ance with the established usage of living authors to one another,


b

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

vi
tlie

one had avoided

to

remark that we have a

mention the other.


still

It is

deserving of

more extraordinary example of two

contemporary authors under similar circumstances, mutually


neglecting to quote one another, in the case of two writers

who

lived a short time before Galen,

both of

the Elder Pliny;

whom

namely Dioscorides and

are most voluminous

and

accurate writers, and both handle the same subjects critically,


yet, as

we have

stated, neither of

notice of the other. 1

them takes the

Roman

circumstances which lead us to infer that the

who

is

slightest

In this instance, indeed, there are various

merely a great compiler on

writer,

was indebted

all subjects,

to

the Greek authority on the Materia Medica, and hence the


learned are pretty generally agreed that the
rides

work of Diosco-

must have preceded that of Pliny, although both were

One

productions of the same age.

thing, at least,

is

indis-

putable respecting them, as every person familiar with their

productions must be convinced, that there


niality

jects

and accordance between

which they

treat of in

hesitation in setting

about the same time.

common,

them down

And

is

their opinions

am

that

such a conge-

on various sub-

we can have no
who had lived

as authors

clearly of opinion

from

my

1
It would appear to have been
the rule in the age of Quintilian,

would appear to have been very

who

lus, Propertius,

lived only a short time before

Galen, for contemporary writers

not to notice one another by name,


it

being probably held to be im-

judgment on them
Of this we
haveanotableexampleinthetenth
Book of his work, where, treating
of all the great satirical poets, he
dismisses Juvenal and his other
contemporaries with the remark:
"sunt clari hodieque et qui olim

possible to pass

sine ira aut studio.

nominabuntur."

In the preceding

generation, however, the practice

different, for Virgil,

Horace, Tibul-

and Ovid, are constantly mentioning one another


in terms of the greatest kindness,
Maecenas seems to have possessed
the wonderful talent of keeping up
the best feeling among the literary

worthies

But there
Grecian

whom
are

he patronised.
abundant proofs in

literature

sional rivalry

that

profes-

was even a stronger

passion in ancient than in

modern

See in particular Hesiod,


Op. et Dies ; Callimachus, Hymn,

times.

in Apoll.; and Pindar, 01.

ii.

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

vii

long familiarity with the works of Galen and Aretseus, that

one can decidedly detect a corresponding coincidence between


the literary and professional views of these authors.

had chosen Hippocrates

thoroughly imbued with his opinions.

mate acquaintance with the true


sophy, as manifested in the

Both

model, and had their minds

for their

spirit

Both show an

of the Platonic philo-

and succeeding

first

inti-

centuries.

Both display a great acquaintance with Sphygmology, and use


the same identical terms in describing the varied conditions of

Both

the arterial pulse.

Anatomy than any


between them;

more intimate knowledge of

of the other authorities on ancient medi-

In Therapeutics,

cine.

possess a

there

also,

is

a striking coincidence

and, in regard to the Materia Medica, both

not only prescribe the same simples, but also, in


the same

compound

medicines.

many

instances,

Altogether, then, there

is

such

a conformity between both their theoretical and practical views


in their profession as

we

never find to exist except between

authors

who

there

one striking difference between them

is

modern Attic

lived in or about the

same period.

It

is

true

the one writes

worthy of Xenophon or Theophrastus,

in a style

whereas the other uses Ionic or old Attic, bearing a considerable resemblance to

Herodotus. This, however,

found

the

when

be a confirmation of

to

language of Hippocrates and


attentively considered, will be

my

views regarding the identity

of the age in which the two authors in question flourished;


for

it

would appear

to

have been the practice of learned

men

in the second century, from some unexplained taste, to write

sometimes in the one dialect and sometimes in the other.

Thus Arrian, who


tury

that

most of

is

flourished in the earlier part of that cen-

to say, immediately before Galen

his historical

his

it,

in

and philosophical works he uses very

pure Attic, has made use of Ionic, or


tion of

although

at least a

in one of his works, the Indica.

modified imita-

In like manner

contemporary Lucian, whose general style


b 2

is

chaste and

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

YUi
elegant Attic, has

among

left

his

books two

tracts written in

the Ionic dialect, namely de dea Syria and de Astrologia.

way we

the same

two authors in regard

practice of our

which they

In

can account for a difference between the


to the class of poets

Homer,

familiarly quote, our author always quoting

and Galen the dramatic poets;

difference of taste

for this

is

obviously the necessary consequence of the style affected by

each of them, since the Ionic dialect

inseparably connected

is

with the Homeric poems, and the Attic with the Athenian
drama.

From what
amount of

has been stated

it

will be seen there

probabilities that our author

whom

temporary of Galen, respecting

is

a large

must have been a con-

it

is satisfactorily

ascer-

tained that he was born a.d. 131, and that he died about the

We

end of that century.

we assume
literature,

it as

cannot then be

from the truth

era.

the epithet " Cappadocian" with which his

always associated,

it

may

Although nothing

we

are

is

name

is

be assumed that he was a native of

one of the most eastern departments of the

life,

if

that Aretaeus flourished about the middle of the

second century of the Christian

From

far

a settled point in the chronology of medical

Roman

related of his education

empire.

and course of

warranted in believing that his literary and

professional reputation

was not acquired amongst

his native

mountains, but that his ambition had taken him, like his great

contemporary of Pergamus, and the scarcely

less

celebrated

Archigenes, to try his fortune in the great seat of empire.

This

is

further inferred to have been the case from his pre-

scribing to his patients the use of the most approved Italian

wines of that period, namely, the Falernian, the Fundan, the

He

Signine, and the Surrentine. 2

himself has

that besides the present work, he

left it

on record

had written on Fevers, on

Surgery, 3 and Pharmacy.4


2

De

curat.

Morb. Acut.

ii.

3.

Ibid

i.

1.

Morb.

diuturri.

ii.

12.

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.


It cannot

1X

but appear remarkable, that, notwithstanding the

indisputable merit of our author's works, they should be so

seldom noticed by subsequent writers.


the

fifth,

and Paulus

and the author of the Euporista, formerly ascribed

tury,

Dioscorides, but

much

now

later date, are the

only ancient authorities that have

wholly unnoticed;

is

By
but

the Latin and Arabian writers


for

oversight a probable

this

reason can be assigned without referring

Of

to

generally admitted to have been of a

quoted Aretaeus by name.

he

Aetius, probably of

.ZEgineta, probably of the seventh cen-

it

to his obscurity.

the Latin authorities after his age no one has any preten-

sions to learned research;

respecting

and the

him may be supposed

to

silence

of the Arabians

be owing to the circum-

stance that as a considerable space of time

had elapsed between

and the dawn of the Arabian celebrity

his age

in science, all

the treasures of Grecian medicine had been previously method-

by Aetius,

ized and compiled


-ZEgineta, from

Oribasius, Alexander,

whose works the Arabian

and Paulus

authorities

were con-

tent to extract the information they required, without being at

the trouble of referring to the original sources of information.

Another reason why our author


quent authorities
tation,

although

is

supposed, by

is

so

seldom noticed by subse-

Wigan,

to

be that his repu-

deservedly high, was eclipsed by that of

Archigenes, an author of very great reputation in the age

immediately preceding
celebrated

sect to

his,

and the greatest ornament of the

which he belonged, namely, the Pneu-

matic.

Of

the principles of this Sect, I should have thought myself

called

upon

to give a detailed exposition in this place, if I

had

not done so already, in the argument prefixed to the transla5


tion of the Hippocratic treatise " On the Sacred Disease/'

The

doctrine of the Pneuma,

it is

there stated, namely, of an

Hippocrates' works, Syd. Soc. Edit.

t. ii.

pp. 837, 838.

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.


by means of which

etherial principle existing in the microcosm,

the

mind performs

as far

back

the functions of the body,

all

Hippocratic

as the

the

rally received as

treatises,

and more especially of the

antiquity,

the

the seventeenth century, 6


are

now

it,

a principle of animal

powers

of

life

which we

will be admitted,

it

scarcely all the resources of Chemistry

and Natural Philosphy are

enabled to preserve

with

physiologists, especially those of

content to dispense with, although

that in default of

ordinary

It is identical

of our author, and the

modern

calidum innatum of

whose doctrines

Stoics,

being patronised by the illustrious

as

Marcus Antoninus the Roman emperor.


the Innate Heat,

traced

opinion of the sgavans of

established

were then in high repute,

may be

and was very gene-

sufficient to

human

the
its

account for the extra-

whereby

organism,

it

is

temperature unabated at more than

100 below the point of congelation in our thermometers.


Holding, then, the existence of this
to be

wondered

Rome

supposed

vital principle, it is

not

learned physicians of Greece and

at if the

to play a very important part in the animal

it

economy, both in regard to the preservation and the restoration of health.

Accordingly, as already stated,

it

figures in

the medical theories as early as the time of Hippocrates; but


it

was not

until the first century of the

this principle

was made to form the

an important

sect,

Christian era that

of the system of

basis

the Pneumatists, which

originated with

Athenaeus of Attaleia, and soon afterwards acquired


celebrity from Archigenes,

the reign of Trajan; that

second century.

upon by Galen

is

who

flourished in

to say, in the

still

greater

Rome

during

beginning of the

The dogmas of this author are animadverted


many parts of his works, more especially

in

in his elaborate Treatises

on the Pulse

and

if

our conclusions,

formerly announced, be well founded, he must have been the

See in particular the works of Harvey, pluries.

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

x[

immediate predecessor, and, perhaps, the preceptor of Aretseus.

Of

late, it

has been disputed whether or not our author did

Pneumatic

actually belong to the

controversies
since all the

sect;

which can never come

and

this

one of those

is

to a satisfactory result,

works of the acknowledged Pneumatists are

lost,

and the only information we can obtain respecting the principles of the

sect

must necessarily be incomplete,

For

derived at second hand.


in this place, that

of

my own

having familiarised myself with the works

the ancient writers on medicine which have

all

to us, I give

Pneuma

of the

as

it

being

as

part I need only declare

my

come down

decided conviction, that the doctrine

holds a more prominent position in the works

of Aretseus than in those of any of the other authorities, and

hence

am

Athenseus and Archigenes.


fully

same

that he belongs to the

satisfied

and comment on

examination of which

unnecessary for

me

as

to quote

the passages in his works, from the

all

It is

sect

have been led to draw

this conclusion,

but I subjoin references which will enable the reader,


disposed, to satisfy himself whether or not

my

if so

opinion on this

subject be well founded.7

After the second century, the Pneumatic sect had ceased to


exist

by name,

this

system and

the others having been

all

extinguished by the prevalence of the Galenic.


true, continued to recognise the

pneuma

Galen,

animal economy which ministers to the preservation


restoration of health, but

it

it is

as a principle in the

and

no longer played the same promi-

nent part in medical theory as

it

did in the system of the

Pneumatists. 8
7

DesignisMorb.Acut.iii.

Diuturn.

i.

De

40
121

144

ii.

2, p.

p. 150

ii.

4, p.

ii.

5, p.

ii.

7,

ii.

12, p.

iii.

curat.

169

See, in particular, de diffic. respir.,

locis afiectis,

Morb. Acut.

3, p.

16, p.

i.

I,p.l93

i.

I,p.l99

247
269

Kiihn's edition.
iii.

de natural,

facult.,

iii.

de

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

XU

In modern times, the


hypothesis
cially as

Helmont was

pneuma of the ancient

who

plains

resemblance to tne Pneumatic

Van Helmont, more

espe-

expounded and upheld by Stahl and Hoffmann. That

the archeus of

one

closest

found in the system of

is

in

many

authorities,

respects identical with the

must appear obvious to any


indeed, he himself ex-

familiar with his works;

is

by comparison with the " impetum

it

Hippocrates, and proclaims

it

faciens "

to be, sometimes a " causa

of

effi-

an " aura genialis," and " spiritus semi-

ciens,"

and

nis."

After the fashion of this system had passed away, the

at others

spiritual essence

which had been supposed

portant a function in the animal frame,


lost its

independent existence in medical theory,

held, in the Cullenian system, to be a

late,

in the philosophy of medicine,

vis

when

have
it

was

medicatrix naturae.

life

has ceased to be

held connected with a vital principle, although

be denied, that

said to

mere virtue or energy

of the body, under the appellation of a

Of

to perform so im-

may be

it

will scarcely

many of the symptoms of disease and many of the

undoubted phaenomena of Animal Magnetism cannot otherwise


be well accounted

But

for.

it

would be out of place

cute these reflexions further at present.


clusion, that

to prose-

Suffice to say, in con-

whoever approaches the study of the Pneumatic

hypothesis with an unbiassed mind, must be disposed to recognise in

it

a great

and important truth

he may be inclined

was attached
thinus,

in

to

as its basis,

however much

an exaggerated importance

by the followers of Athengeus and AgaHelmont in

the second century, and by those of

the eighteenth.

On

it

to think that

Sed

hcec hactenus.

the virtues of Aretseus, as a medical author, I shall only

add a few words.

His descriptions of diseases have been

universally admitted to be unsurpassed for elegance and ac-

curacy.

No

doubt,

it

must be admitted, that they do not

convey the impression of being original copies from nature, so

much

as those of Hippocrates; but,

on the other hand, they

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.


are

x iU

more comprehensive and more studiously elaborated.

may mention

a solitary proof of their value, I

and Aretseus are almost the only authorities among


decessors, in
his
his

As

that Hippocrates
his pre-

whose works Laennec detects any anticipations of

own system of diagnosis in diseases of the chest. To have


name thus honourably connected by so great a master in

Semeiology,

is

a eulogium to

any addition.

to attempt

ceive that he

which

it

would be superfluous

In a word, no one can

was gifted with the rare

striking delineation of a series of

to per-

fail

talent of giving a

more

morbid phenomena, in one

page, than most authors would give in a long treatise.

His system of treatment

also

can scarcely be too highly

commended, being generally founded on


indications, which, as soon as stated,

Even

the unprejudiced reader.

judged of impartially,

it

rational

command

at the

and judicious
the assent of

when
him of

day,

present

will be difficult to convict

having in any single instance laid down erroneous rules of

And

treatment.

not only are his general principles in thera-

peutics to be admired, but also the skill

he reduces them to
mitted that

it

would be

and

taste

For, in general,

practice.

difficult to

it

with which
will be ad-

accomplish the fulfilment of

the indications laid down, by any more appropriate means than

makes use

those he

of.

As

a practitioner of the art,

he would

happy medium between

appear to have attained the


timidity and reckless audacity.

Moreover, there

single class of remedies presently in use from

is

feeble

scarcely a

which he does not at

one time or another draw certain specimens, from the simplest

and most

delicious of the culinary preparations

potent resources of Surgery and of Pharmacy.

up

to the most

The fermented

juice of the grape, and other savoury potations; acids, bitters,


astringents, carminatives, narcotics, diuretics,
cathartics,

rides or

and emetics; soap

mustard to stimulate

cases, the actual cautery

emmenagogues,

to cleanse the skin,


it;

and cantha-

the lancet, and, in extreme

such are the remedial means recom-


THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

xi v

mended and employed by the learned Cappadocian, with


admirable

skill

symptoms of

disease

As

lineated.

and discrimination, to combat the multifarious

which he himself has

so graphically de-

a record, then, of the opinions of a most talented

and experienced physician, in a remote age, on some of the


most

vital questions

member

surely no

connected with medical practice, there

is

of the profession but must feel interested in

the remains of such an author, and deeply deplore the loss of


those portions which have unfortunately perished.

On the Editions of Aret^eus.

II.

The

first

edition of Aretasus

was the Latin

translation of

Junius Paulus Crassus, printed at Venice, a.d. 1552, in quarto.

The

editor, in his preface,

bearing the

name

of

announces that the work in Greek,

Aret^eus, the Cappadocian, had

accidentally fallen into his hands, and that with great labour

and care he had made

his version,

and published

it, lest

such

valuable fragments, in so perishable a state as he found them,

should be altogether

lost.

This Latin version was reprinted in

1554, at Paris, by William Morel and James Putianus; and in

1567, by Henry Stephens, in his work " Medicae Artis Principes."


editor,

In 1581, another edition, carefully amended by the

was published

at Basle, after his death.

The

translation

of Crassus bears evident marks of having been prepared by a


scholar well competent for the task

and who, although he

had not the advantage of examining

several codices

which

have since been discovered, would appear to have enjoyed the


privilege of consulting

some MS. which has

since disappeared.

This version, then, must always deserve the careful attention


of any one

who

undertakes to give an edition of our author.

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.


The

first

Greek edition was issued

at

xv

Paris, in

1554,

by-

Jacobus Goupylus, from the press of the celebrated Adrian

The

Turnebus, the King's printer.


followed principally a
is

MS.

editor professes to have

This edition

in the Eoyal library.

executed on good paper, and in the elegant type for which

Turnebus has always been held remarkable.


to have

been the same type

as that

it is

would appear

Like other

of iEschylus, printed about that time.

however, of that age,

It

used by him in his edition

is

end, there are some curious attempts to

author

printer,

Altogether, this

the

amend

and the age in which


edition

it

appeared.

was the Greek and Latin edition of

have formed

his text

good many

little

value;

The

The commentary

of common-place matters, from which

information can be gathered.


little

This edition contains

and, as regards accuracy of the

text, the printing is execrable.

very

editor pro-

different readings in the margin, but these, in

general, are of

made up

The

from the collation of three MSS.,

"Venetum, Bavaricum, Augustanum."

is

the corruptions

Editio princeps of our

Henisch, published at Augsburgh, in 1603.

places

a performance highly creditable to the editor, the

is

The next
fesses to

many

But, at the

so corrupt as to be altogether unintelligible.

of the text.

and, as no

faulty in punctuation;

conjectural emendations are admitted, the text in

editions,

at the
little

end

or

no

This edition, then, possesses

value in any point of view.

third edition

is

one of a very different stamp, namely,

the magnificent edition of Wigan, printed at the Clarendon


Press of Oxford, 1723, and dedicated to the celebrated Dr.

Freind, of London.
is

As announced

in the title-page, the text

mainly formed from a collation of the Vatican and Har-

leyan MSS.; in

and

this

it is

fact, it is

formed almost entirely on the

which constitutes

are often retained in the text


editor

its

main

latter,

defect, as monstrosities

which even the most cautious

ought to have no scruple in expunging.

In most other

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

xvi
respects, the

performance

beyond

is

and accuracy of typography, and


of a classical edition,

it

all praise

all

unsurpassed.

is

for as to elegance

the other embellishments

In particular, the

notes and emendations, along with the copious dissertations on


all

matters connected with Aretseus, are most interesting and

valuable.

The next edition is that which bears the name of


famous Herman Boerhaave, having been got up under
patronage by Dr. Groeneveld.

is

regards typography and

As

1735.

of valuable

matters,

In particular,

sources.

style

at

his

Leyden,

of execution,

it

Oxford edition, which had come out a

far inferior to the

few years previous; but, withal,

amount

was printed

It

the

it

is

enriched with a large

collected

from a variety of

contains the very important com-

it

mentaries of Peter Petit, the celebrated Parisian physician,

which are about the most ingenious and judicious labours of


which have ever been expended on an ancient

the kind
author.

One can

scarcely over-rate the benefits

which the

cause of Medical Literature owes to Petit, insomuch that

may

be doubted

perhaps, Foes,

Leyden

if in

line

this

the admirable

edition,

also,

possesses the

tural emendations of Triller,

and other matters supplied


taire,

The

a high authority

but

convenient

at

of Hippocrates.

Oxford edition by Mait-

is

that time.

at

the same as that of the

bottom of every page

the

The

Greek index

along with the

to the

unless,

annotations and conjec-

in classical literature

text of this edition

princeps,

he has any equal,

editor

it

is

editio

given

collection

of lectiones variantes and conjectural

edition

that of Kiihn, published at Leipsic,

emendations.

The next
The

1828.

text

is

is little

else

edition in an octavo shape


it is

but both in paper and typography,

of a very inferior stamp.

is so faulty,

than a reprint of the preceding

In particular, the punctuation

that no one can possibly read the works of our


THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

xv ii

author with any pleasure or advantage from this edition.

The only recommendation

possesses

it

is,

that

it

contains, in a

very convenient shape, most of the valuable matters originally


published in the edition of Boerhaave.

We

now come

of

that

to the latest edition of our author,

Franciscus

Dr.

Zacharias

No

Utrecht, 1847, in 4to.


say of this edition, that

it

competent judge can hesitate to


is

executed with

much

care,

The

editor

makes

acumen.

a most elaborate performance,

and indicative of great


it

many

instances

with too bold a

MSS., and

From
with much success,

spirit

the previous

all

the careful study of

editions of our author.

critical

appear that he had carefully

collated nearly all the existing

in

namely,

Ermerins, published at

of innovation

all

these

although, in not a few,

he gives a very excellent

and, on the whole, an improved text of our author.

highly I estimate his labours will be seen by the

made

ferences

to

them

my

in

How

many

re-

and, where I think

notes;

myself compelled to reject his proposed alterations, I shall


readily be believed sincere
respect

for

when

I say, that

the talent and attainments of

Having spoken

elaboration, I

slightly to touch

Though

his

work

with

much

predecessor.

upon the

defects of

my

much
many in-

in general bespeaks

was rather disappointed

to find so

stances of very inferior Latinity, both in the

Notes

is

freely of the blemishes of defunct editors, I

must be permitted
contemporary.

it

my

Prolegomena and

and even in the text, the lapses, as regards accentuation

and typography, are more numerous than in the Oxford


I

edition.

have

also

remarked, in several instances, that the

Latin translation has not been altered, so as to suit the changes


of the text introduced by the editor.

my

principal

edition

more
culo"

is

ground of objection

the enormous

amount of

especially the freedom with

But, as already hinted,

to this otherwise valuable

conjectural emendations,

which he has

" suo peri-

ejected hundreds of words from the text, on the un-


THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

xviii

proved assumption, that they are interpolations which have


crept into

it

from the Glossema.

There have been two English

both very

translations,

in-

complete, namely, the translation by Moffat, London, 1785,

As

and that of Reynolds, London, 1837.


translators lays claim to

author,

it

any

critical

neither of the

acquaintance with our

cannot be expected that I should admit having

my

received any important assistance from

predecessors in

this line.

Of my own
Aretzeus

it

preparations for undertaking the task of editing

now becomes my duty

state, then, that

to say something.

beg

to

had been familiarly acquainted with our

author's work, through the study of most of the previous


editions, long before I

thought of offering

since I undertook this task, I

text in
all

the

MSS.

following
I.

to

and that

have diligently examined the

the existing editions,

all

to edit it;

and

collated with

some care

be found in Great Britain, namely, the three

Codex Harleyanus, VICIOCCCXXVI small in folio, of the


end of the 16th century. British Museum.
Cod. Askew commencement of the 16th century. Library of
;

II.

the Medical Society of London.


III.

Cod. Philipp.

of the 15th century. Library of Sir

Thomas

Phillips, of Middle-hill, Worcestershire.

To

the examination of

all

these editions and

MSS.

have

added, in most instances, a comparison of collateral passages


in

all

the other authorities on

Ancient Medicine; and have

further endeavoured to prepare myself for

by

a diligent revision of all the

my

editorial duties

Greek writers who used the

peculiar dialect of Aretseus, from Herodotus and Hippocrates

down

to

Arrian and Lucian.

directly, that I

I trust, also, it will

be seen in-

have not been remiss in availing myself of the

distinguished labours of contemporary philologists, especially

of Dindorf and Daremberg, and the lexicographers of Oxford.

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.


Having bestowed
feel

so

much

some disappointment

pains on
if it

my

XJ X

work, I

shall certainly

not such as to satisfy the

is

reasonable expectations both of the classical scholar and of

More

the learned physician.

be curious to

especially, I shall

ascertain

how my

passages,

which had defied the ingenuity of preceding


by the few

will be received

who

attempted emendations of several corrupt

scholars

are possessed of the requisite

knowledge

philological

attempts.

to sit in

Satisfied, indeed, as

combination of

now

amount of

and

professional

judgment on such

literary

have long been of the rare

acumen and

critical

editors,

existing in Europe,

required

practice

restoring the decayed remains of Ancient Literature,

for

not

it is

without considerable misgivings that I have ventured to

sume myself
" curiosa

felicitas,"

which has

as-

even in a small degree, of a

to be possessed,

reflected so

much honour on

the

names of Elmsley and of Porson.


There
called

is

upon

one omission in
to furnish

this edition, for

an explanation.

which

I feel

myself

have not thought

it

necessary to imitate the example of several preceding editors,

end a

in giving at the

list

of the lectiones variantes, having

been principally deterred from doing so by the trouble and


expense which would
reader

may form

have amounted

to,

when

what these would

I state that in the

Leyden

they occupy twenty-three closely printed pages in

had added

these, if I

erasions of

all

Ermerins, and

purpose.

edition

folio.

To

the conjectural emendations

and

all

myself, I should have required

the

alterations

more than

suggested by

sixty pages for this

The members of the Sydenham Society

fore, see that

The

have been thereby incurred.

a pretty correct estimate

will, there-

they would thus have been subjected to a very

great additional expenditure, and myself to a great sacrifice

of time and of labour, without any corresponding


benefit to

any reader of the volume.

to repeat the

Indeed, I

amount of

may

venture

judgment which Wigan pronounced on these

THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.

XX

different readings:
eruet,

" Haud

quod faciliorem reddet

over, there are very

facile

iis,

ut opinor, quispiam

Aretsei lectionem," etc.

More-

few scholars who take delight in the

minutiae of philological criticism,


or

ex

more of the preceding

editions

who have

not access to one

which contain the

lectiones

variantes.

Of
close,

the Translation, I need only say, that

and that

it is

have taken every pains to make

scrupulously
it

correct.

,
.
.

.
*******
******* \\
*******
*******

$'.

.'.

........
*

'.
'.

'.
'.
t'.

0
'.

'.
,
,
,
7<
,
^
,

< ,' ,
'
.
Ke0.

Ylepl

* *

Be

In

all

stead of

we read

and, with the exception of that

of Dr. Ermerins,

this

the former editions, in-

all

have

before

The Latin translation of


clause by Wigan, Kiihn, and

Ermerins,

is this

" Nausea pra?ci-

pue quidem post cibum, sed qua?


per abstinentiam quoque lente continuat," which is evidently very loose
and vague. That of Crassus is far
more strict and accurate " Nausea
frequentius quidem e cibis, non minime tamen et ab inedia pusilla
qusedam nausea sequitur." The Eng:

lish translation of the text as

it

for-

merly stood would run thus " Nausea for the most part, indeed, after
:

but also, not un frequently,


nausea after abstinence." It
appears to me, however, that the
food

slight

meaning

is

so

much improved by

the slight change I have ventured


to make, that I flatter myself no
argument is required to prove it to
be the true reading. The contrast
between
in the one case, and
in the other, is most suitable to the sense.
That the repeti-

tion of

is

legitimate in

this

clause of the sentence, will not be

questioned by any one

who

is

fami-

liar

with the style of Galen.

See,

for

example,

v.i.,

prope initium;

De

Locis
t. iii.

Basil.

Affectis,

p. 296, ed.

,
,
,,' ,, '/',
'
, . ,
<, , ,
^,< , ..' ,, , ,
4

Be

.
-

iv

opyiXoi,

yoOv

<< ,

'

Be

<<.

<yodv

2
The common reading in the
which is evidently
MSS. is
inadmissible. Petit, in his Commen-

',

tary, suggests that the true reading


is

y.

Wigan

also prefers

Ermerins accordingly

None

properly restores

it,

in another pas-

sage of our author, where

had

been substituted for it (Sympt. diut.


in such
Indeed
morb. i. 9).
cases, occurs frequently in the

works

of our author.

of

Moreover, in the margin of the

these editors, however, refers to any

celebrated Reiske's copy of Henisch's

authority for this expression, which

edition, there

appcars to me quaint and unnatural


" but if the dread of a paroxysm

tion

reads

hj

be at hand."

authority

of

sages, as for

loc.affec t.

I prefer

many

found this emendaSee G. Dindorf 's

to Kiihn's edition.

The

Latin translation of Crassus would

pas-

agree very well with the reading I


propose ; while it is unsuitable to

Galen, de

admitted:
the text when
is
" Quum vero accessio appropin-

example

iii.;

P. JEg. iii. 5, in the


Ermerins very

chapter on epilepsy.

is

on the

parallel

Appendix

quat."

0#

.
,
,

, ' '
.
., ,,
,
'.

,
,

'
,
, ,, , ?
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,,. ,,'
.

,
,
'- ,,'

3
The common reading
MSS. is

is

the

we

find

/,

Eradopted by Wigan.
from before

merins transposes

',
4

ture,

as

substitutes

as above.
Dr. Ermerins, on pure conjee-

may

think unnecessarily.

In the margin of the

edition of Henisch

which

in

be interpreted literally, " inclining,"


" drawn upwards."
See Eoes
i. e.
CEc.

Hippocrat.,

Would

under

be a suitable

not

reading?

have translated the

passage accordingly.

,
,
,
.
)
/core

eV

,, ,, ,''
.
iv

el

),

,^'

iv

.
'. , , ,,
.
,
,
, ,
Be

Be

'9

69

Be

.
,
,
,
,
.
,
'
,
,,
,
,
, ,.
.
Be

Be

The common reading

Ermerins was

cheerfully adopted, also, his

dation of

before

I have

into

emenas

suggested by Petit; and only won-

der that neither of them refers to


the

Eumenides of iEschvlus (1. 116)


meaning of

as an authority for this

the term,
6

Homer,

Iliad, iv. 421, et seq.

,.
.
,. , ,,
'
,
'
,
,
'
0

Ke0. S

'.

Hepl

.
.
iv

yap

Be

,-

,
.
.,
/
,
,

yap

yap

yap

vyvv,

ylr

yap

. , ,
'
,
'
,
yuvr],

^/\

pyyva.

.
,

yyva

,,
.

,' '
'
,

hypal.

yepovjes

yap

Hippocrat. Aph.

v. 2.

yuvai^

,
.
,

<,

, , <, ,
.
<<
,
'
,\",, ,,,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
iv

yap

iv

<yap

'.

.,

'

.,
,
.
,
,
,, ,,
. ,,,
"

/,

The common reading is


to

which

which Ermerins adds


have substituted fur },

so as to produce a suitable reading

with

little

violence to the text.

. ,'' ,
,
,< , ,
,
,
' .,
.
,
,
0#

<*

'.

<

7'

'*

^'

,,, ,<,
,
, ,
, ^
,
., ,
'
,
,
,
,
, , ,
.

'

'

,
3

is

The common

reading

is

reading,

obviously at fault.

The

present

adopted by Ermerins, only

using iyvvy in place of lyvvi].


there

is

Still

something unsatisfactory in

and

the text.

plied, in strictness, to the

of the thigh at

its

are ap-

back part

lower extremity.

Ermerins adopts

this reading,

partly on the suggestions of Petit,

and partly from the margin of HeIt is also the

nisch.

Askew MS.
is

other

is

reading of the

The common reading

Neither the one nor the


quite satisfactory,

10

)'

'.

.
.
?.
'
.

Uepl

,^'. , ,, ,
, ' ,
.
.,, ,
'

he

,
,

.
'

'

,
'
,
.,,

. ,.
,
. , , -,
6

0#

.,

, ..

'.

11

.
.
,
.
,
' , ,,
, '
,.,,
'
,,
'
'
,
,
.
,
'
, ,,
ovS"

iv

iv

Be

.,
,
. ,
, '

,, ^

'
,,'

'-

12

'?

.
.
,
,, ,

.,,

'
.
, ", , ,
,
,
.
,,
?

\\,

.
.
,
.
,
.
,
'
.
.
.

Tlepi

'

1 have followed Wigan and Ermerins in interchanging the places


as they
and
of
stood in all the MSS. I have also,
1

;
,

like

them, substituted

,-

for

and have added tc before


on the authority of Ermerins.
But all this patchwork still leaves
the sentence in a very unsatisfactory
condition.

2
Ermerins has substituted the two
and
words above for

which have no proper signiIt must be


admitted, that although some imfication in this place.

provement, the substituted terms arc


not quite suitable; as it can scarcely

be said, that an internal disease is


"driven outwards" by an external

application.

3
The common reading is
The other word occurs in the Codex

Philipp.,

reading.

and

is

no doubt the true

,,

.
,
. ,, , ,,
,
,
,
,
' .
. 0#

'.

13

yap

, .
,
, ' ,
yap

,
.,

,
.
. .,
,
', '
,
.
,
.
'
,
,'
.
.,
7'

jap

&

yap

{jypbv

yap

are

Hippocrates, Aphor.

indebted

to

iii.

6.

Ermerins

We

for

changing

#.

into

14

.,

" , , .
,
, ', , ,,
,
', . '
,, .,
,
, ,
Ke0. U

'.

Ilepi

yiryvertu,

iir

, '
,
'
.

.
,
.,. ,,, ,,
,,,'
,,
,
,,
,
*9

<yap

,
'
'
'

.
,
,
' ? ,..,
.
,
,
, , ' ?
.
0#

'.

15

yap

'
, .

'
,
'. , ,, ,
'

,
.
,
'
.
,
'' .
,^
'
.
',

The common reading

stead of

instead of

is

instead of

ty in-

and

Ermerins

I
merely changes the ty into
trust every candid and learned
reader will admit, that I have greatly improved the meaning by the
slight changes which I have ventured to make. From the translation of Crassus, it may be inferred

that he

had read

or at least

had seen the necessity of introducit into the text: "Aer enim spi-

ing

rando siccus adducitur."

I need

scarcely add, that in the old Ionic,

which our author


often put

affects,

is

in the feminine gender.

This was also the case in old Latin,


See A. Gellius, xiii. 19.
2
Ermerins suppresses the words
but this seems an
unwarrantable liberty. By a small
alteration I have made, the text be-

comes

sufficiently

ancient Zythi, see

amended.
Appendix

On the
to the

Edinburgh Greek Lexicon,


3
Ermerins has ingeniously substituted the last two words for
a vocable of doubtful mean-

ing.

,. ,
16

',

<yap

.
,
.
,
,
,.
, '
4

Ke0.

'

Tlepl

,
'

, ',
,
'

yap

<yap

,, , . .
,
,
,, , ' ,
,
'
, ,, <, .
,;
6

yap

'

'

Wigan and

teration

for.

seems

should

Ermerins

to

read

but the alme uncalled

prefer

to

their

read-

ing.
'

Hippocrat. de Morbis,

vii. p.

144, ed. Littre.

iii.

16,

t.

.
?
,

0#

^
.

,.

'.

17

."

,,
.

,
,
.
.
,
,, ' ,
,
67
,
6

<

he

,
,
.
,
)
,
,,."',,,,
,
,
'
,
,
., ,,, ,
. ,,
,
,
.
,
,
,,
eV

()

jap

''

ivpayfj,

The negative seems

to be required here.

See Petit and Ermerins.

.
,
.,
0#

.
,
,
,
. ',
,.
, ' .,
.
18

'

,
.
,

'.

iv

jap

3
This is the reading in the Askew
MS., which is approved of by Erme-

rins.

There are considerable varia-

tions in the other editions.

,
.
.
''
........
/ ........

.0

^ .......
.

,
'.

^.
,

,
,,
,
Ke0.

,,
Be

Be

veovL

.,

ivBiBoi'

Ylepl

<

, , ',
'
,, .
,, .
-'

Be

Be

Be

'
,
,,,,
eh

,
,, ,, .

,
,
'*
*Hv

Be

,
'

Be

'
,
.
,
,\ ', , , ,.
22

yap

yap

,
,
,
, , '.
,'
<?,

ache

'?

\<,

, yo
,
,
, ,, ''
yap

yXo

'^,,/ ,,,, yX,,.,


)

>

yv

fj

. ' ,,
'
,,
.
^
, , ,
,
.*, ,
,
,
yvv,

,
, ,.

yovv

oXoy-

ypo'

y-

yap

,
,
. ,, .
.,
dya0bv

a^oppay^

yapa

ayayrj

yyva

yppov

'

. ,

,
.
,

0#

TrepcyiyvovTat.

e?

vyav

'.

23

ayaObv inroyly-

iv irXevpf],

' .' , ).
/ya,

avaycuyr}<;

iv

ypov

'.

Ylepl

,
,
^'' / ', ,
,
ayyelxov

apyypov,

pyova

,' , , ,
,
, ,,.*' ,,
,
,

avaycoyrj

afaoppayty.

vayy

,
'

Ermerins suppresses

I think, unnecessarily.

;
2

Wigan

is

vayy

as

not satisfied with

and Ermerins does not

hesi-

vayy^

tate to expunge these words, as


heing a gloss on the text. Instead
of doing this, I should rather he

disposed to read,

24

,
'' ,
,
,
,
, ,8,, ,-

'8 8.

',

,
'
,
.

'

'
,
,,
,

'

. '
.
'
, ,, ,
,
,,
., 8
,
,
,,
,
8

8.

8
8
8

',
'
'
.

8. ,88 8

8
8

8,

8
8
8

0#

,.

'.

' , ,,
.
'
,
,
,
,
.
' ,' ,
, , ,',, ,
25

iv

,
, .

'

,
,,,

,,
,
,
,
,
'

yap

,
,,
3

' .,,
,

The common reading

is

--

Ermerins reads
a very equivocal
emendation. My conjectural read-

ing, I feel confident, will be admit-

ted to be the true one by any impartial critic,

26

'
,
8
', 8 7, ,,8,
,
,
, '
rrroXXbv

, .
,
8
,
8
,

, 68 .
,
,
.., ,88 ,,88, ,.
" \
8
,
,,
' 88
,^, , ., .
'
8

!8

.,

8.

8,

8,

8.

'

8,

69

#', .

'.

27

,
,. ,
'',

. , '^
.
,
., , ,, ,
,
?"
,
'
'
,
' <"
,
,
'
.

el

cXX'

<yap

Be

'

yap

, ,
,
'
,
, ,
,' . ,,', . ,
,
,
,
.
'
' ' ,,
,
'
, ,
avayono

'

Xyv

aypov'

iv

yap

,,
,'
28

el

,
,,

,-

'.
,

, .
.
,,
.
' ,
'

.
,
,
,
,
,
..
yap

'.

,
-

'
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
.,
,; , .
",

'

' -

yap

yiyvovTai.

,,.
.
'
'
yXo ,
,
. .
., y , '
,

, . .,
,
,
. ,
, '
0#

'.

yap

ev

Ke0.

ye

Ylepl

<ye

el

yap

yov

yap

yap

yap

The reading

in all the

MSS.

is,

words which evidently

have no meaning. Ermerins accordingly erases them, with the

hesitation in adopting

altogether.

in place of it;

This, I think, will

generally be admitted

bold a procedure.

to

be

too

The emendation

suggested by Fabricius and Mat-

),

taire,
ly,

and adopted by Wigan (nameis so plausible, and

requires so

change of the chashould have had no

little

racters, that I

it;

but

not the case. I have


therefore ventured to substitute
this, I fear, is

three following

provided

it,

there were any authority for

suaded
ation,

and

per-

upon mature considerwill be approved of by

that,
it

every competent judge.


scarcely remark, that

mon

am

it

I
is

need

of com-

occurrence in the works of the

medical authorities, and that


very applicable in this place,

it is

30

.
.
,

. ,

yiyvovTai

, <

,
,
,< .
,
,
.
,
?
'
,
,
., ''
,
yo,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
., , , , , , ,-

rjje-

<yap

yap

yap

opyavowt

'

yap

ayov

Xy,

py^

yvr^

2
I must own, that I feel somewhat disposed to follow the suggestion of Wigan, and read
for
it

well

is

buboes
groin
first

known

occur

(i. e.

that

pestilential

principally

in

near the pubes), as


I

am

is

not aware,

moreovcr, that any of the ancient


authorities refer the pestilential bu-

boes to the

liver,

and the other


Edit.
3

the

noticed by Procopius (de Bcllo

Persico, 22, 23).

See Agathias, Hist. v.


authorities quoted at
P. JEginet. t. i. p. 232, Syd. Soc.
of the groin.

but to the glands

Were

I disposed to indulge in

conjectural emendation,

"

should

certainly not hesitate in this place

I wonry
to read,
dcr the present unsatisfactory reading has escaped the animadversions

of

all

the editors

and commentators.

.
&
,
,
, , ,.'
,

'.

31

.
,
' ,,
.
,
,, ,
, , ,,
, ,

"

),

<yap

tj)

, .
.
.
'
,
,
,
,
,,-,,,' ,,,
' . ,
6

},

'
,
' ,,
,

,
,
,
,
, , ,,,, ,,
'.

32

^
.
, ,

yap

,
,
, , ',
,,
,
'
.

,-

,'

yap

opyava,

Be

,
, ,

\ .'' , ,,
.,
2

-"
-

'

yap

.
1

Ermerins

clause,

transposes

this

all

to

the beginning of the chapter, after


I find difficulty in recon-

change inplace, the meaning

ciling myself to this

deed, in either
of these words
2

of

is

not clear.

the time

it

took place, about thirty

years ago.
3

This conjectural emendation of


which is adopted by Ermerins

Petit,

There has been much difference


opinion respecting these two

words.

know, was suggested to him by the


Aberdeen, whose
correspondence with Kiihn I saw at
late Dr. Kerr, of

I regard the construction

and Wigan,

tute for the

as an Attic anacoluthon, of which

ing.

many examples

tion,

occur in our au-

is

an ingenious substi-

common

reading,

which evidently has no meanA still more simple emendahowever, would be,

thor's works,

longing to the Glossema.

See Liddel and Scott's


Lexicon under
for this meaning of the word.

and in those of -Lilian


and Arrian, who were about his
age. Ermerins mentions that Kiihn
was disposed to regard them as beThis, I

that is to say, the spectators


" fancy that they speak strange, i. e.

incoherent."

.-*

.
,
.
,
'

0#

,
.

,.
<}

'
,

'.

33

',

iv

~/

Tiepi

,
iv

iv

'
'
,
'
'
,
,
,
.
,
,
'
,
,
,
,
',
,,, . , ,
<.

Be

<,

yap

<-

'

<,

Ermerins does not hesitate to

expunge the word

alto-

;
but this seems to me an
unwarrantable liberty. By the adand a
dition of one short word,
little transposition, I natter myself

gether

that I have greatly

improved the

text.

Petit proposes to read

\-

but without referring


to any medical authority for such
Seat

an expression.
In illustration of
general meaning of this sentence, see an important passage on
the Pneuma, below. Therap. I. i.
the

,
.

34

','
, '
,
,
.
,
,
, , '
*

rj/cp

.'

Keveal,

'. , ,
,, ' -.
'
'. '
,

'

Ke0.

<=

Hepi EiAeou.

^,

.'

, '' .
,
,
,
,
,,^ .
ky,

"

'

Ermerins places the words


after

the necessity for this change

but

very clear.

is

not

057

,.

'.

, ',

35

^
.
,
,, '.
,
,
.
,, , , , -,,
, .
,

\ -

Be

'yap'

Be

Be

Be

Be

Be

Ktval

,
,
'
, '. , ,,'
*

,
,
,
'
,,
, ,^ ,

'
.
.
,
1

, ,,
,

Should we not read


of Wigan and

Notes

<<,

See the

Ermerins,

. ,

which explain the difficulties about


the text without removing them.

D 2

36

,,

."

rfjai

']

<yap

iv

'

<yap

, ,
,,.

? 6

'?

iepbv

Ke0. '.

.
Tlepl

, ^,.-

--

.
,
^
.
^., ., , .'
,
<

',
yap,

<

^)

yap

'.
2

yap

Ermerins deserves great credit


emendation of this

\ ,

for his ingenious

passage.

The common reading

subscriptum

is

'

from which no
and
suitable meaning can be drawn. In
and
the Askew MS. we read
In it, by the way, the iota

is

generally

want-

ing.

Hippocrat. de Aliment.
I

have followed Ermerins in

and

substituting

for

for

neither the reading

Still

nor the punctuation

is

satisfactory.

.
,
. ,< <
.,,
,,
,
,
,,
,
,
,
,'' ,' ',,''
' ', .'

'
.
,
,'
'
'
,
,,
,
,
,
,
'
'
,, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, , , , .*.
0

'.

37

*HV

iv

\
-

<yiyveTai

yap

jap

yap

,
3

, ,
,
.
iEgineta on hepatic

Ermerins reads

introduces

before
after

and

But, after

comparing the chapter of Paulus

diseases

(iii.

46), I resolved not to alter the text.


4

Hippocrat. Aph.

Epidem.

iii.

1,2.

iv.

63;

iv.

62;

'

,
,
,
. ,. ,
38

'

Ke0.

,
.

Uepi

,
'

, .. '' .,
<yap

yap

?}

,, ,.

.
5

,-*

Ermerins reads

common

reading

,
-

is

But the

quite in accord-

ance with the usage of our author,


and is retained by Ermerins himself
in chap. x. of this book, near the

end.

It

is,

in short, an Attic ana-

coluthon, very

common

in the

works

of that age, such as those of ^Elian

and Arrian.

0#

,.

'.

39

,
. , < ., '
"
,

' ,. ,

,, .

yap

yap

.
'
, ,, ,
'

./
,

'

'-

,
''

\<'

payfj'

,, ,

, , ' <., ,,
jap
,

' ,
', ,,,

,
, .,

-^

<'

'
1

The common reading


'iv,

is

,
-

which can scarcely admit of

yap

any interpretation.
gan and Ermerins.

/
See Petit,

Wi-

,
', ,
'
' , ,
40

'

hr\ Be

'
,
,
< ,
Be

Be

iv

<yap

,
e(ji9.

'

,
,

.
.
,

,'

elBov,

Be

.
Be

'
.
,
,,

'',-, ---

,
'
,
'
,
,
,
'
,
) ,'
' -.

'

2 This word is supplied by Ermerins on his own conjecture. Certainly some such term seems to be

wanting in this place.


3
Ermerins reads
which, no doubt, makes very good

,
6

sense; but the

common

reading ap-

pears quite satisfactory. It is but


justice to Ermerins to add, that he

improves the next clause of the sentence very much by a change in the
punctuation.

0&

, .,
'.

,
,,,
Bel

el

Be

< yap
Ke0.

,
,

, '.,
It

me

appears to

that all the

these words,

which Henisch and


Boerhaave translate, " ad mortem
:"
vero inferendam bene habiles sunt
Wigan and Ennerins, " segrum ta-

men

facile interimunt."

ther oddly,

" well

bearing an attack."

Moffat ra-

calculated for

Now the

literal

meaning of the words obviously


" they

are

innocent

as

is,

regards

.
yap

\yov,

Be

/Bev,

yap

,-

the text by meddling with

- .

translators have misunderstood the

meaning of

Ne^/jou?

epyov,

yyva

.
-

\.

.
.,
,

Ile/n

41

substituting
2

for k after

it,

and

Here, again, nearly all the transand editors have misunderstood

lators

the

meaning of the passage from not

perceiving that

is

here ap-

whole body, but to


the organ or part of the body of
which the author is treating, namely,
the kidneys.
It would be superfluplied not to the

ous to multiply references to passages


which Aretseus applies
to

death;" which surely can imply no-

in

thing but that the affections of the


kidneys are not naturally deadly.
(See Liddel and Scott's Lexicon

a particular part of the body. See


Morb. Diut. i. 10 Curat. Morb. Diut.

whoever
will read the context carefully must
see that this meaning is the only
one in accordance with it, and with
what is said below, namely, that
under the word.)

In

fact,

i.

i.

13; also Galen,


9.

De

Locis Affectis,

Indeed Aristotle applies

it

ex-

pressly to the kidneys, in the sense

of the fleshy part of the organ, or


viscus,

H. A.

ing of the

i.

17,15.

passage

the majority of cases are not fatal.

therefore, evidently

Ennerins, in this instance, vitiates

chief from

is,

sympathy

The meanin

question,
that " no misarises in this

-,,.,,,, ,-

42

,'
Be

yap

' ,
'
,
, -, , , ,
,,
,
, '

, , , ,'
'
,
'
,
,
,. ,

, '.

case,

owing

to the peculiar nature of

but the retention of the urine produces most


the affected viscus

horrible mischief."
lates

the passage

itself,

Wigan
thus,

trans-

"reliqui

corporis species, nullo afFectus ex

consensu, perturbatur."
thus:

Boerhaave

" quandoquidem ex consensu

rarum partiurn cum renis subitantia


consensum." Of these translations
that of Ermerins approaches nearest
to the true import of the passage,

The

other two

have

no

distinct

meaning.
3

The

text in all the

dently vitiated.

MSS.

is

evi-

I have adopted the

venientis nulla creatur offensio ;"

ob formam corporis proand


Ermerins thns: ' quo facto nullum

emendations partly of Wigan and


partly of Ermerins. The reforms of
the latter are sometimes too radical

quidem malum

for

affectionis

oritur propter ca3te-

my

conservative judgment.

05

,. ,
.' ,
'
'.

43

,.'
,
.' .
8

'
,
,., .

Ke0.

Tiepi

yap

'

'
.
,

^.

yap

,
.
,
,
, ,, ..' ,) , '
1

In

reading
suitable

all
is

,
the

MSS.

meaning
i

eV

'

eads,

the

common

from which no
can be elicited.

Ermerins introduces
thus he

many

changes;

;.

merely changing

into

am

persuaded that a legitimate


is

obtained.

Hippocratic
Toes.

term.

It is to

the

is

Art. 807,

ed.

be borne in mind that

Phlegmon

of the ancients was a


rather than an inflamma-

By

tion;

was

-,

Foes, CEc. Hipp.

and, in the

next clause he erases

reading

i.e. it

/coc

See

,
,
,
,
,
, ,' ,
.
,
'
,
,
,,
,
,
,
.
,
' ,,
, ,,
,
\
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
, ,,. , ,
'
'
' '
,
'
<
. ,,< ,., .
<<,
,
'.
.
.,
,'
44

,
,
'

Ke0.

Ilepi

0#

,.

'.

45

,
\
<<
, , ,,,,, ,
\'
,
'
'
,
.
\<'

,
,
,, ,,'.,1

65

tl

"
,

.
,

\<,

yap

\., ,
, -

,'

'
,
, .'
<

<yap

.,

,
,, ,
,
~

*.

7],
1

Ermerins judiciously adopts the


of Wigan, and substi-

s
As suggested by Wigan and
Ermerins, there appears evidently to

the

be a lacuna in the text here. None,


however, occurs in any of our Bri-

suggestion
stutes

common

for

reading.

tish

MSS.

,, ,
, ,..,, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
., , ,' '
, .,
'
,
,'. , ,-'
', ' '
46

iv

yap

'

.
.
,
,
,
,', ,
,
,
,' . ,,
,,'

,
.
3

This

is,

undoubtedly, the true

reading, and not

which

has no suitable meaning.

gan and Ermerins.

See Wi-

0#
Ke0.

,.
Ylepi

.
,
'.

47

.
' .'
'
.
,
,
,
,
,
, ., ,
,
'
ev

'

em,

Be

Be

,' ,, .'
Be

'
, , . . \, ,

,, ,,,,',',,.,,
"
,,,.', *
Be

,
,
.

, .'
' ..,? ,
,
0#

48

'.

Tlyverat Be
Be,

he

yap

Be.

'
,
'.

'
'vypfei

,
.
,

yap

vya

Be

yap'

yv,

<yv-

yap

--

,
.
.

3....... .

........
.......
\\ ........
.......
....
...
.......
........
........
...
........
........
........
?; .....

"
"

'.
'.
".
'.

'.
'.

'.
'.
'.
ta'.

'.
'.
'.
it'.
'.

,
3
'.

.
,
.

Ke0.

,
,

jap

'

.
'

'
, ,
,88
8 88, ^.
,
,
'
, , , , \
,
jap

88,

8\-)

'

8,
, ,
8,

',

8-

8,
jap

8
.
'
., '

8,

'
2

52

Ke0.

*
\\<
,,
akyer]

.
. ,
TLepl

. .
'

\ ,, -

,
,

<

'
,
,
'
'
'
6

Be

'

,. ^,, \ ,
,
,
' ',
.
' , ,
,
'
'
/. ,
"

'

^^'

<,

?,

The changes

in the

text here

introduced by Ermerins, are absolutely

demanded by

the confused

state of matters as they stand in the

MSS.

The common reading

'
;
which

Ermerins

alters

,
,
is

to

but the obvious objection

.
,
'
,
,
'
, , -.
, '^
,,, .
'
,
,
'
,
.) , .
'.

'

53

hrvreivy /core

yap

.
,
,
"^"

Ke0.

Ile/K

,
,
,

yap

,
,,
,
<, ,

not account
in the

to this emendation

is,

the

for

common

that

-.

it

does

omission of

On my

text.

authority, I altered the passage

as above

own

'

of Homeric diction, nothing seems

had
mind the celebrated passage in

so natural as to suppose that he


in

the Iliad,

but I find that I had been

by Wigan in so far.
This word can scarcely be the

eV

dk

(xv. 627).

anticipated
1

right reading; but

it

is difficult

to

it.

Were

I disposed to bold attempts at

emen-

find a proper substitute for

dation, I should propose to substi-

tute

considering

in place of

how

it;

for,

fond our author

is

'

Wigan suggests ijKvpKavky


-g;

or

but these words are at least

as objectionable as the one they are

intended to supply a substitute

for.

In the MS. in the British Museum,

we

read

haps,

is

ai;d this, per-

the true reading.

,/
,
,
,
'
'^

54

,},

,
,
', ,,, ,
<\' ." ,
,
.
err

yuia

<<'

jap

Yiepl

'

.
,,

. ,\

.
,
,
,
'
,
, , },,

,.
2

difficulty

Our author here has evidently

meaning of

in view a passage contained in the

Ermerins finds great

in explaining the exact

the last sentence.

seem

He

have adverted
author had in view 75,
to

"On the Sacred


See Syd. Soc. Ed. t. ii.
I cannot see the same ob-

does

not

Hippocratic treatise

that

our

Disease."

76, 77, 78,

p. 851.

79, 80, of the seventh section of the

jection to

Aphorisms of Hippocrates.

ing, as

See the

Commentary of Galen, and the


English edition, Syd. Soc. Ed. t. ii.
I must say, however, that
p. 773.
seems wanting in this place.

to substitute

The
is

the

common

read-

Ermerins does, who proposes


in place of

it.

other, although metaphorical,

quite in the style of our author.

,. ,
, ,
'.

.
,
,.
,
''
re

55

,
* ] ,
<yap

'
,.,
,

yap

.,

', ,,,,,
, ,,
, ,' ,,
,,
,
,
,
'
,
.
7),
'
,/ . '

{r

Ke0.

\,

,
'

Tlepl

..

, ,
'
, -

.
,
'
,
. ',
,
,
'
",
,
' '.
." , '-)
.
,
,
.
,
'
',
,
,
.
'
,
.

56

'

,
'

'ArpeiSi/s

he

yap

'

.
1

The

sense

evidently

in place of

requires
the

common
Ermerins.

,-

reading.

See Petit and

,.

'.

57

dyrj,

,
.

'
,
, . ',
,
, ,,
.

,
,
,
,
,
.
,, ,,, .
,

',
,,
,
, , ,, , -'
,
'
,
.
,
,
,
'
'
,
yap

,
' ,

<
., , ,,, ,
-

yap

,
2

MSS.,
have
adopted the conjectural emendation

is

This passage, in

confessedly

all

corrupt.

the

of

"

Ermerins, although very hold,

and, I must add, not quite satisfaclory.

,
' ,,-

' -,

58

':
, ,.

,, , '
'.

-,

'

Ke<jf>.

'.

Uepl

,
,

,
'
'

,
,
.

..

, .,
1

I flatter

who

is

myself that every perfamiliar with the meta-

physics of the ancients, will admit


that I have improved this sentence
by changing
into
Ermc-

rins,

not recognising the difference

'
'

,
,

,
''

'

-'

son

,
.

,
,%

'
'

between the
expunges

,,
and the

from the text,


On the distinction between these
portions or powers of the mind, see
Aristotle de Anima, iii. 10, etc.;
Metaphysica, pluries.

'
,?

,.

'.

59

, ,\
,
. ,, , ,
'
,
,
, , , ,, ,
yap

tap,

69

,
., ,,
,

,
,
,
\
'
,,
,
' .
'
., , . ,
,
,
, ',
,
, .
yap

'-

7]

'

'

The

&

',

text in this sentence

is

in a satisfactory state, cither as

not

it is,

or

as

altered

replaces

by Erraerins, who

with av.

60

,
,
'
.
' ,

, ,,
/,.

ev

yap

"

,
,
,
,
. ,', ,
'
-,
'
'
,
) ,..
"
,' , ,
.
'
,
,

<,

, , , --

6 Be eVl

,
3

.
Though

with the text, I

ev

ev

nroXXa

-^

have not

am much

meddled
inclined

to think that the true reading

be

chylus,

It

would

occurs in JEs-

Agamem. 964.

By

the way,

the example referred to by the

Ox-

ford lexicographers, to prove that

sometimes used syno(nameLucian, Hist. Conscr. 34), is not


point here. We cannot say that
is

nymously with
ly,

in

"astronomy" is untaught, in the


same sense that we can say that
" political sagacity "

is

so.

,.

G1

A'.

' ,,
,, ,

',

,
'
,
',', ,
' , ,. '
,
,
,

'
.
'' ,,,,,
)

eV

<

yap

).

,
'
,
'.
-

yap'

'

,
' .
'
'
' ,, , .
. ,,,.
\

Be

'

Be

It

merins

eV

must be admitted, that Erhas strong grounds for

holding that
reading.

is

the

true

2
,

62

.
,
,
,
)'
,
,
])
,
'
,,
,
,
,
. ?.
^,
,
,
,
., , , .'
,
.
,
.,
,
'
,
,
, '
e?

rfj

he

Ke0.

JJepl

'
,
.

ovh,

',

,,

yap

Hippocrat. Aph.

. 42.

,
'
'

Hippocrat. Epid

rhct.

ii.

iii.;

and Pror-

,
,

,.

'

<,

'.

63

&,

.
,'

'
,
,
,
,., , ' ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

'

,,

''

^'

' . ,, ,, ,, ,
yap

,
.

,
,, .,.

,
,, -

\.

"

jap

'

The common

reading,

having evidently no meaning,


I follow Wigan and Ermerins in
adopting this word.
I am also
ve.vti,

'

indebted to the latter for various


other

amendments

in this chapter,

which I do not think


mention singly.

it

necessary to

', ',,'
'
,
'
,
, ,, '
.
,
''
'
,, ? , ,
,, . ,
'
'
,
,,
64

eire

es

yap

yap

"

yap

yyva.

yiyverai,

yyva'

Although I have not ventured


to alter the reading,

it

appears to

me, from the distinction which our


author makes above between the
cerebral and spinal nerves, that he
refers here to the latter, and that
we ought to read,
or, perhaps, the former word might

be dispensed with.
5
Ermerins does not hesitate to
in place of
substitute
as fancying that the sense
requires this change.

This can scarcely be the true


Should it not be payy ?

reading.
7

The common reading

is

which appears to have no meaning,


The emendation is due to Ermerins.
I have adopted it; although I must
be permitted to say, it is far from

The translation given


by Ermerins is: "Quasi ligna ad
regulam dolaret" but it does not
seem at all appropriate to the passatisfactory.

sage,

,
,

, ., .,
'.

,'

05

.
,

--

,
}
'
. , ,' ,
'
'
,
'
'
'
, ,, ,
' , , ,,
,.
-

,,, ,,
evre,

'.

Tea

'

. ,. , ,,-' ,
,,
,
, .
'
,
,
,
,
'
,
'
,, '
'

, ,, , .
"
'
66

Be

-^.

, ,, . , ",
,
,.
.,
.
^
.
,, , ' ,,
,,
yap

8']

Be

iraTayei.

jap

jap

Be

iv

bjiea

JX

aJ,

je

Be bjiea

jeXa.

Ke0.

Ylepl

,' ,

, ,-

je^Tai,

vaJJ

contrary to the authority

MSS.

Phthoe."

Ermerins does not appear

to

me

to be warranted in substituting
for

of

all

the

Moreover,

to be excluded

from

it

seems

this place

by

the terms in which our author applies

to

a particular

state of

the diseased parts

assumes

the

He

i.e.

"but the

peculiar

disease

name

of

however, in
following the suggestion of Petit,

and
the

is

right,

substituting

commencement.

for

at

.
,
.
,
,,
,
'
, *
,
.
,
,
,
'
^/
\
,
,
.
,
,
-; ,
.*
,
,
,, , ,
67

A'.

vayrjTCU

.'

\rjyov

jap

'
,
,
,
, ,
,
yap

yap

yo\

ayjpoia,

hypaiv

poyyXv'

,
.
,,'

yap

iiypa

yyvv'

,,
yap

dvayovv

yap

am

not aware that the term

occurs elsewhere.
crates

and Galen,

the

or the adjective

being their more

At

first

common

was

(or

);

of Phthisis, I was convinced that


the preferable reading. The words
of Aurelianus are: " Sequitur autem
is

segrotantes febricula latens" etc.


4

latter

practice.

inclined to adopt

the alteration of Ermerins,


stitutes

,
Hippo-

I believe, univer-

sally use the substantive

who

sub-

but, after read-

ing Caelius Aurelianus's description

am

not satisfied with

in this sentence; but

have not been

able to find a proper substitute for


it.

The

translation of Crassus

is

most suitable to the context: '-lit


enim recessit," etc. Qu.
-g?

F 2

,
, ?
.,, , , -''
,' ,,, .'
,
'' , ' .
,,
,
'
,,,
,
,
,
,
', ,,, .
,
.,
,
'
'
68

Be

yap

ear

avaycoyal

pay^

pyyo^

yap

yo

^'

poy-

yap

ypo^

yuXov

yap

yavv^

yvv

yap

&
In all the MSS. and editions,
except that of Ermerins, we read

which

place.
6

unsuitable to the

;
is

Ermerins, on his

substitutes
is

own

authority,

but the other

in

the mistake of applying this passage


to the

it

place.

ders

it

rugosi

accordance with a
well-known Ionic usage. All the
recent translators have fallen into
reading

that

abdomen; whereas a

examination of the context

careful

will

show

is

out of the question in this

Crassus more correctly renthus:


et

"Digitorum ventres
in

lati."

this

place evidently applies to the pulps

of the fingers,
7

In this passage

we

are under

obligations to Ermerins; in particu-

lar for supplying

instead of

have not adopted

other alterations,

his

.
,
,?

,
,, , , .
'., , ,
',
'
,,
'., , ,
,.
'
,
,
'
, ,
G9

A'.

Xayapa,

Trepia^yrjv

ivapyrj,

?}

,
-

'

vypal,

Ke0.

Ylepl

<<,

This word

false reading.

merins.
Sea,

one

The
of

emendations.

'

is most probably a
See Wigan and Er-

latter reads

Wigan's

conjectural

and

have also been suggested.


If I thought myself warranted to
make any change in the reading, it
would be to adopt
See
and Galen, t. i.
Foes, CEc. Hipp.
pp. 244, 246, ed. Daremberg.
;

9
The change of ovv into ov, as
made by Ermerins, is indispensable,
1

Although not inclined

to

adopt

unauthorised emendations, I must

say that I think this reading, on


is a great
improvement on the common read-

the authority of Ermerins,

ing,

of Aretseus,
find

contraction.

it

is

MSS.
common to

In the

quite

written

by

, ,,
70

,
.
,', , , '

iv

.
,

'

Be

Be

iv

.
,
,
, , vepv

Be

.
,
' , ,, ,
. , , ,
, . ,'
,
, ' , .
.
,
,'
,
,
,
,
'
,
,
,
.,
.'
Be

Be iv

epveov,

To

rjBe

Be

yap

Be

yap

'

yap

ev

Be

yap

"

ptr

'

]-

yap

.
,
,
'
,
.
,
,
,, , ,
,
,
,
, .,, ',,
\
'
,
,
', , ,
,
'
,,
,
.
,
,
, , , .,
, , , , ,, '
,
,
,
,
,
'
,, , ,
,
,, ,,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
, .
,
'
, ,,
'.

71

>

'

'
,
'
,

/,

'
,
,
,
,
,
'
,
72

',

yap

'
'
'^ ,
<yi<yveTai,

yap

, .
Be

yap

yova,

yap

paya

Ke0.

Ylepi

,
,

iyiy

,
,
,

'

,,,

'//

'

yap

,.

yvov,

yap

.
,

yap

iiypco

yiyvovTai

eya ,

yiyvovTai.

oyy

,
-

.1

hypoi),

Although

have not meddled

with the text, I canuot but think

that

or

we ought

to read either

instead of

.
,
' ,,

', , ,'-'
, ,,, .
'.

73

'

'
- .,

,. 2

yuyverat,

.. .,
, ' ,
.

'

Tlepi

'
.

',

yap

.
.
,
.
,,'
1

is

.
.
'
,

Surely some such word as

wanting before

the text
1

is

clause

suppresses

the

,
,

on the part of an editor,


whose duty it is to restore the
words, but not attempt to improve
liberty

or

otherwise at fault.

Ermerins

last

of the sentence altogether,

on the ground that it is superfluous


and out of place. I fear this must
be held to be au unwarrantable

the sense of his author,


2

Ermerins agrees with Petit in

reading
ful.

am

doubt-

, ''

,
^^
, , ., .
.
,
,
,
,
. , ,
,,
,
<, ,
'
,
.
'
,
,) ,'' < <^^,'
' ,,
,.
'
,
. , , ,'' ,
'
.' yo ,,,.-74

'

vypai

yap

epyov

ev

ipyUTTjai,,

ev

epyov,

epvyal

ev

',

*i2V

eV

vyprj

ev

yap

'

yap

..

vayy

Wigan and Ermerins

;
3

read

but the other seems to

preferable term.

The

me

the

authority of

Caslius Aurelianus seems to me decisive on this point: " Gutturisstri-

dor quern Graeci rhogmon vocant."

Morb. Acut.
-ZEgineta,
Edit,

t.

ii.
i.

10.

See Paulus

p. 482,

Syd. Soe.

.
,
,'',
'"

.,
. , , ., , .
'.

75

aya0bv

<<

yyvop,

.
' ., '
Ke0.

eV

.' ,
1

yap

,
,
4

am

contrary to the authority

in

adopting this reading in place of

the

must

have never been


able to satisfy myself with any interpretation of this passage which I
have seen. Ermerins, indeed, very
say, I

properly remarks, that in this sen-

an indirect reference
to a celebrated verse in the (Edipus
tence there

Tyrannus of Sophocles; namely

that

"

is,

slight inclination of

the scale sets old persons asleep in

But then

death."

create

difficulty,

inasmuch as

the adjective never occurs elsewhere,

ov.

in prefixing ov to

MSS.
'I follow Wigan and Eimerins

ypov

of

all

yap

, ,' -'

not satisfied that Ermerins

was warranted

yap

.^^'

yap

is

am aware; and, moredo not see how a shivering

as far as I
over, I

fit

should necessarily occasion death,

Instead of

it,

would prefer

that is to say, with


meaning, " being seized with

structed

respiration."

Still,

the

ob-

how-

, ',, , .
.
.
,
,
,
,'
7G

,
^
,
Be

Be'

'
,
.

'.
.

iy

HV

it

is

difficulty,

would not be easy

authority

?.

'
'
. ^

'<

inasmuch
any

to find

Be

participle,

yap

<yap

<-

very natural cause of sudden death


in asthma,
'

though the verb be not uncommon.


See Liddel and Scott. One might
think of
which would
be a very suitable term, as this is a

this

'yap

".

al-

for

Xayova

Be

,
.
.
,.

ever, there

as

y,

Tie pi

',
*

<yap

',

Be

Hippocrat. de Aliment,

have not ventured to eject


from this clause, as suggested
by Wigan and practised by Erme1

rins.

,.

.'

,-

'.

77

'
,
., ., ,
,. ,'' ',
.
, ' '-

'

<

'

'

[*

~\,

'

,
' ,
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
, . . ,
,

,
,
,,,,

>

.
,

'
3

the

In most of the editions there

mark of a lacuna

words

them

and

is

before these

Ermerins

suppresses

altogether, as being redundant.

No

'

lacuna appears in any of our


MSS. which I have examined,
British

' .,-

78

'

.
., , ,
,
"
,

'

, ,,.,-,
.
,
,
, , . , .'
*
,
,,,',<,,,, ,
, , ,
'
,
,

.
4

,
,

changed
for
no authority in a
transitive form, into
(Ermerins suppresses
and further
at

first

which there

is

,.

reads Suicpeu, to which, however,


there

is

.')

same objection as to
But, upon second thoughts,
the

,,
-ty.

by a

slight

change of the punctuamyself that I have

tion, I flatter

brought

the

text

to

passable

state.
4

is

for
Ermerins substitutes
which latter word evidently
wrong. See Wigan.

, ., .
,
,
'.

)'
Be

79

'
, -

.
.
*
,
'
,
.
,
,

yap

, ?.

KOTe

yap

.
.

,.
Se

Be

,
8

Ke0.

ylyveTai

,
.

'

6\

Be

yap

yap

Tlepl

'.

Be

,
'
.
.
,
yap

,
,
'
,
, ,,
.
,

,
.
.
7

Be

Be

,,' ,
.
,
,.
'
',
,
,
.
,

80

"

,
yap

[]

piyea.

appiyoi Be

yap

/core

vyeirj

yap

,
.,

gt

,
'
*

iiypoi)'

iKpayf},

',

yaaTrjp

ayjpi

vypov

iyyiy-

el

pyB

. ,, , ,'y^Tai,

bypov

,'' ,., ,
'
,
,
'
,
,,
'
,
'
.
-

yap

poyyXa,

'<?

^lyiyve-

i^ayei.

yrjvai

ypov
yap

Be

6yK(p

.
,
'
,
,
,
< ,. ' ,
,
,
,' , .
.
,
,
,
,
'
,
,
,
'
.,
,'
'.

Ke(j).

81

Ylepi

yap

',

eV

,,

>

<.

'^
yap

'
,

,
,
',
'

''
,,

'^

'

<

<

,
'

''

<'
,.
<yap

.' ,

'

,
.
. ', ,
, 82

yap

yap

.
2
,
,
.
,
',
,
'
,, jap

'

,,.
,
.
'
.
,
,
,, ' ,,

.'

'

Although I have adopted Ermechange of


into
I must say I am still not satisfied
1

rins'

with this sentence.

-,

,-

This sentence

is

unsatisfactory state.

evidently in an

.
,
,

yap

'.

JJva

,
'
, -

83

,
,

jap

'

.
.

jap

'

,,, , ,
,
, , ,-

,.
jap

.
,

,
'
,
.
,
' , ,
.
,
'
,'
,
.
,, ^,
,
,
^,
,
,,
,
,
, ,
,
',

Xajai'

'

vjpa

Jva,

Jv,

Japl

3
The text here given, is as
amended by Petit and Erraerins.
In the MSS. it is much vitiated.
4
The common reading,

Sk

being evidently at fault,


have not scrupled to adopt the
conjectural emendation of ErmeI

rins.

iv

G 2

84

,,
, ,,
, /)

'
.\

,
,
,
,' ,,.

'
'
,
,
,
,
.'
,
,
'' .
,
'.
, ,
,

\~

yap

<\,

yap

'

yXav ^

yX,

<yap

7)<
'

yap

yXovo

yyva.

yX
yea^
yv
.
'
, ^^

^
,
.
. ,,
,
,

'

Xyav

The common

reading,

having scarcely any meaning, I


have adopted that of Ermerins,
i)v,

previously suggested by Petit.

gan
is

reads,

not unsuitable.

Wi-

which also

'.

Ilepl

85

?.

,. ,' ,

, .'
.

yiy

yap

iXveoSea

,
,

(-

''
, , , ,},
. , ,

\'

ei

yap

yevva'

rjhe

'

epyov

//.

rj

'.

appears to

It

ahle,

that all

me most remark-

the

editors

should

have pronounced this passage thoroughly corrupt, and in particular


that Ermerins should have gone the

which I have the authority of


Wigan. I do not hesitate to affirm,
that
and the other words

for

connected with

who

He

reads thus:

This

is

an heroical way of solving the


Gordian knot! I flatter myself I
have unravelled all the intricacies
of the noose by a much more lenient process; namely, by merely
truly

shifting the accent of

to

, ,

the penult syllable, as suggested

and placing the comma

Petit,

before
as

it

instead of after

by

[ ,]

it,

stood in the former editions,

and putting a comma

after

are indispensahle

any one may be convinced


compare the account of
Cachexia given by other authors.
Thus, among the causes of Cachexia
enumerated by Cadius Aurelianus,
we find "item ex medicaminibus
saepissime potatis"
and "curatione
mala medicantis." Tard. Pass. iii. 6.
And much in the same style Celsus,

sage, as

of the last clause altogether from

it

to the full signification of the pas-

length of ejecting the greater part


the text.

yap

will

treating of Cachexia, says:


fere

fit,

cum

"Quod

longo morbo vitiata

corpora, etiamsi

illo

vacant, refec-

tionem tarn en non recipiunt

cum

malis

affectum est."

medicamentis
iii.

22.

aut

corpus

2
,
,
^
.
, , ,'.
,
.
.
^
,. , ,
^' '
,
, , , , ,,
, , , ,,
, , .
'
'
^
.
'< , ,
,
,
.
,
,

86

'

yap

Be

jap,

yap

Be

Be

<,

''

yap

,..

-.

,
,
,

yap

<^^.

do not think myself warranted

in adopting the text in this place as


it is

remodelled by Ermerins.

Even

as altered
to

be

state.

in

by him, it appears to me
a most unsatisfactory

,
.

.
cap

'.

87

,
.
,,
,
,
,
,
'
,
,. /, '
,
.
,
,

.
,

,.

,,
,

?').

'

, >,
'
',
.
' , ,.- ,

,
.
.
3
"
........ ..
.......
........
........
......
........
........
........
.

"

'.

'.

'.
'.

.....

('.

\
'.

"

'.

Ke<^>.

"&)

8,7)

<yap

e?

'
yap

'.

, /" ?],.

Ylepl

'
,' , -

,,
,
.
e?

<
1

Petit

,
;
yap

of Heraclitus, as told by Diogenes

but the former

defended by Ermerins.
Though the general import of the

reading

is

passage be obvious, there is still


something unsatisfactory in the Ianguage.

Of

course, reference

made by our author

is

and Wigan suggest

instead of

here

to the saying

Laertius.

become

The

philosopher having

dropsical, proposed a riddle

"If from rainy


weather they could make dryness
to his physicians:

92

.
-, . .,
}
,
^
^
.
\ ,
)
,
,
. ) ,Xya .
,
^
,
,
,
,
' "
,
.
'
.
yap

etcpayfj

),

, ,

,^ ,

^,

''

*Z8ecu

yap

evvypos

Xayovecrt

ho Key

ev

vypu>

Xayv

at

yyva

Xayova

yap

Xayva,

yap

''

' ^
'

yXov,

,
;

XoXy

^Kyovov.

oyKov

,
. yv

2
I have followed Crassus, Petit,
before
and Wigan in suppressing
and am surprised that Er-

merins

ye

should

have

retaining the negative.

Xay

persisted

>

in

.
,
'

',
,
,
3

'.

yap vypbv

rfjat

-,

yap,

yap

'.,
vypbv, oy/cov

ylyveTai

.
,)

'
'

93

, ^/ ,
,,

yap

.^,

,
,
,
,\<,'' ',,
'
,' , ',,
. ,,,,
'
,
,
, ,,
,

7]

'

\ayo-

yyva

yap

oyKov

3
I have followed Wigan and Ermerins in adopting this reading,
instead of
which, how-

ever, does not

seem

to

me

suitable as they represent,

so un-

'
,
<'
.

.
, \<, \*
^/.
,.
,,,,,
'
,
}, '
,, ,
'.
94

\-

<ye

yiyvovTai.

<,

at

'
,
, ,
.'
,

<

'

el

,
.

,,,
,,
, , ?''
^ <'
."

" ,

'

Lypod

This

is

by Wigan
5

The

the reading suggested

in place of

text

is

not in a satisfactory

.\'

state; but yet I

<yap

cannot bring myself

to adopt the multifarious alterations

introduced by Ermerins.

.
"[ , .
. ,
.
'
,
,
,
,. , ,,.
,
.
,
,
,
', '

'.

95

yap

/core

yap

'

*,

]
,
,, ' , '.\<
'
, " ',
6

'

yap

yap

yap

'
,

yap

'
6

seems difficult to account for


being in the nominative,
while those of all the other organs
It

this terra

are in the accusative; yet


it

so in all the

MSS. and

we

find

editions.

yap

?
7

The

yap

text in the last part of this

chapter

is

read

before

corrupt.

Should wc not

...?

96

Ke0.

.
, ' '
,
.

Tlepl

,
,
,
.
, ' ,,
'
'
,
'
,
,
.,,, ,
,
'
' pXy . , -

.
,
.

vyprj

jap

yap

Be

yap

Xyya

;
^ -,
,
.

,'
;

ye

but
2

;- .
,

The common reading


Petit

is

reading,

as

given

preferable.

have adopted

place of

better with the sense of the passage,

is

suggests

Ermerins'

above,

. ,,

,
,, , ,
'
,,
yap

'

'

in

as

it

agrees

and seems to be sustained by the


" Prout
translation of Crassus
adventantis morbi processus est."
Ermerins reads,
:

.
,
,' ,,'.

,
*HV

97

,
'
,?

.
,?, -,
*
, ',
,
Be

yiyveTai

vypbv

Be

65

el

Be.

yap

yiyveTai

.
^
'
,

Be,

^, 7],

,
'
,
,

aXyey
Lypov

..

r]Be

Be.

The common reading


which

Even

is

is

evidently faulty.

by Wigan and
sentence is still in an

unsatisfactory state.

the translation.

,
,
,
Toiyapodv

bypox),

as corrected

Ermerins, the

".
^

,'

,.
,
3

e?

See note to

yap

Or. Ermerins improves the sense

very
for

., -

'.
much

by substituting
It

that intense thirst

is

well

known

and wasting are

the characteristics of Diabetes,

98

.
,

,
,, , ,. ,.
, ... , <<,, , ,
,,
, \<''
,
,, , .
.' ' ' .
.
,
)
, , , ,.

Tlepl

yap

'

payirj

yap

'.,

eV

yiyvovTai'

jap

,
,

,'
.

iyyiyvoVTai

^,

ve-

.
,
, .
.
,
'

'.

99

yap

"-

,
.
<
,
'',,, , .
,
..
,
'
,
)
,
'
'
,
,
,, ^, ,.'
,
,
,
, ,'
,
,
^'
'
,
? . , ,,
' ,., ,
yiyveTar

jap

<,

<yap

<yap

<

yap

,
1

The ordinary reading,

6-

being evidently faulty, there

seems to be no alternative but either


to adopt
as suggested by Wi-

gan, or

Ermerins

according to

rins.

reads

some show of reason.

Ermewith

.,
.

100

' ".

yap,

. .
<
'

<, ,

<.
,

,
'
, , ', '
,
), ,
'
,,
,
' ,.
.
, <., ,
3

iv

'
,
?

<,

^.
.
,
,
,
, ,<,
,
'
, ' },

yiyvovTai

'jEttI

am

pajfj

so satisfied that the text

is

corrupt, that for once I felt a strong


inclination to adopt

conjectural

reading

the following

of

Ermerins,

although, in the present instance,

even he

is

afraid to admit

it

into

the text:

.,

Instead of

I should prefer

however,

.
,
,,

,
?., ,,'
' ,.8,
8

'.

101

?}

8, 8~

8'

<.

'
,, ,
." , ,
,,
,

iv

Ilepl

jap

'
,
, ,<
, '
?)

<yap

.
, ,

8.

.
. , -~
(?) .
-

is wanting in
by Ermerins.
all the MSS., but seems indispensa-

By the way, he
might well have spared one word
which he ejects, by reading
Were I to meddle with

ble.

the text at

have

followed

the reading

suggested by Wigan, and adopted

something equivocal in the text of this remarkable


sentence; but I have not ventured
Wigan reads:
yap
to alter it.
I

admit there

is

...

Ermerins

is

still

ode

I should propose to

jap

believe

bolder in the liberties he uses:

all,

read as follows:

that

am

willing

the passage

to

contains

allusions to Lithotripsy, Lithotrity,

and Lithotomy!! See Paulus


t. ii.

p. 359,

-3gi-

Syd. Soc. Ed.

102

' <,

,
,

' " ,.
',
'
oi

Be

, ,
,
"^
, , <'
,
.

..

'
,
, ,'
.

< ,.,
jap

'
'
,'
.

.,
<

'

The

last four

by Ermerins

words are added

to supply a lacuna in

,
3

....

,
,

',<'

,^ .

<yap

,
,

,
.
'
,
, <

'

the text.

The lacuna
MSS.

in our British

is

not

marked

,. ,,'
'.

'
.

,
'

103

,,
ev

^) '
'
,,
, ,, ,
'
'
'
'
,
', ,',
,, ,
,
..
^
,,
,
he

yiyveTac

he

yap,

em

piyeac,

ev

Ke0.

Uepi

yovoppoia,

yap

.,

bypa

yap

?7,

'
'
,
, ; ', ,
,,,,
cypvyopejii

' yyva'

yval

,
'

iypbv,

ayovov.

yva

yap

ypaXo

,
, ,,,', ,
,
,,
, , , ..
,
,
, ,' ',,,
,, , ,
,
.*
, ', ,
,
.
,
. 7.. ,,
,
.
."
104

ey

'

Ke0.

.'
1

JJepl

Non

,
,
.

words, and also

from
audax!

above,

felicissime

the

not

think myself warranted, how-

ever, in

text.

I cannot but think that the true

reading must be

., , , '

Ermerins ventures to erase the

last three

.
,, '
.

I do

making such an

without authority.
not appear to

ment.

me

alteration

Ermerins i eads,
which does
to be an improve-

.
,
.
,
,. -,,
'.

L05

, ,'. , )' ,

~-

]
.
,
he.

,
'
'
'' ,
, ', , ,, , '
. ' ,
,,
,

,
,' ,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
'
,', ,,
, ,, ,

.,
3

' .
,

'
,'

'
3

Ermerins

'

alters the text to

to be required.

,
y,

eV

but no change seems

,'
, <,,
, .,
)
'
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
,
.
'
'
,, ', ',,
,,; ,,, ,,, ,, ', '
,
,
,,'<
,, ,
,
.
., , .

,
106

Be,

re

<

'

--

,.

*
, ,' ,
'
.

'.

107

JJepl

'

,
,
,
,
,
'
'
'
, . ,
.' < . ,,
, ,
8

, ,,
'
,
'
'
,
,

,
,

,,, ', , .
,
' ,
.
.^ , ?/
,-

7'

Ermerins reads as follows:

necessity for this alteration,

appears

...

I must say, I cannot recognise the

to

me

improvement.

which
an

anything but

108

^,
,

,
,
^
,,
.
,
.
,. -.
,

.
,

Be

ayet

<yap

yap

,,

yodv

.,

,
,'

.-

Be

'

Be

.
,
',

.
Be 6

Ylepi

'
,
,
, , , ,, '-

.
,,
, ,
<

in

satisfactory

this

clause

reading

would hesitate to adopt


Wigan, or KoiXiy

is

and

not a

Ermerins.

yet

that

kyte

with

stomach.

with

Poems.

It
is

It

is

worthy of remark,
term for

a Scottish
occurs

in

Burns'

.
,
. , ), ,

,.

109

ipvyai

. .
.
.
,
'
.
,
^ ' ^ ,, '.

yap

yap

Xyo

riyvovTat

yap

Ke0.

Tlepi

.. ,

Eyyyva

'
'.
.

yap

' .'
,

,
,

'
,
,
,
,
.
,
,., , 1

yiyvovTai

In this sentence I have not hesi-

tated to adopt Petit's suggestion,

and have read

',

in place of

aoppaya'

Ermerins

substitutes

but for this term he

can quote no authority.

110

>9

.
,
, , . ,
, ,,
yap

eV

yap

,, ,
),

hypov

jlyverai

'
.
,
..

.,
, ,,
.
'
)
,
,

,,,~, ,,,'
,
,
,
,
.
, ,,
'
' , ,, ',
,

yap

,.

,.

yap

'

,
'

,, ..,, , ,

,^'
yap

,,, ,

'

,
,,
.

<
, ,)
,

,.

'.

111

<, fyiyveTcu

pyB,

,, ,,
,
,,
,
,
,
,
,
, <,'?
,
,
, , '. ,, , ,,
,
,
.. , ,
,
, .
, .' '
,.
.
,
,,,.,.
, ,,,

ayvoovac

el

<^

^/ ,

yap

,'
yap

^^

2
,
?
'
, ,,
,
.
, , ., ,,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
'
,
?
'
,
,
'
.
,
,
,
,' ,
, , ,, '
112

jap

,
,
,
,
<,,, ,
,
, .
,
.
' '
,
',

<<,

, .

in

Hippocrat. Aph.

The

text,

which

vi. 14.

is

a satisfactory state,

by no means
is

thus at-

tempted to be emended by Ermerins:

di

,
,
,
.

yap

.
,
, .

, ,
,
,.
, ,
,
.
',
.'.

113

,,~
)
,
. , ,,

IBeai Be

rotac

Be

eV

ycyverai,
iv

',

<yap

aXyeo<;

^
,' .
)
^) . ' , ,,
, ,^ ,
aXea .
,
.. ' ,,. -,
'
'
'
^
jap

<y[yveTai

Be

el

ev0a

payfj'

fj

iv

Be

The common reading

is

Ermerins reads
Perhaps our author refers
guous.

ambi-

to

the

.*

bloody discharges from


are not

uncommon

piles,

in old age.

which

114

Keep,

JJepi

,'

,>.

,,,-,
.
.
,
,
i>ypa,

yap

,.

Si

'

, ' -,
.
'
,
,
' ,. ., , '
,

yap

<'

Zpyov

yk-

eBprj

'.

81

,
.0.

yuvaii

.
^ ,

La.

Tlepl

ya
,
.
,"
.
, ,
,,
,.

' ,
'
yap

yypaa

'
,

.
,
,, ' .
'.

,
,
,

115

, , -^,
.
,-

.
' -^
.
'.
.
'
,
,
.
, '
' ,,
,
.
, , '
,).
'
,
,
, ', ,
,,
1

^-

<

. <, , ,,

'

,
,
. .
,
,
aypiaivy

'

Ermerins

reads,

conjectural judgment,

on

his

own

'

which

signifies

sort

Collyriurn.

of

Ocular

'
,,
,, -

116

,'
.

Be

'

',

,
,,

,,,'
'
'

,
,
,,
'
, ,
.

,
, ,
.
<
,
, ,-^

.
,

''
.
,
.
2

Be

Ermerins certainly does appear


improve the clause,

place.
3

....-

by transferring them to this


Eormerly the words followed

and

altered

the

reads

ground

Ermerins, contrary to

all

Be

autho-

yjpbviov

on

that, in ancient times,

the

mid-

wives alone were entrusted with the


treatment of diseases of the female
This, however,

was

evidently not the case, as must he

obvious to any one

who has

care-

fully read the Hippocratic treatise

on

punctuation.
4

rity,

genital organs.

Ermerins suppresses this clause.


I have merely ventured to add
before

Be

Be

to

yap

,
'
.
, ,

Be

this subject,

and the other works

contained in the Gyncecia.

.
,
',
,
'.

,,,
,'
,
'
, , , ,.
'
'
,
.
,
, 7, ,
'
' ,
'
..
. <
'
,
,

','
5

117

ojkos

aX<yea

iroXXbv

?)

jap

',

,
,

yap

'.

,^-

'.,
,
.
,
, ' ',
6

yap

yap

yv,

yap

yuvrj.

This clause, which had puzzled

expunged
from the text altogether by Ermeall the

former editors,

is

I have followed Petit

and Er-

of

in-

Ermerins

further suppresses
7

rins.

..

merins in reading
stead

The

text here

is

under great

obligations to Ermerins.

.
,, .

118

8,

Ke0.

^,

'
,~8 , 8

''

,
,
'
8 .,
8

/$\

Uepl

76

'

,,8

,,

'^. 8
, .

'

lyap

<yap

am

not aware that this word

occurs elsewhere

in

any

author, as applied here.

medical

am

per-

suaded, then, that the proper read-

ing

is

On

the malag-

mata or emollient plasters of the


ancients, see Paulus ^Egineta,
Syd. Soc. Edit.

b.

iii.

pp.576

They were much used


diseases.
1

See Ibid.

b.

in

iii. c.

581.

uterine
68, etc.

1 have ventured to read

in-

on my own authority;
and have substituted
in place
ofrt, on the authority of Ermerins;
stead of

but have rejected his alteration of


into

which I think

spoils

and have preferred


which has the authority of the
Vatican MS.
2
here is used in an unusual

the passage

sense.

The

literal translation of the

expression would be, "

They are not


pained a hair," or "ahair's-breadth,"
i.e. in

the slightest degree.

Erme-

rins refers to Theocritus, Idyll, xiv.


9,

for

an example of

this

usage.

See further Liddel and Scott's Lexicon, under the word.


This usage
of

it

sent

appears very forced in the preinstance,

and

reading to be corrupt.

suspect

the

.
,
,

'' '?,
.
' ,. ' ',., ,
'.

119

Be

, , . ',
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
,<
,
,
jap

'

apaiby,

el

<

^^

.,
,

>,

,
,
.
yap

re

In the

believe

at

,
3

in

common

which
as

least

the

all
is

opyava'

editions, and I
MSS., we find

obviously at fault,

regards accentuation.

Ermerins, accordingly, does not hesitate

to

sufficient authority for the

although

it

is

not in

word,

common

use.

See also Liddel and Scott's Lexicon,

under the term.


difficulties in

There are other

the remaining part of

expunge the term altoBut to


I can see no

the sentence, which I cannot bring


myself to remove by expunging all

explained in

the difficult words, after the example

,,.

gether.

is

objection.

It is thus

the Lexicon of Hesychius:

This

of Ermerins.

,
, .

120

, ,
'
,
.
,, ', ,
, ,,

'

7<?

'

akyeei,

Be

Be

Be

Be

Be

,
.
<
, ' , ,
. ^
.
, . <'
6

Be

Be

/xev

Be

Be

41

Though

the text be not in quite

a satisfactory
it

as

it

state, I prefer

leaving

stands, rather than adopt the

slashing alterations

'.

Ermerins.

He

made

in

thus:

KorvXyai

The

by

following most extraordi-

, ,;

nary reading occurs in

(,

Harl.)

in the old translation

of Crassus, are rendered literally,


" Simulque omnium bos, asinus, et
proprius

cujusque dolor."

all

the

MSS.

What

can an ox or an ass have to do with

an attack of Schiatica?
Fortunately the

Wigan merely

proposes to read
5

it

reads the last clause

which words,

Askew MS.

be-

longing to the Medical Society of

London, has guided me to what I


do not hesitate to pronounce the
In the margin of this
true reading.
MS., opposite the corrupted words,
stand the following characters, ap-

, ./.
' , ,,-,
'
\
'.

, .'

parently in the handwriting of the

amanuensis:
s

That

Now,

to

is

that

say,

"pain of the groin"


attendant

constant

the

symptoms enumerated

[]
1.

.
..

2.

a
3.

well

is

this is

fact,

is

yap

thought superior to the reading I


have adopted:

Schiatica,

physician

every practical

aware; and, in

of

one of

4.

the

in

,,,

,
,

yap

121

the following words in his chapter


on Schiatica and Lumbago " Et

Every one of these specimens of


an emended text brings out an
namely, that
appropriate meaning
" there is a general pain of the
whole inguinal region, and a par-

primo, in vertebra dolor sentitur,

ticular pain of every part situated

best descriptions of the disease fur-

nished by the ancient authorities.

For example,

Caslius Aurelianus has

dehinc partis

suae

penetrans

loca

usque ad mediam natem, ac superius ad inguen," etc. Tard. Pass. v. 1.


In like manner, Aetius describes the

symptoms

Ex. MS.

as follows

in Bibl. Bodl.

Cod. Canon.

Groec. cix.

the

,,

substitution

for

of

so natural, that I feel persuaded


critic

will

demur

Some

other

slight

no reasonable
to

adopt

it.

changes, however, are requisite in


this passage,

in

therein."

I have now to state briefly the


emendations of this passage proposed by preceding editors and
commentators.
Wigan, while he
retains the vitiated reading of the
MSS., adds in a note at the end:

which might be effected

two or three

subjoin a few of

different ways.

my own

attempts,

some of which may perhaps be

-.

" Certe legendum

Ita

eleganter vehementia doloris descri-

Vertebra

bitur,

In a word,
is

et dolore torquentur,

qui omnes ceque occupare pracipitur,


et

alium etiam insuper sentiunt, qui

singulis suus

et

proprius videtur."

emendation
the same:
Petit's

,
.

is

very nearly

adopted by Ermerins with


a slight change:

It

is

''
,
,
'
'
, ' ,,.
'
"' .
''
, '
,,
,
,
, ,
,
,, ' ' '
, ,
' ,
,

122

at

69

},

'

yap

yap

yap 6

'
,
,.
*
,, '
},

eV

yap

The common

evidently no meaning.

Ermerins try

their

tural emendations,
style

as

reading,

hands

Petit

has

and

at conjee-

but in such a

I cannot approve.

Petit

suggests the following as a probable


substitute for the vitiated text :

., ,
.
Ermerins boldly sub-

stitutes the following sentence

the words he expunges:

for
6i

.
,
,

'.

123

.
.
,, ', , '
,,', , ,,,,<'
yap

<,

.^,
Ke<p.

'

Tlepi

'?.

,'

'

'
'
<
,. . '
,
,
.
'
'
. , ,
y

el

'

be required.
1

Ermerins ventures
before
and
Iliad, x. 437.

to introduce

Iliad, xxiii. 255.

seems to

Iliad, xi. 680.

Iliad, xx. 224.

it

ye

eV

124
yrjv

',,-,

, , .
<, , ,
,
.
,
Be.

'
'
,
'
,
,'
'
yap

Be

'

?6

,,

.
< .

.
, , ,'

'

'

,,
Be

^'

,
,

0eXei,

'

, '
.
.

,.

yap

<
Toiy

Be

<

yfjv

.
,
'

."
'
'
,
'
,
,
,,
y
,
,
,
,,
, ,
..

'.

ol

yap

yap

125

-^rfj,

-,

iy

yapa.

pyo

.
'

'
~

, ,'

apaXXaya
yovu

yap

yva^

ypv,
6

,
'

,
.
' ' -

}'

yap

'

,
,-

emendaby Bernard, and received into the text by Ermerins.


In the MSS. it stands thus:
ry pivi
Sk
I have here adopted an

tion suggested

rySs

Ty KotXiy.

No mean-

ing

can

be

drawn

from

these

words.
6

The reading in the MSS. is


a word of no meaning.
That which we have given was suggested by Wigan and is adopted by

Ermerins.

'
126

yap

, .
,
}

.
,

,
eV

,
'. , -

,
,

,,
,

, , .
,
,
,
,
'
.
<-

yap,

,
,
'
'

yap

,.

yap

,
,
, .

',
7

- , ,, ,,, ,

The common

has no meaning.

reading, ipptiro,

The

substitute

for

it

was suggested by

adopted by Ermerins.

Petit

and

.
,
'
,
'
, , , ,', , .
'
,' ,,
'
','
,
,
'
,
'
,
.
'. ' , ,
,
, ' '' '
,
'
,
,
,
'
,
., '
,. . , ,, ,
'
', , ,, ,,

'.

^^,

127

Iliad, xii. 463.

'
'
, , ,
.

128

'.

,--, ,., , ,
Be

.
,
,, . ,, . ,
'
,,, , , ''
,', ' , ,
,

yap

,
-

Be

, ., ,
, .

'
.
,
.
, , .
,
.
, ,
-

'

erj,

'

Be

eV

\,

.
,
,

'.

129

,
,
'
,
,
'
,
.
\

,,

',
' ,
,
,

'-

,
.
,-

,
,,

.
'
,
2

.......
.......
.......
.......
........
........
.......
.

<;

.
.

'.

.
',
,
.

,
,
,,
'
,
,
,
&
'
,
, , ,.
re

',

&PXV V

<*>

Ke0.

''

.
,
,
'
.

yap

',., ^,',
,
'
.
, , ,,
,
,,
py
'.'
,
,
, .
,
,
\,
^
.
,
'
. '
134

yap

yap

iv

iv

iv

yap

yap

yap

/-

yap

6pyv

'

yyv,

avyfj

Ermerins ventures to substitute


for this word, for no
other reason but because he fancies
it more suitable to the passage than

such

Our author

tors,

the one in the text.

has in view Hippocrat. Prognost.


2

4.

Ermerins, following in the wake

of Wigan, suppresses,

'

'

first,

) ovra;

the clause

and, second,
as

aya-

yap

'

editorial

practices.

If

the

works of the ancient authorities are


to

be thus modified agreeably to the

and caprices of modern

tastes

we

loss to

shall

by-and-bye be

know what

what modern,

in

be of olden date.

although

may

the

is

ediat

ancient and

works reputed to

And, moreover,

clauses in

question

not be indispensable to

the

being mere glosses on the clauses

meaning, I cannot but think that

I must say,

they give effect to the other clauses

connected with them.

decidedly, that I cannot approve of

in this passage.

^,, . ,
,

,,..,
'.

'

'
'

135

Be

,
,,
.
, } .>, ,
,
'
,
,
'
-

yap

yap

'

.
.

,, ,, .
,
^ ,'.

<yap

<

'

,
,
'
' .,

136

,
'
,
? ' ,,.,
,

yap

yap

,
,

aya-

'
.
,
y
,
'
,
,
'
,
,^ ,
,
.
, .,
yap

ypaa

ayadbv yap

'?

''

'

,,
,

yap

'. . ' >vy


yap

yap

,
.
3

I have adopted the reading sub-

by Ermerins in place of the


ordinary text which stood thus:

stituted

'
,

yap

Petit

proposes to improve

the text by leaving out

and sub-

stituting

,.
-

for

But the emendation substituted by

Ermerins seems preferable, being


founded on the rules laid down by
Hippocrates in his work, "

On

Ali-

See Syd.

inent in Acute Diseases."


Soc. Edit.

t. i.

.
,
,

, ,, , . ,.
,
.
,
.
' .,
,
,'
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
. ,.
0#

'.

137

Bey,

Teyyetv Be

, ,

yap

Be

'

<

'
' ,
<
,
., , ,
Be*

<

Be

Be

Be

'

'

Be

, .,
, ,, *
Be

'.

yap

<,

Be

Be

Ermerins erases the clause


Sk

By

merely deleting the

altogether.
last

word,

and

Sk

flatter

in

in

the following clause, I

myself that I have succeeded

emending the

text satisfactorily.

,
,
,
,
.,,-, , .138

',

yap

ibv,

vypalvei

rj

'
,
'

>,

.
^
,
,
,
,
, , , , .
.
^,
,
, . .
,'
yap

opy?^

'

aiyiaXav

'

yovf|

ya.

ypov

yap

aya0bv

have partially adopted Ermerins' very extensive alterations of the

text in this place.

,.

. ' '
,,
, ,
'
05

,.

., ,.

*HV

139

],

,6

<yap

^'

,
.
,
'
<
,
.
,

$,

,
,
,

'.

,
',
,
'
,

,.,
1

, , , ,\
'
<,
,
,
,,,.

aya06v

tlvc

<yap

,
6

The common reading

Petit

piov,

Seat

is

words of no meaning.

was the first to suggest


on which see Foes' CEconom.

Hippocrat. in voce; also Erotian.


7

In the original the term

occurs before

Wigan

suggests

>

for

which

which Ermerins adopts; but, as will


be seen, removes it a little way down
the sentence.

,
,,
(
,
.
,
<
,
,
.
140

yap

), ?

ev

,,, .
,
^
'
,,
,
,
,
.
'
*

,
'

yap avyKoir^

Xya

,
,
'
, y

,'

pyv.

'

.
,,-

,
'
,
,, , ^/
'(
)'
,
,
,

Be

yap

',

yap

' ,

.
,
'

0#

'.

141

'.. < ,,
.
',-

', ,',
'. ,'
8

eXaiov

Be

Be

Be

Be

.
<, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
. .

Be

Be

'

Be

<yaXa

,.
,,

Be

'
.
8

Be

Ermerins does not hesitate to


words from the text,
without any good reason as far as
eject these five

'

,
I can see.
the feet

and hands,

-<
-

yap

<
applies only to

,
,, , ,
,
,,
, , ,,
'
.
142

'

<,

,
,'

'
"
yap

.^

,\,

,
,
.
, . '
,

<

The

last clause of this

&<,

<

,
,

sentence

seems decidedly to he corrupt. How


much is it to be lamented that this
culogium on wine, which appears to
be so judicious and so eloquent,
should be marred, in so far, by the

corruptions of the text!


gests

Petit sug-

which

would be an improvement of the


sense, in

my

opinion; but

jected by Ermerins.

it

is

re-

03

,.

.
^' , ^,, , ',
Ke0.

Qepaneia

<

143

A'.

ev

'
,
,,

yap

.
..

<

),

^-

<.
,
,
.
, . ,, ,
'
^
'
, , ,, ,
,
, ,
' ,

,,

Be

Be

el

Be

eV

Be

,
' ,
,
.
Be

<'

'

Be

-<

,
'
-

'

144

,
.
^
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,,, ,, .'
,, ,' .
,', , -,
'
, , ,,
,
,
., ,
',
.
.

yap '

iv

Be

Be

<'

<

Be

iv

<

veiv

Be

' ,
,

,
1

Petit.
2

have

stead of

adopted
as suggested

in-

by

Ermerins has entirely remodel-

led this passage

altering, ejecting,

'

<

',
,

and introducing words,

to

make

his

author use the language which the


editor fancies he ought to have used.
I

have adopted only a few of his

changes.

,. ,
,
.'

&,.

^
.

'.

145

. <\

oy/cos iv

'

yap

"Ayeiv

vayybv

Xrjdapyo^

iv

apyiy

yap

'

'

iv

'.

Siaypiecv

iyprjyopaLs.

'

yyov

,,, ' , ,
, ,
'

oyyifj

,
,, ^',
,

opiyavov,

yXrj

-,

ayoi

.
'

'

opiyavov

yya

, ^

,,

The reading

in

most

MSS.,
has evidently no meaning.

of the

Petit

mentions, that on the margin of a


certain

good MS. he found


which certainly gives a pass-

able meaning, with

the text.
or

.
Wigan

little

Ermerins creates

a reading to suit his


appears to

me

violence to

suggests

own fancy

Such a change

utterly inadmissible

,
, ( '}

146

,'
Be

^,

yap

i/c

re

a<yei

Be

, '
'' , , , ,
. ' ,, ,., '
yv . ',
'
,
,
, ',
.,

yiyveTai

Be

yap

yybv

Be

yap

^?

Be

Be

yap

^,
Be

'Typi)vai

yk^^oiv,

yovv.

yap

,
yap

apyo

,
.

being both violent and introducing a meaning not suitable to


the place.
It will be seen that I
as

. poayy.

have
tins

ypyoptv.

tried

my

passage

skill

with

judicent eruditi.

Be

in emending
what success,

,
.
,
<
'
(
-), , , .
,'
0#

'.

147

?}'

'.

yap

,
,
,
., , .
*
,
,
,
,
>,
'
,
,
,
,
'
,
'-,

aypiov

'

'

'

yap

'

,
,

4
In the text of
read idap, which

monstrosity.

,
yap

all
is

Upon

the

MSS. we

evidently a
the whole, I

most probable that the


Adarce is meant (see Ed. Gr. Lexithink

it

con

in voce).

altogether
right;

for

.,

,
4

Ermerins expunges it
and perhaps he does
and

were the same, or nearly the same,


thing.
.

L 2

148

, .,

,. .
Be

,
.

Ke0.

Be e?

ye
Be

%, -^,
Qepaweia.

,
,
,
' - . ,

vyprjvai

yap

Be

.
,.
,

Ke0.

* * *

eveivai.

'

.
,

yap

ye

.
, ,

yeea,

-.
-

Be

Be

'',
eyX

evi-

dently wanting at the beginning,

yvvai-

iyiy

Although some words are

yvvai^i

yyva,

yap

,-

aprjyeiv

it

',

is

singular that there

in

any of the

British

is

no lacuna

MSS.

.
,
..
,
,.
' < ,''
, -,
,
,, . ',, ,,
. .
-,

,
, ,
.
*
,,
0#

'.

69

149

yap

yap

eV

yap

.
yap

),'

'

yap

,, ., ,,^^
'
,
,

The

tory

text

but

is

not quite satisfac-

we cannot

venture

to

adopt the bold alteration introduced


by Ermerins:
iov.

meaning seems

The

to be, that it is the

animal heat which imparts life to


food introduced into the system,
3

Wigan

oh before

suggests the necessity of

iugly adopts

and Ermerins accord-

it.

, ,,-

150

., ,,,
<, .
'
. ,
,
'
,
,, .
, . , -.
,' , .
6

,
,

Be

' ,

'

,,, ,
' '
.
,
,
'^
-.
,
.
,
iBiy

7<

'9

'

.
,
, .' ,
,
'
,
,
,
, ',
'
,
.,' , <, ,
, ,'
,
.'
,
,
^
.
, , , ,.
'
,
'
,
. . ,. ,
,
,
0

'.

151

^.

yap

^.

for

ti.

into

have ventured to substitute


and
for
Ermerins changes
and otherwise in-

troduces very

many

alterations into

the text.
5

The

text

is

very unsatisfactory,

,
, ., ,,
,

152

yap

.
.
.

<

,
,

, .,
, , . ',,
''.
, ,
^'

<yap

'

''

yap

,
,
6

<yap

The common

reading,

inadmissible

evidently

, ,,'
6

and

is

al-

though Ermerins changes it into


I cannot see that even then
the text

is

much improved.

flat-

ter

myself that

both

natural

suggested.

my amendment

and

obvious

See further towards the

end of the chapter, where


occurs.

is

when

this

term

.
,
,
<
'
.
'
,
. , .. ,
'.
,
0#

'.

153

iv

Ke0.

Qepaireia

.
,
.
,

.
,

yap

Sea

yvyverai,

<yap

'
,
,,,. ,

.
,
,
. , ,,
, -,
'9

'..

,,
yap

,,

Xayova

<

154

.'
, ,

,
,'

,
',. .', , , <
, ,, .,
,
'
.
,
,' ^,, ,
'
..
,,,
. ,
^.
vypfj

..

<yap

Oepaireia Teravov.

,
,. .
<

,
.
,
.

<

05

,.

.
<
,
,

,
yap

'.

155

,^.,-

'
,
.
.
.
,
^
,
,
'
,
, ,, ,

ykvouro.

yap

'

(?

"^

eV

yap
9

69

69

,
,'
" ..
,
, ,
,
,
,
)
, .
yXevKivco,

ev

yap

^/

yvv,

'7'

yap

ayadov.

The common

Ermerins

reading,

alters to

on the

MS.

Mait-

authority of a Parisian
taire holds

',

to be an

example

of an active verb taken in a passive

We would
by tenduntur, entenduntur,

signification (ed.Wigan).

render

it

"we

are on the stretch."


Similar
examples occur in Latin as, " pro;

ra avertit," Virg. JEn.

i.

104.

2
I have adopted the conjectural
arrangement of the words introduced by Ermerins.

156

'

<

iv

,,

.. ' '
.
'
? ,,
\\

iv

yap

.*

'
'

,.,
' ,
'

'
. .

.
,,, ,
.
,

.
, ,

The common

,
,',.iv

by the joint labours ofWiganand

reading,

iviov, is altered as

above

Ermerins.

.
,
'
0#

' '.
'
,
,,
.
,)
,
,
.
'
,
,
.
,
,
^ ,,' .,
.
,

'.

157

piyea

<

yevoiTo,

yap

yap

<yap

aXeaiveiv

bypaiveiv,

Tiyyeiv

ayeiv

},

-<

yap

yap

'
,

yXa,

'^/

yapyapv,

ayxovy

ayeiv

?.

^,. /'
.

yXy
oyKov

Xyav

.. ,
,
.
'
,
' , .'
. ,, ..
.
.
,
.
y
^
,
'
158

yap

aptjyeiv'

ayeiv

yap

eV

yap

ay

yvve

ayeiv,

yap

'.
'
, ,

yyov

yoovaTa'

yao,

yap

.^
,
'
,
.
, .
yav

yavo,

/,

ypov

Although some words certainly

appear to be wanting here and a


short

distance below, there

is

no

lacuna in either place, in any of our


British

MSS.

,
.
,

0#

, ,
,,
, .'

'.

,
.

159

,
'.
,
. ,',, , ,, , ,
,
, , ,
erj

6?

.
,
Be

, ,,
, , ,
,. '
.
'<
.

.'
ayeiv

,-

iv

iv

iv

.<,

,
'
'
^ ,<
''

yap

<,

.
****** .
160

>

*****
*

.
,
'
,
.
.
. , -

,' , ,,, '


. ,.
.
,
'
,
, ] ., ,,,, .,'

7/77'

'

'

eV

'

^ ,,.
'
,
?,
,
,',,,, ,'' '
,
.
.
,
,' .
3
'.

rfj

161

.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, .,

,
.,
,
,
,,
,.,, ,.
.
'

Ke0.

avkyerai

?}

<,

<

'-

Ermerins

tensive alterations in this passage;

any of
duced

but I have not ventured to adopt

absolutely requires.

introduces most ex-

thern.

after

have merely introwhich the sense

162

, ,' <,
\-

><.

.
,, ,
.
,., ,
.

,
<yapya-

vypa

<yap

,
,,
iypbv

Ke0.

<
' '
,

The common reading


is

it

.
,
, '
.

clear that

the

,
,

<yap

but

);

is

$.

negative

cannot stand with the words that


Erfollow
yai
:

'

yap

.
,

'

?).

merins gets over the difficulty by


suppressing the last three words.

I have effected the same purpose by


merely suppressing the negative
I have adopted his reading of

in place of

tence.

in the

same sen-

^
.
,
'- - ,
, , .-

1G3

A'.

yap

itckehrr].

yap

vypa

,
' y',

yva,

Xyv^

7pyyvova.

yap?

'.

yyvov'

'

,
,

pofj

yap

'
.,
.
,
.
,
,
,'
^,
,
,

^yavou

'Xya

Xyo,

ya,
41

bypr],

Though

have not ventured to


cannot but think
For
that we ought to read
I

alter the text, I

\1.

and

in

surely

is

yap

thought that the

a time leaves the body


the body leaves the
Iliad, the act of

it

spirit for

not

spirit.

swooning

described:

-.
d'

(v.

696); upon which words the scholion


3

is,

Si

Compare Williams on Pneumo-

nia, Encycl. of

that

In the

t. i.

is

ykvu

Med.,

t. iii.

435.

Hippocrat. de Aliment.
435.

thus

Foes,

,
.,
'
?
,
164

yap

.
.

\-

,
,
,
., '
,
.
,
'
'
,
.
,,,
'
,
, ,,,
'

,
', , , ,
,

,,
. ,.
.
,
'

..

'

,
.

,. ,

,
,

,.
,'
'
, ,
'
' ./,
, ,
.
,
,
,
'
0

'.

165

eXaiov

erj,

ev

ev

,, , .^ ,

?
.,

'

,
,.
,
', , -,
) ,

,.' ,

', -

,
,
.

ivepybv

yap

is something inexplicable
paragraph; for not only does

There

in this

no one of the other

commend

authorities re-

brains in the treatment of

Pleurisy, but also

no one says any-

thing of roasting the brains of swine


in their cauls.

must be corrupt.

I suspect the text

.
,
,

166

^,

,
)
,
, .'
6

a\yo<;.

,
, ,, ,

,,

.
, '
,
'.
.
'
,

yap

'
yap

Xyo,

,,
,
,
.
,
,. )

iy^ivbv

jap

'

aXyeov

Xy-

yap

. .
,

The common reading


for

which Wigan

properly substitute

.
and

is

',

Ermerins
I have

yap

6 Xyo

yap

made a few more

alterations of

my

own, in justification of which, see


Nonnus, Epit. 129.

.
.

0#

'.

,.

1G7

A'.

,
<', ,
Be

Be

<'

'
'

Be

,''
.,

Be

,
<', ,,,' ,
'
, '
.
<
,
, ,
XX

<?

jap evBov

e'<?

Be

evi'

Be

Be

Be

Be

<-

,,
'

. ' ,
,
,
'
,
,
'
Be

'

Be

,
.

,
,

eV

<: ,

,,

168

,
.
,

Be

<

,
,

,
,
,
'
.
,

.
,
'.

",

'

',,

,
,

, .,

'

, '
" .,jiyvoiTO

yap

'

.
.

......
....
.......
.......
' ........

~'

'
.

.........
.

......
.......
.

'.

',
-y'

'.
f',

?'.

'

'.

,
-.
'
',
.

"
'

&

,
'
.
.
,
'
, , ,,. -,
,
,
.

a<f>

'

yap

,'

172

,.

.
, '

er],

.,

yap

.
.

,
'

vypa

yap

iv

vypov,

',
vypa

..

, <,
,
,
.
<
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
, ,
vypov

pavfj,

'
,
,

.
,
. . ,^
0#

'.

yap

173

'.

. . ',
. , ,.
,
, ^ , -, .
yap

, oXiyov

ayeiv

yap

vypfj.

Ke0.

^?

ayeiv

iiypa

.
,
,,

, ,,,
,
.
'
,vayy

ovS"

'

yap

',

.
y

Xyvo

vyv

, ,, , ,' -

yovTa.

yap

The

Ermerins, on the authority of


one Parisian MS., reads

Littre, the

to avoid the recurrence of aspirates.

crates, t.vii. p. 176.

other reading

is

retained

latest editor of

by

Hippo-

,.
,. <
'
,
'' , , .
,
,
,,.. ,
. -

,
174

yap

*2

6 yap

eV

yap

yap

,' .. .
.
,
,
, . /,. ' '
^
,
'

peg,

7]

yap

ayKcovi

ayKOiVi

yap

a^oppayfy

yap

ya

~{

yowaTa'

<?

aloppayo

This

is

evidently the proper reading, and not

'.

, .' ,
.
,
,
,. ,'<
., ,
0#

'.

175

Be

Be,

,
,

Be

.
..

Be

Be

,
,,' "
,

Be

Be

Xe7riBa,

, ''
'
,
,
,
,
,
, . .""
6&'

iv

Be

,
.

,, .
.
.
, '
,
,
,
',
Be

,,

Be

-^reiv

,,-

176

.
.

. .
,, , --

,"

.
.

.,

<yap

, --

veov

yap

'

.
,

,'

,
,,,
, ', ,.

,
'
.
,
.

'

<

,,
'
,,
' <,
2

Petit

was the

inadmissible.

first

to

remark, that the

common

reading,

is

.
^
,
,, ' ' ,'.
,
,. , , ,
'
,
,
,
,
,
',,%,, , . ,
,
,
.
,
'
.
'.

177

yyXhv

<yap

',

<

<.

<yap

,
,
,
(
.

'
3

In

all

,.

the

the words

between the

'

MSS. and

and Galen, de Simpl.

editions,

come in
Samian earth, and Sa-

That they have been


transposed by mistake, must be
quite obvious to any one who will

mian

.*

aster.

ed. Basil.

On

see further,
.

pp. 83
4

viii. t. ii. p.

Paulus JEgineta,

have ventured to transpose


from the second

the negative,

clause of this sentence to the

given by Dioscorides,

the sense absolutely requiring

v. 171

t. iii.

85, Syd. Soc. Edit,

read the account of these substances

. M.

118,

these medicinal earths,

first;
it.

, ,
,.
,
'
,
,< , . ,,,

178

he.

Si

<

,, ,

,
.
,'.'
. ,' ,
yap

,
<

,
,
.
,
, , ,,
yap

,
.
',

'

On

.
.

'
,,-

,
this

form of circumlocution,
Morb. Diuturn. Curat.

II. 7.
6

Ermerins, in this sentence, has

),

see below.

--

amended

the text most felicitously,

by a few

slight alterations.

nia si sic

O, om-

The common reading

is

^ ,'. ,
,
.
'. ,
' , ,,
'.

oXiyov

179

''

yap

vypbv

yaXa'

,
,
,

'?

yaXa,

yXpov,

,
",

yaXaKTi' 7

poyv

ypo

hypov

yaXaKTi

,.)

yaXaKTi

'
.
,
,
,
.
,

poayy

yap

dyav.

yap

^,

The far

Romans was a

of the

,-

See Appendix
to the Edinburgh Lexicon.
8
1 have ventured to read
instead of
on the

variety of the spelt.

suggestion of Petit

on

my own

indeed,

by

and

authority

to

add

supported,

that of the Latin transla-

tion of Crassus.
9

to

Ermerins boldly changes


a word bearing no re-

semblance whatever to the one in


the text.

I prefer leaving matters

as they are, although I must say, I


have a strong wish to expunge the
words
altogether, as

Our au-

being quite out of place.

thor seems to say, that in hasmoptysis

it

is

a good thing
on the patient.

. ;
and

fat

is

Of

course,

intended as the Ionic of

Wigan

instead of

to put flesh

uses

but I

am

not

aware that there is any authority


for this term being applied to a
cicatrix in the fleshy parts.

180

,, } '.
,
6

<<,

yap

Ke0.

.
.

^'

.-

''^,
,

yap

'-

.
.
<
.
,
,
.
.
,
,
,
, ', '' yap

yap

irpo<yi-

,,. ,

yap

}'

^/.

The common

Ivato,

is

yol

,
,
,
,
' ),\
.

reading,

evidently inadmissible. Pe-

yX^oa

tit

suggests

Ermerins has

,
' ,, ' ,
., , ,
,
0#

\.

'.

181

yap

'

'

,.
yo
,
,

.
,
,,
, >,
. ,.
,

eV

he

rjSe

iXey^ei yap

yap

yap

^aXXayfj

XyaaL

yap

yo^

yap

Xyov

. , ,Xyvo
,
,

Xyavo

yap

.
.

In

this clause I

have found

'. -

yap

' 3

it

ant.

The language would appear

necessary to follow the conjectural

to be imitated

emendation of Petit, which is adopted


also by Ermerins, whose annotations

treatise

on

this

passage are highly import-

De

This

from the Hippocratic

Morbis,

iii.

6.

evidently the true reading, and not


is

^
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,,
,
.
,' , . . ,
'
,
,
'
,
.
'
,
,
,.
.. , .
,
,
,
yb
,.
,,
^, .
.
,
,
'
,
,, ,
, , ,.
', ,, '
,
, ,, . 182

es

yap

yap

yap

vpy

,
,

ayv

yapa

yyv.

yv

yova'

.
,
,

,
<
0#

'^^,', ' , ,
,
.
, ,
, , , ,,
,
,
^
. , ,
,

'.

183

'

.
, ,, .
, ^., .
,
,
,
^ ,,.
,

'

yap

<.

<yap

,
'

,.

,,

,
, -

']

,
,
,' ,
,

'

,, , ? '
,
,
,
'
184

,*

' ,
.' <
^.
,<,
,
,
, ,. ,
.
,
' , ..
yap

ev

el

eh

Be

'

yrjv.

Be

Be

,
,
'
,
>'
,
,
,
.
,
)

',

.
4

<yfj

In this place I

have deleted

instead of the former clause,

...,

as

",

is

done by Ermerins.

these two words,

rfj

One thing seems clear that both


cannot stand, since they are synonymous.
5

Iliad, v. 696.

,
'
,, ,.,

.
.
,
'
}
,
, ,
,
'
0#

'.

185

'

jap

Xoyov

,
,
,,, ,, ' ,
.
,,,.,,
,
',
,
',
,
'
,
,
,
., , , -.
evypoov

,
,
}'

..

XX

<

yap

yaXa,

yap

186

Ke0.

'^.
'
,
,,, '
'.,

,
,,

ye

,
. , ,,

.,

,*

,
,

,-

,,
,
,
,.
,
,
'', . ,
,

,
,,' ,
,
,
,,
7]

* \

here refers to the sto-

mach. Indeed, 1 felt inclined to


change the text to

do

not

alteration to

,
.

approve

of

Ermerins'

, ..
'?
?
.
, . , . ,,
,
,,
, ,
]
'
0#

'.

187

<yap

Be,

KOTe,

,,
Be

el

Be

,,

,,, , ,

',
,' ,
,

.
,
'
'
,
,.., '
,
. ,
'
,
, ,,.',,,
}.,

yap
Be

<

'

have adopted

?
this

,, ,
'9

reading from Petit and Ermerins. instead of

,,, '
,
^
,, ,,
.,
,,
,

, ',
,
,,
, .
,
188

Ke0,

'

Sepaneia ELVeoO.

,,-

'
., . , ,
6

'

,
,

,
,
"

' , '\,
"

,,
.

. ,,
'

.
,
.

--

eVt

,,
'

yap

?7

189

,,
, ?,. ,,

'
, .
,
,

'.

''

,
'

,
.,

, ,. , ',
'

yap

,,

cnrvyai

'

,
.
,

,,,,
,

The common reading in all the


which was
MSS. is
1

most felicitously amended as above


by Wigan.

'
,
.
?',- , ,)
,
,
'
,
'
,
.
,
,
,,
'
,,,
'
,* ,, .
^, 190

rfi

<

^,
' <.

^,

.
,

',

,
.
<.,
,'
yap

yap

I here adopt the ingenious con-

the other

furnishes

jecture of Eimerins, in place of the

suitable to the place.

common

there can be

reading,

This

reading,

common

one, rov

suggested by Petit.
2

instead

The common reading

of

was

the
first

per reading

i.

, "

Harley.

Cod.
But neither the one nor

p. 52.

Alexander's description of inflam-

which Ermerins makes vb], having


adopted it from Bernard, ad Non-

num,

no doubt that the prois


which occurs in

mation of the

is

It occurs also in

any meaning
To my mind,

,,

liver,

as follows:

...

19).
is,

The meaning,

that in

(vi.

then, obviously

inflammations of other

0#
],

,.

'.

191

'

yap

.] ,
, , ^,,
*
<
'
.
', ,
.
,,
, ,, ',
'

'?

yap

"

'

'

aXorj

yap

, , ,' ,'.y-

,
,
'
,
,. ' '
' .,
yXvo,

yowi

parts, the blood,

yap

which

is

the pabu-

lum of the inflammation, has to


come from another place to the part
inflamed
of the
the

whereas in inflammations

liver, the

blood

place where

formed.
3

The

negative,

it

is
is

inflamed in
originally

in

all

the

remarks,

it

MSS.
is

but,

the sense.
4

The common

has no meaning.

wanting

Wigan

reading,

I have adopted

the conjectural emendation of

gan, in preference to
is

as

evidently required by

which

is

Wi-

the reading of Ermerins.

,'
, ,,,,,
.., ,
.
,.., , ,
'
,
? .
.
.
,
,
'
.
'
,
, .
.
,
,
., ',, ,
. .
192

yap

Ermerins

alters the last

two words

to

^,.
.

193

,? ./3?

,
,
'
,
, '
,,

'

'.

yap

.., .
^,

iv

,,

..

'

yap

,
,

eV

'.
'
'
, .'
yap

yap

',

'iyyova

,
-

,'.
,
,

yap

,
, ,
',

yap

,
yap

.
.

194

,,

''
,
.
'
<,
', '
,

' ,<' ,
'!
.
,
'
.
<'
, ,
.. ,,
-

i^ayei,

yap

iv

yap

Ke0.

.
<

<
'
'
, '
,
,

', '
<yap

03

,.

,
,
, ,, \,
.,

jeypa-^reTat.

T-fjSe

'.

195
iv

] \<\
'

<,
'
.
'
eV

.
8
.
,
,
,, , . 8'
8
,
' -8,
,
'
,
'8 ' ,,,, , ,,
' , -

'

yap at

iv

yXevtcivov

'

iv

'

yXi-

yap

-^.

ay^

yaXa.

yyo

The common reading

is

all the editions, which is


ffiy, in
improved greatly by a very slight
alteration, as above.
I have ventured to make it on my own

authority.
2

is

The common

reading,

obviously at fault.

Wigan, on

,
,

good MS. authority, reads


which is adopted by Ermerins.
Petit suggests
which would
be most suitable to the place, if it
were supported by as good authority as the amendment of Wigan.
It is found, indeed, in the Lexicon
of Suidas; but I am not aware that
it

occurs elsewhere.

o 2

?.,,

196

'
',
,

'' ,
4

,
.

'

'?

yiyvovTai,

Ke0.

yap

'

,
,
.

,,'' '
," .
., .
<yap

"

'

Tiyver

This

is

a fortunate emendation

Com-

of Ermerins for

pare Herodotus,
4

iii.

The common

JE.
s

t. iii.

p.

'

is

it.

The common reading

See P.

342.

This word

reading,

not in the text,

but some such word is evidently


required and accordingly Ermerins
has supplied

40.

evidently inadmissible.

is

akeyeivos;

Iliad, xiii. 567.

is

,
.
,.
,
,
,
,
,, ,,-

0#

'.

197

.',
, ?
<,
,
,
. %.,',,
,
, ,
,
68

<,

poif),

yap

\.

',

'
,'' , '
,
.
3

.. ,
<
,
'.
'
, , .

,,

*HV

yap

Wigan

suggests

and

Ermerins accordingly receives this


Perhaps our
term into his text.
author alludes to scarifications in
the loins, or cupping, which is a
practice

recommended hy Kufus

and other ancient

authorities,

in

Paulus

diseases of the kidneys. See

./Egineta, Syd. Soc. Edit.

t.

i.

p.

553.
3

Should

Herodot.

i.

it

not he

50.

Ed. Dindorf.

See

,.',

198

re

l.

,
,

.
'
,
,

.
'

, ..- ', ,
'

,'

This would appear to be the


See Petit's Comment.
and the note of Ermerins. In all
3

.
.

true reading.

the

MSS.

In

merins

it is

Lexicon.

All the commentators are agreed


the common reading,

,
1

MSS.

the reading is
See Wigan and Eralso Liddel and Scott's

the

that

cannot stand. I have followed Ermerins in adopting a conjectural emendation suggested by


Petit in part.

'

text

It
is

must be admitted, that the


not in a satisfactory state;

and yet I have not seen any emendation which I can think of adoptErmerins reads
For
ing.
which occurs in the margin

, ,

of Henisch's edition

but I

am

not

aware that this term is ever applied


to any part of the uterus. The same
objection applies to his use of
in the next sentence.

Were

disposed to meddle with the text at


all,

I should substitute

.
,
(
, ,' ,,,

,
, ,,
yap

,'
,

,,

99

'.

'

jap

,
. ,.
iv

'
',, , '
.
,
.
'
,

eV

^,

,
,,

,
.

,,

\'

,
,
,
,
'
,
'
,
'
,
,
,, ' ) ', --

,, ,,,
<,
,
'
.
, ,, * ,
'
,
, , <'
200

') '*

ola

Be

<ye

\<,
Be

Be

--

KTevl

Be

Be

Ke0.

,
Be

.
^
, '.
.

Be

.-

,.

'
,
<
.
.
.
Be

Be,

yap

...

<,

benefit I

acknowledge the
have derived from many
verbal emendations made by Erme-

The common reading,


condemned by all the editors. I
have adopted the ingenious emenda-

rins in this chapter.

tion of Ermerins.

gratefully

is

,,.
,
,
.
'
'
,
.
,
^ 0#

'.

yap

201

es

69

yap

aihoiov

he

he

he

yap

lepfj

heovrai

hpf]V

havarai'

he

alhoia

pohivcp he

Teyyeiv

epia,

,,

hirjvai

.
'
,
,
,
'
.
,
.
,
,
'
. , '
,
'
,
],
, '(
ifKi^aha

alhoia

ha,

avhpayop,

he

hp

he

he

heXXa

ha

)
'

ho he

1
I have adopted the ingenious
emendation of Ermerins in place of

the

common

which

is

Xoyov he

reading,

} ',

evidently at fault.

yap

pohivou

have ventured to introduce


as something
seems wanting in this clause of the
I

the preposition

sentence.

,..,
.
,.
~
'.

202

,'
,
,
,,, ,', ,,,,
<yap

,
,
, 7,' .
,,
.
&,
<, , .

yap

3
........ .

,. ......
......

......
......
******,_
******
******
******
7' ^' ******
"7
******
*****

"

'

.*

'

((

'.

,
'

.. ,

, , -..
Ke0.

yap

'

.,

,<.,
< . <
,
.
' '.
,
.
yiyverai

The common

<

Be

having no suitable meaning, Erme-

2
Either
or something else
seems to be wanting in this sen-

rins did right in altering this clause,

tence.

agreeably

Wigan.

to

reading,

the

suggestion

of

206

'

Ke0.

Qepaweia

,.

.,

\-

avayKaiov,

Xy

^,
/'

.
yap

,'el

.
,
.
,
' .<
.,.', ,
,
,
.'
.
,
'
yap

yap

olvov

yap

.
.

.,

yap

,
'

yap

'

yap

/,

.
,
.

'.

207

.
,
,',
.
.
,) ,
.
', '
,
,
^.
,
'
.
, ' '. . < ,.
yap

'

real

ayetv

aycoyoTepov

ytjveTat

, .
''
/, ,
, ', ,
y

iy

-.

yap

yap

Xyo

ayovTa
aypU}'

, ,'
'
, ^
.
.
'
-' , . , y
.
,

,?

^?,

yap yiyvovTai

yap

of

The common
is

reading,

in

Kuhn's

instead

edition,

The reading

duced seems

to

me

have intro-

self-evident.

208

, ,
,,

'

^
,
'
' , ,' . '
. , '' (,
,
,
,
.
,. ,
, ,
.'
,) ,,
. opyavov

~1

<yap

')

'

<

(<

<

,.
2

'
.

,-

Ermerins does right in substi-

tuting this

word

for

See,

and the note


of Foes, (Ec. Hippocrat., under this
word. It was a sort of ladle.
in pai'ticular, Pollux,

.
3

The common reading

in all the

editions, except that of Ermerins,


is

' ,

4
Though I have not ventured to
into
change
I have
little doubt that the latter (which
signifies the knob of a speculum or
cautery) is the true reading. See

P. JE.

vi. 66, et pluries.

,.

'.

209

,
.
.

,
'
'
,
'.
,,^^ , .,
, , , , , .
yjyayov.

oi

i<{

'

,
,

'

,-

' , , ,,
. ,
Be

Be

,
,
,,
,
, < , ,, , .,
' ,
>

oXiyo-

yap

Ermerins suppresses
altogether; and seemingly these

ruv

are superfluous, and unsuitable to


this place.

'
,
'
210

'.

,' , ,,,
,
., , , '
. ,
jap

'
' ' ,,
,
,
,
,,'
',
'
'
,
,
.
, , ' , ,,

'

'

'

'
' ,.,
,,'
''
.
< ,,
, ..
.

yap

,
6

'

The common reading

tercd to

is

which Ermevins has


ci

al-

It will

be seen that, by a less violent change,


I have succeeded in amending the
text.

,
.
, <,

.
,

.
,
Ke0.

'.

yap T f)

211

, --

.
'
,

<<.

'
.

,-

, , ,, '
,
,
' .
,
, ,
,

.
,
,
,,
,
,
. .
,,
,,' ',,
,,,,' ,
.
'

<

ayeiv

vayaXXo,

212

,
,
,
,
,
,

'
yap

'

'?

'

'?

oXiyov

'

',

,
,
}

' .--

,
'

.
^ ,,
.
'
', '
.
,
,,',
,. '. < ,
,
,. .), .
.
, !
8

'
-

<yap

yap

jap

Ermerins, following the sugges-

tion of Petit, substitutes this


for

which

to the place.

is

word

quite unsuitable

Ermerins suppresses

altogether,

this clause

,.
,, , -

^,
,

'.

aorta,

'

213

,. -

Si

,.

,
'
,
, , ., ,,
<
,, ,',. ', , < ,,
.
,
.
,
,
, ' , ,
'
,
'
,, '
'
,
,, ,', '.
3

<,

'

<

jap

these

needed.

words, which do not seem to be

Wigan.

Ermerins

also

erases

See,

further,

Petit

and

, ''
'
,, ,
,
.
,,
', ,..,
,, '
, ,,
,
,
,
,' , ,, . '
,
,
,
,
,. , , ,.. , , ,, '
'
.

214

<yap

,
,
'
,
,
, ,',
,
'
'

,
,-

fj

'

'
.,,-

'
^, ,
,
,
. , ''
'

'

,.

,
, ,,

.' ^

215

',.

Ke0.

'.

,
'
,

yap

,
., , . , '
,
, , ,,, ,

,
'
,
' ^ ' .' '
.

yap

he

eet

7}

yap

yap

?}'

yvo,

yap

} -)

yap

yap.

1 wonder that Ermerins should

have thought

it

necessary to ex-

punge these words. It appears to


that, from the commencement

me

of this paragraph

we have one

down

to

and comwhich ThucyDemosthenes, and other of


of those long

This style of composition


very different from the periodic

lighted.
is

style in which Roman, French, and


English authors compose their works,
Clarendon, Milton, and Cobhett are

the best examples

we

have, in

lish,

dides,

writing in long sentences,

the great writers of antiquity de-

of

the

old

Eng-

Grecian style of

plicated sentences in

,
.,

216

,
,,,, ', ,. ,, ' -,
- -

'

.
, , ', ,'
'
' ' , ,. ,
,, ,, ,
, ,' ,, ,,
,
', , ,,.
,,
].

yap

jap

'

"-),

/ivetv

jap

'

'

tV

,,.

'.

217

'

,
,
'
,
'
,
.
.
,
, , ,
,
'-,, ., .,
,,,'.,, ,'
.
,
,
,
,,
,, , ' '
,
'
,
,
(
* ,
2

el

''

iv

,}

2
That
and not

this

is

the true reading,

oi

quite obvious from Dioscorides,

is
ii.

were sea aniSee Appendix to Dunbar's


Greek Lexicon.
3
Ermcrins, following the advice

27.

All the

mals.

of Petit, by the addition of


slightly

altering

greatly improves

the

and

punctuation,

the text in this

place.

Our author

the celebrated

to

Epidemics
vol.
4

i.

of

p. 360,

evidently alludes

passage in

Hippocrates.

the

See

Syd. Soc. Edit.

The common reading

merins proposes

to

for

is

which Er-

substitute

the

above, on the authority of a Parisian

MS.

218

,
,
',

'

.'
'
'' , ^
9

</>'

'.

'

yap

e?

'
.
, .
.. ,
,.'
,, ,
.
,
, ,
',,' ', ,,,,
'
,
,
,
,
, ,, , ,
,
18

.
,

,'

''

have not scrupled, in

this sen-

place.

tence, to follow Ermerins in substi-

scure.

tuting

has

no

for

meaning

suitable

which

to

the

''

,-

The passage

. .,

Instead of iv

reads

is

am

still

ob-

Ermerins

doubtful.

709.

,
'

BIB . '.

.
.
,
, '

'Opjrj

jap

Xayvefy,

219

, ,
,
jap

.
<, .
'

>

jap

yap

, , ..,
.
;

jap

jap,

ujpbv,

,' ' ,
,

..

jijveTai

',
'
' eXJ .
XJvov

,' Jo,

Ja,

,,

XaJo-

cljkoivi

jap

Jv,

jap

opJ,

220

'
'
,)' '
''

'

.
^
.,

. /-

yap

yap

yova

<

ay

iv

yap
veiv

.'',
,
,
.
,
'

,
y
.
Tkyfy,

yap

,,
yap

/;

,yo
'

.
'
'
.

,
',
,
.
,
,
.-

e?

<,

yiyveTac

aya06v

yap

apyv,

.,

Wigan and Ermerins have

very

properly substituted this word for

yov. '-

yap

.
.
yap

Petit

suggests

yv-

,.

.,
,
,
'
.

' ,'
,'

'.

221

- ,,,,

,,

, .
,
,
., ,
'
,,
,

,,

,
,
.

yap

,, ,,,
,,
, , . <-

'
,
2

,
,
, , , ,.
,
,
2

The common

reading,

'-

Ermerins, in preference to

by

being evidently inadmissible, I have

as suggested

preferred the reading adopted by

proposed by Wigan.

Petit, or

as

222

,
,
, ,' . ,

upiiyeiv.

.
vyteas

yap

.
'
.

,,
.

yap

'
ay', , ,
,
Zpyoiat

yap

..,

.
.
-

er}

/.

',

yap

,
,

?
,
'^'

yav

., ,
yap

yap

aya0ov

,,

ayo

yap

y,

Hippocrat. Prognost.

It is so

and

accented in

editions.

all

the

MSS.

Wigan

ing for

has substituted this read-

.
,
'
.
,
,
'
,
'
,
,
,
, , ' , ,--

'
'.

223

.
,
.
',
,
,
,
'
,
,, , , ,,
'
,
, ,, .',',
y.

'

^.

-3S-

,
*

.' ,.
<.
.
'
.

* * *

Be

,
'
'

,'

yap,

<yap

<yi<yvoiT

<

'

Be

<^,
,

Be

224

'
' ,, ,
,
.. .
^,

ar

yap

"
,
,
,
, , ,., '
''
,), ,
^. , ,,, , ,
)}
^
,
<
.
, ,
, ', ,, '
.
.
.
,
<. <'
yap

>],

,
.

yap,

iy

Gepaneia

* * *

The common reading

,
;
-

is

seems to

which Ermerins

alters to

me

the

meaning of which

very equivocal,

.
,
'
, , ,. .
,,< <
, ,)
'.

225

],

^,

'
'
. <, , ,,
,
,
, ,'
.^, , ,, ,
'
. ,<
,
,, ,
,
,
,
,
,,

hi

.
,

'?

<?].

yap

<<,

..

'

Though

think

<'

the text, I must say that I


the true

reading would be

instead of

<

<
'

' ,,-<

I have not ventured to

, .
alter

<,

I can-

not see the significance of the

latter,

whereas the former is of frequent


use with our author as applied to
the liver.

22G

.
,
, , ,

,
, .

,, .

,
,
,, , ,
'
.,, ,, ,
,'
,
.

,
/ceiv

#?,

Be

, <,

Be

Ke0.

Be

iS

.
.

,
,
,
.
,
'
,
. / .)
,
.

Be

Be

....

...

* * * *

yap

.,

'
,
,

Liddel and Scott, conformably to analogy, but in opposition to general

usage, read

'

.
.

3 ****** .
.......
******
......
......<?
....
******
******
******
******.
......
.

'

Q 2

'.

"
'
)
,
,,
Ke0.

Qepa7TLa

.
. ,

. , '. ,
Be

'

vjpbv

.. 6
,
^ y\
. ,

,,

^'^,
Be

aya0bv

yap

Be

yc

iv

7].

^,

Bel

' '
,

yap

yva

iypbv

, .,

yap

Be

aya0bv Be

-^rt,'

iypbv,

vypov

Be

yap

yap

yi-

ap-qyeiv

.
,,,
230

.
,

rfj

,
<
, '

lepfj

Be

iv

69

'
,
.
,,,
,
9

,, ,
,
, ,
e9

yap

Ke0.

Be

'

yevvav.

e'9

.
,,
.

<'
,
, , ,< ' .
,
'
, -

Be

yevvav

<yap

This word, or

similar import,

is

some other of

evidently required

in this place, as Petit

was the

first

to suggest.
tate to

adopt

Ermerins does not hesiit.

,^.'

., .
BietjoBov

,
.
.
'.

231

iv

/eiv

yap

,,

yap

yap

'

yap

?.

' ',
, ,
,
Xyov

yap

Teyyeiv

Keveayyefy

Be

.
.

Be

Xey-

'
,.
,

yap

'
Xya ,
.^ , '' .,
,
,
,
,,,
,,.
,' , ,
,
.
Be

Be

yap

Be

Be

Be

''

Be

In the

lacuna

Askew MS.

here,

occupying

there

is

whole

--,

page, but none at the end of the


chapter, as in the printed editions.

232

,,
Ke0.

Oepaire'ia

.,

etve/cev,

.
' ^,
"
'
/?, , ,
,
.
-^
'
,. ,, .., -,per]

,
,
., ,
'

.
,
,
', , ,
,
'
,,', , '
,
,
.
'
,.
%

>

',

yap

^,

,.

.-

Ke0.

"3"

'.

233

.
. , , <,
,
,
, , ,' ,,, , , ,/,
, .,,,'
, ,.
,
.
.'
<'

''
yap

ryiyvoLTO,

/,

69

yap

ev

<

Ermerins erases

fancy-

-^

in

this

place.

However,

/ .

strange circumlocution for

ing that the ointment could not be


suitable

or

See below, in the next chapter. It


worthy of remark, that this mode

Actuarius recommends the Nardi-

is

mim Unguentum

of circumlocution was

expressly for Sto-

machics. Meth. Med.


2

vi. 10.

If the text here be sound, the

expression must be understood as a

tised

by the

dialect.

under

writers

much

in

prac-

the Ionic

See Gregorius Corinthus,

.-

234

',

,,
,.,

.
' , '.
oy/cov

at

<yap

'

,,

,
, ,
'
',,
' ,,',
,

, ,
,,
,.
,
,
, , , ,,
<yap

.
.
,
'
.

, .'
'.

',

,,

,
'
6

',
235

,
,
., .
,
,
,
,
.
,,

,
,,'

,
'
,

.
* * *

'

yap

',

.
.

'
,

.
,

There can be little or no doubt


words in the lacuna immewere
diately adjoining
1

that the

roc

On

the popular

modes of

producing easy vomiting in ancient

times,

pp. 52

see

54.

eV

Paulus JEgineta,

On

t. i,

the use of emetics

in the cure of Arthritis

and Schiatica,

see further, Ibid.

pp. 652

passim.

t. i.

676,

236

,-

'
. ,

.
.
,

'
,
,
,, ,.
,
., , '
, ' ,
,

'

,
.
?
'
'
, . . ^ ,.'

iv

alya,

Ke0.

yap

?}

<

^?.

2
There is evidently something
Petit and
wanting in the text.
after
Ermerins substitute
I cannot but think, how-

ever, that the

more natural reading

would he

meaning, that the


cases proved

remedies in certain
beneficial,

and

in others not.

.
,
,
,
.
'
'
,. .
'.

237

yap

'
,,
, '' ,
yap

iv

yap

,'' . ,

iv

"

.,

yap

yap

7].

,
,

,
,
y
. ,
, '
,

.,,
yap

yyv

. .

,. ,
,
.

,
',

'

yyv.

ayovTa

The common

',

is

change

is

reading,

changed by Ermerins
I cannot see that
any improvement.

to

this

Petit,

-6
-

Wigan, and Ennerins are

all

agreed, that the negative parti-

cle,

although wanting in the MSS,,

is

here required by the

sens,e.

'
,
, ' ,.<< ,
., '
). ', , ''
,
,
,
^
.' ,,'
,
,
,, , ', . ',, , ,
. , ,,,
,<, , ',, '
.
,, , ,,
, , -,
238

>

69

yap

',

.' , ,
,

',

.
,
,

'.

239

, ,,. , . , , ,'
,
,
,, ,
'

,
'
'. '
,,

. , , . -'
, ,
,, ,,
,
,
,
,, .
, ', , ',
<
,'

.
,.'
,
,
'' '
'.

,, '
,

yap

'-

tjj

'

,
' , ] ,

<yap

'

,
'. \
240

.
,
) ,

'.

,
,
<yap '?

, \ .-

OF

ARET^US, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

I.

CONTENTS.
CHAP.

On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On

Phrenitis

if

Lethargy
Marasmus
Apoplexy

do.

II.

do.

III.

do.

IV.

Epilepsy

Tetanus

Quinsey

{wanting)

the Ulcers ABOUT THE Tonsils


Pleurisy

V.

VI.
VII.

the Affections ABOUT THE Uvula

I.

VIII.

IX.

X.

OF

ARET^US, THE CAPPADOCIAN.


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

I.

CHAPTER

V.

ON THE PAROXYSM OF EPILEPTICS.


* * * * sluggishness,

vertigo, heaviness of the tendons, ple-

thora and distension of the veins in the neck

indeed after food, but


there

is

a faint nausea

appetite

also,
;

and phlegm

and indigestion

and meteorism

and much nausea

not unfrequently, with abstinence,


is

often vomited

after little food

in the hypochondria.

want of

they have flatulence

These symptoms, indeed,

are constant.

But, if

it

be near the accession of the paroxysm, there are

before the sight circular flashes of purple or black colours, or

of

all

mixed together,

so as to exhibit the appearance of the

rainbow expanded in the heavens; noises in the


smell; they are passionate,
fall

down

then,

ears; a

and unreasonably peevish.

some from any such cause

heavy

They

as lowness of spirits,

but others from gazing intently on a running stream, a rolling

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

244

But sometimes the smell of heavy

wheel, or a turning top.

makes them

fall

fixed in the head,

and

odours, such as of the gagate stone (jet)

ailment

down.

In these

from

the disorder springs; but, in others,

it

cases, the

is

it arises

also

from

the nerves remote from the head, which sympathise with the

primary organ. Wherefore the great fingers of the hands, and the
great toes of the feet are contracted

them

succeed, and a rush of

mischief spread until


in these cases, as if

to the

who

place.

rise

up, they

tell

how

they have been

This deception occurs to

are attacked with the ailment for the

But those

to

whom

If the

from the stroke of a piece of wood, or of

maliciously struck by some person.

those

head takes

and trembling

reach the head, a crash takes place,

it

when they

stone; and,

pain, torpor,

first

time.

the affection has become habitual, when-

ever the disease recurs, and has already seized the finger, or

commencing

ledge of what
are present,

is

in any part, having from experience a foreknowis

about to happen,

upon

call,

from among those

and

to bind, pull aside,

stretch the affected

they themselves tear at their

who

and entreat them

their customary assistants,

own members,

members; and

as if pulling out

the disease; and such assistance has sometimes put off the

But, in

attack for a day.

many

cases, there is the dread as

of

a wild beast rushing upon them, or the phantasy of a shadow;

and thus they have

fallen

down.

In the attack, the person


clasped

The calamity

bulls; the
it

upon the

legs

the hands

are

not only plaited

but also dashed about hither and thither by the

tendons.

if

by the spasm; the

together

together,

times

lies insensible

is

neck bent, the head variously


arched, as

breast;

forcibly

bears a resemblance to slaughtered

it

and sometimes

drawn

distorted, for

some-

were, forwards, so that the chin rests


it is

retracted to the back, as

by the hair, when it rests on this


They gape wide, the mouth is dry; the

thither

shoulder or on that.

tongue protrudes, so as to incur the risk

of

a great wound, or

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


of a piece of

it

being cut

together with the spasm

off,

245

I.

should the teeth come forcibly

the eyes rolled inwards, the eyelids

most part are separated, and affected with palpitation;

for the

but should they wish to shut the


together,

lids

they cannot bring them

insomuch that the white of the eyes can be seen

from below.

The eyebrows sometimes relaxed towards the

mesal space, as in those

who

are frowning,

and sometimes

retracted to the temples abnormally, so that the skin about the

forehead

is

greatly stretched, and the wrinkles in the inter-

superciliary space disappear: the cheeks are

ruddy and quiver-

ing; the lips sometimes compressed together to a sharp point,

and sometimes separated towards the

sides,

when they

are

stretched over the teeth, like as in persons smiling.

As

the illness increases lividity of countenance also super-

venes, distension of the vessels in the neck, inability of speech

even if you call


moaning and lamentation; and the

as in suffocation; insensibility

utterance a

sense of suffocation, as in a person


strong,

and

who

is

and irregular throughout

Such

the genital organs.

The

respiration a

throttled; the pulse

and quick, and small in the beginning,

feeble in the end,

loudly.

great, slow,
;

tentigo of

sufferings do they endure towards

the end of the attack.

But when they come

to the termination of the illness, there

are unconscious discharges of the urine,

and watery discharges

from the bowels, and in some cases an evacuation also of the


semen, from the constriction and compression of the vessels, or

from the pruriency of the pain, and


for

in these cases the pains

mouth watery; phlegm


draw

it

forth,

of a thread.

titillation

of the humours;

are seated in the nerves.

copious, thick, cold, and, if

you might drag out a quantity of it


But,

if

with length of time and

matters within the chest ferment,

(pneuma) agitates

all

things,

order of the same, a flood, as

it

in the form

much

pain, the

but the restrained

and there

is

The

you should

spirit

a convulsion and dis-

were, of humours swells up to

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

246

the organs of respiration, the mouth, and the nose;

along with the humours the


the

relief of

all

spirit

be mixed,

it

and

appears like

former feelings of suffocation.

the

if

They

accordingly spit out foam, as the sea ejects froth in mighty


tempests; and then at length they rise up, the ailment now-

being at an end.

At

members

experience heaviness of the head, and loss

at

first,

the termination, they are torpid in their

of strength, and are languid, pale,

spiritless,

and dejected,

from the suffering and shame of the dreadful malady.

CHAPTER

VI.

ON TETANUS.
Tetanus,

in all its varieties,

is

a spasm of an exceedingly

painful nature, very swift to prove fatal, but neither easy to be

removed.

They

are affections of the muscles

about the jaws; but the


frame, for

all

illness is

communicated

whole

parts are affected sympathetically with the pri-

mary organs. There

are three forms of the convulsion, namely,

Tetanus

in a straight line, backwards, and forwards.


direct line,

and tendons
to the

when

is

in a

the person labouring under the distention

stretched out straight and

The

inflexible.

is

contractions for-

wards and backwards have their appellation from the tension

and the place;


that variety

we

for that
call

backwards we

bent forwards by the anterior nerves.


is

The

call

Opisthotonos; and

Emprosthotonos in which the patient

is

For the Greek word

applied both to a nerve, and to signify tension.


causes of these complaints are

to supervene

many;

for

some are apt

on the wound of a membrane, or of muscles, or of

punctured nerves, when,

" spasm from a wound

is

for the
fatal."

most

part, the patients die; for,

And women

also suffer

from

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK.
spasm

this

after abortion; and, in

247

I.

they seldom re-

this case,

Others are attacked with the spasm owing to a severe

cover.

blow in the neck. Severe cold

also

sometimes proves a cause for


;

this reason, winter of all the seasons

these affections; next to

it,

most especially engenders

spring and autumn, but least of

all

summer, unless when preceded by a wound, or when any strange


diseases prevail epidemically.

Women are more disposed to teta-

nus than men, because they are of a cold temperament; but


they more readily recover, because they are of a humid.

With

respect to the different ages, children are frequently affected,

but do not often


to

them

die,

adults least of

die;

because the affection

men

whereas old

all,

the disease, and most apt

to

is

striplings are less liable to suffer,

familiar

and akin

but more readily


are

most subject

the cause of this

to die;

is

the frigidity and dryness of old age, and the nature of the

But

death.

if

the

cold

be

with humidity, these

along

spasmodic diseases are more innocent, and attended with

less

danger.

In

these varieties, then, to speak generally, there

all

is

pain and tension of the tendons and spine, and of the muscles

connected with the jaws and cheek; for they fasten the lower

jaw

to the upper, so that

it

with levers or a wedge.

could not easily be separated even

But

by

if one,

forcibly separating

the teeth, pour in some liquid, the patients do not drink


squirt

it

out, or retain

it

in the

mouth, or

the nostrils; for the isthmus faucium

and the

tonsils

with

it

regurgitates

but

by

strongly compressed,

being hard and tense, do not coalesce so as to

propel that which

mixed

is

it

is

swallowed.

colours, the eyes almost

The

face

is

ruddy, and of

immoveable, or are rolled about

difficulty; strong feeling of suffocation; respiration bad,

distension

of the arms and legs; subsultus of the muscles;

the countenance variously distorted; the cheeks and lips tremulous; the

jaw quivering, and the

teeth rattling, and in certain

rare cases even the ears are thus affected.

myself have beheld

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

248
this

and wondered

The

urine

retained, so as to induce

is

strong dysuria, or passes spontaneously from contraction of

These symptoms occur in each variety of the

the bladder.
spasms.

But there

are peculiarities in each

Tetanus there

in

sion in a straight line of the whole body,


inflexible; the legs

and arms are

which

is

ten-

is

unbent and

straight.

Opisthotonos bends the patient backward, like a bow, so


that the reflected head

the throat protrudes;


rare cases

it is

is

lodged between the shoulder-blades;

the jaw sometimes gapes, but in some

fixed in the upper one;

the belly and chest prominent,


incontinence of urine; the

respiration stertorous;

and in these there

abdomen

stretched,

is

usually

and resonant

if

tapped; the arms strongly bent back in a state of extension;


the legs and thighs are bent together, for the legs are bent in
the opposite direction to the hams.

But

if

they are bent forwards, they are protuberant at the

back, the loins being extruded in a line with the back, the

whole of the spine being

straight; the vertex prone, the

inclining towards the chest; the lower

jaw

fixed

head

upon the

breast bone; the hands clasped together, the lower extremities

extended

pains intense

the voice altogether dolorous

groan, making deep moaning.

the chest and the respiratory organs,

from

life;

Should the mischief then


it

they
seize

readily frees the patient

a blessing this, to himself, as being a deliverance

from pains,

distortion,

and deformity; and a contingency

less

than usual to be lamented by the spectators, were he a son


or

a father.

But should the powers of

out, the respiration, although bad, being

patient

is

still

life

still

stand

prolonged, the

not only bent up into an arch but rolled to-

gether like a ball, so that the head rests upon the knees,

while the legs and back are bent forwards, so as to convey


the impression of the articulation of the knee being dislocated

backwards.

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

An
ful

inhuman calamity

even to the beholder

distortion, not to

an unseemly sight

an incurable malady

249

I.

a spectacle pain-

owing

to the

be recognised by the dearest friends;

and

hence the prayer of the spectators, which formerly would have


been reckoned not pious,

now becomes

may

being a deliverance from the pains

depart from

and unseemly

life,

evils

as

attendant on

good, that the patient

But neither can the

it.

physician, though present and looking on, furnish any assistance, as regards
if

life,

he should wish

relief

from pain or from deformity.

to straighten the limbs,

by cutting and breaking those of


then,

who

are overpowered

This

pathise.

is

a living

by the

disease,

For

he can only do so

With them,

man.

he can merely sym-

the great misfortune of the physician.

CHAPTER

VIT.

ON ANGINA, OR QUINSET.

Angina

indeed a very acute affection, for

is

But there are two

of the respiration.

it is

a compression

species of

it;

for it is

either an inflammation of the organs of respiration,


affection of the spirit

of the disease in

The organs

itself.

affected are, the tonsils,

uvula, top of the trachea; and,

tongue

also,

if

epiglottis,

fills

and internal part of the

the whole of the mouth,

thereof extends beyond

the teeth.

Cynanche, either from

being a

animals, or from

its

its

pharynx,

the inflammation spread, the


fauces,

trude the tongue outside the teeth, owing to


for it

or an

{pneuma) alone, which contains the cause

when they

pro-

abnormal

size;

its

and the protuberance


This species

common

is

called

affection of those

being a customary practice for dogs to

protrude the tongue even in health.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

250

The

symptoms attend the other

opposite

insomuch that

with intense feeling of suffocation,


themselves as

This

is

an

we

illness

Synanche, as

call

if

from the disease inclining

to a hotter

any inflammation of the organ

For

itself.

itself,

Nor

die from one

no

affection of

inspiration,

that

state,

this

is

without

any great

most sudden

suffo-

any organ, 1 but the persons

before the

But likewise a man

me

to

which has under-

and drier

in the Charonaean caves the

cations occur from

injury.

It appears

of the spirit (pneuma)

gone a morbid conversion


wonder.

size,

appears to

and had seized upon the heart and

inwardly and producing suffocation.


this

it

the inflammation had disappeared to the in-

if

ternal parts of the thorax,

lungs.

species; namely,

of the organs, and diminution of the natural

collapse

body can

will be seized

with

sustain

any
from

rabies,

respiring the effluvia of the tongue of a dog, without having

been

bitten.

It is

not impossible then, that such a change of

many

the respiration should occur within, since

mena which occur

man

in a

causes, such as juices

which become spoiled both within and

without.

And

men have

similar vomitings from medicines

Hence,

also,

plague of

other pheno-

bear a resemblance to external

diseases resemble deleterious substances,

was not

it

Athens,

persons

substances had been thrown

by the Peloponnesians

and

fevers.

wonderful thing, that in the

certain

and from

for

fancied

that

poisonous

the wells in the

into

persons

these

Piraeus

did not perceive

the affinity between a pestilential disease

and deleterious

substances.

Cases of Cynanche are attended with inflammation of the


tonsils, of the

fauces,

and of the whole mouth;

protrudes beyond the teeth and lips

The Charonaean

ditches or pits

vii.;

Epid. i.

here mentioned, were in Phrygia.

and

Pliny,

See Strabo,

xii. 8.

They

are

men-

tioned by Galen, de usu partium,

the tongue

they have salivation, the

t. xvii.

H.N.

p. 10, ed.

vii. 93.

Kiihn

Their pes-

tilential exhalations are often no-

ticed

by ancient authors.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


phlegm running out very thick and
ruddy and swollen;
drink

the

red;

cold; they have their faces

wide open, and

their eyes protuberant,

by

regurgitates

violent, but obscured

the

air,

The

nostrils.

pains

by the urgency of the suffocation;

chest and heart are in a state of inflammation

ing for cold

251

I.

yet they inspire but

there

the

a long-

is

until they are

little,

suffocated from the obstruction of the passage to the chest.

In certain

cases, there is a

ready transference of the disease to

the chest, and these die from the metastasis; the fevers
slight,

bringing no

ternally,

But

relief.

if,

any

in

form on either

to the better, abscesses

feeble,

case, there is a turn

near the ears ex-

side,

or internally about the tonsils; and if these occur

with torpor, and are not very protracted, the patients recover,
indeed, but

with pain and danger.

But,

a particularly

if

large swelling should occur, in such cases as are converted

an

to

abscess,

and the abscess

is

raised

a point, they

to

Such are the peculiar symptoms of

are quickly suffocated.

cynanche.

Those of Synanche

are, collapse, tenuity,

and paleness; the

eyes hollow, sunk inwardly; the fauces and uvula retracted

upwards, the tonsils approaching one another


of speech

the feeling of suffocation

is

much

still

more;

loss

stronger in this

species than in the former, the mischief being seated in the

chest

whence the source of

cases, the

patients die the

respiration.

In the most acute

same day, in some

instances,

even

before calling in the physician ; and in others, although called


in,

he could afford them no

relief,

for they died before the

physician could apply the resources of his

which the

art.

In those in

disease takes a favourable turn, all the parts

become

inflamed, the inflammation being determined outwardly, so


that the disease becomes cynanche in place of synanche.
also a

good thing when

externally on the chest.

It is

a strong swelling, or erysipelas, appears

And

the skilful physician diverts the

mischief to the chest by means of the cupping-instrument, or

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

252

by applying mustard
lie

to the breast

and the parts near the jaws


In certain

determines outwardly and discusses the disease.

cases, indeed, the evil

outwards, but

when

by

means has been

these

so driven out

for a

time driven

speedily reverts, and pro-

it

duces suffocation.

The
and,

causes are infinite,

especially exposure to cold,

heat; blows, fish-bones fixed in the

less frequently, to

tonsils, cold

more

draughts, intoxication, repletion, and the

from

ills

respiration.

CHAPTER

VIII.

ON THE AFFECTIONS ABOUT THE UVULA.

The

solid

body suspended from the roof of the mouth

between the two


is

name

the

tonsils is called columella

The

of the affection.

nervous nature, but humid, for

Wherefore

region.

tion,

it

is

appellation

humid

becomes thickened from inflamma-

is

attended with redness.

of this affection.

extremity alone, and with


darkish, the

name

its

If

it

is

that of the

of broad
is

sails,

called

Columna

is

the

be rounded towards the

enlargement become livid and

of the affection

is

Uva;

resembles a grape in figure, colour, and

This

of a

being elongated and of equal thickness from the base to

the extremity, and

tion

situated in a

is

body, the columella, suffers from

this

various affections, for

it

and gurgulio. Uva

columella {uvula)

for

size.

it

altogether

third affec-

membranes when they have the appearance

or the wings of bats, on this side and on that.

Lorum,

for the

branes resemble thongs.


slender and elongated

But

lengthened folds of the


if

mem-

the columella terminates in a

membrane, having

resemblance to the butt-end of a spear,

it

at its extremity a

gets the

name

of

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

This affection arises spontaneously from a defluxion,

Fimbria.

like the others,

but also from an oblique incision when the

surgeon leaves the membrane at one


(uvula)

become

and on

side

253

I.

it

But

if

the organ

with two membranes hanging on this

bifid

that,

side.

has no distinct appellation, but

easy matter for any one

who

sees

it

it

is

an

to recognise the nature of

the disease.

sense of suffocation accompanies

these affections,

all

they can by no means swallow with freedom.


in

For a

fimbria.

into

of the trachea

titillation

membrane, and in some


columella

there

is

more dyspnoea and

still

nostrils,

from sympathy of the

common

in old persons, the

for they

abound in blood, and

nature.

The

puberty and infancy.

very

difficult

The columella is
young and in adults;

uva in the

is

liquid

uva and

squeezed up to the

are of a

more inflammatory

common

in

apply the knife in

all

of the membranes are


It

some
in

tonsils.

safe to

these varieties; but in the uva, while


pains,

is

and

cough

produced by the

But

they cough.

deglutition; for, in these cases, the fluid

affections

is

cases it secretly instils

the windpipe, whence

is

named lorum and

the varieties, but especially in those

all

There

still

red, hemorrhage,

and increase of inflammation supervene.

CHAPTEE

IX.

ON ULCERATIONS ABOUT THE TONSILS.


Ulcers

occur on the tonsils; some, indeed, of an ordinary

nature, mild and innocuous; but others of an unusual kind,


pestilential,

and

fatal.

Such

as are clean, small, superficial,

without inflammation and without pain, are mild; but such as


1

Our author

alludes here

to

the surgical operation, excision of

the tonsils, described by Paulus


iEgineta,

vi. 30.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

254

broad, hollow, foul,

are

or black concretion, are

and covered with a white,

But

given to these ulcers.

Aphtha

pestilential.

the

is

livid,

name

the concretion has depth,

it

but around the eschar there

is

formed a great redness, inflammation, and pain of the veins,

as

is

an Eschar and

in carbuncle

is

if

so called

and small pustules form,

few in number,

at first

but others coming out, they coalesce, and a broad ulcer


produced.

And

if

the disease spread outwardly to the mouth,

and reach the columella (uvula) and divide


it

asunder, and if

it

extend to the tongue, the gums, and the

also

is

alveoli, the teeth

become loosened and black; and the inflammation

seizes

the neck; and these die within a few days from the inflammation, fever, foetid smell,

to the thorax

and want of

by the windpipe,

it

But,

food.

if it

occasions death

by

spread
suffoca-

For the lungs and heart can

tion within the space of a day.

neither endure such smells, nor ulcerations, nor ichorous discharges, but coughs and dyspnoea supervene.

The

cause of the mischief in the tonsils

cold, rough, hot, acid,

is

the swallowing of

and astringent substances;

for these parts

minister to the chest as to the purposes of voice and respiration ;

and

stomach

conveyance of food

to the belly for the

But

for deglutition.

if

any

and to the

affection occur in the

internal parts, namely, the belly, the stomach, or the chest, an

ascent of the mischief

isthmus faucium, the

by the eructations takes place

tonsils,

to the

and the parts there; wherefore

children, until puberty, especially suffer, for children in particular

in

have large and cold respiration;

for there is

most heat

them; moreover, they are intemperate in regard

have a longing

for varied food

and cold drink

loud both in anger and in sport


familiar to girls until they

The land of Egypt

to food,

and they bawl

and these

diseases

are

have their menstrual purgation.

especially engenders

it,

the air thereof

being dry for respiration, and the food diversified, consisting


of roots, herbs of

many

kinds, acrid seeds, and thick drink;

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

255

I.

namely, the water of the Nile, and the sort of ale prepared
Syria also, and more especially Coelosyria, en-

from barley.

named

genders these diseases, and hence they have been

Egyptian and Syrian

ulcers.

The manner of death

is

most piteous; pain sharp and hot

from carbuncle; 1 respiration bad, for their breath smells

as

strongly of putrefaction, as they constantly inhale the same

again into their chest; they are in so loathsome a state that

they cannot endure the smell of themselves; countenance pale


or livid

fever acute, thirst

is if

from

desire drink for fear of the pains

become
nostrils

sick if
;

and

if

compress the

it

they

able to endure the

down they

lie

recumbent

flee

from

fire,

and yet they do not

would occasion;

tonsils, or if it
rise

up again

lie

down

if

as not

again

they

being

they mostly

obtain relief they

erect, for in their inability to

rest, as

for

return by the

position, and, if they rise up,

they are forced in their distress to

walk about

it

wishing to dispel one pain by another.

Inspiration large, as desiring cold air for the purpose of refrigeration, but expiration small, for the ulceration, as if pro-

duced by burning,
Hoarseness,

is

inflamed by the heat of the respiration.

of speech supervene; and these symptoms

loss

hurry on from bad to worse, until suddenly

ground they

falling to the

expire.

CHAPTER

X.

ON PLEURISY.

Under

the ribs, the spine, and the internal part of the thorax

as far as the clavicles, there

,
1

The term

coal," or

stretched a thin strong

mem-

original,

somewhat doubtful to which of

signify " a live

these significations our author ap-

the

in

may either

is

the disease " Carbuncle."

See Paulus iEgineta,

iv. 25.

It is

plies it here

indeed, the former

would be the more emphatic.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

256

adhering to the bones, which

brane,

When

inflammation occurs in

and parti-coloured sputa, the affection

succingens.

heat with cough

is

named

is

Pleurisy.

But

symptoms must harmonise and conspire together

all

these

all

springing from one cause; for such of

rately

named

is

and there

it,

from different causes, even

are not called pleurisy.

them

they

if

as

as occur sepa-

occur together,

all

accompanied by acute pain of

It is

the clavicles; heat acrid; decubitus on the inflamed side easy,


for

thus the

membrane

{pleura) remains in

but on the opposite side painful

for

by

its

proper

seat,

weight, the inflam-

its

mation and suspension of the membrane, the pain stretches to


all its

adhesions at the shoulders and clavicles

cases even to the

back and shoulder blade

this affection Dorsal pleurisy.

and in certain

the ancients called

It is attended

with dyspnoea, in-

somnolency, anorexia, florid redness of the cheeks, dry cough,


difficult

expectoration of phlegm, or bilious, or deeply tinged

with blood, or yellowish


order, but

come and go

and these symptoms observe no

irregularly; but, worst of

all, if

the

bloody sputa cease, and the patients become delirious; and


sometimes they become comatose, and in their somnolency
the mind wavers.

But

if

the disease take a bad turn,

the

all

worse, they die within the seventh day

commencement of the
symptoms occurred with

they die on the fourteenth day.


in

the intermediate period there

symptoms

to

falling into syn-

expectoration, and the

cope; or, if the

more intense

symptoms getting

by

the second hebdomad,

It

sometimes happens that

is

a transference of

the lungs; for the lung attracts to

itself,

all

the

being

both porous and hot, and being moved for the attraction of
the substances around,

by

when

the patient

metastasis of the affection.

period,

But

if

is

suddenly suffocated

the patient pass this

and do not die within the twentieth day, he becomes

affected with

empyema.

the disease get into a bad

These, then, are


state.

the symptoms if

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
But

take a favourable turn, there

if it

rhage by the

nostrils,

when

the disease

is

is

257

I.

a profuse

hemor-

suddenly resolved;

then follow sleep and expectoration of phlegm, and afterwards


of thin, bilious matters; then of
bloody, thick, and flesh -like; and
return,

secure;

and with

thinner,

still

and again of

with the bloody, the bile

if,

the phlegm, the patient's convalescence

it

and these symptoms,

if

is

they should commence on the

third day, with an easy expectoration of smooth, consistent,


liquid,

and (not) rounded sputa, the resolution takes place on

the seventh

day,

bowels, there

is

when,

after

bilious

discharges from

freedom of respiration, the mind

But

diminishing, and return of appetite.

commence with the second week, the

the

settled, fever

if these

symptoms

resolution occurs on the

fourteenth day.

But

by

if

not

rigors,

so, it is

pungent

converted into

becoming worse.

respiration

Empyema,

as indicated

pains, the desire of sitting erect,


It is

and the

then to be dreaded,

lest,

the lungs suddenly attracting the pus, the patient should be

thereby suffocated, after having escaped the

But

evils.

rate them,
for the

if

first

and greater

the abscess creep in between the ribs and sepa-

and point outwardly

or, if it burst into

an

intestine,

most part the patient recovers.

Among

the seasons of the year winter most especially en-

genders the disease;

next,

but summer most rarely.

most apt to

autumn; spring,

With regard

less

frequently;

to age, old

men

are

and most readily escape from an attack;

suffer,

for neither is there apt to

be a great inflammation in an arid

frame; nor

is

more

than any other age, and the respiration small, and

frigid

there a metastasis to the lungs, for old age

the attraction of

all

things deficient.

Young men and

is

adults

are not, indeed, very apt to suffer attacks; but neither, also, do

they readily recover, for from a slight cause they would not
experience even a slight attack of inflammation, and from
great attacks there

is

greater danger.
s

Children are least of

all

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

258

liable to pleurisy,

and in their case

it is less

I.

frequently fatal

for their bodies are rare, secretions copious, perspiration

exhalation abundant; hence neither

formed.

This

is

present affection.

is

and

a great inflammation

the felicity of their period of

life

in the

OF

ARET^US, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

II.

CONTENTS.

....

On Pneumonia
On the Bringing up op Blood
On Syncope
On Causus
On Cholera
On Ileus
On the Acute Affections about the Liver
On the Acute Affection about the Vena Cava
On the Acute Affections about the Kidneys
On the Acute Affections about the Bladder
On the Hysterical Convulsion
On Satyriasis

.....
.....
.....
.....
.

....
.

s 2

CHAP.
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.
VII.

VIII.
IX.

X.
XI.
XII.

OP

ARET.EUS, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

II.

CHAPTER

I.

ON PNEUMONIA.
Animals
pneuma)

by two

live

of these

principal things, food and breath

by far the most important

for if it be stopped, the

diately dies.

being the

man

The organs of

are

the thorax.

many, the commencement

nostrils; the passage, the trachea; the

vessel, the lungs; the protection

But the other

{spirit,

the respiration,

endure long, but imme-

will not
it

is

containing

and receptacle of the lungs,

parts, indeed, minister

only as in-

struments to the animal; but the lungs also contain the cause
of attraction, for in the midst of them
the heart, which

the origin

is

of

is

life

seated a hot organ,

and

respiration.

imparts to the lungs the desire of drawing in cold


raises a heat in

them

but

it is

the heart which attracts.

therefore, the heart suffer primarily, death

But

if

is

not far

is

the issue, unless some one effects a cure.

affection,

such as inflammation, there

is

But

If,

off.

the lungs be affected, from a slight cause there

difficulty of breathing; the patient lives miserably,

It

air, for it

is

and death
in a great

a sense of suffocation,

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

262
loss

of speech and of breathing, and a speedy death.

what we

This

is

Peripneumonia, being an inflammation of the

call

lungs, with acute fever,

when they

are attended with heaviness

of the chest, freedom from pain, provided the lungs alone are

inflamed; for they are naturally insensible, being of loose

But branches of the aspera

texture, like wool.

arteria are

spread through them, of a cartilaginous nature, and these,

muscles there are nowhere, and the nerves

also, are insensible;

and minister to motion.

are small, slender,

of the insensibility to pain.

which

it is

But

if

This

is

the cause

any of the membranes, by

connected with the chest, be inflamed, pain also

present; respiration bad, and hot; they wish to get

up

is

into an

erect posture, as being the easiest of all postures for the respi-

Ruddy

ration.

in countenance, but especially the cheeks; the

white of the eyes very bright and fatty; the point of the nose
flat;

the veins in the temples and neck distended; loss of ap-

petite; pulse, at

first,

large,

empty, very frequent,

accelerated; heat indeed, externally, feeble, and

as if forcibly

more humid

than natural, but, internally, dry, and very hot, by means of

which the breath

hot; there

is

is thirst,

mind; cough mostly dry, but

desire of cold air, aberration of


if

anything be brought up

tinged with

bile, or

blood-stained

But

if

is

of

it

is

with a very

all

dryness of the tongue,

a frothy phlegm, or slightly


florid tinge

of blood.

The

others the worst.

the disease tend to a fatal termination, there

is

in-

somnolency; sleep brief, heavy, of a comatose nature; vain


fancies; they are in a doting state of
delirious; they

If

you

mind, but not violently

have no knowledge of their present

interrogate

them respecting the

disease,

sufferings.

they will not

acknowledge any formidable symptom; the extremities cold;


the nails livid, and curved; the pulse small, very frequent, and
failing,

in

which

case

death

is

near at hand, for they die

mostly on the seventh day.

But

if

the disease abate and take a favourable turn, there

is

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

263

II.

a copious hemorrhage from the nose, a discharge from the

bowels of much bilious and frothy matters, such


to

might seem

be expelled from the lungs to the lower belly, provided

readily brings off

much

in a liquid state.

whose

Sometimes there

But they recover the most

determination to the urine.


in

as

is

it

speedily

cases all these occur together.

In certain cases much pus


a metastasis from the side,
valescence be at hand.

is

formed in the lungs, or there


if

a greater

is

symptom of con-

But if, indeed, the matter be

translated

from the side to the intestine or bladder, the patients immediately

from the peripneumony

recover

but they have a

chronic abscess in the side, which, however, gets better.


if

But

the matter burst upon the lungs, some have thereby been

suffocated,

up.

from the copious effusion and inability to bring

But such

as escape suffocation

it

from the bursting of the

have a large ulceration in the lungs, and pass into

abscess,

phthisis;

and from the abscess and phthisis old persons do not

readily recover; but from the peripneumony, youths

CHAPTER

and

adults.

II.

ON THE BRINGING UP OF BLOOD.

There

are

two

species of the discharge of blood

by the mouth.

by the mouth from the head and the vessels there


is
by the palate and fauces, where are situated the
the passage
commencement of the oesophagus and trachea; and with

The one

that

hawking, and small and more urgent cough, they eructate the
blood into the mouth
neither does

whereas, in that from the mouth,

hawking accompany, and

spitting of blood]

it is

called Emptysis [or

But when the discharge

and by drops, or when

it

is

more

scanty,

comes more copiously from the head,

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

264

or from the mouth,

it is

no longer called a bringing up, but

But

either the same, or a spitting, or a hemorrhage.

if it

ascend from the chest, and the viscera there, the lungs, aspera
arteria, the parts

about the spine, the discharge from these

not called a spitting, but a bringing up (in Greek,

is

name being expressive of its coming upwards).


The symptoms of both are partly common, small and few
1

the

number, such

as the seat of

them, in which there

between the bringing up and the

is

But the

spitting.

in

a coincidence
peculiarities

of each are great, many, and of vital importance, by which

them from the

easy to distinguish either of

is

therefore,

it

other.

it

If,

came from the head, with a large discharge of


more numerous symptoms will arise, but

blood, greater and

scanty from a slight and small spitting; in these cases, there

is

heaviness of the head, pain, noises of the ears, redness of

countenance, distension of the veins, vertigo; and these are

preceded by some obvious cause, such as a blow, exposure to


cold, or heat, or intoxication; for drinking of

the head, and speedily empties

it,

by

but from a slight intoxication there

wine speedily

fills

the bursting of a vessel;

may be

spitting,

proceeding

from rarefaction. Occasionally an habitual hemorrhage from the


nostrils is stopped,

and being diverted

the semblance of a bringing

from the head, there


ing,

and with

up of blood.

is titillation

therefore,

If,

it

be

of the palate, frequent hawk-

a copious spitting takes place; a desire super-

it

venes, and they readily cough.

Cselius Aurelianus, under the


head of "Sanguinis fluor," thus
explains the term
"Improprium
est enim fluorem vocare id quod
ascensu quodam non lapsu fertur.
Sed hsec Graeci versa vice posuerunt, derivationem nominis intuentes. Hi enim anagogen vocant
quod magis ex inferioribus ad su:

to the palate, produces

But

if it

flow into the aspera

periora fluorem significat.'


pass. ni.

We

9.

Tard.

are at a loss for a

proper vocable in English to express this term.


It is usually
translated rejectio in Latin, which,

however,
pressive.

is

not

sufficiently

The most

ex-

suitable in

English, which I can think


" a bringing up."

of, is

OF ACUTE DISEASES.- BOOK


arteria

and

from the

this it is

they then bring

palate,

which deceives them

comes from the viscera below.


into the stomach,

when

it is

2G5

II.

up by coughing,

it

into the supposition that


It runs, also,

it

from the head

vomited up with nausea, and thus

proves a source of deception, as appearing to come from the

The blood brought up by

stomach.

spitting

is

not very thick,

but dark in colour, smooth, consistent, unmixed with other


substances; for, being

hawked

up,

comes immediately upon

it

the tongue in a round shape, being readily separated

you examine the roof of the

palate,

and ulcerated, and,

most

for the

and simple plan of treatment

you

will find

part, bloody;

it

and

if

thickened

and a slight

will suffice, namely, astringents

applied to the palate in a cold state; for by hot, relaxing, and


dilating applications the flow

cation that the spitting


ations are to be

or

is

is

increased,

made from the head by

time, the flow will

if

this is

an indi-

the blood

is

the veins, the nostrils,

And

by any other channel of discharge.

be done speedily; for

and

from the head, in which case evacu-

these things

must

discharged a considerable

become permanent, and the

parts there will

The

contract the habit of receiving the blood.

trachea, also,

becomes ulcerated, and the patients cough instead of hawking;


this proves the commencement of a consumption.
The flow of blood from the chest and viscera below is called
bringing up (in Greek,
It is truly of a fatal

and

).

nature, if

ruptured

it

proceed from any of the vital parts which are

either

the vena cava in the heart, which conveys

the blood from the liver, or from the large vein which

For from hemorrhage,

along the spine.

or impeded respiration, death


cases in

is

least

affected with

But

very speedy.

formidable

is

Empyema and

in those

come from the stomach

side, or

but, nevertheless, they

Of

Phthisis.

that from the trachea.

lies

from slaughtering

which the blood comes from the lungs, the

the trachea, they do not die so speedily

become

as

But

if

these the

the vomiting

or bowels, the cases are not of a very

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

266
fatal nature,

even though the hemorrhage be large; neither

the recovery slow and changeable.


liver

and spleen,

it is

Yet

if it

is

proceed from the

neither readily nor constantly discharged

upwards, but the defluxion


intestines.

But

neither

is

is

more easy

into the stomach

and

the discharge upwards by the lungs

impossible or incredible, for in fevers there occur hemorrhages

of blood from the liver and spleen by the nostrils, the blood

flowing from the nostril on the same side as the viscus from

which

it

These, then, are the places from which the

comes.

blood comes in the bringing up, and such the differences as to

danger or mortality.

But the modes

are three

for it is

brought up either from

rupture of a vessel, or from erosion, or from rarefaction.

Kupture, then, takes place suddenly, either from a blow,


straining at a load, or lifting a weight upward, or a leap from

a height, or from bawling aloud, from violent passion, or some

other similar cause,

when blood

is

instantly poured forth from

the vessel in great quantity.

But
gated

if it
if

proceed from erosion, the patient

he ever had a cough

is

was

before, or

to be interroaffected with

dyspnoea, and whether nausea or vomiting ever afflicted

him

For from such chronic affections the vessels are


corroded by a continued, copious, and acrid defluxion. When,
therefore, the containing vessels, having been long wasted and
previously.

attenuated, at length give way, they pour forth blood.

But the mode by


ture,

rarefaction

is,

indeed, unattended

and on that account the discharge

sudden, nor does

it

is

much

neither copious nor

consist of thick blood; for

faction of the vessels, the thin portion


collect in a cavity,

by rup-

is

by the rareBut if

excreted.

and be again brought up,

it

becomes

thicker than natural, but yet not very thick, neither black,
like a clot;
as being
is

but

it is

from a

quickly brought up in greater quantity,

collection.

This mode of bringing up blood

common with women who have

not their monthly pur-

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
and appears

gation,

267

II.

at the periods of the purgation,

during the intervals between them

and

and stops

woman

the

if

cured, the discharge upwards of blood will revert for


periods,

and

also,

in

certain

the

cases,

is

not

many

burst from

vessels

fulness.

And

there

is

a difference of the discharge, whether

brought up from an artery or a vein.

and readily coagulates,

more speedily stopped

from a vein;

if
;

but

if

For

it

it is less

is

it

black, thick,

dangerous, and

from an artery,

be

is

of a bright

it is

yellow colour and thin, does not readily coagulate, the danger
is

more imminent, and

tions of the artery

wound do

to stop

it is

not so easy; for the pulsa-

provoke the hemorrhage, and the

lips

of the

not coalesce from the frequent movements of the

vessel.

Eecovery,
ful; for,

if

from erosion,

owing

is

protracted, difficult,

and doubt-

to loss of substance, the parts of the

not come together, for

it

is

an

ulcer,

ulcer do

and not a wound; and

adhesion takes place more readily in ruptures, for the lips of


the

wound touch one another. This, then, is another difference


The mode attended with least danger is that

as to danger.

from rarefaction; and in


of treatment

The

is

is

the styptic and refrigerant method

is sufficient.

places are to be indicated from

brought up;
tion

it

easy,

for

many

which the blood

of the symptoms are

and the cure

different.

is

common, decep-

Blood, then, from erosion

not readily brought up from the stomach, for the coldness

and stypticity of the

articles of food

and drink bring the parts

to a state of condensation.

Neither, also, are cases from erosion

common, although more

so than the former; for acrid de-

fluxions do not adhere for any length of time, but are either

brought up or are passed downwards.

mon

in the stomach.

hemorrhage

is

If,

then,

Rupture

is

any rupture take

more complace, the

not very great, such as that from the thorax;

for the veins there are slender,

and the

arteries also are small.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

268

But

in appearance the blood

yellowish, smooth, or

not very black, not intensely

is

mixed with

saliva,

being brought up

with nausea and vomiting, slight cough, sometimes with some


discharge, and sometimes alone, without any expectoration;
for the trachea sympathises

along and connected with

with the gullet, being extended

There

it.

is

pinching or constric-

tion of the ulcer from the things swallowed,

they are very cold,


pain

hot, or

austere;

vomitings of phlegm, and sometimes,


protracted,

especially if

and in certain

produced in the stomach, extending

is

more

when

the disease

and there has been long abstinence from

cases

back;

as far as the

is

long

food, they

bring up a great quantity of them ; fevers, not of a continual


type, but of an irregular kind.

But, from the stomach, what

and coagulated, even


proceed from a vein,

much

pact;

if it
it is

is

may be

brought up

black

proceed from an artery; but

much

blacker and

if it

much more com-

nausea and vomiting of pituitous and bilious

matter; blood mixed

up with the

food, provided the

man had

eaten previously, for both the food and the blood are collected

together in the same place; eructations frequent and


and, if

much

collect together, there is anxiety of

vertigo; but if these be vomited they are relieved.

foetid,

mind and
They are

prostrate in strength, generally affected with a burning heat,

and constant pain of the stomach.

But from
fluid blood,

cough

the aspera arteria they bring up scanty and very

with a cough

incessantly.

either a little

But

if it

cially if

There

or, if
is

below or above voice hoarse and


;

be from the lungs, the discharge

vessel,

up, they

indistinct.

is

copious, espe-

from erosion, with much cough, of an intense yellow

may be

another.

it

a painful feeling in the throat,

colour, frothy, rounded; so that

part

they do not bring

what

distinguished from

But the

from the

is

what

brought up from one


is

brought up from

defluxion, though contained in a

chest, is diversified

after

common

mixture, and you

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
may

distinguish parts of

them

being portions of the thorax,

as

and parts which have a fleshy appearance


There

the lungs.

is

if

being portions of

face, particularly in these cases.

brought up from the thorax, pain stretching to the

anterior part of the breast

cough

as

heaviness of the chest, freedom from pain,

and much redness of the

But

269

II.

indicative of the ruptured part;

is

intense, expectoration difficult, the blood not very fluid,

But

moderately thick, without froth.

in passing, the lung

if,

be affected by consent, a certain amount of froth


to

it,

for the passage

imparted

is

from the chest to the trachea

by the

is

lungs.

But

if,

indeed, from the side there be discharged with cough

blood which

is

black, smooth, foetid, stinking, as from putre-

with acute pain of the

faction,

side,

many

manner

die after the

of pleuritics with fever.

A season that

humid and hot engenders these affections.


Spring is thus humid and hot. Next the summer; autumn
less, but winter least of all.
They die in summer mostly from
is

hemorrhage, for great inflammations do not readily occur


then;

secondly,

fevers ; but in

spring,

in

from inflammation and ardent

autumn, attacks of phthisis readily occur.

In a word, every discharge of blood upwards, even

and although the ruptured


attended with lowness of

For who

is

so firm in

vessels

may have

spirits, dejection,

mind

if small,

already united,

and despair of

as to see himself

is

life.

enduring a state

resembling that of a slaughtered animal, and yet have no fear of

death? For the largest and most powerful animals, such as bulls,
die very quickly from loss of blood.

wonder. But this

is

lungs alone, which

a
is

That, however,

mighty wonder

insensibility of the lungs to pain appears to


for pain,

no great

particularly dangerous, the patients do

not despair of themselves, even although near the

of this;

is

in the discharge from the

even although

death, and yet, in most cases,

it

is

slight,

me

to

last.

The

be the cause

makes one

to fear

more dreadful than perni-

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

270

cious; whereas the absence of pain, even in the great illnesses,


is

attended with absence of the fear of death, and

is

more

dangerous than dreadful.

CHAPTER

III.

ON SYNCOPE.

Well by all
mon
is,

means has the physician, and well have the com-

people succeeded in the appellation of this afTection

indeed, the

greater or

other

name of a very

acute malady ; for what

is

It

there

more acute than the power of Syncope ? and what

name more

appropriate for the

designation

of

this

matter? what other organ more important than the heart for
life

or for death ?

Neither

is it

a disease of the heart, or that

thereof
tion.

such

For the

is

to

it is

be doubted that syncope

an injury of the vital powers

the rapidity and such the

affection

is

is

mode

of the destruc-

the solution of the bonds of the vital

power, being antagonistic to the constitution of the man; for

having seized
brings

him

fast

thereon,

in

Nor

to dissolution.

other diseases are peculiar

does not let go

it

to,

is

it

and prove

which they are engendered, and

Thus

themselves.

pestilential

its

hold, but

any great wonder;

for

fatal to, certain organs,

to

which they attach

and very malignant buboes

derive their origin from the liver, but from no other part;
tetanus, in like manner, from the nerves,

the head.

Thus, therefore, syncope

and of life.

But such persons

the stomach, because


certain cases

by cold

is

and epilepsy from

a disease of the heart

as regard it to

be an affection of

by means of food and wine, and in

substances, the powers have been restored

and the mischief expelled

these, it

would seem

to hold phrenitis to be a disease of the hair

to

me, ought

and skin of the

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

by the shaving

head, since the phrenitics are relieved

But

wetting thereof.
is

most important,

suitable

and what

to the heart the vicinity of the

from

for

is

271

II.

it

and.

stomach

the heart draws both what

unsuitable to

itself.

And by

is

the lungs

the heart draws spirit (pneuma) for respiration, but yet the

lungs do not hold a primary place in respiration;

powers are not in the organs, but there where


of

life

But the stomach

and strength.

is

for the

the original

is

neither the original

nor seat of life; and yet one would be injured by atony thereof: for food

the stomach

which proves injurious


but by

itself,

to the heart does not hurt

the heart; since those dying in

it

such cases have symptoms of heart-aiFections, namely, pulse


small and feeble, bruit of the heart, with violent palpitation,
vertigo, fainting, torpor, loss of tone in their limbs, sweating

copious and unrestrainable, coldness of the whole body, insensibility, loss

How

of utterance.

should the stomach endure

For those peculiar

such symptoms?

to it are nausea, vomit-

ing, loss of appetite, hiccup, eructation, acidity; whereas in

more acute in

cardiac affections the patients are

their senses,

and hear better than formerly; they are

so that they see

in understanding

more sound, and

mind more

in

also

pure, not

only regarding present things, but also with regard to futurity

they are true prophets.

These, then, are the powers, not of

the stomach, but of the heart, where


thereof,

But

and to

this

it is

to

be referred

form of disease

is

is

the soul and the nature

this affection of its powers.

a solution of the natural tone

from a cold cause and humidity, and therefore they are not
affected with heat, either internally or externally, neither do

and

they suffer from

thirst,

disease proceeds

from strong and ardent

cope

is

their breath

usually kindled up.

of the proper temperament,

whether humour,

spirit

is

cold even

fevers,

For when nature


it

rules all

when

the

by which synstrong,

and

and commands

all,

is

[pneuma), or solid, and, by their good

order and symmetry, regulates the

man

in

life

but

if the

bond

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

272

of nature
affection

that

to say,

is

The

produced.

is

its

tone

be

original of

dissolved, then this

it is

causus,

which

is

in

this form.

CHAPTER

IV.

ON CAUSUS, OR ARDENT TEVER.


Heat,

indeed, everywhere, both acrid and subtil, but espe-

the internal parts; respiration hot, as if from

cially in

inhalation of air large;

parchedness of

lips

of cold; dryness

desire

and skin

extremities cold

fire;

of tongue;

urine intensely

tinged with bile; insomnolency ; pulse frequent, small, and


eyes

feeble;

clear,

glancing, reddish; healthy colour of the

countenance.

But

if

the affection increase,

and worse

dry and very acrid;

intellect

they are thirsty;

things;

all

But
the hot
for

dew about

heat very

wavering; ignorance of

all

floor,

or a fluid; hands cold,

nails livid; breathing thick; perspira-

the forehead and clavicles.

if

nature attain the extremity of dryness and of heat,

is

converted into cold, and the parched into humidity;

extreme

intensities of things

When,

therefore, the

cope.

Then

is

thirst,

organs of

bonds of

change to the opposite

life

are dissolved, this

there an irrestrainable sweat over

respiration cold,

no

a desire to touch anything cold,

whether a wall, a garment, the


palms thereof very hot,
tion like

appearances become greater

the pulse very small and very frequent

much vapour about

and yet the other


thirst,

parts

all

state.

is

syn-

the body

the nostrils; they have


are parched except

the

namely, the mouth and stomach; the urine

thin and watery; belly for the most part dry, yet in certain
cases the discharges are scanty

and

bilious; a

redundancy of

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

humours; even the bones, being dissolved, run


all parts, as

As

in a river, there

is

off;

and from

a current outwards.

to the state of the soul, every sense

acute, the gnostic

273

II.

is

pure, the intellect

powers prophetic; for they prognosticate to

themselves, in the

first

place, their

own

departure from

life;

then they foretell what will afterwards take place to those present,

who

fancy sometimes that they are delirious; but these

persons wonder at the result of what has been said.


also, talk to certain

Others,

of the dead, perchance they alone perceiv-

ing them to be present, in virtue of their acute and pure sense,


or perchance from their soul seeing beforehand, and announc-

ing the

men with whom

they are about to associate.

formerly they were immersed in humours, as

if in

but when the disease has drained these

darkness;

taken away the mist from their eyes,


things which are in the
true prophets.

refinement in

air,

For

mud and
off,

and

they perceive those

and with the naked soul become

But those who have attained such a degree of


their humours and understanding will scarcely

recover, the vital

power having been already evaporated

into

air.

CHAPTER

V.

ON CHOLERA.

Cholera

is

a retrograde

movement

whole body on the stomach, the


most acute

illness.

of the materiel in the

belly,

Those matters, then,

and the

intestines; a

which

collect in the

stomach, rush upwards by vomiting; but those humours in the

by the passages downwards. With regard


to appearance, then, those things which are first discharged
by vomiting, are watery; but those by the anus, liquid and
belly,

and

intestines,

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

274

excrement,

fetid

this disease)

pituitous,

(for

but

continued indigestion

if these are

and then

At

bilious.

and without pain;

easily,

affected with retchings,

washed
first,

the cause of

is

out, the discharges are

indeed, they are borne

but afterwards

the stomach

is

and the belly with tormina.

But, if the disease become worse, the tormina get greater;


there
loss

is

fainting, prostration of strength in the limbs, anxiety,

of appetite;

bling

or, if

they take anything, with

and nausea, there

tensely yellow, and the

is

much rum-

discharged by vomiting bile in-

downward

discharges are of like kind

spasm, contractions of the muscles in the legs and arms; the


fingers are bent;

tremities cold,

But

if

vertigo, hiccup, livid nails, frigidity, ex-

and altogether they are

affected with rigors.

the disease tend to death, the patient

sweat; black bile, upwards and downwards;


in the bladder

by the spasm

falls

urine

into a

retained

but, in fact, sometimes neither

there any urine collected in the bladder, owing to the


tastasis

of the

fluids

to

the

intestine;

loss

is

me-

of utterance;

pulse very small, and very frequent in the cases affected with

syncope; continual and unavailing strainings to

vomit; the

bowels troubled with tenesmus, dry, and without juices;

painful and most piteous death from spasm, suffocation, and

empty vomiting.

The

season of summer, then, engenders this affection; next

autumn; spring,

less frequently;

winter, least of

all.

With

regard to the ages, then, those of young persons and adults;


old age least of all; children

more frequently than

their complaints are not of a deadly nature.

these, but

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

CHAPTER
ON

An

VI.

ILEUS.

inflammation takes place in the intestines, creating

many

deadly pain, for


also

275

II.

formed a cold dull

die of intense tormina; but there


flatus

a
is

(pneuma), which cannot readily

pass either upwards or downwards, but remains, for the most

part rolled

up

in the small convolutions of the upper intestines,

and hence the

But

Volvulus).

if in

protrude greatly,

word
a

name

contains

it

which

the appellation

is

called

softening,

signifies

and the abdomen

intestines,

from the Greek

Chordapsus,

and

which

is

the intestines; and hence the Mesentery, which

for

the nerves, vessels, and

all

cause of Ileus

multifarious

membranes that support


ancients. 1

by the

the intestines, was called

The

of Ileus {or

addition to the tormina, there be com-

and softening of the

pression

disease has got

is

digestion, especially of articles


as the ink of the cuttle-fish.

much

continued corruption of

and unaccustomed food, and repeated

which are apt

And

acts of in-

to excite Ileus,

the same effects

may be

expected from a blow, or cold, or the drinking of cold water

and in those

cases,

which the gut has descended into the scrotum with

feces,

largely and greedily in a state of sweating


in

and has not been replaced into the


to

its

rivation of

As

the

term

Petit remarks, the true deriva-

tion

is

belly, or has

place with violence, in such cases

1
Both Petit and Ermerins have
animadverted on this singular de-

no doubt from anreaOat, and

it is

The

been restored

customary for the

Greeks,

it

is

well

known, were very fanciful etymologists, of which we have striking

proofs

Plato.

in the

Cratylus

of

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

276

inflamed. 2

lower intestines to get

This affection

tomary with children, who are subject

more

to indigestion,

readily escape from the mischief,

and the humidity of their

intestines, for

owing

to

is

cus-

and they

their habits

Old

they are loose.

persons do not readily suffer from the complaint, but rarely


recover.

The

season of

summer engenders

the disease rather

than that of spring; autumn, than winter; but the summer

more than both.

Many

die

therefore

pus

other cases

having become black and


the patients have died.
mild, there
loss

is

But

of these tormina.

speedily

formed;

is

and then again, the

putrified, has separated,

In these

cases,

a twisting pain, copious

and thus

provided the Ileus

humours

but not making

But

flatus passing

is

in the stomach,

of tone, languor, vacant eructations bringing no

borborygmi in the bowels, the

in

intestine

down

relief,

to the anus,

escape.

its

of Ileus acquire intensity, there

if the attack

is

a de-

termination upwards of everything, flatus, phlegm, and bile;


for they

body;

vomit

much

all

these; they are pale, cold over the whole

pain;

bad, they are affected with

respiration

thirst.

If they are about to die, there


constricted, so that
it; 3

vomiting of

to

be

cold sweat, dysuria, anus

you could not pass

feeces;

The substance

formation

is

a slender metal plate

the patients are speechless

by

pulse, at last

the in-

Hernia, the following passage in

found in the

one of Martial's Epigrams would


almost lead us to suppose the contrary, "Mitius implicitas Alcon

of

all

works of the ancient authorities


on the subject of Hernia, may be
seen in Paulus iEgineta,

b.vi., 65, p.

may mention,

secat enterocelas," E'pigr.

xi.

84

however, that although, there be

which might be thus translated,


"The surgeon Alcon inflicts less

nothing in the works of the medi-

pain in cutting for incarcerated

66,

Syd. Soc. Edit.

cal authorities

which would lead

us to suppose that the ancient


surgeons were in the practice of
operating to relieve incarcerated

intestinal hernia.'
3

Perhaps he means " a needle."

See Testa, Mai. del Cuore,

t. iii.

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
rare

and small, but before

deatli

277

II.

very small, very dense, and

These symptoms attend the disease in the small

failing.

intestines.

But the same


symptoms
if

in the colon,

affections occur also

are similar, as also the issue;

pus form in the colon, the reason of which

The pain

thickness of this intestine.

and the

some of these escape


is

the fleshy

and sharp

slender

is

but broad and heavy in the colon;

in the small intestines,

the pain also sometimes darts

up

to the ribs,

when

the disease

puts on the appearance of pleurisy; and these, moreover, are

with fever; but sometimes

affected

on

ribs,

this side or

on

it

seated in the liver and spleen; again

many

the colon has


other cases

masters

it

fixes

of the

And

colon

is

affects

it

convolutions in

But

testicles.

fleshy,

be

the loins, for

directions;

all

but in

what

is

cre-

in colic affections, they have

vomited

the danger therefrom

more

false

on the sacrum, the thighs, and the

rather retchings; and


oily.

extends to the

that, so that the pain appears to

is

so

then bilious and

is

much

the

less, as

and thicker than the small

the

intestines,

and consequently more tolerant of injury.

CHAPTER

VII.

ON THE ACUTE AFFECTIONS ABOUT THE LIVEK.


In the

affections of the liver, the patients

blood.

for the liver

But

if

are

is,

in a great measure, a concretion of

the cause of death happen to be situated in

Porta, they die no


parts

die, indeed,

in those of the heart; but yet they suffer

more quickly than

more pain;

do not

tissues

less speedily

its

than from the heart; for these

formed of membranes,

of important and

Hence

certain of the philo-

slender nerves, and of large veins.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

278

soul

are seated

In hemorrhage
" for the liver is made up from the roots of veins."

the others;

sophers have lield that the


it

there.

desires

a great inflammation does form in

nor in

of the

greatly surpasses

it,

all

Wherefore

but not very frequently,

vital parts, for the patient would die previously.

its

inflammation often takes place, whence

But a smaller

it

happens that they escape death, indeed, but experience a more


protracted state of disease.
guification, there

supply of blood

is

is

For of

its

no stop nor procrastination,


sent to the heart,

regards san-

office, as

as

from

it

and to the parts below

the diaphragm.
If from a greater cause

of

much and bad

food,

a stroke, or continued indigestion

and intoxication, or great cold

an

inflammation forms in the portal system, a very speedy death

For there

the result.

is

pulse languid; the kind of pain varied, and every


sified,

is

a latent, smothered, and acrid heat;

sometimes darting to the right

side, so as to

way

diver-

resemble a

sharp weapon fixed in the place, and sometimes resembling

tormina; again, at other times the pain

is

deep

nay,

very

deep; and, intermediate between the pain, atony and loss of


utterance.

downwards;

For

The diaphragm and succingens (pleura) are dragged


for from them the liver is suspended as a weight.

this reason, a strong pain extends to the clavicle

same

side;

when

it

an ineffectual cough, or only a desire thereof, and

comes to a conclusion, dry; respiration bad,

diaphragm does not co-operate with the lungs, by

them

on the

in contraction

and

dilatation.

They draw

for the

assisting

in a small breath,

but expire a larger; colour, a dark-green, leaden; they loathe


food, or if they force themselves to take any, they
flatulent in the epigastrium; eructations bilious,

become

acid, fetid;

nausea, retchings, belly mostly loose, discharges bilious, viscid,

The affections always go on increasing;


mind not very much deranged, but torpid, unsettled, stupid;
small in quantity.

much

timidity

coldness of the extremities, tremblings, rigors,

OF ACUTE DISEASES. -BOOK

279

II.

hiccup of a spasmodic nature, jaundice, bile intense, the whole

body tinged with


day,

bile.

proves fatal in

it

But

many

appear before the seventh

if it

cases.

But those who have escaped a

fatal termination, either

by a

hemorrhage, or a rapid discharge from the bowels of bilious


matters, or from frequent discharges of intense urine, in these
cases, after three

But

abscess.

abscess,

it

weeks, the liver

if it

pass considerably this period without an

ends inevitably in dropsy

the patients are thirsty,

are dried in body, lose fat; there

drink

little,

acids,

and an

Autumn

converted into a purulent

is

is

a desire for

insensibility to taste.

engenders this affection, along with the indigestion

produced by much summer-fruit and multifarious food.


all ages,

the adult

is

most subject to

CHAPTER

Of

it.

VIII.

ON THE ACUTE DISEASE OF THE VENA CAVA.

From

the porta? of the liver, there passes a wide vein through

the space intermediate between

its

extremities, which, being

always divided into slender and more numerous branches,

is

distributed at last all over the liver in vessels imperceptible to

the sight; and with their extremities anastomose the extremities

of other veins, which, at

grow

larger

lected

and fewer in number, and,

into one large vein;

division, these pass

heart

they are col-

first

The upper

liver.

lobe, appears

having passed the diaphragm,

this is called the vena cava.

through the lower lobe, the

at last,

hence, having become two by

through the

having passed through the


side; then,

and numerous,

are slender

first,

The

fifth, to its

it is

on

one, then,
its

convex

inserted into the

other,

concave

having passed
side,

makes

its

;;

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

280

exit near the~ spine, and

region; and

name,

it,

extended along

is

it

as far as the ischiatic


It obtains the

called vena cava.

also, is

being one and the same vein, which derives

as

from the

For

liver.

may

one choose, one

if

its

same

origin

pass a plate of

metal from the vena cava connected with the heart to that by
the spine, and from the spine through the liver to the heart
for it

is

the same passage leading upwards.

This vein, then,


strong affections;

think,

as

is

diseased in acute and

all

for it is altogether

But other

one vein.

physicians fancy that only the part along the spine

because there are no

symptoms in regard

manifest

portion about the heart; for

it is

it

adheres to the heart.

chest, until,

by the thorax

it.

Wherefore kedmata

also

form about

morrhage, bursting forth quickly proves

this vein

the chest; but

if,

at its origin, the blood

lower belly, so that the bowels


die before the blood

makes

float in

its

a he-

if it burst in

poured into the

is

it,

when

the blood being

fatal,

discharged by the lungs and the arteria aspera,

filled

from the

then, any of the

If,

great ailments seize this vein, they are concealed

surrounding

to the

extended through the chest,

having no adhesions, but floating in the


diaphragm,

is affected,

when

the patients

appearance, the belly being

with blood.

Inflammation likewise forms about the vein, and


proves

fatal, if it

be great; for there

is

it,

also,

an acrid and pungent

heat enclosed in the cavities of both, but

little

surpassing what

natural, so that to the touch the heat appears to be slight;

is

but the patient fancies himself burning hot; pulse small, very
frequent, so as to appear compressed

See the note on the English

translation of
Soc. Edit., vol.

Hippocrates, Syd.
i.

p. 216,

and the

authorities there referred to.

The

aneurismal varix would apply best

and

forcibly accelerated

to it in this place.

It is not unaneurisms were


sometimes confounded with it. On

likely that aortal

this

subject,

see further Testa,

Malattie del Cuore,

t. iii.

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

281

II.

coldness of the extremities; intense thirst; dryness of the mouth;

along with paleness; he

of countenance,

redness

over the whole body

upwards; pain principally on the right

on the

soft, for

of

for lying, as it does,

sympathises with the other; the exhalation

in the general system affording

the skin

cases, also,

the pulsation displays

the other hypochondriac region

left side, it

reddish

and palpitation

side,

and in certain

therein, extending to the flanks;

the artery along the spine, provided


itself in

is

hypochondriac region hard, and retracted

it

is

no

relief,

dry, shrivelled,

especially in the regions of the

and not even making

and rough; and more

body where the bones are

prominent, such as the back part of the elbow, the knees, or


the knuckles.

Sleep disturbed; the bowels, in certain cases,

discharging nothing, and in others, the discharges small, acrid,

and pungent; not disordered, in-

bilious; urine, a bright yellow

deed, in mind, but they are torpid and wasted.

who have

for the present

in

symptoms

autumn there

the young, in

is

it

Causus,

are those of a species of Causus;

and

a tendency to malignity, both in adults and

whom

the habit of body

and hard labour.

diet

Hence, those

seen this constitution of disease have called

fourteenth day; but

when

in double that period.


slight inflammation, or

is

slender,

from bad

These, for the most part, die on the


the disease

But those who

when

is

protracted, they die

either originally

a great inflammation

is

have a

gradually

resolved, escape the disease indeed, but never get rid of the

mischief; for they labour under causus a long time.

But the

dangerous symptoms cease, namely, the pains, distension of


the hypochondria, the bad pulse, and torpor of the intellect;

but

still

they have nausea, are

ill

at ease,

with

distress of

mind

and, moreover, these are attended with an accession of causus

and

thirst,

largely,

dryness of the tongue and mouth; they inspire

drawing in a long and copious breath,

draw

in the

And

if

whole atmosphere,

for the

as if

wishing to

purpose of refrigeration.

they drink a large draught of cold water, they are

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

282

relieved, indeed, for a snort time; but then again the thirst

And

kindled up, and again they drink copiously.


successive course of the malady.

give with impunity


species of causus,

copious

and even with

And

cold

good physician would


draught,

less risk, in

as

in

is

would

discharges

for

inducing vomiting; but

much vomiting must be

burst,

And

bowels or the bladder carry off the drink, there

no necessity

cold drink

other

the case of those

labouring under causus from disease of the vena cava.


if either the

is

this is the

if,

after

if not, after

induced.

much

For the patient

drinking so much, he should have no

by sweating, by

urine, or

CHAPTEE

by the bowels.

IX.

ON ACUTE AFFECTIONS OF THE KIDNEYS.

The

kidneys, as far as regards the peculiar structure of the

organ, are not productive of any great danger, even if they

should suffer acutely

for,

being of a glandular nature, they

are mild and do not experience deadly diseases.


is

But

their office

important, namely, the secretion of the urine from the blood,

and
It

its
is

expulsion.

stopped either by a stone, or an inflammation arising

there, or a clot of blood, or

chief arises from sympathy,

something such; when no mis-

owing to the peculiar nature of the

organ affected, but the retention of the urine produces


of dreadful symptoms.

Heat, which

is

acrid,

all sorts

and induces

nausea; a heavy pain along the spine at the loins; distention

of the parts, especially

of.

those about the hypochondrium

suppression of urine, not entirely, but they pass urine in drops,

and have a

desire to pass more, for there

overflow.

But

if

is

the sensation of an

the urine become acrid and pungent, cold-

ness, tremblings, spasms, distention

and

fulness of the

hypo-

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

This miserable state and the conjoined

chondria supervene.

become

feeling

digestion,

283

II.

similar to that of tympanites produced

from the taking of too much food.

indeed, slow and languid; but,

if

by in-

Pulse, at

first,

the evil press harder, small,

frequent, tumultuous, and irregular: sleep slight, painful, not

continued

and suddenly starting up

sharp instrument, they

fall

from the stroke of a

as if

over again

deep sleep as

to a

from fatigue: they are not much deranged in

But

talk incoherently; the countenance livid.

making water return

intellect,

if

if

but

the desire of

again, the patients pass a small quantity

in drops, along with spasms

and great

pains,

when,

for a short

time, they are relieved from their sufferings, and again they

experience a relapse.
quickly
either

who

pass

Of

those

no urine;

that

die,

they sink most

but the greater part recover,

from the stone dropping down into the bladder along

with the urine, or from the inflammation being converted into


pus, or from being gradually dispelled.
easily

For,

if

the urine pass

even in small quantity, they escape death; but

length of time they waste in constitution


these sufferings while

still

for

able to keep up, but gradually

into a state of consumption.

the patients undergo

The same

seasons, places,

fall

and

ages induce these affections as induce those in connection with


the vena? cavse.

Sometimes blood bursts from the kidneys suddenly in large


quantity,

and flows continuously

ever, die

from the hemorrhage

for

itself,

many

days.

None, how-

but from the inflamma-

tion accompanying the hemorrhage, if the bleeding

is

stopped ;

but most frequently they die of strong inflammation induced

by the stoppage.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

284

CHAPTER

X.

ON THE ACUTE AFFECTIONS ABOUT THE BLADDER.

The

bladder

even when

a dangerous part to suffer in acute diseases,

is

merely sympathizes with other parts; but more

it

the affection begin with

dangerous and

fatal if

very potent to

make the

for it is

itself;

other parts sympathise with

nerves and the understanding: for the bladder

it,

as the

a cold and

is

white nerve, at a very great distance from the innate heat, but

very near the external cold: for

it

is

situated in the lowest

But,

part of the belly, at the greatest distance from the chest.

of vital importance, namely, the passage of

also, its office is

the urine.

Even, then, when the passage


clots, or

only stopped by stones, or


is

it

of a deadly

In women, the phlegmonous tumour of the uterus

nature.

may

is

from any native or foreign mischief,

compress

and

it;

in

men, the straight

bowels, called the Rectum.

many

In

intestine at the

cases,

end

owing

too,

to

involuntary restraint from modesty in assemblies and at banquets, being filled


its contractile

it

power,

then, the urine

is

becomes distended; and, from the


it

stopped, there

is

loss

of

When,

no longer evacuates the urine.

fulness of the parts above,

namely, the kidneys; distension of the ureters, grievous pain


of the loins, spasms, tremblings, rigors, alienation of mind.

But

if it suffer

from an ulcer or inflammation, there

deed, many bad symptoms; but death from the


far the

most speedy.

and purulent

abscess,

With

but such

and those other

as are acute,

earlier

stone falling

now

treat.

is

by

regard, however, to the ulceration

very acute, they will be treated of

little

are, in-

ulcers

and prove

affections

among

which

are not

the chronic diseases;

fatal in

fourteen days, or a

or later, such as inflammation, thrombus, or a

down
If,

to the

therefore,

neck of the bladder, of these

any of these occur, there

is

I will

retention

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

285

II.

of urine; swelling in the hypogastric region; acute pain

over the abdomen

distension of the bladder ;

on the tenth day; vomitings of phlegm, then of


of the whole body, but especially of the feet
chief spread farther, there

come on

all

a sallow sweat
bile; coldness

but, if the mis-

fevers attended with hiccup,

pulse irregularly frequent and small, redness of the counte-

nance, thirst, distress of mind, delirium, spasms.


terious substances, such as cantharides

bladder

and

From

dele-

buprestis, both the

distended with flatus, and the whole belly suffers

is

violence; and

all

things get worse, and death cannot be long

delayed.

The bladder
blood there
it,

although

is

also

sometimes

bright and

it

may

from hemorrhage; the

from

But from the

clots

not be easy to stop.

and the inflammation there


fication,

suffers

thin, but the patients never die

is

danger; for the coldness, morti-

gangrene, and the other evils consequent upon

it

readily prove fatal.

Winter and autumn bring on these

manhood, but
periods of

life

still

more old

diseases.

The other

age.

do not generally produce the

very rarely prove

fatal.

Of

all

As

to age,

seasons

others, infants are

and

and they

diseases,

most free

from danger.

CHAPTER

XI.

ON HYSTERICAL SUFFOCATION.
In the middle of the flanks of women
viscus, closely resembling

an animal;

lies

the

for it is

womb,
moved

a female

of itself

hither and thither in the flanks, also upwards in a direct line


to below the cartilage of the thorax,

right or to the

wise

is

left,

and

also obliquely to the

either to the liver or spleen;

and

it

subject to prolapsus downwards, and, in a word,

likeit

is

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

286

advances towards them

and

in fragrant smells,

It delights, also,

altogether erratic.

and

it

womb

from them; and, on the whole, the

flees

and

has an aversion to fetid smells,


is

like

an

animal within an animal.

When,

therefore,

it

is

suddenly carried

upwards, and

remains above for a considerable time, and violently compresses

woman

the intestines, the

experiences a choking, after the

For the

form of epilepsy, but without convulsions.

liver, dia-

phragm, lungs and heart, are quickly squeezed within a nar-

row space

and therefore

loss of

breathing and of speech seems


carotids are compressed

And, moreover, the

to be present.

from sympathy with the heart, and hence there

is

heaviness of

head, loss of sensibility, and deep sleep.

And

in

this form,

women

there also arises another affection resembling

with sense of choking and loss of speech, but not

proceeding from the

manner of catochus.
by

fetid smells,

womb;

for it also

happens

to

But those from the uterus

men, in the

are remedied

and the application of fragrant things to the

female parts; but in the others these things do no good; and


the limbs are

moved about

in the

but in the other affection not at

all.

from the womb,

affection

Moreover, voluntary and


but from the ap-

involuntary tremblings

plication of a pessary to induce abortion, powerful congelation

womb,

of the

the stoppage of a copious hemorrhage, and such

like.
If,

therefore,

begin to

upon the womb's being moved upwards, she

suffer, there is sluggishness in

the performance of her

prostration of strength, atony, loss of the faculties of

offices,

her knees, vertigo, and the limbs sink under her; headache,
heaviness of the head, and the

on each

But

is

pained in the veins

side of the nose.

if

they

fall

down they have heartburn

hypochondriac regions

womb;

woman

flanks empty,

where

in the
is

the seat of the

pulse intermittent, irregular, and failing; strong sense

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


of choking

of speech and of sensibility

loss

perceptible and indistinct

like that of

life,

and

more ruddy than

if the

affection

When

somewhat prominent,

usual; eyes

much

come

bright,

turned aside.

uterus be removed back to

before the

seat

its

a conclusion, they escape the suffocation.

to

the belly rumbles there

moisture about the female

is

more

thicker and

respiration

parts,

distinct,

a very speedy

rousing up from the affection, in like manner as death

sudden

for as it readily ascends to the

For the uterus

readily recedes.

branes,

its

supporters, are

which the uterus


things,
this

and seeks

side

and

lies

mode of

vanced in

is

wherefore

For

life,

this

in old.

For

the age,

mode

But the

womb

affections

common

But

in

upwards

occurs in

whom

the

more mobile, the

but in those more ad-

Wherefore

this

suffoca-

to

men happen

also

to the

and hemorrhage, and they have

common symptoms; namely,

of speech.

floats

accompanies females alone.

uterus, such as inflammation

the

in

fetid

readily inclines to

affection

is

humid
from

flees

it

of living, understanding, and

the uterus are of a steady character.


tion from the

it

is

in those in

and understanding

of a wandering nature

life,

it

wood, and

reason the

very

mem-

buoyant, but the

and, moreover,

after sweet:

young women, but not


uterus also

is

is

higher regions, so

humid, and the place

to that, like a log of

and downwards.

age,

im-

time after death they

for a considerable

not entirely fixed, but yet not very

But

respiration

a very sudden and incredible death,

have nothing deadly in their appearance; in colour

for they

are

287

II.

fever, asphexy, coldness, loss

hemorrhage the death

being like that of a slaughtered animal.

is

even more sudden,

OF THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

288

CHAPTER

XII.

ON SATYRIASIS.

The

and

Satyrs, sacred to Bacchus, in the paintings

have the member

erect, as the

It is also a

ance.

erection of the

form of

statues,

symbol of the divine perform-

disease, in

which the patient has

genital organ, the appellation of Satyriasis

being derived from

resemblance to the figure of the god.

its

an unrestrainable impulse to connection; but neither

It is

by

are they at all relieved

many and

soothed by

these embraces, nor

repeated acts

is

the tentigo

of sexual intercourse.

Spasms of all the nerves, and tension of

all

the tendons, groins,

and perineum, inflammation and pain of the genital parts, red-

dewy

ness of countenance, and a


silent sorrow,

they are stupid, as

their calamity.

But

sense of shame, he will lose

formance of the

act,

if

in

grievously afflicted with

the affection overcome the patient's

if

obscenity, and likewise

Wrapped up

moisture.

all

all

restraint of

tongue as regards

restraint in regard to the

open per-

being deranged in understanding as to

indecency; for they cannot restrain themselves, are thirsty,

and vomit much phlegm.


lips,

as

is

the

case

and the smell likewise


retention,

is

Afterwards, froth settles on their

with goats in the season of rutting,


is

similar.

The

urine, after long

white, thick, and like semen; bowels constipated;

spontaneous

titillations

of the sides and arm-pits; they have

convulsions, loathe food, or, if presented to them, they snatch


it

confusedly.

But

if

the illness tend to death, they become flatulent, belly

protuberant, tension of the tendons and of


difficulty of

all

the muscles,

movement, contraction of the limbs, pulse

small,

weak, and irregular.


All

these

symptoms have been sometimes removed by

copious discharges from the bowels of phlegm and

bile,

and by

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

289

II.

vomiting in like manner, not without danger.

The proper

much

sleep induces

cure

is

deep and very protracted sleep; for

and torpor of the nerves; and torpidity

coldness, paralysis,

and refrigeration cure

The

Of the

summer.

and

Satyriasis.

affection, for the

striplings,

life, it

It is a

It

is

affection; that they

said,

that

part, the patients die

women

also

suffer

on the

from

women

of a

I believe, indeed, that lust

humid temperament,

all

woman

Satyr,
are

do

is

not adapted to

it.

But

neither, also,

the parts necessary for erection, like those of a

whence the

men

believe that they are affected with Satyriasis, for their

nature, being cold,

has

is

so as to in-

duce a copious discharge of the superfluous humours ; but


not at

this

have the same impulse to venery, and

the other symptoms the same.

engendered in

most acute, disgusting, and un-

For the most

seemly ailment.

formed in spring and

is

occurs principally in boys

especially in such as are naturally prone

more

to sexual intercourse.

seventh day.

most part,

periods of

affection derives its

name; and neither

subject to suffocation from the

have not an uterus.

also

womb, because men

OF

ARET^EUS, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC


DISEASES

BOOK

I.

CONTENTS.
The Preface

I.

On Cephalgia
On Vertigo
On Epilepsy
On Melancholy
On Mania
On Paralysis
On Phthisis
On Persons affected with Empyema
On Abscesses of the Lungs.
On Asthma
On Pneumodes.
On Affections of the Liver
On Affections of the Spleen
On Jaundice
On Cachexia
.

II.

....
....
....
2

III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

XIV.

XV.
XVI.

OF

ARET^US, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC


DISEASES

BOOK

I.

CHAPTER

I.

THE PEOCEMIUM.
Of

chronic diseases the pain

long,

is

and the recovery uncertain

pelled at

all,

great, the period of wasting


;

for either

or the diseases relapse

they are not dis-

upon any

slight error;

for neither have the patients resolution to persevere to the

end;

or,

if

they do persevere, they commit blunders in a

prolonged regimen.

And

painful system of cure,

if

of

there also be the suffering from a


thirst,

of hunger, of bitter and

harsh medicines, of cutting or burning,

sometimes need in protracted


truly preferring even death

of

diseases, the

itself.

all

which there

Hence, indeed,

is

developed

the talent of the medical man, his perseverance, his


diversifying the treatment,
as will

is

patients resile as

skill in

and conceding such pleasant things

do no harm, and in giving encouragement.

But the

patient also ought to be courageous, and co-operate with the

physician against the disease.

For, taking a firm grasp of the

body, the disease not only wastes and corrodes

it

quickly, but

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

294

frequently disorders the senses, nay, even deranges the soul

Such we know mania and

the intemperament of the body.

by

melancholy to be, of which

I will treat afterwards.

At

the

present time I shall give an account of cephalaa.

CHAPTER

II.

ON CEPHALGIA.
If the head be suddenly seized with pain from a temporary
cause, even if

it

should endure for several days, the disease

But

called Cephalalgia.

if

is

the disease be protracted for a long

time, and with long and frequent periods, or if greater and

more untractable symptoms supervene, we


There are
pain

incessant

is

others

and

slight,

but in

but not intermittent;


as in

returns periodically,

it

call it Cephalaea.

infinite varieties of it; for, in certain cases, the

quotidian fevers, or in

those which have exacerbations every alternate day: in others


it

continues from sunset to noon, and then completely ceases;

or from

noon

period

not

head

is

pained

is

to

much
;

But
the

still

further into night;

protracted.

And

in certain cases the

and the pain

sometimes on the

and these may

evening, or

all

left side,

this

whole

sometimes on the right and

is

or the forehead, or the

bregma;

occur the same day in a random manner.

in certain cases, the parts

left solely, so far

on the right

on

side, or those

that a separate temple, or ear, or one

eyebrow, or one eye, or the nose which divides the face into

two equal

parts;

and the pain does not pass

remains in the half of the head.

an

illness

although
acutely,

is

appears to be slight.

For

but

called Heterocrania,

by no means mild, even though

it

it

This

this limit,

if at

it

intermits,

any time

and

it set

in

occasions unseemly and dreadful symptoms; spasm

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


and

295

I.

distortion of the countenance take place; the eyes either

fixed intently like horns, or they are rolled inwardly to this


side or to that; vertigo, deep-seated pain of the eyes as far as

the meninges; irrestrainable sweat; sudden pain of the ten-

nausea; vomiting of

dons, as of one striking with a club;

bilious matters; collapse of the patient; but, if the affection

be protracted, the patient will die;


deadly,

it

becomes chronic; there

or, if

much

is

more

and not

torpor, heaviness of

For they

the head, anxiety, and ennui.

slight

flee

the light; the

darkness soothes their disease: nor can they bear readily to

look upon or hear anything agreeable; their sense of smell


vitiated,

neither

them, and they have also an aversion to

weary of

patients, moreover, are

The
if it

is

anything agreeable to smell delight

does

cause of these symptoms

be protracted and

life,
is

fetid

and wish

the

things:

to die.

coldness with dryness.

But

increase, as regards the pains, the affec-

tion becomes Vertigo.

CHAPTER

III.

ON VERTIGO, OR SCOTOMA.
If darkness possess the eyes, and

if

the head be whirled round

with dizziness, and the ears ring as from the sound of rivers
rolling along with a great noise, or like the

roars

among

the

sails,

it

or like the clang of pipes or reeds, or

like the rattling of a carriage,

(or Vertigo); a

wind when

we

call

bad complaint indeed,

the affection Scotoma


if

symptom of the
whe-

head, but bad likewise if the sequela of cephalsea, or


ther

it

arises

of

symptoms do not

itself

pass

as a chronic
off,

disease.

but the vertigo

For,

persist,

if

or

course of time, from the want of any one to remedy,

these
if,

in

it

is

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

296

completed in
is

own peculiar symptoms, the affection vertigo


humid and cold cause. But if it turn to an

its

formed, from a

incurable condition,
affections

commencement

proves the

it

of mania,

But the mode of vertigo

peculiar to each being superadded.


is,

of other

melancholy, or epilepsy, the symptoms

heaviness of the head, sparkles of light in the eyes along

much

with

darkness, ignorance of themselves and of those

around; and,

the disease go on increasing, the limbs sink

if

below them, and they crawl on the ground; there

is

nausea

and vomitings of phlegm, or of yellow or black

bilious matter.

When

formed;

connected with yellow

bile,

mania

is

when

with black, melancholy; when with phlegm, epilepsy; for


is

it

liable to conversion into all these diseases.

CHAPTER

IV.

ON EPILEPSY.
Epilepsy

an

is

illness

of various shapes and horrible; in the

paroxysms, brutish, very acute, and deadly;

paroxysm has proved


endure
sorrow

it,
:

he

lives,

fatal.

Or

if

for, at times,

one

from habit the patient can

indeed, enduring shame, ignominy, and

and the disease does not readily pass

off,

but fixes

its

abode during the better periods and in the lovely season of


life.

with boys and young men;

It dwells

fortune,

it is

period of

and,

by good

sometimes driven out in another more advanced

when

life,

it

takes

its

departure along with the

beauty of youth; and then, having rendered them deformed,


it

destroys certain youths from envy,

beauty, either

by

loss

distortion of the countenance, or

one sense.

But

if

as it

were, of their

of the faculties of a hand, or by the

by the deprivation of some

the mischief lurk there until

it

strike root,

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


it

will not yield either to the physician or the

take

so as to

And

death.

297

I.

changes of age,

departure, but lives with the patient until

its

sometimes the disease

is

rendered painful by

its

convulsions and distortions of the limbs and of the face; and

sometimes

paroxysm

turns

it
is

mind

the

disagreeable,

The

distracted.

and

its

sight of a

departure disgusting with

spontaneous evacuations of the urine and of the bowels.

But
is

also

it

is

supposed, that

against the

reckoned a disgraceful form of disease


it is

Moon and hence some have


:

and that

Disease,

an infliction on persons

great; or because the cure of

from the opinion that

demon

it

it

man:

into the

it

is

word

it

as

for it

sinned

the Sacred

from the

also signifies

not human, but divine; or

proceeded from the entrance of a

from some one, or

all

these causes

has been called Sacred.

Such symptoms

as

accompany

this disease in its acute

have been already detailed by me.


rate,

called

more reasons than one,

for

greatness of the evil, for the Greek

together,

who have

the patients are not free from

but are languid,

spiritless, stupid,

But

if it

harm even

become

form

invete-

in the intervals,

inhuman, unsociable, and

not disposed to hold intercourse, nor to be sociable, at any


period of

life;

sleepless, subject to

many

horrid dreams, with-

out appetite, and with bad digestion; pale, of a leaden colour;

slow to learn, from torpidity of the understanding and of the


senses; dull of hearing;

have noises and ringing in the head;

utterance indistinct and bewildered, either from the nature of

the disease, or from

tongue

is

ways.

The

the

wounds during the

rolled about in the

attacks;

mouth convulsively

the

in various

disease also sometimes disturbs the understanding,

so that the patient

these affections

is

becomes altogether fatuous.

coldness with humidity.

The

cause of


ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

298

CHAPTER

V.

ON MELANCHOLY.

Black

make

bile, if it

its

appearance in acute diseases of the

upper parts of the body,

downwards,

it

pain of the

downward,

But

liver.

it

if it

pass

chronic

in

terminates in dysentery and

women

in

or,

But

not free from danger.

is

pass

diseases, if it

very dangerous;

is

it

serves as a purgation

instead of the menses, provided they are not otherwise in a

But

dangerous condition.

stomach and diaphragm,

if it

it

be determined upwards to the

forms melancholy; for

produces

it

flatulence and eructations of a fetid and fishy nature, and

it

sends rumbling wind downwards, and disturbs the understanding.

On

this

account,

melancholies and
these cases, there

former days, these were called

{opyrj) are

with much
for this

is

yet, in certain of

neither flatulence nor black bile, but mere

grief,

{)

synonymous

()

when he

in import,

and furious

says

chief,

Sore vexed was he


rage,

and likewise

().

black

Homer

(),

authority

is

"

The Atreidan

With

And

flatulent persons.

and sad dejection of mind; and these were


and anger
melancholies, because the terms bile

anger and
called

in

who
his

Then

straight to speak uprose

'neath his sway a wide-spread empire held

mighty heart

and from his eyes the

in his dark

fire like lightning-flashes

The melancholies become such when they

bosom swelled
broke." 1

are overpowered

by

this evil.

(
' \( .

It is a lowness of spirits
1

"
(8
^'

from a single phantasy, without

/xtWor be

'

(ppeves

Iliad,

i.

101, etc.

OF CHEONIC DISEASES.BOOK
fever;

and

ment and

it

appears to

me

that melancholy

For

a part of mania.

derstanding

is

who

in those

299

I.

the commence-

are mad, the un-

turned sometimes to anger and sometimes to

is

joy, but in the melancholies to sorrow and despondency only.

But they who


becoming

are

mad

are so for the

greater part of

life,

and doing dreadful and disgraceful things;

silly,

but those affected with melancholy are not every one of them
affected according to one particular form; but they are either

suspicious of poisoning, or flee to the desert from misanthropy,

or turn superstitious, or contract a hatred of

life.

Or

if at

any

time a relaxation takes place, in most cases hilarity supervenes,


but these persons go mad.

But how, and from what

parts of the body, the most of

now

these complaints originate, I will

explain.

remain in the hypochondriac regions,


diaphragm, and the
of melancholy.

bile passes

But

and the abnormal

it

If the cause

collects

about the

upwards, or downwards in cases

if it also affects

irritability of

the head from sympathy,

temper change

joy for the greater part of their

life,

these

to laughter

and

become mad rather

from the increase of the disease than from change of the


affection.

Dryness
subject to

of

Adult men,

the cause of both.

Women

adults.

As

is

mania and melancholy, or persons of


are worse affected with

to age, towards

manhood, and those

The

summer and

life.

spring brings

The

seasons of
it

age than

mania than men.

actually in the prime

autumn engender, and

of

to a crisis.

characteristic appearances, then, are not obscure

patients are dull or stern,

melancholy.

and

start

And

such

when

for the

is

the

commencement of

they also become peevish, dispirited, sleep-

up from a disturbed

Unreasonable fear also


increase,

dejected or unreasonably torpid,

without any manifest cause:

less,

therefore, are
less

their

seizes

sleep.

them,

if the

disease tend to

dreams are true, terrifying, and

clear:

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

300
for whatever,

an

when awake, they have an

rushes

evil,

upon

aversion to, as being

They

their visions in sleep.

are prone to

change their mind readily; to become base, mean-spirited,


illiberal,

and in a

time, perhaps, simple, extravagant,

little

any virtue of the

munificent, not from

But

changeableness of the disease.

if

but from the

soul,

the illness become more

urgent, hatred, avoidance of the haunts of men, vain lamentations; they complain of

and desire

life,

understanding so leads to insensibility

they become ignorant of

and

and fatuousness, that

things, or forgetful of themselves,

all

The

live the life of the inferior animals.

body

habit of the

becomes perverted; colour, a darkish -green, unless

also

the bile

In many, the

to die.

do not pass downward, but

They

blood over the whole system.

with the

diffused

is

are voracious, indeed,

yet emaciated; for in them sleep does not brace their limbs
either

by what they have eaten or drunk, but watchfulness


and determines them outwardly. Therefore the bowels

diffuses

are dried up,

and discharge nothing;

tions are dried, round,

they

about

mixed with

most part

relief,

is

which

They

are

eructations

in the stomach.

Pulse for the

from cold.

told, that a certain person, incurably affected, fell


;

and when the physicians could bring him

love cured him.

in love, and that he

unsuccessful

But

think that he was originally

was dejected and

with the

girl,

people to be melancholic.
love; but

the

small, torpid, feeble, dense, like that

A story

fluid, in

bile.

brine from salt; and sometimes an acrid

bile, floats

in love with a girl

no

tinged with

hypochondriac region;

the

fetid, virulent, like

fluid,

with a black and bilious

float; urine scanty, acrid,

flatulent

they do, the dejec-

or, if

spiritless

and appeared

He

when he imparted

then did not

to

from being

the

know

common

that

it

was

the love to the girl, he ceased

from his dejection, and dispelled his passion and sorrow; and
with joy he awoke from his lowness of

spirits,

and he became

restored to understanding, love being his physician.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

CHAPTER

103

I.

VI.

ON MADNESS.

The

modes of mania

For

genus.

it

is

mind, without
on,

it

if fever at

and certain

any time should come

peculiarity to the mania, but to

its

Thus wine inflames

induce madness
for,

For

fever.

would not owe

other incident.
ness;

are infinite in species, but one alone in

altogether a chronic derangement of the

edibles,

some

to delirium in drunken-

such as mandragora and hyoscyamus,

but these affections are never called mania

springing from a temporary cause, they quickly subside,

but madness has something confirmed in


there

is

it.

no resemblance in the dotage which

old age, for

it is

a torpor of the senses,

is

To

this

mania

the calamity of

and a stupefaction of

the gnostic and intellectual faculties by coldness of the system.

But mania
in

its

something hot and dry in cause, and tumultuous

is

And, indeed, dotage commencing with

acts.

never intermits,

old age

but accompanies the patient until death;

while mania intermits, and with care ceases altogether.


there

may

be an imperfect intermission,

mania when the


is

evil is not

take place in

if it

thoroughly cured by medicine, or

connected with the temperature of the season.

tain persons

who seemed

And

to be freed

For in

cer-

from the complaint, either

the season of spring, or some error in diet, or some incidental

heat of passion, has brought on a relapse.

Those prone
ate, irritable,

to the disease, are such as are naturally passion-

of active habits, of an easy disposition, joyous,

whose disposition

puerile; likewise those


site

to

inclines to the oppo-

condition, namely, such as are sluggish, sorrowful, slow


learn,

but patient in labour, and

anything, soon forget

melancholy,

who have

in those periods of

it;

who when

those likewise are

mad condition. But


much heat and blood are

formerly been in a

life

with which

they learn

more prone to


ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

302

most given

associated, persons are

But those

vigour.
bile,

in

whom

the heat

and whose form of constitution

most readily pass into a


disposes to

it is

system,

when

the

has attained the

uterus

they do, their cases are

and they

stir

diet

also

which

repletion,

sometimes

mania from want of purgation of the

manhood; but the others do not


causes;

The

immoderate

Women

drunkenness, lechery, venereal desires.


affected with

inclined to dryness,

is

melancholy.

state of

general

possess

as

enkindled by black

is

associated with voracity,

become

if

mania, namely, those

to

young men, and such

about puberty,

readily

into mania, yet,

fall

manage.

These are the

disease also, if

from any cause

difficult to

up the

development of

an accustomed evacuation of blood, or of

bile, or

of sweating

be stopped.

And

they with whose madness joy

is

associated, laugh, play,

dance night and day, and sometimes go openly to the market

crowned, as

if victors in

some contest of

skill; this

form

with anger; and these sometimes rend their clothes and

and lay violent hands upon themselves.

their keepers,

miserable form of disease

is

ingenious and docile,

employments are the carrying of

for

one

and another

cruets

in those

who

for docility has its

loads,

They

masons.

artificers or

This

are

philo-

good

In the uneducated, the common

advantages even in diseases.

dinary phantasies;

infinite

untaught astronomy, spontaneous

sophy, poetry truly from the muses

they are

kill

not unattended with danger to

But the modes are

those around.

is

Others have madness attended

inoffensive to those around.

is

and working

at clay,

are also given to extraor-

afraid of

the

fall

of the

oil-

will not drink, as fancying himself

a brick, and fearing lest he should be dissolved by the liquid.

This story

also is

told:

artisan while in the house,

and adjust wood, and

would

associate

certain joiner

was a

skilful

would measure, chop, plane, mortice,

finish the

work of the house

correctly;

with the workmen, make a bargain with them,

OF CHEONIC DISEASES.BOOK

303

I.

their work with suitable pay.


While on the
where the work was performed, he thus possessed his

and remunerate
spot

But

understanding.

any time he went away

at

if

to the

market, the bath, or on any other engagement, having laid

down
as

he would

his tools,

he went

out.

sight of the do-

work and the place where

was performed,

mestics, or of the

he became completely mad


covered his reason again

between the

The

locality

the main cause

yet if he returned speedily he re-

his understanding.

cause of the disease

it

it

such a bond of connection was there

and

driac region, sometimes

one imparting

groan, then shrug his shoulders

first

But when he had got out of

is

seated in the head and hypochon-

commencing

to the other.

in both together,

and the

In mania and melancholy,

seated in the bowels, as in phrenitis

is

mostly seated in the head and the senses.

For

it is

in these the

senses are perverted, so that they see things not present as if

they were present, and objects which do not appear to others,


manifest themselves to them
see only as others see, but

on what they have


If,

whereas persons

who

are

mad

do not form a correct judgment

seen.

therefore, the illness be great, they are of a changeable tem-

per, their senses are acute, they are suspicious, irritable without

any cause, and unreasonably desponding when the


tends to gloom
spirits;

disease

but when to cheerfulness, they are in excellent

yet they are unusually given to insomnolency

both are

changeable in countenance, have headache, or else heaviness


of the head;

judgment;

they are sharp in hearing, but very slow in

for in certain cases there are noises

and ringings like those of trumpets and


disease

go on

to

increase,

nausea, voracious and

pipes.

But

if

the

they are flatulent, affected with

greedy in taking food, for they are

watchful, and watchfulness induces gluttony.

not emaciated like

of the ears,

Yet they are

persons in disease {embonpoint

is

rather

the condition of melancholies) and they are somewhat pale.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

304

But

if

any of the viscera get into a

blunts the appetite and digestion

state of inflammation, it

the eyes are hollow, and do

not wink; before the eyes are images of an azure or dark colour

who are turning to melancholy, but of a redder


when they are turning to mania, along with purplecoloured phantasmata, in many cases as if of flashing fire;
those

in

colour

and

terror seizes

them

cases the eyes are red

At

as if

from a thunderbolt.

In other

and blood-shot.

the height of the disease they have impure dreams, and

irresistible desire

of venery, without any shame and restraint

as to sexual intercourse

or restraint, they

and

if

roused to anger by admonition

become wholly mad.

Wherefore they are

madness in various shapes; some run along

affected with

unrestrainedly, and, not

same spot some,


;

after a

knowing how, return again

had ex-

others roar aloud, bewailing themselves as if they

Some

perienced robbery or violence.

and going

to the

long time, come back to their relatives

to the wilderness, live

flee the

haunts of men,

by themselves.

If they should attain any relaxation of the evil, they


torpid, dull, sorrowful; for

become

having come to a knowledge of

the disease they are saddened with their

own

calamity.

ANOTHER SPECIES OF MANIA.


Some

cut their limbs in a holy phantasy, as if thereby pro-

pitiating peculiar divinities.

This

is

a madness of the appre-

They

hension solely; for in other respects they are sane.


roused by the

flute,

admonition of those around them.


origin,
ful

and

and

Our

This madness

is

of divine

they recover from the madness, they are cheer-

free of care, as if initiated to the

are pale
of the

if

are

and mirth, or by drinking, or by the

god; but yet they

and attenuated, and long remain weak from the pains

wounds. 1
author, as Petit remarks,

evidently refers here to the wor-

ship of Cybele

on which see in

particular, the Atys of Catullus,

and Apuleius,

viii.

OF CHKONIC DISEASES.BOOK

CHAPTER

305

I.

VII.

ON PARALTSIS.
Apoplexy, Paraplegia, Paresis, Paralysis, are

For they are

same.

all

all

generically the

a defect of motion, or of touch, or

of both; sometimes also of understanding, and sometimes of

But apoplexy

other sense.

a paralysis of the whole body,

is

of sensation, of understanding and of motion; wherefore to


get rid of a strong attack of apoplexy

weak, not easy. But paraplegia

is

impossible,

for the

most part

is

rare)

And when

the touch alone

if

the disease

mo-

Paralysis

is

wanting

is

(but

such a

called Anaesthesia rather than paresis.

Hippocrates says, " the leg on the same side was

apoplectic," he

means

to say that it

was

in a death-like, useless,

and incurable

state

body, that he

calls

paraplegia in the limb.

speaking,

leg.

the remission (paresis) of motion only, and

is

But

of energy. 1

and of a

a remission of touch and

but of a part, either of the hand or of the

tion,

case

is

is

for

what

strong apoplexy in the whole

is

Paresis, properly

applied to suppression or incontinence of urine in

But

the bladder.

distortion of

the eye-brows, and of the

cheeks, and of the muscles about the jaws and chin to the

other side, if attended with spasm, has got the appellation of

Cynic spasm.
for a time,

Loss of tone in the knees, and of sensibility

with torpor, fainting, and collapse,

we

call lipo-

thymia.

Wherefore, the parts are sometimes paralysed singly, as one


eye-brow, or a finger, or

still

larger, a

hand, or a leg; and

sometimes more together; and sometimes the right or the


1

It is difficult to find

priate

word

an appro-

either in the Latin or

English for the term napeais.

It

would seem to be particularly applied to " a partial loss" either of

sensibility or of

ander, however,

motion.

makes

distinction between
sis, x. 2.

it

left

Alex-

or no
and paralylittle

306

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

only, or eacli

by

less

itself,

or

all

together, either entirely or in a

degree ; and the parts only which are distant, homonymous,

and in

pairs

the

which cohere,

eyes, hands,

and legs; and

on one

as the nose

side, the

middle line of separation, and the one

also the parts

tongue to the
the isthmus

tonsil,

faucium, and the parts concerned in deglutition to one half.


I fancy, also,

that sometimes the stomach, the bladder,


its

extremity, suffers in like manner; but the

when

in a paralytic state, are concealed from the

rectum, as far as
internal parts,

Their functions, however, are but half performed

sight.

from

and the

this I conclude, that these parts are half affected, as

by the

cut in twain

And, indeed,

disease.

and

being

this thing teaches

us a lesson in respect to the diversity of power and discrimination between the right side and the
cause

is

common

equal; and

which

is

equally paired

For Nature
;

but

thing should happen where there


the

the

it is
is

is

of equal power in

impossible that the same

an inequality.

commencement of the affection be below


membrane of the spinal marrow, the

homonymous and connected with


the right side, and the

left

it

on the

be primarily affected on the right


will be paralysed ;

of this

is

affection are

in both cases, whether cold or indigestion, and yet

both do not suffer equally.


that

For the inherent

left.

means which occasion the

and the right,

therefore,

If,

the head, such as


parts

which are

are paralysed : the right


left side.

But

if

on

the head

body
The cause

side, the left side of the

if

on the

left side.

the interchange in the origins of the nerves, for they

do not pass along on the same

side, the right

until their terminations ; but each of

other side from that of

form of the

letter

X.

them

on the right

side,

passes over to the

its

origin, decussating each other in the

To

say

all at

once, whether

or separate parts be affected with paralysis

all

together

or of both

sometimes the nerves from the head suffer (these, generally,


induce

loss

of sensibility, but, in a word, they do not readily

occasion loss of sensibility; but if they sympathise with the

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


parts

the

307

I.

which are moved, they may undergo, in a small degree,

loss

of motion)

and sometimes those which pass from

to the muscles), 2

muscle to muscle (fro?n the spinal marrow

have the power of motion, and impart

these

from the

to those

it

head; for the latter possess the greater part of their rnotory

power from them, but yet have

to a small extent, of

it,

them-

selves: the former, too, principally suffer loss of motion,

but

rarely of themselves experience anaesthesia; indeed, as appears

me, not

to

at

all.

And

the ligaments of nerves, which

if

derive their origin from certain of the bones, and terminate in

be loosened or torn, the parts become powerless, and

others,

are impeded in their movements, but do not

The

varieties of paralysis are these:

become

sometimes the limbs

lose their faculties while in a state of extension,

brought back into the

much

state of flexion,

if forcibly

is

The

bladder, also,

peculiar functions; for either

distension, or

tracted in

the same.
arise

pupil of the

it

itself,

it is

call it Platycoria

also contracted to a small size,

and Mydriasis.
its

The

subject to both these varieties, for sometimes

expanded in magnitude, when we


pupil

wood on

extended, like a piece of

a rule, they become shorter than natural.


is

nor can they be

when they appear very

lengthened; and sometimes they are flexed and cannot

be extended; or

eye

insensible. 3

is

when

much

but the

I call it Phthisis

paralysed in respect to

it loses its

powers as regards

loses its retentive powers, or it

becomes con-

when being

cannot expel

filled

with urine,

it

There are six causes of paralytic disorders

for

they

from a wound, a blow, exposure to cold, indigestion,

venery, intoxication.

But

so likewise the

vehement

of the soul, such as astonishment, fear, dejection of


in children, frights.

affections

spirits,

and,

Great and unexpected joy has also occa-

See the note on the text.

On

It will readily be understood

see Hippocrates "

that our author here refers to the

this use of the

lations," pluries.

ligaments proper of the joints.

x2

term "Nerve,"

On

the articu-

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

308

sioned paralysis,

as, likewise,

unrestrained laughter, even unto

These, indeed, are the primary causes; but the

death.

mate and

vital cause is refrigeration of the innate heat.

the other; but if also in

It

more incurable than


connection with a wound, and com-

from humidity, or dryness, and

suffers

ulti-

plete cutting asunder of a nerve,

it is

is

In respect to

incurable.

age, the old are peculiarly subject, and difficult to cure; in

As

children, the cases are easily restored.

to

seasons, the

winter; next, the spring; afterwards, the autumn; least of

Of

the summer.

habits,

all,

those naturally gross, the humid,

indolent, brutish.

When
by

the affections are confirmed, they are

made

manifest

of motion, insensibility of heat and cold; and also of

loss

plucking the hair, of tickling, and of touching.

when

indeed

in

them the extremities

bility to pain is

are painful; but insensi-

not worse as regards recovery.

the disease occurs suddenly; but

if at

any time

longed onsets, there supervene heaviness,


torpor,

sensation

Wherefore
it

have pro-

difficulty of

of cold, sometimes an

short sleeps, greater phantasies,

It is rare

motion,
of heat,

excess

when they become suddenly

paralytic.

But

in the

face to be

Cynic spasm,

it

is

not usual for

cramped; but those of the

jaw

considerable distortion of the

also, there is

luxation at the joint,

displaced to the opposite side

and palpitation
pitates,

The

in the

left,

when

there

in certain of these cases,

when

in

yawning the jaw

is

strabismus of the affected eye,

under eyelid; the upper eyelid

sometimes along with the eye, and

lips are distended,

is

to this side or to that, as if

And

the jawbone were dislocated.

parts of the

side are turned to

left

the right, and those of the right to the

all

each on

its

own

also pal-

at other times alone.

side;

but sometimes

both being collapsed, they splutter; in others, they are closely


compressed, and are suddenly separated so as to expel the

common

spittle

with a noise.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

309

I.

The tongue, also, is drawn aside; for it consists of a muscle


and nerves, and at certain times, along its whole extent, it
The
starts up to the palate, and makes an unusual sound.
uvula, also, is drawn aside; and if the mouth is shut, there is
an unexpected noise within. And if you separate the mouth,
you will perceive the uvula sometimes attached to the palate
through

with

whole

its

surface,

force, like a bag-fish,

and sometimes swiftly palpitating

when

likewise a sound

But there is apt to be deception in cynic spasms;


tator

it

by the

appears as

owing

to the tension

and colour of the

and the enlargement of the eye, they appear

affected parts,
if

produced.

the parts unaffected were those possessed

if

disease; for

is

for to the spec-

But

they were diseased.

as

in laughter, speaking, or winking,

the true state of matters becomes manifest; for the parts affected are all
smile,

and

is

drawn

aside with a

smack

the lip expresses no

motionless in talking; the eyelid

the eye fixed, and the sense of touch

lost;

is

is

immoveable,

while the sound

parts speak, wink, feel, laugh.

CHAPTER

VIII.

ON PHTHISIS.
If an ulcer form in the lungs from an abscess, or from a
chronic cough, or from the rejection of blood, and if the
patient spit
if

up pus, the

disease

is

Pye and

called

Phthisis.

But

matter form in the chest or side, or be brought up by the

lungs, the

name

is

Empyema.

symptoms, the lungs contract an


pus passing through

empyema, but

it,

But

if,

in addition to these

by the
name of

ulcer, being corroded

the disease no longer gets the

takes that of Phthoe instead of

it.

It is

accom-

panied with febrile heat of a continual character, but latent

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

310

ceasing, indeed, at

no time, but concealed during the day by

the sweating and coldness of the body


of phthoe are, that a febrile heat

is

is

which breaks

lighted up,

out at night, but during the day again


viscera, as

for the characteristics

lies

concealed in the

manifested by the uneasiness, loss of strength,

and colliquative wasting. For had the febrile heat left the
body during the day, how should not the patient have acquired
For when it retires
flesh, strength, and comfortable feeling?
inwardly, the bad symptoms are

further exacerbated,

all still

the pulse small and feeble ; insomnolency, paleness, and


other symptoms of persons in fever.

sputa are numerous

The

all

livid, black, streaked, yellowish- white, or

whitish-green; broad, round; hard, or glutinous; rare, or


fluent; devoid of smell,

But those who

pus.

would appear
sight

is

more

to

me

the

of the

varieties

There are

fetid.

test

all

the fluids, either with

fire

not to be acquainted with phthoe

to be trusted than

any other

dif-

these varieties of

or water,
l

for the

sense, not only

with

regard to the sputa, but also respecting the form of the disease.

For

if

one of the

common

affected with cough,

people see a

phthoe (consumption).

But

in those

weak,

pale,

who have no

lungs, but are wasted with chronic fevers

and

man

and emaciated, he truly augurs that

ineffectual coughing,

it is

ulcer in the

with frequent, hard,

and bringing up nothing,

are called consumptive, and not without reason.

these, also,

There

is

pre-

sent weight in the chest (for the lungs are insensible of pain),

anxiety, discomfort,

loss

of appetite; in the evening coldness,

and heat towards morning; sweat more intolerable than the


heat as

far

as

the chest;

expectoration varied, as

have

described.

Voice hoarse;
1

neck slightly bent, tender, not

Our author would appear

to

allude here to certain passages in

commended.
47,

t. vii.

flexible,

See de Morbis,

p. 72, ed. Littro

ii.

Cose

the pseudo-Hippocratic treatises,

prgenot. et alibi.

wherein these tests of pus are re-

iEgineta,t.i. 452, etc., Syd.Soc. edit.

See also Paulus

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
somewhat extended

311

I.

fingers slender, but joints thick; of the

bones alone the figure remains, for the fleshy parts are wasted;
the nails of the fingers crooked, their pulps are shrivelled and
flat, for,

owing

to the loss of flesh, they neither retain their

tension nor rotundity; and,

owing

are bent, namely, because

it

points

which

thereof

is

to the

the

is

same

intended as a support to them

is

cause, the nails

compact
;

at their

flesh

and the tension

Nose sharp, slender; cheeks

like that of the solids.

prominent and red; eyes hollow,

and

brilliant

glittering;

swollen, pale, or livid in the countenance; the slender parts

of the jaws rest on the teeth, as

cadaverous aspect.

without

flesh; the

vestige of the

So

also in

if

all

smiling; otherwise of a

other respects;

slender,

muscles of the arms imperceptible; not a

mammae, the

nipples only to be seen; one

may

not only count the ribs themselves, but also easily trace them to
their terminations

quite visible

for

even the articulations

at the vertebras are

and their connections with the sternum are

also

manifest; the intercostal spaces are hollow and rhomboidal,

agreeably

to the configuration

region lank and retracted


to the spine.
flesh, so also

of the
cles

the

of the bone;

abdomen and

hypochondriac

flanks contiguous

Joints clearly developed, prominent, devoid of

with the

tibia,

vertebras, formerly

on either

side

ischium, and humerus; the spine


hollow,

now

protrudes, the

being wasted; the whole shoulder-blades

apparent like the wings of birds.

If in these cases

of the bowels supervene, they are in a hopeless


a favourable

mus-

disorder

state.

But,

if

change take place, symptoms the opposite of

those fatal ones occur.

The

old seldom

recover from

it;

suffer

from

this disease,

the young, until manhood,

but very rarely

become

phthisical

from spitting of blood, and do recover, indeed, but


readily;

children continue

pass into phthoe,

to

cough even

and yet readily recover.

until the

The

not

cough

habits

most

prone to the disease are the slender; those in which the sea-

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

312

wings

pulse protrude like folding doors, or like

in those

which

have prominent throats; and those which are pale and have

narrow
humid,

chests,

As

which

to situations, those

are cold

and

being akin to the nature of the disease.

as

CHAPTER

IX.

ON PERSONS AFFECTED WITH EMPYEMA.


THOSE

persons in whose cavities above, along the region of

the chest, or, in those below the diaphragm, abscesses of matter form, if they bring

Empyema; but if
to labour

it

up, they are said to be affected with

the matter pass downwards, they are said

And

under Apostemes.

in the ulcers in the chest,

or in the lungs, if phthoe supervene, or in the pleura, or the

sternum, or anywhere below at the junction of the lungs with


the spine

upwards

is

phragm, the

and

in

in

all

these cases

by the lungs.
liver, spleen,

women by

the

But

the passage for the matter


in the viscera below the dia-

by the bladder;
once made an opening

and kidneys,

And

womb.

it is

into an abscess in the colon on the right side near the liver,

and much pus rushed


kidneys and bladder

out,
for

and much
several

passed

also

days,

and

the

by the

man

re-

covered.

The common causes of all are a blow, indigestion, cold and


Of those in the chest also, chronic cough, pleuritis,
the like.
peripneumony, and protracted defluxion; but

also the deter-

mination of some acute diseases to any one of them.

The humour
something

else;

is

sometimes

putrefactions even unto death.


varieties, as

inert,

weak,

and

rests

on

sometimes bitingly acrid, and occasioning

And

I shall presently declare.

there are
It is

many

other

a wonder how

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

313

I.

from a thin, slender membrane, having no depth, like that


which lines the chest, so much pus should flow for in many;

cases there

tion

is

a great collection.

The

cause

an inflamma-

is

from redundancy of blood, by which the membrane

thickened; but from

But

mediately.

much blood much pus

formed

is

be determined inwards, the ribs being

if it

the bones in this region

have said above, that

another species of phthisis would naturally occur.

But

point outwards, the bones are separated, for the top


abscess

is

is

inter-

when

raised in one of the intercostal spaces,

if it

of the

the ribs

are pushed to this side or to that.

There are certain symptoms common


peculiar to each.

symptom

A heaviness

to all,

rather than pain

weak

the lungs are insensible),

(for

towards evening,

sweats

in

and certain ones

the

remission,

is

common

fevers,

rigor

insomnolency,

swellings in the extremities of the feet, and fingers of the

bands, which

at

one time abate and

uncomfortable feeling;

body; and
is

if

loss

at

another

the change be prolonged, the phthisical habit

formed; for Nature can no longer perform her

the digestion

increase;

of appetite; wasting of the whole

is

not as before, nor

is

there the

body; the colour dark; respiration in

all

office, for

plump habit of

cases bad, but worse

in those affecting the upper cavity; but also cough at


as long as the inflammation

and

greater,
still

rigor,

and

is

heat,

urgent,

when

first

the pains also are

and watchfulness, and dyspnoea

more; pulse small, sluggish, feeble; they are disordered

in the intellect; distension of the thorax.

But

if it

be already come to the formation of pus,

the greatest symptoms take place.

all

the

Expectoration small with

greater cough, and from an urgent abscess, at

first

of pituitous

matters, tinged with bile of a darker colour as if from soot,

but likewise tinged with blood, and thick; but


burst, of fleshy and deep-seated matter.

there

is

danger of suffocation should

And,

if

about to

if it

burst,

much pus be suddenly

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

314

poured forth; but


the pus

gradually, there

if

no danger.

is

If then

going to pass downwards, the upper part, where

is

the abscess

is

situated, experiences sharp pain

the bowels fluid, at

first

discharges from

watery with phlegm, afterwards

bloody matter; and then again, substances resembling


floating in a fluid, if

it

Pus follows them

has already burst.

by the bowels or the

either

flesh

Metastasis to the kidneys

urine.

and bladder peculiarly favourable.

The

pus, whether

of various colours

and

it

be carried upwards or downwards,

and very thick; or interme-

or devoid of smell

fetid;

is

pale, white, ash-coloured, or livid, black

smooth and consistent; or rough and unequal, with

diate; or

these being

fleshy substances floating in

it,

readily separated or viscid.

To

say

all

in a

round or broad,

word respecting

the pus, such kinds as are white, concocted, devoid of smell,

smooth, rounded, and are quickly coughed up, or pass downwards, are of a salutary character; but such as are very pale,

and

bilious,

inconsistent,

are

bad.

Of

these

by

far

the

worst are the livid and black, for they indicate putrefaction

and phagedenic

Along with

ulcers.

these things,

it

will be proper to

of the discharge, he
fever; has
if

good

feels

digestion,

know

also the

If at the time

habit and other concomitants of the disease.

comfortable, and gets rid

good colour, and a good

of the

appetite,

he coughs up readily, has a good pulse, and good strength

the patient

and

is

free

the other

all

abscesses are seated.

num,

it

is

But

if fever

symptoms turn worse, he

One ought

state.

from danger.

also to consider the

is

supervene,

in a hopeless

places in

For where the matter forms

which the
in the ster-

slowly turned to a suppuration; for the parts are

slender, devoid of flesh

and cartilaginous; and such parts do

not readily receive the superfluities of inflammation,

remain a long time without being formed into pus ;


tilage

is

but

for car-

of a cold nature, but the inflammations thereof are

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
innocuous.

The wasting

suppuration

lasts a

of the constitution

is

long time; the spleen, the

315

I.

bad; for the

liver,

the lungs,

and diaphragm pass more quickly into suppuration, but they


are dangerous

and

fatal.

CHAPTEE

X.

ON ABSCESSES IN THE LUNGS.

When,

in cases of peripneumonia, the patients survive,

though

the inflammation be not discussed, those

who

stage of the affection have suppurations.

The symptoms,

escape the acute


then,

of an incipient and of a formed abscess have been stated

by

me

for

under Empyema.

If formed, then, there

is

no necessity

the same harsh measures and pains to procure the rupture and
discharge of

brought up

it

as in the solid parts of the body, as

than of the solid texture of


porous body and
injured
until

it

it is

readily

for the distension of its pores is required rather


its

parts; for the lungs being a

of perforations like a sponge,

full

by the humour, but transmits


reach the trachea.

Thus the

it

it

is

not

from pore to pore,

fluid finds a ready outlet,

the pus being a flexible and slippery substance, and the respiration blows the breath (pneuma) upwards.

For the most part

they recover, unless at any time one be suffocated by the


copious influx of the fluid, when, owing to the quantity of the
pus, the trachea does not admit the air.

death, after the

phthisis

and empyema.

mixed with

And

saliva,

Others die a pro-

manner of those labouring under


The pus is white and frothy, being

tracted

but sometimes ash-coloured or blackish.

sometimes one of the bronchia has been

of large ulceration,

if

the abscess

is

deep,

spit

when

up

in a case

portions of the

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

316

Hoarse, breathing short, voice

viscus are also brought up.

heavy-toned, their chest becomes broad, and yet they stand in

need of

its

being

still

broader,

owing

to the collection of fluid

the dark parts of the eyes glancing, the whites are very white

and

cheeks ruddy; veins in the forehead protuberant.

fatty;

There

is

strength

a marvel in connection with these cases,


is

how

the

greater than the condition of the body, and the

buoyancy of spirits surpasses the strength.

CHAPTER XL
ON ASTHMA.
If from running, gymnastic exercises, or any other work, the
breathing become

()

difficult, it

the disease Orthopncea

is

called
is

{);

Asthma

also called

Asthma,

the paroxysms the patients also pant for breath.

( ))

is

called Orthopncea, because

there

is

for in

disease

when in an erect position


when reclined
From the confinement in the

only

that they breathe freely; for

a sense of suffocation.

breathing, the
sits

it is

The

and

name

Orthopncea

is

derived.

erect on account of the breathing; and,

For the patient


if reclined, there is

danger of being suffocated.

The lungs

suffer,

and the parts which

assist in respiration,

namely the diaphragm and thorax, sympathise with them.

But

if

the heart be affected, the patient could not stand out

long, for in

The

it is

cause

is

the origin of respiration and of

but the materiel is a thick and viscid humour.


subject to the disease than
cold.

life.

a coldness and humidity of the spirit (pneuma)

Women

are

more

men, because they are humid and

Children recover more readily than these, for nature in

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


the increase

is

is

Men,

very powerful to heat.

readily suffer from the disease, die of

it

more

a postponement of death to those in

warmed and heated

in

317

I.

if

they do not

There

speedily.

whom

the lungs are

the exercise of their trade, from

being wrapped in wool, such as the workers in gypsum, or


braziers, or blacksmiths, or the heaters of baths.

The symptoms of

its

approach are heaviness of the chest;

sluggishness to one's accustomed work,


difficulty of breathing

exertion;

in

and

to

every other

running or on a steep

road; they are hoarse and troubled with cough; flatulence

and extraordinary evacuations in the hypochondriac region;


restlessness; heat at night small

and ready
But

if

the evil gradually get worse, the cheeks are ruddy;

eyes protuberant, as

waking

and imperceptible; nose sharp

for respiration.

state,

from strangulation; a rale during the

if

but the evil

and without resonance; a

much worse in sleep;


desire of much and

they eagerly go into the open

air,

since

no house

voice liquid

of cold air;
sufficeth for

their respiration; they breathe standing, as if desiring to

draw

which they possibly can inhale; and, in

their

in all the air

want of air, they

more of it;

also

open the mouth

as if thus to enjoy the

pale in the countenance, except the cheeks,

are ruddy; sweat about the


incessant and laborious

forehead and

clavicles;

which
cough

expectoration small, thin, cold, resem-

bling the efflorescence of foam

neck swells with the

inflation

of the breath (pneuma); the praacordia retracted; pulse small,


dense, compressed; legs slender: and if these
crease, they

symptoms in-

sometimes produce suffocation, after the form of

epilepsy.

But
and

if it takes

rarer ; a

a favourable turn, cough more protracted

more copious expectoration of more

fluid matters

discharges from the bowels plentiful and watery; secretion of

urine

copious,

although

unattended with sediment;

voice

louder; sleep sufficient; relaxation of the prsecordia; sometimes

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

318

a pain comes into the back during the remission; panting

Thus they escape

rare, soft, hoarse.

But,

a fatal termination.

may walk

during the remissions, although they

about erect,

they bear the traces of the affection.

CHAPTER

XII.

ON PNEUMODES.
Pneumodes

a species of asthma; and the affection

is

nected with the lungs as

symptoms

are

is

The

the case in asthma.

common, and

there

is

but

common symp-

dyspnoea, cough, insomnolency, and heat are

one year;

for,

is

con-

difference; for

little

toms, as also loss of appetite and general emaciation.


over, the disease

is

attendant

More-

protracted for a time, yet not longer than

autumn begin

if the

it,

the patients die in

the spring or in the summer; or if the winter, they terminate


their life towards the

autumn.

Old persons

also are at certain

times readily seized

and being seized with

rigors, it requires

but a slight inclination of the scale to lay them on the bed of


death.

All labour in particular under want of breath; pulse

small, frequent, feeble.

But these symptoms

to asthma ; they have this as peculiar ; they

expectorate, but their effort

or if anything

is

is

are also

cough

as if

vain, for they bring

forcibly separated

from the lungs,

common
going to

up nothing
it is

a small,

The thorax

is

broader, indeed, than natural, but not altered in shape, and

is

white, round substance, resembling a hailstone. 1

free

from ulceration; yet, though the lungs be

puration, they are filled with humours,

compacted.
1

The

intervals of the

which

free

from sup-

are, as it were,

paroxysms in

this affection

See in particular Galen, de

loc.

Paulus iEgineta, Syd. Soc. Edit,

Alexander,

and

t. i.

affect, iv.;

vi. 1

p. 474.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK

319

I.

Some, indeed, die speedily of suffocation before

are greater.

anything worse

is

In other

transferred to the general system.

cases the affection terminates in dropsy about the loins, or in

anasarca.

CHAPTER

XIII.

ON THE LIVER.
In the formation of the body, the

liver

and spleen are equally

balanced; for these viscera are equal in number, the one on


the right side and the other on the

They

left.

however, in power, as regards health and

are unequal,

diseases.

In health,

indeed, inasmuch as the liver has the power of nutrition, for

"the

it

much
As far,

has

sion death.

much

form the liver": but in

roots of all the veins unite to

diseases

the worse

greater

power

to restore health

then, as the liver

is it

in diseases, for

it

is

and occa-

superior in health, so

experiences more sudden

and violent inflammations, and has more frequent and more


fatal abscesses.

In scirrhus, too,

and with greater pain than the

it

proves

spleen.

relate to inflammations thereof I

fatal

more quickly

Those things which

have described among the

acute affections.
If

it

be converted into pus, a sharp pain possesses the parts

as far as the clavicle

and the tops of the shoulders,

diaphragm from which the

liver is

suspended

is

for the

dragged down

by the weight, and the diaphragm drags the membrane lining


the ribs to which it is attached, and this membrane (the
pleura) is stretched up to the clavicle and top of the shoulders,
which also are dragged down. Along with the abscess there
acrid heat

and

grass-green;

and

is

rigors;
if

cough dry and very frequent; colour

the patients be intensely jaundiced,

it is

of

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

320

the white kind; sleep not quite clear of phantasies; on the

main, their understanding settled; or


cause, there be delirium,

it

from any temporary

if,

quickly passes

swelling under

off;

the nipples or sides, which deceives many, as if

But

from the peritoneum.

if

pressure below the false ribs, the liver

by a

it

proceeded

there be swelling and pain on

swelled

is

for it

is filled

But if the collection is not below the


symptom of the membrane (the peritoneum) being

collection of fluid.

bone,

it is

and

affected,

its

boundaries are distinctly circumscribed; for

the hand applied in pressure, after passing the circumference


liver, sinks

of the

down

into an

empty space

But the hardness of the peritoneum


cess at its extremity is apparent*

wardly, nature

is

If the process incline in-

superior to the physician; for

is far

turned upon the bowels or the bladder, and


gerous

is

the passage

wards,

it

is

liver

is

But,

if

bad not

by the bladder: but


make an incision,

you intend

to

make an

liver cannot

either

if it incline out-

not long deferred.

is

incision, there is

hemorrhage, from which the patient

it is

far the least dan-

for otherwise the

to

corroded by the pus, and death

hemorrhage in the

in the abdomen.

undefined, and no pro-

may

danger of

die suddenly; for

be checked.

But

if

you are

reduced to the necessity of making an incision, heat a cautery


in the
it at

fire

to a bright heat,

and push

the same time cuts and burns

there will

and

it

down

if

to the pus, for

the patient survive,

run out a white, concocted, smooth, not

fetid,

very thick pus, by which the fever and other bad symptoms
are diminished,

and altogether the health

is

restored.

But

if

the pus passes into the intestines, the belly has watery discharges at
flesh,

first,

but afterwards they resemble the washings of

and, again, they are like those in dysentery proceeding

from ulcerations; but sometimes a bloody ichor, or thrombus


is

passed.

Bile also

is

discharged, intensely yellow, or leek-

green, and, lastly, before death, black.

But

if

the abscess do not suppurate, and the discharges from

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

321

I.

the bowels are fetid like putrefaction, the food passes undi-

owing

gested,

stomach and intestines having

to the

now

tone; for thus the liver, even though

lost their

good condition,

in

does not perform digestion; along with these symptoms there


is

acrid heat, and altogether there

colliquative wasting

breathing,

when

In certain

cases, the

at

of the

flesh,

no distance of time

toms abate,

if

odorous,

discharged, and

there
is

pus that

is

may be good hopes

for

But

and
if,

less

But

if all

the stomach

of the patient.

there

dislike

of

off, its

into scirrhus;

not continued, and


slight;

symp-

these

by the urine;

digests

the

But the

best thing

food,

for the passage

after the inflammation, the liver does

down

an end.

at

is

of

by

it

troublesome than the other.

the pain does not go


settles

their life

difficulty

white, smooth, consistent, and in-

to be discharged

it

is safer

small,

dysentery and the ulceration have healed,

but the disease changed to dropsy.

is

a turn to the worse;

is

pulse

is

loss

sweet

when

not suppurate,

swelling, changing to a hard state,


in

which

present

of appetite;

case, indeed, the pain is

dull;

is

and the heat

they have rigors

somewhat

are

is

and

delight in bitter tastes,

pale,

green, swollen about the loins and feet; forehead wrinkled;


belly dried up, or the discharges frequent.

bad symptoms

In the dropsy, provided there


urine, having

much

thin, without sediment,

But

if

is

may run

and scanty,

off;
it

but

ever,

sometimes cured the dropsy.


is

if

is

a hope

the urine be

conspires

with the

nature change to her pristine state, and burst

upon the bowels, along with copious watery


also

of these

a copious discharge of thick

re-crementitious sediment, there

that the dropsical swelling

dropsy.

The cap

dropsy.

is

This

discharges,

mode

it

has

of cure, how-

dangerous; for what from the copious evacuations,

and the extreme

prostration, the patients

of weakness, as from hemorrhage.


carries off the disease

with

less

have sometimes died

Sweating,

if

copious,

danger, for dropsical persons

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

322

generally have not a moist skin.

Such

is

the termination

of the affections in the liver.

But

if

the liver suppurate

manhood; women

children,

The

less so.

and those

till

causes are intemperance, and a

protracted disease, especially from dysentery and colliquative

wasting; for

it

is

customary to

call these

who

persons tabid

die emaciated from ulcers of the liver.

CHAPTER

XIV.

ON THE SPLEEN.
Scirrhus,

a chronic disease,

is

habitual to the spleen (suppu-

does not readily occur in

ration

when

sometimes),

the pain

greater than the pain

for

it

and yet

it

does occur

much

has been seen swelled on the right

side as far as the liver in the

many have been

them, hence

it,

not severe, but swelling

is

whole common space between

deceived in supposing that

it is

not an affection of the spleen, but of the membrane, for


appears to them that the peritonaeum

and unyielding
in scirrhus,

But

if it

sure at
it

is

its

also it

suppurate,
top,

when

not suppurated

entire in the

is

there

is

is

a formation of pus; but

Sometimes

abdomen, being moved about

restlessness, especially

The symptoms
(for

it

to this side

body, and has space to

when
hangs

and

to

float in.

about the time of breaking.

of distension are, fevers, pains, and rigors

generally they are free of rigors, and of pain

small,

hard

to the touch, yielding to pres-

does not yield.

that, whilst it remains a small

Nausea,

It is

attended with great discomfort.

it is soft

it

inflamed.

Such the spleen generally becomes

as stone.

when

is

it

and hence abscess about the spleen

latent); for the viscus

is

when
is

the heat

sometimes

porous and insensible even in health:

they are swollen, dropsical, of a dark-green colour, along

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
with disquietude, dyspnoea as
the evil

domen

is

is filled

with a

if

flatus

and their expectoration

much
is

chest, for

upper parts the ab-

to its

(pneuma), thick, misty,

appearance but not in reality;


on,

from weight of the

Even

well marked.

323

I.

in

coughing comes

desire of

small and dry.

watery discharges from the bowels, they at

humid

If there be

first

bring some

slight relief; but if they increase, they waste the patient,

and

yet nevertheless they do good.

But,

should break, pure concocted pus

if it

never

is

dis-

charged, but whitish and ashy, sometimes feculent, or livid.


If the abscess become deeper, the fluid

is

when

dark,

some of the juice of the melted spleen

likewise

In

discharged.

is

certain cases, entire portions of the spleen have been brought

up, for the spleen

is

And

of a soluble nature.

if

the ulcer

does not heal, but remains for a long time, they lose appetite,

become
ulcers

cachectic, swollen,

on

unseemly

to look at,

parts of the body, especially

all

having

on the

many
where

legs,

the sores are round, livid, hollow, foul, and difficult to heal.

Wasted thereby, they

expire.

In a small tumour, with hardness and resistance, pain

wanting

on

this account

powered by the
the

body

they live a long time.

affection,

if

over-

dropsy, phthisis, and wasting

necessarily supervene;

moves them from

But

and

this

is

form of death

of
re-

life.

Children, then, and

young persons

and most readily escape from

it.

are

most readily

affected,

Old persons, indeed, do not

often suffer, but they cannot escape; but certain elderly persons

have been cut

off"

by

latent disease of the spleen

for,

even with

a small swelling, the scale of death has turned with them.

protracted and consumptive disease induces these affections, and


in

young persons

and many
localities,
fetid.

inactivity especially,

exercises, the

when,

body has become

after contention

inactive.

As

to

the marshy; as to waters, the thick, saltish, and

Of the

seasons,

autumn

is

pecularly malignant.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

324

CHAPTER XV.
ON JAUNDICE, OR ICTERUS.
If a distribution of bile, either yellow, or like the yolk of an

egg, or like saffron, or of a dark-green colour, take place from

the viscus, over the whole system, the affection

called Icterus,

is

a dangerous complaint in acute diseases, for not only

appears before the seventh day does

seventh

after the

day

prove

towards the end, but

manner:

if

have supposed, but

bile,

also

From

it
is

it;

but

if

from inflammation or

over-distended, and the bile re-

therefore becomes

it

its

the passages which convey the

obstructed

the bladder gets

gurgitates;

the liver in

functional office,

the intestine, be

scirrhus,

liver,

from the stomach,

indeed, in the liver, and the bladder, which

in the liver, secretes


to

fever

crisis to a

the liver become inflamed or contract scirrhus,

but remain unchanged with regard to


produces

it

not readily discussed.

itself is

the spleen, the kidneys, and the colon.

bile

when

but even

formed not only from a cause connected with the

as certain physicians

this

fatal,

has proved fatal in innumerable

Rarely the affection has proved a

instances.

It is

it

it

mixed with the blood, and the

blood, passing over the whole system, carries the bile to every
part of the body, which acquires the appearance of bile.

the hardened

with

bile,

Hence

fasces are

white and clayey, as not being tinged

because the bowels are deprived of this secretion.

also the belly

is

very

much

moistened nor stimulated by the


species

is

But

dried up; for


bile.

The

it is

neither

colour in

this

whitish-green.

If jaundice

make

its

appearance in connection with the

dark-green, for

nutriment

black, because the

spleen,

it

is

spleen

is

the strainer of the black blood, the impurities of

which

it

does not receive nor elaborate

its

is

when

diseased, but

OF CHEONIC DISEASES. BOOK


they are carried

all

325

I.

over the body with the blood.

spleen; but the colour

Hence

from icterus in connection with the

patients are dark -green


is

darker than usual in the customary

discharges from the bowels, for the superfluity of the nutri-

ment of the

spleen becomes recrement from the bowels.

And icterus

also is

formed in connection with the colon and

stomach, provided their powers of digestion be vitiated; for


digestion takes place even in the colon, and from

nutriment

is

sent

upwards to the

liver receive its other food in a cruder state

indeed goes through

undone;

own work, but

its

The

indigestion

in

case

this

a supply of

than usual,

it

leaves that of the other

for in distribution it diffuses the

blood which carries

the marks of the inactivity of the colon to

body.

it

Provided, then, the

liver.

is

parts of the

all

connected with the

formation of the bile in the colon.

Thus icterus may be formed in any viscus, not only of those


which send nutriment to the liver, but also of those which receive

it

from the

liver.

For nature sends nutriment

not only by ducts perceptible to the senses, but

by vapours, which

are readily carried from

to all parts,

much more

all

parts to

so
all,

nature conducting them even through the solid and dense

Wherefore these vapours become tinged with

parts.

discolour

bile,

and

any part of the body in which they get lodged.

Moreover, in jaundice connected with the colon, the evacuations are not white

for the liver

the function of bile, and

is

is

not disordered as regards

not impeded in the transmission of

bile to the intestines.

The

general system, likewise,

is

most powerful in producing

icterus; for the cause is seated in the


this nature:

in every part there

is

whole body.

It is

of

heat for concoction; in

every part for the creation and secretion of humours, different


in different places, but in each that
flesh, indeed,

mucus

which

is

peculiar to

it

in

sweat; in the eyes, tears; in the joints and nose,

in the ears, wax.

If the heat, then, fails in the per-

OF THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

326

formance of each of
that

which

acrid

is

operations,

its

and

fiery;

but

for the products of heat are bitter,

itself

is

it

converted into

the fluids become

all

and stained with

But

happens in the blood, the blood assumes the

if indigestion

appearance of

but

bile,

as

distributed

is

nourishment

For

wherefore bile appears everywhere.

all parts,

bile,

bile.

and

dire affection, the colour being frightful in appearance,

the patients of a golden colour; for the same thing

to

is

it

not

is

superfluous in

man which is
me to tell whence

than that

derived from certain four-footed and terrestrial

becoming

in

it is

animals, called

in a stone.

beautiful

the

name

is

whose eyes are of this

There are two species of the

It is

derived, further

colour. 2

affection; for the colour of the

whitish-green species either turns to yellow and saffron, or to


livid

The

and black.

cause of these

of the two kinds of bile


the light-coloured

of the

for,

the same as the cause

is

latter,

one species

namely,

yellow, thin, and transparent; but this

is

species is also sometimes tinged so as to resemble saffron or the

yolk of an egg.

The

other

is

of a darker character, like leeks,

woad, or wholly black.

There are innumerable intermediate

varieties of colour, these

being connected with the heat and

humours.
is

The

viscera, also, co-operate in this; for the viscus

either a bright-red, like the liver,

When,

spleen.
viscus, if

therefore, the icterus

from the

liver, it bears traces

from the spleen, of


others.

But

or
is

it;

and

if it possesses

tion of the general habit.

so, also,

dark-red, like

the

connected with any


of this viscus, and if

with regard to

no appearance of any,

it is

all

an

the

affec-

These appear manifest in the white

of the eyes especially, and in the forehead about the temples;

and in those naturally of a white complexion, even from a


slight attack, the increased colour is visible.

In
2

cases,

A species

therefore, of black icterus, the patients are of a

of ferret

either the Mustela

Erminea or the M. Furo.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.-BOOK

327

I.

dark-green colour, are subject to rigors, become


active, spiritless

with

emit a fetid smell, have a bitter

faintish, in-

breathe

taste,

pinched in the bowels; alvine evacuations

difficulty, are

with

like leeks, darkish, dry, passed

deeply

difficulty; urine

tinged with black; without digestion, without appetite; restless, spiritless,

melancholic.

In the whiter species, the patients are of a light-green colour,

and more cheerful

in

mind; slow in beginning to take food,

but eat spiritedly when begun

of freer digestion than those of

the former species; alvine discharges, white, dry, clayey; urine


bright-yellow, pale, like saffron.
In both cases the whole

body

heat at the nostrils,

itchy;

is

The

small, indeed, but pungent; the bilious particles prickly.


taste of bitter things
it is

is

not bitter; and yet, strange to

not sweet; but the taste of sweet things

in the

mouth

is

tell,

For

bitter.

the bile lodged in the tongue, prevailing over

the articles of food, sophisticates the sensation; for the tongue,

having imbibed the

bile,

does not perceive them, while, during

the season of abstinence from food, the bile remains torpid,


neither
it is

habituated

articles

food

the tongue unpleasantly affected with that to which

is

but the

bile, if

heated up by the tastes of the

When,

of food, impresses the tongue.

is bitter,

the sensation

sweet, of the bilious.

is

For the sensation of the

who

things appear sweet; for

but because

not

cerbated by the bitter lodged in

so,
it

the disease, the phantasy of sweet

same condition in sweet and

when

bile anticipates

the other, and thus deceives those


it is

therefore, the

of the bitter things; but

suppose that bitter


it is

not exa-

from being habituated to


created

is

and there

is

the

bitter tastes; for the bile is the

screen of the fallacious tastes.

When,
viscus,

it

therefore, it appears without inflammation of


is

usually not dangerous,

though protracted

prolonged, and the viscus gets inflamed,

commonly

in dropsy

and cachexia.

it

any

but

if

terminates most

And many

have died

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

323

emaciated, without dropsy.

young men, and

them

to

It is familiar to adolescents

dangerous;

less

it is

free

is

it

gether unusual also with children, but in them

it is

and

not alto-

not entirely

from danger.

CHAPTER

XVI.

ON CACHEXIA, OR BAD HABIT OF BODY.


Cachexia
almost

by

all

itself,

for a season

is

and of this

its

by deriving

common
name

is

is

formed

else

name

operation

whence

is

emaciation, pale-

for the

time to be

the form of one great

the same.

to

habit of the patient" (Euhexid) in


tion, the formation of

happens
is

" a bad habit"

with many symptoms;

There

But cachexia

its

And

medicines.

to all complaints,

prevalent in the body.

and gives

increase from the administra-

its

significant.

whatever

ness, swelling, or

For "the good

all respects, as

regards diges-

blood for distribution, and every natural

arise

good breathing, good strength, and

good colour, constitutes the


if its

But it likewise

diseases are its progenitors.

many and improper

affection,

diseases; for

all

separately from all others, as an original affection of

the noxious kind,


tion of

of nearly

arises as the conversion

pristine state of

good

health.

But

nature become changed to the weakness of cacochymy,

this constitutes cachexia.

This disease
illness

for it is

is

difficult to cure,

and

is

a very protracted

engendered during a protracted space of time,

and not from one infirmity of the body, nor in connection with
only one viscus
a vitiated state.

spring

are

for it is

formed by the conversion of

all

which are

its

Wherefore those

incurable,

as

dropsy,

diseases

phthisis, or wasting;

into
off-

for,

indeed, the causes of cachexia are akin to those of wasting.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


The

disease

329

I.

a protracted and continuous dysentery, and the

is

relapses of diseases in certain cases.

and plenty of food

cient appetite,

is

Generally there

taken

is suffi-

but the distribution

thereof takes place in a crude and undigested condition, for


the operation of digestion

The

cause of

also

it

is

rhoidal discharge, or the


inactivity

When

labours.

there

is

regards

as

not performed upon the food.

may be

the suppression of the hemor-

each of

of customary vomiting,

omission

and indolence

exercises,
its

as

now and then

heaviness of the whole body,

flatulence of the stomach, eyes hollow, sleep heavy,

But these symptoms occurring

tivity.

When

illness.

remain and strike

way, they are significant of a mighty

in an erect posture, then they

in their feet and legs; but,

and

lay upon;

if

paleness,

and inac-

in an erratic form con-

ceal the existence of the disease; but if they


root, nor readily give

great

to

attendants has ceased to return,

when

become swollen

reclining, in the parts they

they change their position, the swelling

changes accordingly, and the course of the cold humour

is

For when the heat evaporates the

determined by

its

humidity,

be not diffused, the humidity again runs in a

if it

weight.

They have an

liquid state.

much

appetite for

very voracious; the distribution

is

food,

and are

more expeditious than the

digestion, of matters that are crude rather than undigested

digestion

body by
and

is

not at

nature.

in the system

all

performed, nor

is it

the same, neither

is

but

digested in the whole

For the weakness of the heat


is

in the belly

good and well-coloured

blood formed.

And when

the whole body

desire as to food

is

is filled

the stomach, and the affection having

they become swollen, inactive, and


tion.

The

belly

is

with crudities, and the

gone, the cachexy having

now

spiritless

now extended

attained

its

to

summit,

towards every exer-

dried up, and, for the most part, the alvine

discharges are without bile, white, hard, and undigested.


are parched in person,

They

without perspiration, troubled with

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

330
itchiness;

sleep

no time

at

settled,

slow;

respiration

reclining position;

I.

but drowsiness in the


pulse obscure, feeble,

frequent, and very frequent upon any, even a very small,

exertion;

respiration in these cases asthmatic; veins

on the

temples elevated, with emaciation of the parts around; but at

much

the wrists the veins

green colour.

Along with

sarca or ascites,

With
first

and from

regard to

place, old age, in

much exposed

does
it,

it

to

No

easy recoveries.

and tumid

blood of a dark-

these, phthisis or tabes induces ana-

their

progeny there

the ages which induce

which there

are readily affected, and

very

larger

is

is

no

escape.

this disease, in the

no recovery; children

more readily recover; adults are not


the affection, but have

one season produces

by no means

this

disease,

nor

terminate in any one; but autumn indeed conceives

winter nurses

it,

summer despatches

spring brings

it.

it

to its full growth,

and

OP

ARET^US, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC DISEASES

BOOK

II.

CONTENTS.
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On

Dropsy

....
....
.....
....
....

CHAP
I.

Diabetes

II.

Affections of the Kidneys

III.

Affections of the Bladder

IV.

Gonorrh(ea
Stomachic Affections
the Cceliac Affection

VI.

Colics

Dysentery
Lientery

Affections of the

Womb

Arthritis and Ischiatic Disease


Elephantiasis

V.

VII.
.

VIII.

IX.

X.

XL
XII,
XIII.

OF

ARETiEUS, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC DISEASES

BOOK

II.

CHAPTER

I.

ON DROPSY.

Dropsy

is

difficult to

unseemly

indeed an affection

endure; for very few escape from

by fortune and the gods, than by


the gods only can remedy.

For

to

art; for all

and

behold

and they more

it,

the greater

ills

either the disease lurking in

a vital organ has changed the whole system to cachexy, or


the general system from some plague that has gone before

has

changed the viscera to a Cacochymy, when

operate with one another to increase the

both co-

and no part

illness,

is

uninjured from which even a slight assistance might be rendered


to Nature.

It is a cold

and dense vapour converted into hu-

midity, resembling a mist in the universe; or,


version of a

humid and

to such a habit.

we do

not

call

For a

habit
is,

is

is

called Dropsy.

the con-

the affection situated in

when the tumour, swelling,


melting down to water, conspire in the

and

is

fluid rolling about in the lower belly

Dropsy, since neither

that place; but

it

cold cause which changes the patient

colour,

and the

disease, it

both

For, even should the water at any

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

334

time hurst outwardly,

making an

incision

affection will

cause of

it is

still

if

by-

it,

dropsical

remain confirmed; wherefore the primary

having different names.

each

varieties,

the watery suffusion float in the flanks, and, owing to

its fulness,

when tapped

it

But

Tympanites.

called

hypochondrium, the

the

cachexia.

There are many

For

should one give vent to

or

in

sound

if the

like a

drum, the disease

is

water be confined in large

quantity in the peritonaeum, and the intestines float in the


liquid,

it

gets

appellation of Ascites.

the

belly contain none of these, but the whole

But

if

body

the lower

swell, if in

connexion with a white, thick, and cold phlegm, the disease


is

called Phlegmatias

but

if

the fleshy parts are melted

into a sanguineous, watery, or thin

them

is

bad; but the

down

species

The constitution of each


combination of them is much worse.

of dropsy called Anasarca


of

humour, then the

is

formed.

For sometimes the variety which forms in the lower belly


(Ascites), is associated
is

with that variety in which the fluid

But the most dangerous

diffused all over the body.

form in which Tympanites


the

dropsies that

is

form in the lower

mild then, so to
smaller affection
is

it

is

much worse

is

less

For of

Tympanites

But of those

particularly worse than Ascites.

whole body, Leucophlegmatia

belly,

that

is

mixed with Anasarca.

affecting the

than Anasarca.

speak of such hopeless diseases,

It

when

combined with another smaller one.


if

is

is

But

one of the smaller enters into combi-

nation with one of the greater.

But

if a

complete mixture

of two great affections take place, the product thereof

is

greater evil.

The symptoms
and
the

to hear;

are very great

and very easy

to see, to touch,

in Ascites, for example, to see the tumidity of

abdomen, and the swelling about the

feet;

the face,

the arms, and other parts are slender, but the scrotum and

and prepuce

swell,

and the whole member becomes crooked,

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


from the inequality of the swelling:

335

II.

To touchby strongly

applying the hand and compressing the lower belly; for the

But when the

fluid will pass to other parts.

this side or that, the fluid, in the

patient turns to

change of posture, occasions

may be

swelling and fluctuation, the sound of which

But

you

if

finger firmly on

press the

any

hollow, and remains so for a considerable time.

heard.

becomes

part, it

These are the

appearances of Ascites.

Tympanites may be recognised, not only from the sight of


the swelling, but also by the sound which

For

cussion.

neither

if

you tap with the hand, the abdomen sounds;

does the flatus

[pneuma)

changes of posture; for the


contains

heard on per-

is

flatus,

shift

its

with the

place

even although that which

should be turned upwards and downwards, re-

it

mains always equally the same

but should the

be converted into vapour and water


vene on Tympanites),

running in a fluid

it

shifts its

flatus

(for Ascites

(pneuma)

may

super-

form, indeed, the one half

the conversion be incomplete.

state, if

In Anasarca and Leucophlegmatia the lower belly

is

empty,

the patients are swelled in the face and arms; and likewise, in
these cases, whatever parts are

become
white,
filled,

full.

cold,

For

but the abdomen

still

up

in the

is

is

in the others, in

Leucophlegmatia there

and thick phlegm; with

and the face

are raised

in

empty

it

is

them

collected a

the whole body

is

swollen, and also the neck and arms;

full

from the swelling; but the mammge

into a swelling in the case of such youths as are

happy period of

life.

But, in Anasarca, there

is

wasting of the flesh to a fleshy humour, and a bloody ichor,

such as runs from ulcerations of the bowels, and such as flows

from bruises produced by the


skin be scarified.

fall

of weights,

if

the outer

But the combination of the two has the

symptoms of both.
In

all

the species there are present paleness, difficulty of

breathing, occasional cough they are torpid, with


;

much languor

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

336

and

but

of appetite;

loss

if

they take any

however

food,

small in quantity and free from flatulence, they become


tulent,

that

it

and have distension

as if

from repletion

fla-

skin dry, so

does not become moist even after the

they

bath;

are white and effeminate; but in Anasarca they are of a dark-

green colour, and have dark veins; in Ascites and Tympanites


these are prominent, both in the face, and in the wrists, and the

abdomen. But

in

Anasarca and Leucophlegmatia

by the swelling;

are concealed

with slight dejection of


life

spirit;

concern about

endurance not from good

all

the parts

sleep heavy; they are torpid,


trifles;

fondness of

and good hopes

spirits

like those

in prosperity, but from the nature of the affection.


possible exactly to state the cause ; but this

how

is

It is

not

mighty wonder,

in certain diseases, not altogether dangerous, the patients

are spiritless, dejected, and wish to die, but in others they

have good hopes and are fond of

Diseases produce both

life.

these contraries.

Dropsy sometimes

occasioned suddenly by a copious cold

is

draught, when, on account of

lowed, and the fluid

is

thirst,

transferred

much
to

cold water

is

swal-

the peritonaeum;

by

which means the innate heat in the cavities is congealed, and


then the drops which formerly were converted into air and
If this, therefore, happen,

dissipated, flow into the cavities.

the cure of these cases

whole person

is

is

easier before

Moreover

affected.

any of the viscera or the

flatulent food, indigestion,

and the Buprestis have sometimes occasioned dropsies.


It is an illness common to all, men and women, in every
1

period of

life,

only that certain ages are more exposed to

certain species of the disease; children to Anasarca and

cophlegmatia; young

men

until

manhood

ling about the lower belly (Ascites?)


suffer all
1

p.

are subject to swel-

Old persons are prone

kinds, as being deficient in heat, for old age

The Meloe

74

vesicatoria.

and Dioscorides,

ii.

See Paulus iEgineta, Syd. Soc.


69.

Leu-

is

to

cold;

edit., t.iii.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK

337

II.

but they are not exposed to collections of humours, and to

them, therefore, Tympanites

the familiar form.

is

All the species, indeed, are unfavourable; for dropsy, in


its

forms of disease,

But of

bad.

is

the more mild; for in

many and

there are

it

all

these, leucophlegmatia is

various chances

of good fortune, such as an evacuation of sweat, of urine, or

from the bowels, by which the dropsical habit

is

But tympanites

still

is

of a difficult nature, and

carried

more

off.

so

anasarca; for in this affection the physician would require to

change the whole person, a thing not easy

for the

gods them-

selves to accomplish.

Sometimes the dropsy forms in a small space, such

as the

head in hydrocephalus; or in the lungs alone; or in the


or the spleen

womb

or the

in

women and

cure than any of the others, for provided


its

former constriction,

same outwardly, and

this last

its

mouth

a flatus,

it

is

woman becomes

dropsical.

This other form of dropsy

is

known

is

found; but they also float in a copious


a proof; for if

the fluid, after a small

fluid,

abdomen

within will block up the passage; but

if

then,

is

not of a mild character; for there


escape.

in certain cases such bladders have

am

is

no ready passage

It is said,

however, that

come out by the bowels.

and therefore write nothing of

tell

whether the discharge be from

unable to

What

For the passage whereby

by the anus

is

instru-

This species,

case,

the colon, or the stomach.


tion ?

ascites

of which this

you push the

farther in, the discharge will be renewed.

for I

where

so as to evacuate

ment

have never seen such a

the

of the fluid, a bladder

discharge

by which the bladders might

the

small and numerous

is

perforate the

if

most part the whole

bladders, full of fluid, are contained in the place

them;

relax from

But

dissipated.

in anasarca, for the

all

liver,

easier to

if it contains a fluid, it discharges

if

uterus suffer at

you

is

is

all

the

mode

matters

of their forma-

may be

discharged

patent; but the discharge of the water collected

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

338

about the loins by the bowels


intestine

is

For

incredible.

is

wounded

not free from trouble and danger.

CHAPTER

II.

ON DIABETES.
Diabetes

is

a wonderful affection, not very frequent

men, being a melting down of the


Its cause is

course

is

the

cessant, as if

common

one, namely, the kidneys

but the patient

is

is

The

chronic, and

it

making
their

seem

Moreover,

for the

life is

melting

rapid, the death

is

disgusting and painful; thirst, un-

drinking, which, however,

excessive

water.

as if

expire.

Or

if for a

is

time they abstain from drinking,

body dry; the

their

and a burning

thirst;

Thirst, as if scorched

and

viscera

at

no distant term they

fire.
But by what
making water? Or how

up with

restrained from

can shame become more potent than pain?


to

dispro-

scorched up; they are affected with nausea, rest-

method could they be


were

is

more urine

and one cannot stop them either from drinking or

mouth becomes parched and

lessness,

in-

takes a long period to form

portionate to the large quantity of urine, for


;

is

nature of

short-lived, if the constitution of the disease

be completely established

quenchable;

and bladder;

never stop making water, but the flow

from the opening of aqueducts.

the disease, then,

passed

The

of a cold and humid nature, as in dropsy.

for the patients

speedy.

among

and limbs into urine.

flesh

restrain

And

even

if

they

themselves for a short time, they become

swelled in the loins, scrotum, and hips; and

when they give

vent, they discharge the collected urine, and the swellings


subside, for the overflow passes to the bladder.

If the disease be fully established,

it

is

strongly marked;

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
but

339

II.

be merely coming on, the patients have the mouth

if it

parched, saliva white, frothy, as

if

from

(for the thirst

thirst

not yet confirmed), weight in the hypochondriac region.

is

sensation of heat or of cold from the stomach to the bladder


is,

advent of the approaching disease; they

as it were, the

make

little

more water than

usual,

and there

is thirst,

now
but

not yet great.

But

if it increase still

more, the heat

small indeed, but

is

pungent, and seated in the intestines; the abdomen shrivelled,


veins protuberant, general emaciation,

when

the quantity of

urine and the thirst have already increased; and when, at the

same time, the sensation appears

member, the

the extremity of the

at

make water.
name of
the
have got

Hence, the

patients immediately

disease appears to

me

to

from the Greek word

(which

()

diabetes, as if

a siphon),

signifies

because the fluid does not remain in the body, but uses the

man's body

as a ladder

whereby

to leave

it.

They

stand out for a certain time, though not very long, for they
pass urine with pain,

and the emaciation

is

dreadful; nor does

any great portion of the drink get into the system, and many
parts of the flesh pass out along with the urine.

The

cause of

it

may

be, that

some one of the acute

diseases

may have terminated in this; and during the crisis the diseases
may have left some malignity lurking in the part. It is not
improbable, also, that something pernicious, derived from the

is

Altogether, this interpretation


so unsatisfactory, that

was

almost tempted to alter the text

quite differently from

Wigan and

Ermerins, and to read

when the passage might

be rendered thus

name

tls

of diabetes, as

" it
if

got the

signifying

one having a frequent desire of


descending, because the fluid does

not remain

in

system, but

the

uses the man's person as a ladder


At all events, the
for its exit."

Wigan and Ermerins


seems inadmissible for how can
the two comparisons, to a siphon,
and to a ladder, be admitted to-

reading of

].

gether
that

It is possible,

ought to read

z 2

is faulty,

however,

and that we

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

340

other diseases which attack the bladder and kidneys,

But

sometimes prove the cause of this affection.


is

by the

bitten

dipsas,

the affection induced

of this nature; for the reptile, the dipsas,

up an unquenchable
a

remedy

by the wound

is

kindles

if it bite one,

For they drink copiously, not

thirst.

for the thirst,

may

any one

if

as

but so as to produce repletion of the

bowels by the insatiable desire of drink.

But

if

one be pained

by the distension of the bowels and feel uncomfortable, and


abstain from drink for a
thirst,

and thus the

conspire together.

from what

relief
thirst,

is

little,

he again drinks copiously from

evils alternate; for the thirst

and the drink

Others do not pass urine, nor

is

there any

Wherefore, what from insatiable

drank.

an overflow of liquids, and distension of the belly, the

patients

have suddenly

burst.

CHAPTER

III.

ON THE AFFECTIONS ABOUT THE KIDNEYS.

The

kidneys are of a glandular nature, but redder in colour,

like the liver, rather than like the

mammae and

they, too, are glands, but of a whiter colour.

resemble the

testicles,

but are broader, and, at the same time,

Their cavities are small and like

curved.

colation of the urine;

testicles; for

In shape they

sieves, for the per-

and these have attached to each of them

nervous canals, like reeds, which are inserted into the shoulders
of the bladder on each side

and the passage of the urine from

each of the kidneys to the bladder

About

it,

is

equal.

the kidneys, and those passages,

many and

compli-

cated diseases are formed, partly acute, proving fatal by hemor-

rhage, fevers, and inflammation, as has been described by


2

The

dipsas

was a species of

viper.

See Paulus iEgineta,

ii.

me;

p. 185.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

341

II.

but partly chronic, others wearing out the patient by wasting,

and although not of a

man

are all very protracted,

The formation of stones is


them painful, for the passage
plished;

and

if several

abscesses, ulcers,

and

ulcerations from

difficult to cure.

a long process, the stoppage of

of

them

is

not easily accom-

these, the retention

in addition to

But

formidable.

The

the formation of stones, and hemorrhoids.


abscess in

and persisting

fatal character, incurable,

Wherefore, the chronic are

until death.

of urine

is

small ones stop together in the

passage, or a large one be impacted

and

if these

occur to both

kidneys, so as to occasion retention of urine and distension of


the parts, the patients die in a few days.

Nature, therefore,

did well in forming the cavity of the kidneys oblong, and of

equal size with the ureters, and even a


a stone formed above,

bladder.

On

it

little

larger, so that if

might have a ready passage

to the

have an oblono

this account, also, the stones

form, because, for the most part, they are consolidated in the
ureters;

and such in that place

slender before,

owing

behind, because

the

as are of

to the ureters

unequal thickness are

being narrow, but thick

kidneys verge downwards.

formed in the kidneys only, but when in a heated

They

are

state; for

the stones have no fixed place in the ureters, but the gravel
floats

downwards with the

urine,

and thus

is

the affection, and furnishes the materiel of it.

both indicative of

But if an unusually

large one at any time be detained in the pelvis of the kidney,

pains of the loins, about the regions of the psoa, as far as the

middle of the

ribs,

take place, and hence, in

pain leads to mistake, as

if it

many

cases, the

proceeded from pleurisy; hea-

viness of the hips; painful flexion about the spine, so that they

stoop forward with difficulty

very painful tormina; at the same

time, the pains are heavy with a sense of twisting, for the
intestine

is

convoluted.

But

if

the urine be retained in large

quantity, and with distension, the desire of

making water

resembles the pains of labour; they are troubled with flatu-

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

342

which cannot

lence,

find vent; the fevers are pungent,

Tongue parched; the

a dry nature.

they are emaciated, and lose appetite; or

stone

fall

into the ureters, there

is

And

violent exertion.

the

if

if it fall

down

into the bladder, there

an abundant evacuation of watery urine, flatulent discharges

from the bowels, the stomach


former

settled, eructations, rest

and sometimes blood

illnesses;

operation

is

the passage through the

be larger than the urethra,


bladder

is

it is

Another painful

member;

along with the bladder the ureters,


sage of crooked stones

is

most

for if the stone

detained for a long time, the

behind, and the ischuria

filled

is

very painful, for

also, are filled.

difficult, for I

part,

The

pas-

have seen hooked


But, for the

protuberances on certain of these concretions.

most

from

poured out along with

is

the urine, from excoriation of the passage.

they are oblong, being formed according to the

In colour, some are white, clayey, as

shape of the passages.


is

But

it.

shivering, as if from

the sensation as if from the passing of a stone with

rigor,

is

up;

they take any-

if

thing, they cannot readily swallow or digest

down

and of

belly, also, dried

mostly the case with children

others are yellow, and saffron-

whom

coloured in old persons, in

the kidneys, whereas in children

the stones usually form in


it

rather in the bladder.

is

The

causes of the concretion are two-fold: in old persons, a

cold

body and thick blood.

more

For cold concretes thick

readily than heat, the proof of

Thermal springs

for

when

which

is

fluids

seen in the

congealed, the water gets concreted

into a sort of chalk-stones.

But

children, the copious

in

recrement of the blood, being overheated, gives origin to their


formation, like

Such
stones.

fire.

are the affections connected with the formation

of

Certain persons pass bloody urine periodically: this

affection resembles that

of the body

is

alike;

from hemorrhoids, and the constitution

they are very pale,

out appetite, without digestion; and

if

inert, sluggish,

with-

the discharge has taken

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


and relaxed in

place, they are languid

But

and agile in their head.

343

II.

their limbs,

but light

the periodical evacuation do

if

not take place, they are afflicted with headache; their eyes

become

dull,

others are swollen,


affected with

the

for

If,

the

epileptic;

and others again are

misty, dropsical;

melancholy and

These complaints are

paralysis.

stoppage of a customary discharge of

of the

offspring

blood.

many become

dim, and rolling: hence

then, the blood flow pure

and unmixed with urine,

most part the blood of the urine flows from the


Sometimes

bladder.

it

is

discharged in great quantity from

rupture of the kidneys; sometimes

thrombus

is

it

is

coagulated, and a

sometimes

formed of extravasated blood;

coagulated in the bladder,

when

dreadful ischuria comes

it

is

on.

After the rupture there succeed ulcers, which are slow and
difficult to heal;

like a spider's

the indication of

which

is

a scab, or red film,

web, or white pus passed in the urine, sometimes

pure and unmixed, and sometimes mixed up with the urine.

And by

these

symptoms we may

also diagnose

abcesses,

if,

in

addition, fevers and rigors supervene towards evening; pains

about the

and

loins, pruritus;

fleshy nature,

but

if it burst, clots

of a purulent

and now a discharge of white pus.

But

the ulcers are pungent, sometimes clear, and sometimes foul.

This

is

indicated

by the pus and the

urine,

whether

fetid

or

free of smell.

Spring, then, induces hemorrhages and abscesses;

and autumn,

stones.

But

if

be formed, the diseases indeed are incurable, there


emaciation and death.

winter

along with the stones ulcers


is

speedy

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

344

CHAPTEE

IV.

ON THOSE IN THE BLADDER.

Of

the

no one

in the bladder

diseases

proving

mild: the acute

is

by inflammation, wounds, spasm, and acute

fatal

an ulcer, abcess, paralysis, or a large stone, are

fevers; while

For

chronic and incurable.

it

(a large stone

?)

can neither be

broken by a draught, nor by medicine, nor scraped outwardly,

For the small ones of the bladder

nor cut without danger.

same day, or

are to be cut out, but the other proves fatal the

a few days, the patients dying from spasms and fevers

you do not cut him, retention of the urine takes


the patient

But

if

consumed slowly with

is

the stone

of urine

for

by

pains, fevers,

not very large, there

is

falling readily into the

is

in these cases than for the large stones,

and although one should escape the

still

it

may

gerous, to a freeman the incessant flow of urine

agreeable

when he

walks.

cut without danger.

may

The very

but

is

it

be safer to cut

the bladder

a constant drain of water; and although this

and

frequent suppression

risk of death,

whether he walk or whether he sleep

place,

and wasting.

neck of the bladder,

Although

prevents the escape of the urine.

in

or, if

is

still

is

cut

there

is

not be danintolerable,

particularly dis-

small ones are

commonly

If the stone adhere to the bladder,

it

be detected with care; and, moreover, such cases prove

troublesome from the pain and weight, even


dysuria, but yet the patient

water.

You may

diagnose

may have

all cases

when

there

difficulty of

is

no

making

of stone by the sediments

of sand in the urine, and, moreover, they have the genital


parts enlarged

and there

is

by handling them

for

when they make

water,

a stone behind, they are pained, and grasp and

drag the genital parts, as

if

with the intention of tearing out the

stone along with the bladder.

becoming

itchy,

and the anus

The fundament sympathises by


is

protruded with the forcing

OF CHKONIC DISEASES.BOOK
and

straining,

from the sensation, as

and when either


fore, in

suffers,

were, of the passage of

it

For the bladder and anus

the stone.

345

II.

one another,

lie close to

Where-

the other suffers likewise.

inflammations of the rectum, the bladder

affected with

is

and in acute pains of the bladder, the anus passes

ischuria;

when

nothing, even

much

the bowels are not

Such

dried up.

are the sufferings connected with calculi.

Hemorrhage, although

it

may

not prove

yet in the course of time has wasted


clots of blood produced by

very speedily,

even

But the

patients.

by inducing

are quickly fatal

it

ischuria, like as in stones; for

fatal

many

the blood be thin, of a

if

bright colour, and not very coagulable, yet the bladder accu-

mulates
it

it

for a length of time,

and

its

heating and boilino

were) coagulates the blood, and thus a thrombus

Ischuria, then,

most peculiarly

is

But on

fatal.

is

(as

formed.

these

symp-

toms there supervene acute pain, acrid heat, a dry tongue, and
from these they die delirious.
If pain

come on from a wound, the wound

gerous; but the sore, even if not fatal at

dan-

itself is

becomes incura-

first,

ble from fever or inflammation; for the bladder

is

thin,

and of

a nervous nature, and such parts do not readily incarnate nor

Moreover, the urine

cicatrise.

is

bilious, acrid,

The ordinary

condition of the ulcer

is filled, it

stretched; but

is

is

this:

when emptied,

The

corrosive.

contracts: it is

it

and

in the condition, then, of a joint in extension

no ulcer in

and

when the bladder


and

flexion,

a joint is easy of cure.

The symptoms

bladder also suppurates from an abscess.

of an abscess of the bladder are the same as in other cases

the abscess in forming

and

rigors.

urine which

them
lent,

The dangers
is

mixed with
is

pus,

not distant.

it

for

attended with inflammation, fevers,

But

are the same.

thick, white,

are mild; but if

death

is

and not

fetid,

if it

spread, they pass urine

and of a bad smell

The

urine, indeed,

discharges

the ulcers from

which

is

fecu-

of such persons the


is

pungent, and the

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

346

evacuation thereof painful, and the pain darts to the extremity


of the

All things, even those which are opposed to

member.

one another, prove injurious to them; repletion and inanition,

and

inactivity

exercise, baths

and abstinence from baths, food

and abstinence from food, sweet things and acid things;

cer-

certain cases, but proving

tain articles being serviceable in

injurious in others, not being able to agree in

CHAPTER

any one.

V.

ON GONORRH(EA.
Gonorrhcea
is

not, indeed, a deadly affection, but

is

disagreeable and disgusting even

and

paralysis possess both the fluids

runs as
for

if through

dead

parts,

to hear of.

is

nor can

it

semen

is

fluid

is

irrestrainable,

Women

discharged with

and with pleasure, and from immodest


with men.

also

titillation

have

and
this

of the parts,

desires of connection

But men have not the same prurient

which runs

impotence

be stopped even in sleep

an unconscious flow of semen.

disease, but their

if

and genital organs, the semen

whether asleep or awake the discharge

there

For

one that

off being thin, cold, colourless,

feelings; the

and

unfruitful.

For how could nature, when congealed, evacuate vivifying


semen ?

And

even young persons, when they

affection, necessarily

become old

suffer

from this

in constitution, torpid, re-

laxed, spiritless, timid, stupid, enfeebled, shrivelled, inactive,


pale, whitish, effeminate, loathe their food,

and become

frigid

they have heaviness of the members, torpidity of the legs, are


all exertion.
In many cases, this
way to paralysis; for how could the nervous
power not suffer when nature has become frigid in regard to
the generation of life?
For it is the semen, when possessed of

powerless, and incapable of


disease is the

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


vitality,

which makes us

to be

men,

hot, well braced in limbs,

and

hairy, well voiced, spirited, strong to think


characteristics of

sessed of

men

its vitality,

347

II.

to act, as the

For when the semen

prove.

is

not pos-

persons become shrivelled, have a sharp

tone of voice, lose their hair and their beard, and become

But

effeminate, as the characteristics of eunuchs prove.

man

be continent in the emission of semen, he

and strong

as

wild beasts, as

For such

as are continent.

to certain persons,
inferiors;

is

proved from such of the

while those by nature

much

becomes strong from nothing

From

any

athletge

much

else

inferior to their

by con-

their inferiors

tinency become superior to their superiors:

and generation.

if

bold, daring,

as are naturally superior in strength

by incontinency become

semen, then, contributes

is

but an animal

than from semen.

Vital

strength, courage,

to health,

satyriasis a transition takes place to

an

attack of gonorrhoea.

CHAPTER

VI.

ON THE STOMACHIC AFFECTIONS.

The

stomach

the president of pleasure and disgust, being

is

an important neighbour

to the heart for imparting tone,

or bad spirits, from the sympathy of the soul.

primary power of the stomach.


described
are,

good

body; of

by me

in another place.

digestion,

The

when proper

not only

is

the

offspring of pleasure

good condition, and good colour of the


nutrition

melancholic patients, loathing of food.


diseased, there

good

is

These things have been

disgust, their contraries, and also

sion of spirits,

This

dislike

if administered,

is
If,

sometimes depreswanting; and in

then, this organ be

and abomination of
but even

if

articles

the food

is

of food,

not seen;

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

348

nay, the very remembrance of them


water-brash,

distress,

there

salivation

is

and

is

heart-ache;

attended with nausea,

and

in

Even when

and vomiting.

cases

certain

the body wastes,

provided their stomach remain empty, they bear this pain

more
But

easily than that

if at

any time they are compelled by necessity

food, the pain

in the

produced by the administration of food.

is

mouth

occasions sufferance, and

And

greater pain.

it is

drink

to

from that which

is

is

to a

natural to the opposite, there

is

change

a painful

sensation as to everything, an aversion to, and dislike

Along with

kinds of food.
scapulse,

much

greater

still

not that they suffer thus from suitable

and bear more unusual food well; owing

food,

take

to

worse than hunger; the act of masticating

these there

after

is

of, all

pain between the

the administration

of food or

drink; loathing, distress, sight dull, noises of the ears, heaviness of the head, torpidity of the limbs, their joints sink

under them; palpitation in the hypochondriac region; phantasy, as of the spine

they seem as

being moved towards the lower limbs;

if carried about,

whether they stand, or

lie

now

down,

this

way and now

that,

shaken by

like reeds or trees

a gale of wind; they belch out a cold and watery phlegm.

But

if

sight,

there be bile in bilious persons, they have dimness of

and no

thirst,

even when owing to the food they appear

thirsty; are sleepless, torpid, drowsy, not

like those in

from true

sleep,

comatose affections; emaciated, very pale,

but

feeble,

relaxed, imbecile, dispirited, timid, inactive, quick to passion,

very moody

for

such persons at times have

fallen into a state

of melancholy.

These mental emotions necessarily attend the affection when


in connection with

the stomach; but certain people, recog-

nising the parts which sympathise, and from which the most

dreadful

symptoms

arise,

But the contiguity of the


first, is

reckon the stomach as the cause.


heart,

which

is

of

a strong confirmation of the truth of

organs the

all

what

I say;

for

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


the heart

is

349

II.

placed in the middle of the lungs, and this inter-

mediate space comprehends the stomach; and, moreover, both

and from

are connected with the spine;

this vicinity to the

heart arise the heart-ache, prostration of strength, and symp-

toms of melancholy.
There are other, and, indeed, innumerable causes of
disease; but the principal

belly through the stomach.

from their

necessities live

much pus poured

is,

It is familiar to

this

by the

forth

such persons as

on a slender and hard

diet

and

to

those who, for the sake of education, are laborious and persevering; whose portion

sayings and doings


multifarious

drink,

mean

head

is

sleep,

whose

diet; to

is

and the meditation on wise

the contempt of a

whom hunger

and watchfulness in place of

a soft couch,

the love of divine science, along

is

with scanty food, want of

is

hammock on

possession

common

air ;

it

is

for

in place of

and the only cover

whose wealth

and use of divine thought

to

whose

abundant

consists in the

(for all these things

account good from love of learning); and,


food,

whom

the ground without bed-clothes,

coverlet, a porous mantle,

the

rest; to

and

full

food, water

for

is

if

they

they take any

of the most frugal description, and not to gratify

the palate, but solely to preserve


intoxication;

life

no quaffing of wine

to

no recreation; no roving or jaunting about; no

bodily exercise nor plumpness of flesh

which the love of learning

for

will not allure

parents, brothers, oneself, even unto death.

emaciation of the frame

what

one ?

is

there from

from country,

Hence, to them,

they are ill-complexioned

even

in youth they appear old, and dotards in understanding; in

mind

cheerless

and

inflexible ;

depraved appetite, speedy satiety

of the accustomed slender and ordinary food, and from want

of familiarity with a varied diet, a loathing of

all

savoury

viands; for if they take any unusual article of food, they are
injured thereby, and straightway abominate food of
It is a chronic disease of the

stomach.

all

kinds.

But inflammations,

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

350

defluxions, heart-burn, or

Stomachic

Summer

pain

are not

thereof,

the

called

affection.

brings on this disease, whence springs the complete

loss of digestion, of appetite, and of

regard to the period of

life,

all

the faculties.

With

old age; for in old men, even

without any disease, owing to their being near the close of


life,

the appetite

is

nearly gone.

CHAPTER

VII.

ON THE CCELIAC AFFECTION.

The

stomach being the digestive organ, labours in digestion,

when

diarrhoea seizes the patient.

Diarrhoea consists in the

discharge of undigested food in a fluid state; and

if this

does

not proceed from a slight cause of only one or two days' duration;

and

if,

in addition, the patient's general system be debi-

litated

by atrophy of the body, the

nature

is

Cceliac disease of a chronic

formed, from atony of the heat which digests, and

when

refrigeration of the stomach,

the food, indeed,

solved in the heat, but the heat does not digest


it

into

from

its

proper chyme, but leaves

inability to complete

of this operation,
smell,
bile;

is

changed

and consistence.
it

it;

For

work

its

it,

is

dis-

nor convert

half finished,

the food then being deprived

to a state
its

which

colour

has an offensive smell, and

is

is

bad

in colour,

white and without

is flatulent;

it

is

liquid,

and wants consistence from not being completely elaborated,

and from no part

of the digestive process

having been properly

done except the commencement.

Wherefore they have flatulence of the stomach, continued


eructations, of a

bad smell

bowels

evacuations

rumble,

but

if these pass

are

flatulent,

downwards, the
thick,

fluid,

or

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


clayey, along with the phantasy, as if

through them

351

II.

a fluid were

passing

heavy pain of the stomach now and then,

from a puncture

as

the patient emaciated and atrophied, pale,

feeble, incapable of

performing any of his accustomed works.

if

But

if

he attempt to walk, the limbs

the veins in the

fail;

temples are prominent, for owing to wasting, the temples are

hollow; but also over

all

the body the veins are enlarged,

for not only does the disease not digest properly,

but

it

does

not even distribute that portion in which the digestion had

commenced

body;

for the support of the

appears to me,

it

therefore, to be an affection, not only of the digestion, but


also of the distribution.

But

if

the disease be on the increase,

it

carries

back the

when

matters from the general system to the belly,

there

is

wasting of the constitution; the patients are parched in the

mouth, surface dry and devoid of sweat, stomach sometimes


as if burnt
ice.

up with

Sometimes

bright, pure,

a coal,

also,

unmixed

and sometimes

along with the


blood, so as to

mouth of a vein has been opened


corrodes the veins.
illness

for,

even when

It
it

is

as if congealed

last scybala,

make

it

with

there flows

appear that the

for the acrid

discharge

a very protracted and intractable

would seem

to

have ceased,

relapses

it

again without any obvious cause, and comes back upon even a
slight mistake.

This

Now,

therefore,

it

returns periodically.

illness is familiar to old persons,

than to men.

and

to

women

rather

Children are subject to continued diarrhoea,

from an ephemeral intemperance of food

but in their case the

disease is not seated in the cavity of the stomach.

Summer

engenders the disease more than any other of the seasons;

autumn next; and

the coldest season, winter, also, if the heat

be almost extinguished. This affection, dysentery and lientery,

sometimes are engendered by a chronic

disease.

But, like-

wise, a copious draught of cold water has sometimes given rise


to this disease.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

352

CHAPTER

VIII.

ONT COLICS.

Persons

in colic are cut off speedily

There are very many causes of

mina.

symptoms

larly in the part

this affection.

The

most affected; much torpor; they are inactive,

become emaciated,

And

nance.

tor-

heaviness during abstinence from food, particu-

are,

lose appetite,

by volvulus and

if

sleepless,

swollen in counte-

the colon be affected in connection with the

spleen, they are of a dark-green colour; but of a light-green

when

in connection with the liver, from the

And

nearest viscera.
tity,

and such

and have a

as is

if

sympathy of the

they take food, even in small quan-

not flatulent, they become very flatulent,

desire to pass wind, which, however, does not

find vent: forced eructations upwards, but without effect; or,


if

any should be forcibly expelled, the

which escapes upwards.

flatus is fetid

The kidneys and bladder

and acid

sympathise,

with pain and ischuria; but in such cases the symptoms

change with one another.

But

a greater

an unexpected pain has passed down

wonder than

to the testicles

inter-

these,

and

cre-

masters; and this sympathetic affection has escaped the obser-

vation of

many

physicians,

who have made an

incision into

the cremasters, as if they were the particular cause of the

But

disease.

in these cases also the

symptoms interchange

with one another.

From

this disease are

ulcers, of

incurable.

produced other diseases

no mild character; dropsies and

For the

disease

is

abscesses

and

which

are

phthisis,

formed from cold and thick

humours, and a copious and glutinous phlegm; but,

comes on with a
locality,

frigid period of

life,

and during a hard winter.

also, it

a cold season, and a cold

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK

CHAPTEE

IX.

ON DYSENTERY.
Of

.()

the intestines, the upper being thin and bilious

as far as the caecum,

commencement

From

have got the Greek name

these proceed the lower,

the

353

IT.

which are thick and

fleshy, as far as

of the Rectum.

Wherefore ulcers form in

all

of them; and the varieties of

these ulcers constitute Dysentery: on this account, these dis-

For some of them erode the

eases are complex.


superficially,

ous; but they are far

Or

down.

if

more innocent

the ulcers be yet a

But

longer of a mild character.

intestines

and these are innocu-

if

the affections be low

producing only excoriation

deeper, they are

little

which

ulcers

no
and

are deep

have not stopped spreading, but are of a phagedenic, painful,


spreading, and gangrenous character, are of a fatal nature

for

the small veins get corroded in the course of their spreading,

and there

is

an oozing of blood in the

Another larger

ulcers.

species of ulcers: thick edges, rough, unequal, callous, as

would

call a

knot in wood: these are

do not readily

The

cicatrise,

and the

difficult to cure, for

we

they

cicatrices are easily dissolved.

causes of dysentery are manifold

but the principal

are,

indigestion, continued cold, the administration of acrid things,

such as myttotos, 1 onions by themselves, garlic, food of old

and acrid
customed

flesh,

by which dyspepsia

liquids,

cyceon,*

is

or zythus

produced; also unac(ale),

or

any similar

beverage produced in any country as a substitute for wine to


1

A sort

of condiment, contain-

ing garlic and other acrid things,

See Pollux, Onomast.

vi.

It is mentioned
both in the Iliad and Odyssey.
3
On the composition of the an-

cheese, wine, etc.

cient
2

thick soup prepared from

various substances, that

is

to say,

dix

zythi,

to

or Ales, see

the

Lexicon, in voce,

A A

Edinburgh

AppenGreek

THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

354

quench

thirst.

But

blow, exposure to cold, and cold

also a

drink, create ulcerations.

The

and the circumstances attendant on the ulcers

dejections

are different in different cases; for, if superficial,

when from

above, the discharges are thin, bilious, devoid of odour except


that

which they derive from the

intestines; those

jejunum are rather more coloured,

from the

and

saffron-like,

fetid.

Those dejections which contain the food in a dissolved

state

but rough, are sometimes fetid in smell when the ulcers are
gangrenous, and sometimes have the smell as

But

from scybala.

if

in the ulcerations from the parts below, the discharges

are watery, thin, and devoid of smell.

washings of

flesh;

fluid,

faeces,

these being dissolved in the sur-

devoid of bile and of smell;

evacuated in a consistent

surrounding

deeper they are

if

and these are sometimes by themselves and

sometimes with the

rounding

But

of dark wine, or like the

like ichor, reddish, of the colour

fluid.

But

if

and dry

state,

or

they are

lubricated with the

the ulcers be larger and smoother, in

those above they are bilious, and pinch the parts from which

they come and through which they pass (they even pinch the
anus), for the bile

and the

is

acrid,

more

especially if from an ulcer;

bile is fatty, like grease.

In the deeper ulcers below,

a thick clot of blood with phlegm, like flesh not very


like the scrapings of the bowels; nay,

mixed up with them; they


cous, like

they

float:

fat,

or

even entire portions are

are discharged white, thick,

mu-

chopped tallow, along with the humour in which


these proceed from the rectum:

they are merely mucous, prurient,

small,

but sometimes

round, pungent,

causing frequent dejections and a desire not without a pleasurable sensation, but with very scanty evacuations
plaint gets the appellation of tenesmus.

this

com-

But from the colon

there are discharged pieces of flesh, which are red, large, and

have a much larger circumference.

If the ulcers

become deep,

and the blood thick and feculent, these are more

fetid

than

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

355

II.

the former; but if the ulcers spread and are phagedenic, and
if

nothing will stop them, above, in addition to being intensely

become

the dejections

bilious,

blackish, like

woad

feculent,

or like leeks, thicker than the former,

food

fetid like a mortification;

masticated

frothy,

saffron-like,

by voracious

now

But

teeth.

undigested, as if only

if

the under parts are also

corroded, black clots of blood, thick, fleshy, very red, clotted,

sometimes, indeed, black, but at other times of


colours,

And

fetid,

various

all

involuntary discharges of

intolerable;

sometimes a substance of considerable length, in

respects not to be distinguished

from a sound piece of

fluids.

many
intes-

has been discharged, and, to those ignorant of the matter,

tine,

has caused apprehension about the intestine: but the fact


this,

the

which

intestines, like the

close to

lie

is

stomach, consist of two coats,

one another in an oblique manner; when,

therefore, the connection

between them

dissolved, the inner

is

being separated to some length, protrudes externally,

coat,

while the outer one remains alone, incarnates, and gets cicatrised,

and the patients recover and

lower gut alone which

And,

if

suffers thus,

live

unharmed.

owing

It is the

to its fleshy nature.

blood be discharged from any vessel,

it

runs of a bright

red or black colour, pure, and unmixed with food or scybala;

and
it

if a

concretion

coagulates

when

secretion of blood

and

noise,

it

is

spread over

cold,

it

like

for a

much flatulence
much larger than its

but being discharged with

has the appearance of being

Sometimes,

actual amount.

broad spiders' webs,

and no longer would be taken

also, a

purulent abscess forms in

the colon, nowise different from the

other

internal ulcers;

for the

symptoms, the pus, and the mode of recovery are the

same.

But

flesh, as if

if

there be hard secretions of matters resembling

pounded, and like rough bodies, the abscess

of a mild nature.

takes place from the colon in the form of dysentery,

has freed

many

is

not

Sometimes a copious discharge of water

patients

from dropsy.

a A

which

In a word, such are

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

356

the ulcers in the intestines; and their forms and the secretions

from them

as I

now

I will

have described.
describe the

symptoms accompanying each of

these states of disease, whether the ulcers be mild or malig-

To speak

nant.

in general terms, then, if the excoriation is

whether

superficial,

from pain and from

it

be above or below, the patients are

fever,

to bed, in various ways,

But

and get better without being confined

by merely some
if

small

amount of hot

tion

indeed, for the most part, there

if

much

changes of

diet.

from the presence of a

and occasionally there

bile;

tions imperfectly performed,

But

slight

ulceration supervene, in the upper bowels there are tor-

if

mina, which are pungent, acrid, as

free

is

though there

is

suppura-

suppuration, or digesis

no want of appetite.

the ulcers form in the lower part of the bowels, they are
less

are of a

dangerous than in those above, for the bowels there

much more

fleshy nature than those above.

become hollow and phagedenic, there

those above

fevers, of a latent kind,

which smoulder in the

But

if

are acute
intestines;

general coldness, loss of appetite, insomnolency, acid eructa-

vomiting of

tions, nausea,

become copious, and

vertigo: but if the discharge

bile,

consist of

more

bilious matters, the tor-

mina become permanent, and the other pains


times there

is

increase; some-

prostration of strength, feebleness of the knees;

they have ardent fever, are thirsty, and anxious

and

ing, tongue dry, pulse small

the fatal

symptoms

feeble.

black vomit-

Akin

ulcers; cardiac affections even to deliquium animi,

some never recover, but thus


toms are

common

ulcers spread,

to these are

have stated among those of malignant

expire.

from which

These dangerous symp-

also to erosions of the

lower intestines

if

the

and the discharge be not checked, only that the

tormina and pains are below the umbilicus where the ulcers
are situated.
said;

but

ment of

if

The forms

of the secretions are such as 1 have

they be small at

their spreading for a

first,

and there be a postpone-

long time, various changes take

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

357

II.

some subsiding, and others swelling up,


Such is the course of these ulcers. But
and the physician co-operate, the spreading

place in the ulcers,


like
if

waves in the

sea.

nature stand out,

may, indeed, be stopped, and a fatal termination is not apprehended, but the intestines remain hard and callous, and the
recovery of such cases

is

protracted.

In hemorrhage from the bowels,


vein or artery,

sudden death

it is

if it

proceed from a large

for neither

it

is

possible to

introduce the hand so as to reach the ailment, nor to apply any


sore.
And even if the hemorrhage were
by the medicine, the escape from death would not

medicine to the
restrained

be certain

for, in

some

cases, the falling off

widens the mouth of the vein, and when

and remain

there, the disease

to cure hemorrhages in their


for the

most part

is

is

incurable.

of a large eschar

form within,

clots

It is necessary, then,

commencement.

Its

obvious, although not in

approach, also,
all

cases quite

apparent: anxiety attends, with restlessness, heaviness in the


part where the rupture

countenance
vein

is

to take

place,

ruddiness of the

the blood has not yet burst forth.

And

if

the

has burst lately, for the most part the symptoms are

alleviated;

place

if

but

if it

has been a longer time ago, this takes

more slowly, and with more

Such

difficulty.

are the

ulcers in the intestines.

They occur

in the season of

summer; next

in spring; least of all in winter.

in

autumn;

and adolescents, but dysentery adults and young persons.


old age convalescence

is difficult,

less

Diarrhoea attacks children

and

In

cicatrization protracted.

Corroding sores are unusual in old persons, but yet hemorrhage


is

in accordance with old age.

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

358

CHAPTER

X.

ON LIENTERY.
If

many

thick and hard cicatrices form after dysenteries, and

broad and very deep ulcerations of the upper


food passes from them

to

intestines, the

those below in a fluid state, without

separation of the nutritious part; for the cicatrix shuts

by which the nutriment

pores

therefore,

The

is

is

from

ulcers.

cicatrization,

And

name being

here the affection

intestines

do not acquire

but yet usage and habit reconcile the intestines to

the discharge.
at times

But sometimes the

patient,

and of strength.

affection gets the appellation of Lientery, this

applied to a cicatrix of the intestines.


is

The

carried upwards.

seized with atrophy, loss of colour

up the

For, the heat in these parts,

performs digestion, nor

is

upwards; but being unchanged, owing

undergo any part of the

process.

if

congealed, neither

the nutriment distributed

But

to weakness,
if

it fails

to

the purging, though

of vitiated matters, be temporary, and not confirmed, a simple

vomit

after food will

sometimes remove the disease. But

exciting cause be prolonged, and get confirmed,

it

if

the

does no

good.

chronic disease, and cachexia so mild as not to confine

the patient to bed, will engender this disease.

sometimes have terminated favourably in

from one

evil to another,

but

still

But

this disease

dropsies

a change

a better change.

CHAPTER XL
ON AFFECTIONS OF THE WOMB, OR HYSTERICS.

The

uterus in

tion,

but

it

is

women is beneficial for purgation and parturithe common source of innumerable and bad

;;

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
diseases; for not only is

the fluor, but, if


it

359

II.

and

subject to ulcers, inflammation,

it

the whole organ be suddenly carried upwards,

The

quickly causes death.

fatal diseases

of an acute nature

connected therewith have been described elsewhere


the two species

chronic affections are,

but the

hardness

of fluor ;

but part malignant; prolapsus of the whole,

ulcers, part mild,

or of part.

The fluor,

then,

is

pearance indicates

either of a red or white colour; its apIt is the red if it consist of bright

this.

red blood, and the varieties thereof; or livid, or black and


thin, or thick

and coagulated,

like a

thrombus; or white, like

water; or a bright ochre colour, like bile: in thickness like a


thinnish or thin and fetid ichor.
albus)

is

clot of blood frequently runs off

Its periods

but

it

not

is

for a

forms of

But there

with the pus.

as regards

but a

more or

less

is

an

quantity.

does not continue the regular time as before; there


blood, but

few days, but

it

it

flows during

many days

the interval

Another

quite free from discharge.

is

variety as to the period


time, but

it,

sometimes agree with those of the menstrual purga-

much

is

flux (or fluor

and the true form like white whey

like pus,

infinite variety of

tion,

The white

the

first

purgation

is

at the regular

occurs two or three times during each month.

Another variety: a continual

flux; small, indeed, every day,

but by no means small during the whole month;


uterus never closes

its

for

the

mouth, labouring under relaxation, so

as to permit the flow of the fluid:

but

if it

nor diminishes, they die of hemorrhage.

neither intermits

The symptoms

are,

the woman's colour in accordance with those of the discharge


sleepless, loathes

food, anxious, relaxed, especially in the red

and subject

to pains; the discharge fetid in both varieties,

flux,

but to a greater and


white

is

worse

if

sometimes the red,


the black

is

less

extent at different times; for the

the putrefaction be unusually great;


if

the erosion be exacerbated.

the worst of

all;

and

In a word,

the livid next; the pale, the

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

360

white, and the purulent, are

Of

dangerous.
better

when mixed with

customary discharge

Now

Another white

that

which

the

But, indeed,

but the white are not

them

to

much

worse indeed, but

all its varieties.

women

young; but even

troublesome.

less

protracted, indeed, but less

is

the customary discharge.

red in

is

the red are worse in old


so to the

more

the pale

these

is

at all

customary

is

the menstrual dis-

fluor:

charge white, acrid, and attended with an agreeable pruritus;


along with which the discharge of a white thick

semen,
It

is

provoked.

is

we call
womb, which

This species

a refrigeration of the

incapable of retaining

its fluids;

to a white colour, for

it

stomach,

and

therefore becomes

The

the affection, and vomits phlegm;

womb some broad and attended


;

with tingling, which, being close together,


superficial excoriation

are others deeper

which the pains are

much more
But

fetid,

if

are, as it were, a

pus thick, without smell, scanty. These

But there

ulcers are mild.

are mild.

fire.

bowels are similarly affected in diarrhoea.

Ulcers, too, are formed in the

these, in

like

hence, also, the blood changes

has not the purple colour of

also, is subject to

also the

dant,

fluid,

female gonorrhoea.

slight,

and

and worse than

pus somewhat more abun-

yet, notwithstanding, these also

they become deeper, and the

sores hard or rough, if there

is

a fetid ichor,

lips

of the

and pain stronger

than in the former case, the ulcer corrodes the uterus; but

sometimes a small piece of


this sore not

coming

flesh is cast off

to cicatrization, either proves fatal after a

long time, or becomes very chronic.


lation

phagedena.

cases the

uneasy.

and discharged, and

The

This sore gets the appel-

sores also are dangerous if in

pain gets exacerbated, and the

From

the sore there

is

discharged a putrid matter,


exasperated by touching

intolerable even to themselves;

it is

and by medicines, and

by almost any

ment.

The

irritated

veins in the uterus are swelled

of the surrounding parts.

To

these

woman becomes

the skilled,

mode of

treat-

up with distension

it is

not

difficult to

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
recognise by the touch, for
heat, general restlessness,

it is

361

II.

not otherwise obvious. Febrile

and hardness

nant diseases; the ulcers, being of a

present, as in malig-

is

fatal

nature, obtain also

Another cancer: no ulceration

the appellation of cancers.

anywhere, swelling hard and untractable, which distends the

whole uterus; but there are pains


it

drags to

also in the other parts

Both these carcinomatous

it.

deadly; but the ulcerated


in smell and pains, in

life

is

which

sores are chronic

and

worse than the unulcerated, both

and in death.

Sometimes the whole uterus has protruded from

and lodged on the woman's thighs an incredible


;

seat,

its

affliction

yet

neither has the uterus not been thus seen, nor are the causes

which produce

it

For the membranes

such as do not occur.

which

are inserted into the flanks, being the nervous {ligamen-

tous*?}

supporters of the uterus, are relaxed; those at the fundus,

which

are inserted into the loins, are narrow; but those at its

neck, on each side to the flanks, are particularly nervous and


broad, like the

sails

All these, then, give way

of a ship.

if

the uterus protrude outwardly, wherefore this procidentia gene-

from abortion, great con-

rally proves fatal; for it takes place

cussions,
fatal,

the

and laborious parturition.

women

live

for a

Or

long time,

if it

do not prove

seeing parts

which

ought not to be seen, and nursing externally and fondling the

womb. It would appear that, of


womb, the internal lining coat

the double
is

membrane of

the

sometimes torn from the

contiguous one, for there are two transverse plates of the coat
this, then, is

thrown

laborious parturition,
it

when

it

and in abortion and

adheres to the placenta.

For

if

be forcibly pulled, the coat of the uterus being stretched,

But
its seat,

conceals

womb
if

off with the flux,

if

the

woman do

not

die, it is either restored to

or but a small part appears externally, for the


it

with her thighs.

Sometimes the mouth of the

only, as far as the neck, protrudes,

the uterus be

made

woman

to smell to a fetid

and

retreats

inwardly

fumigation; and the

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

362

woman

But

also attracts it if she smells to fragrant odours.

by the hands of the midwife it readily returns inwards when


gently pressed, and if anointed beforehand with the emollient
plasters for the

womb.

CHAPTER

XII.

ON ARTHRITIS AND SCHIATICA.


Arthritis
feet

we

call

a general pain of

is

all

the joints; that of the

Podagra; that of the hip-joint, Schiatica; that of

The pain then

the hand, Chiragra.

is

either sudden, arising

from some temporary cause; or the disease


for a

up by any
the nerves,
first

when

long time,

slight cause.
if

It

bones.

and such
There

in short, an affection of all

is,

the ailment being increased extend to

affected are the nerves

joints,

concealed

lies

the pain and the disease are kindled

as

all;

the

are the ligaments of the

have their origin and insertion in the

a great

is

which

wonder

in regard to

them

there

is

not the slightest pain in them, although you should cut or


squeeze them;
is

but

if

stronger than this,

wound

pained of themselves, no
not iron screws,

of a sword, nor burning

recourse to as cures for

them when they


is

still

fire,

pain

other

nor cords, not the

for these are

and

greater pains;

had

often

one cut

if

are pained, the smaller pain of the incision

obscured by the greater ; and,

if it prevail,

pleasure in forgetting their former sufferings.

they experience

The

teeth and

bones are affected thus.

The

true reason of this none but the gods indeed can truly

understand, but

word,

it is

men may know

the probable cause.

such as this; any part which

insensible to the

is

In a

very compact

touch or to a wound, and hence

it

is

is

not

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
painful to the touch or to a

wound.

exasperated sense, but what

is

and hence
very

is

For pain

and

But a spongy part

But

exasperated by an injury.

is

an

consists in

compact cannot be exasperated,

not susceptible of pain.

sensible,

363

II.

is

since

dense parts also live by their innate heat, and possess sen-

by

sibility

then the exciting cause be material,

this heat, if

such as either a sword, or a stone, the material part of the


patient

not pained, for

is

it

is

dense by nature.

intemperament of the innate heat

seize

it,

But

an

if

there arises

pained by

itself,

being roused within by the impression on the sense.

The

change of the sense

the heat therefore

is

pains then are from nature's being increased, or a redundance


thereof.

Arthritis fixes itself sometimes in one joint


in another; sometimes in the hip-joints;
in these cases the patient remains
joints

it

affects little,

joints, as the feet

which are able


and

mild
disease

is

lame in

and sometimes

for the

it;

most part

and the other

and sometimes does not go to the small

and hands.

If

it seizes

to contain the disease,

these organs; but if

and

the greater

members

does not go beyond

it

begin from a small one, the attack

it

The commencement

unexpected.

is

of ischiatic

from the thigh behind, the ham, or the

Some-

leg.

times the pain appears in the cotyloid cavity, and again extends to the nates or loins, and has the appearance of anything

But the

rather than an affection of the hip-joint.


to be affected in this

way: pain

forepart of the heel on

hollow of the
a

wrong

foot,

seizes the great toe;

which we lean

next

but the ankle swells

cause; some, the friction of

last

anew

it
;

and they blame

shoe; others, a long

will of his

own

accord

when they hear

account the disease gets to an incurable

the commencement,

when

it

but no one

the true one; and the true one

appears incredible to the patients


this

then the

comes into the

walk another again, a stroke or being trod upon


tell

joints begin

is

state,

of

it.

On

because at

feeble, the physician is not at

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

364

hand

to contend with

time,

all

treatment

it

but

has acquired strength from

if it

In some, then,

is useless.

joints of the feet until death, but in others

compass of the whole body.

For

the feet to the hands.


interval

For the most

both being of a

and very near the ex-

after these the hip-joint;

transition to the muscles of the


far the

back and

there

is

is

the

It is incre-

vertebrae

spine and neck are affected with the pain, and

the extremity of the os sacrum

next the

which

chest.

The

mischief spreads.

from

no great

is

very far from the internal heat;

elbow and the knee, and

how

spreads over the

part, it passes

feet,

similar nature, slender, devoid of flesh,

dible

remains in the

to the disease there

between the hands and the

ternal cold, but

it

it

it

of the

extends to

a general pain of

all

the parts of the groin, and a pain peculiar to each part thereof.

But likewise the tendons and muscles

are intensely pained; the

muscles of the jaws and temples; the kidneys, and the bladder

And, what

next in succession.
the ears, and the

lips, suffer;

and muscles.

wonder

for every

certain person

the head, and not knowing

the transverse

both

nose,

where there are nerves

had pains

why he was

pointed out the shapes of the sutures

at last the

in

the sutures of

pained there, he

the oblique, the straight,

behind and before, and stated that the

pain was narrow and fixed in the bones

for the disease spreads

over every commissure of the bones, in the same manner as


in the joints of a foot or of a hand.

the joints; at

first

get more condensed,


difficult to

Callosities also

form in

they resemble abscesses, but afterwards they

dissolve

and the humour being condensed


at last

is

they are converted into hard,

white tophi, and over the whole there are small tumours, like
vari and larger
stones.

For

but the humour

it is

and there appears


cold

thick, white,

and

like hail-

a cold disease of the whole (body), like hail;


to

be a difference in regard to heat and

for in certain cases there

disagreeable.

is

is

delight in things otherwise

But, I fancy, that the cause

is

a refrigeration

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


of the innate heat, and that the disease

is

single; but if

speedily give way, and the heat re-appears, there

and

frigeration

But

species.

the

if

delights in such things

need of

is

call

it

re-

hot

this is called the

the pain remain internally in the nerves, and

not becoming heated subside, nor get swollen,

part

would

it

365

II.

this variety

cold, for

which there

need of hot

is

medicines to restore the heat, of which those very acrid are

most necessary.

and

swelling,

For heat

of refrigerants.

the

excites

the internal heat,

calls forth

In proof of

always expedient in the same

this,

collapsed

when

the same

cases, for

parts

there

what

things

is

are not

beneficial at

is

one time proves prejudicial in another; in a word, heat

fore

Gout does not often become unremitting; but sometimes

to

it is

slight;

is

Where-

required in the beginning, and cold at the conclusion.

intermits a long time, for

to

need

it

hence a person subject

Gout has won the race in the Olympiac games during the

interval of the disease.

Men

then are more readily affected, but more slightly the

women; women more


For what
the

not usual nor cognate,

is

better engenders

common
to the

rarely than

age

is

men, but more severely.


if

from necessity

after thirty-five;

it

gets

The most

more violent ailment.

but sooner or slower according

temperament and regimen of every one.

The

pains

then are dreadful, and the concomitants worse than the pains;

upon touch,

fainting even

thirst, restlessness.

from death, they

But,

inability of motion, loss of appetite,


if

they recover partly, as

live dissolutely, are incontinent,

cheerful, munificent,

and luxurious in

diet;

if

escaped

open-handed,

but partly, as

if

they would (not?) again escape from death, they enjoy the
present

life

into dropsy,
cession

abundantly.

and

there

is

In

many

cases the

gout has passed

sometimes into asthma; and from this suc-

no escape.

366

ON"

THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

CHAPTER

XIII.

ON ELEPHAS, OR ELEPHANTIASIS.

There

many

are

and mode of

between

life

beast the elephant

any other

common

things in

in the

Elephas and the wild

but neither does the affection resemble

very different from

is

place then, he

first

thickest of animals

The

nor the animal any other animal.

affection,

wild beast, the elephant, indeed,


others

as to form, colour, size,

the affection

he

in size,

is

is as

the greatest

great as if

and the

you were

put one animal on another, like a tower; in bulk, he


large as if

by

side

you

But neither

Then,

as to

in shape

is

One

that over their whole body.

horse, indeed,

is

"the white-footed horse of Menelaus"; and bay,

" one hundred and

steeds

tawny, as

fifty"; others are

and animals which

with oxen, and dogs, and


live

on the

earth.

all

so that the

upon the shoulders, and even then

For the

are only

With regard

have a very black head, and unseemly face of

no marked form, upon a small neck,


rest

down with

other reptiles

But elephants

of a lurid colour, " like to night and death."


to shape, they

like

"assuming the

shape of a horse having a tawny mane, he lay


it is

and

of Rhesus"; others white-footed,

like

so

as

very white,

"the Thracian

And

to

he much like unto any

colour, they are all intensely black,

like

her."

is

should place several other very large animals

side.

other.

all

it is

head appears to

not very conspicuous.

ears are large, broad, resembling wings,

extending to

the collar-bone and breast-bone, so as to conceal the neck with


the ears, like ships with their
fully

teeth

sails.

The elephant has wonderothers call them

white horns on a very dark body

these alone are most

white, such as

is

nothing

else of

even any other white animal; and these are not above the
forehead

and temples,

animals, but in the

as

is

the

nature

of

other horned

mouth and upper jaw, not indeed

quite

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

367

II.

straight forwards but a little bent upwards, so that

swallow in a straight direction, and

Moreover the horns are

much

lift

a load in

medium

large, the

And

long as two fathoms.

teeth.

length being as

and some much larger; that

as a fathom,

might

it

its flat

to say, as

is

the upper jaw from

has a

its lip

long, ex-osseous, crooked, and serpent-like protuberance; and

there are two perforations

at

the extremity of this protu-

berance; and these by nature are perforated

all

the

way

to the

lungs, so as to form a double tube, so that the animal uses this

pipe as a nostril for respiration, and likewise as a hand

take a cup

could

can grasp
take

by

it

from

And

neither does

by eating

and

except

it

another stronger

seeks herbage for food; for

with

flesh

its

mouth and small

being long, raise the animal considerably

its feet

it

for it

and none could

firmly,

it

animal,

this also it

above the ground; but

and therefore

please with this protuberance,

the

with

live

it

For,

teeth.

it

round and hold

force

elephant.

if

neck

its

also, as I

have

said, is small,

cannot browse on the earth with

mouth

its

and moreover the excrescence of the horns in front of the

mouth

prevents

Wherefore
as if

from

touching the

to his

it

proboscis, for

neither
for the

is it

it

herbage.

a great load with its protuberance ; then

it raises

with a binder having bound the same with

convey
it

mouth

the

it,

he can

mouth; whence the ancients properly


collects food in

front of the animal.

able to drink from a lake or river with

same reason.

But,

if it is thirsty, it

its

call

But

mouth,

introduces into the

water the extreme nostril of the proboscis, and then, as


inhaling,

has

filled

it

much

draws in

its

nose, as

stream of water into

it

its

discharges again, until

burden.

It

fissures

with

hollow

clefts,

water, instead of air

were a cup,

it

fills its

and when

it

draws anew and

belly, as it

were a vessel of

has a rough and very thick skin,

prominent

some

edges,

if
it

pours the same as a

mouth, and then


it

long

channels,

containing

and other

transverse, others oblique, very deep, like

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

368
in

all

turally hairs for a

There are

down.
it

Other animals have na-

respects to a furrowed field.

mane, but in the elephant


also

and other animals;

woman,

and

But

no necessity

is

like

man,

for, like

at the knee;

there

this

merely

is

innumerable other, differences between

has

it

bends

it

animal, except in so far as there

dugs

its

me now

for

its

backward

leg

at the arm-pits.

to write concerning the

any discrepancy between

is

the animal and the disease, and in so far as the symptoms of

the patient resemble the nature of the animal.


is

also called Leo,

The

disease

on account of the resemblance of the eye-

brows, as I shall afterwards explain; and Satyriasis, from the


redness of the cheeks, and the irresistible and shameless im-

Moreover

pulse ad coitum.
tion,

insomuch

it is

also called the Heracleian affec-

none greater and stronger than

as there is

it.

Wherefore the
most powerful of

affection
all

dreadful to behold, in
elephant.

And

mighty

is

in taking

life;

in power, for

and

is

the

also it is filthy

and

respects like the wild animal, the

all

from the disease there

originates in a deadly cause;

it is

is

no escape,

water

is

converted into snow, or

common
it;

when

the

This

hail, or ice, or frost.

is

cause of death, and of the affection.

But the commencement of the


tion of

for it

a refrigeration of the innate

heat, or rather a congelation like a great winter,

the

it

neither does

disease gives

appear as

it

had come upon the man; nor does


surface of the body, so that

it

it

if

no great indica-

any unusual ailment

display itself

upon the

might be immediately seen, and

remedies applied at the commencement; but lurking


the bowels, like a concealed

fire it

prevailed over the internal parts,

among

smolders there, and having


it

afterwards blazes forth on

the surface, for the most part beginning, like a bad signal-fire,

on the

were

watch-tower;

but in certain

cases from the joint of the elbow, the knee,

and knuckles of

face,

as

the hands and

it

feet.

In

its

this

way

the patient's condition

is

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

II.

hopeless, because the physician, from inattention

369

and ignorance

of the patient's ailment, does not apply his art to the com-

mencement when the

disease is very feeble.

they are merely torpid, as

if

from some light cause, drowsy,

and these symptoms are not very

inactive, dry in the bowels,

unusual even in healthy persons.


the affection, the respiration

is

The

of the breath (pneuma).

seem to be the cause of

For, indeed,

fetid

air,

But upon the

increase oi

from the corruption within

or something external,

Urine thick, muddy,

this.

would

like that

of cattle; the distribution of crude undigested food; and yet


of these things there

no perception nor regard;

is

for neither

are they aware whether or not they digest, thus digestion or

one to them, since, for anything useful

indigestion

is

and proper

to them, digestion

distribution,

all

however,

is

attracting the food for

the lower belly

is

is

The

not usual with them.

easy, the disease, as it were, greedily

its

own nourishment;

for this reason

Tumours prominent, not

very dry.

con?

tinuous with one another anywhere, but thick and rough, and

the intermediate space cracked, like the skin of the elephant.

Veins enlarged, not from abundance of blood, but from thickness of the skin

and

manifest, the whole


swelling.

The

hairs

for

no long time

the situation of them

is

being elevated equally in the

surface

on the whole body die prematurely, on

the hands, the thighs, the legs, and again on the pubes; scanty

on the chin, and


still

also the hairs

more frequently premature

hoariness,

in a very short time the pubes

a few hairs should

where they are gone.

on the head are

And

scarce.

and sudden baldness

and chin naked of

hair, or if

remain, they are more unseemly than

The

skin of the head deeply cracked;

wrinkles frequent, deep, rough; tumours on the face hard,


sharp; sometimes white at the top, but
base.

Pulse small, dull, languid, as

if

more green

moved with

at the

difficulty

through the mud; veins on the temples elevated, and


those under the tongue;

bowels bilious;

also

tongue roughened

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

370

with

vari,

resembling hailstones; not unusual for the whole

frame to be

of such (and thus also in unsound victims, the

full

But

flesh is full of these tubercles resembling hail).

affection be

upon the

much

raised

up from the

1
the itchy parts with pleasure.

Our author

in this place evi-

dently alludes to mentagra, a malignant disease of the face, very

prevalent in

that

of the

the

in his time,

first

and the beginning of

The first
which we possess,

second century.

description of
is

Home

to say, towards the end

is

it

contained in Pliny's Nat. Hist.

xxvi., at

the beginning, and

the following effect

That

is

it

to

was

one of the new diseases of the


face, which at one time had spread
over most parts of Europe, but

was then mostly confined to Rome


That it had been called by the
Greeks, lichen, but that latterly
the LatiD term mentagra had been
applied to

it.

He

further asserts,

was unknown in former


times, and made its first appearthat

it

ance in Italy during the reign of


that the men of the
Tiberius
:

middle

and

lower

classes,

and

And

the lichen sometimes

Another very interesting account of the disease, under the


names of lichen and mentagra, is
given by Marcellus, the Empiric,
in chap, cxix., wherein elephan-

and other inveterate

tiasis, lepra,

diseases of the skin are described.

He

says that the distemper

tium) when neglected


spread

many

remarks, also generally begins in


the face with vari and other appearances, similar

kissing.

He

to

scribed by our author.

the

that

decidedly

those de-

He

states

disease

is

endemical in Egypt, attacking not


only the lower ranks, but even
kings themselves.

Now

worthy of remark,

is

it

lusion

was propagated by

He

persons.

mulant applications for it. Along


with it, he gives a very good account of elephantiasis, which, he

disease being confined principally


it

(vi-

apt to

prescribes various caustic and sti-

that beyond

among whom

is

over the face, and to

all

contaminate

more especially women, were exempt from it, the ravages of the
to the nobility,

the

on the knees, and the patients rub

pruritus

is

if

and appear

on the extremities of the

extremities, lichens occur

fingers; there

parts within,

all

question this

the disease to which frequent

tial

is

al-

made by the poet Mar-

is

as prevailing extensively in
as being propagated

Rome, and

by

adds respecting it, that it was


cured by caustics, the effects of
which often left unseemly scars

the fashionable practice of per-

That the disease had


from Egypt, the
mother of all such distempers.

passages evidently allude to

on the

come

face.

originally

sons saluting one another, by kissthe streets. The following

ing, in

Epigr.

xi.,

From

all

it

xii. 69.

these descriptions,

we

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


embraces the chin

all

round;

371

II.

reddens the cheeks, but

it

is

attended with no great swelling; eyes misty, resembling bronze;

eye-brows prominent, thick, bald, inclining downwards, tumid

from contraction of the intermediate space; colour


black

much

eye-lid, therefore,

in enraged lions; on this account


fore it

is

or

livid

retracted to cover the eyes, as


it is

named

Where-

leontium.

not like to the lions and elephants only, but also in

the eye-lids " resembles swift night."

Nose, with black protu-

berances, rugged; prominence of the lips thickened, but lower

nose

part livid;

elongated;

teeth

not white

appearing to be so under a dark body;

but

indeed,

ears

black,

red,

contracted, resembling the elephant, so that they appear to

have a greater
ears,

size

than usual; ulcers upon the base of the

discharge of ichor, with pruritus; shrivelled

body with rough wrinkles; but likewise deep

all

over the
like

fissures,

black furrows on the skin; and for this reason the disease has

name of

got the

elephas.

Cracks on the

middle of the toes: but

as the

increase, the

if

feet

and

the ailment

heels, as far
still

further

tumours become ulcerated, so that on the cheeks,

cannot entertain a doubt, that the

ther, that Syphilis,

and

its

conge-

Rome,

ner Sivvens, are the brood of the

was of a malignant and contagious

ancient elephantiasis, no one at

disease, theD so prevalent in

nature, which attacked principally

all

and was propagated by


kissing and, further, that it was
a disease of the same class as ele
phantiasis. Taking all these circumstances into account, one may

the latter in ancient, mediaeval, and

venture

the History of Syphilis, as given

the

face,
;

to

decide pretty confi-

dently, that it

was a disease akin


which

to the Sivvens of Scotland,


it

strikingly resembles in

characters

as

described

Sivvens, in short,

is

all its

above,

a species or

variety of syphilis, which

is

readily

communicated both by the mouth,


as in kissing, and per coitum. Fur-

acquainted with the history of

modern

times, will entertain

See the note to Paulus


iEgineta, t. ii., 14, 15, 16, and the
doubt.

authorities there referred to

in Sprengel's

and

in

also,

Renouard's

History of Medicine,
The importance of this subject,

which has never been satisfactorily


illustrated elsewhere, will be my
apology for embracing the present
opportunity of endeavouring to

throw some additional light on

it.

372

ON THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

cliin, fingers,

and knees, there are

and incurable

fetid

some of which are springing up on one


are subsiding on another.

members

Sometimes, too,

certain

of the patient will die, so as to drop

the nose, the fingers, the

feet,

life

the limbs,

it

But

much more

attacks

such as

fatal, so as to relieve

and dreadful

has been divided limb from limb.

the animal, the elephant.

off,

of the

the privy parts, and the whole

hands; for the ailment does not prove


the patient from a foul

ulcers,

while others

part,

For

if there

sufferings, until

it

is

he

long-lived, like

be a sudden pain of

grievously, spreading some-

times to this part, and sometimes to that.

Appetite for food

not amiss; taste indiscriminate, neither food nor drink affords


pleasure; aversion to

all

things from a painful feeling; atrophy;

spontaneous lassitude;

libidinous desires of a rabid nature;

the figure of each of the limbs heavy, and even the small

limbs are oppressive to the patient.

Moreover, the body

is

offended with everything, takes delight neither in baths nor


abstinence from them, neither in food nor in abstinence from
it,

neither in motion nor in rest, for the disease has established

itself in all

from

its

Sleep slight, worse than insomnolency,

the parts.

fantasies;

strangling.

In

strong

this

way

sleeping the sleep which

When

in

such a

certain patients

state,

is

Many,

who would

as

if

from

have passed from

knows no waking, even

not turn from them, even

There

dyspnoea, suffocation

not

if a father, a

flee;

life,

until death.

who would

son, or a brother?

danger, also, from the communication of the ailment.

have exposed their most beloved relatives in

therefore,

the wilderness, and on the mountains, some with the intention

of administering to their hunger, but others not

them

to die.

There

to the wilderness,

is

a story that one of those

so, as

wishing

who had come

having seen a viper creep out of the earth,

compelled by hunger, or wearied out with the affection, as


to

exchange one

not die until

evil for another, ate the viper alive,

all his

members had become

if

and did

putrid and dropped

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK

373

II.

off:

and that another person saw a viper creep into a cask of

new

wine, and after drinking of the same to satiety, vomit

up, and discharge a great deal of

new wine; but when the


wine, that the man drank

viper was smothered in the


of

thus to obtain a rescue from

had carried the drinking

down on

the ground, at

awoke from
off,

his sleep

But

nails,

off the

as

Thus goes the

if

is

credible.

And

should renew the man,


a prodigy.

is

but

when he

first

of

all

still

when he

his hair fell

away

in

in the semen, nature

from the act of generation:

like another
fable; not

the parts melted

made new

nails

and clean

slough of a reptile;

new man,

to a

it

flesh,

and

growth of

very probable, indeed, nor yet

entirely incredible; for that one

another

all

like the

old skin,

he was called back,


life.

and

disease

about to die; but

power was

as the

new

and intoxication, he lay

to satiety

other hairs to grow, and

and put

and the

and intoxication,

formed the man again,

made

life

it

the

largely and greedily, seeking

it

first as if

next the fingers and

succession.

venom along with

its

ill

should be overcome by

that from the existing spark nature

not so incredible as to be held to be

OF

ARETLEUS, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

THERAPEUTICS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

I.

CONTENTS.
CH -

Preface.

The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure

op Phrenitics
of Lethargics

I.

II.

of Marasmus

III.

of Apoplexy

IV.

....
....
.....
....

of the Paroxysm of Epilepsy


of Tetanus
of Quinsey

of Affections of the Uvula

V.
VI.
VII.

VIII.

of Pestilential Affections of the

Fauces

The Cure of Pleurisy

IX.

X.

OF

ARET^US, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

THERAPEUTICS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

I.

PEEFACE.
The

remedies of acute diseases are connected with the form

of the symptoms, certain of which have been described by


in the preceding works.

Whatever, therefore,

me

relate* to the

cure of fevers, according to their differences, the form of the


diseases,

and the varieties in them, the greater part of these will

be treated of in

which

are

my

discourses on fevers.

accompanied with

fevers,

But acute

such as Phrenitis, or those

without fevers, as Apoplexy, of these alone will I

and that

may

affections

now

write;

not commit blunders, or become diffuse by

treating of the same matters in different places, the beginning

and end correspond

to the

same in the work on the

affections.

THERAPEUTICS

378

CHAPTER

I.

THE CURE OF PHRENITICS.

The

patient ought to be laid in a house of moderate size,

mild temperature
that

cool

is

in a warm

and humid,

if

and

situation, if winter, and in one

summer;

in spring

and autumn, to

be regulated according to the season. Then the patient himself,

and

all

those in the house, are to be ordered to preserve quiet;

for persons in

phrensy are sharp of hearing, are sensitive to

become

The

walls should be smooth,

noise,

and

level,

without projections, not adorned with frieze l or paintings

easily

for painting

delirious.

on a wall

is

And, moreover, they

an excitant.

catch at certain false appearances before their eyes, and grope

about things which are not projecting, as

any unreal occasion may be a cause


so that the patient

may

out of a narrow bed.

bed, for a hard one

above

all others,

sufficient to

make them

neither toss about in a broad one, nor

may be no inducement

to convulsions.

they were so; and

Length and breadth of the couch moderate,

raise their hands.

fall

if

is

In plain bed-clothes, so that there


to pick at their nap.

But on a

soft

offensive to the nerves; as in phrenitics,

the nerves especially suffer, for they are subject

Access of their dearest friends

is

to be per-

mitted; stories and conversation not of an exciting character;


for they

ought to be gratified in everything, especially in cases

where the delirium tends


laid in darkness or in light

of the attack; for


1

if

to anger.

Whether they

are to

be

must be determined by the nature

they are exasperated by the light, and

The Greek word

would

appear to have been applied like


frieze in English, both to the nap

on woollen cloth, and in architecornaments of sculpture on


a flat face. Our author evidently
uses it in the latter sense but I
ture, to

suspect the translators

fail

to re-

For the former meaning, see Erotian, and Foes (Ec.


Hij)pocr. Modern lexicographers
do not seem acquainted with this
use of the term. See Liddel and
Scott's ; and Dunbar's Lexicons.
cognise

it.

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
see things

which

exist not,

and represent

379

I.

to themselves things

not present, or confound one thing with another, or

images obtrude themselves upon them

if

strange

and, in a word,

they

if

are frightened at the light, and the things in the light, darkness

must be chosen
symptom,

too,

but

the opposite

if not,

when they become

state.

It is a

good

of a sound mind, and their

delirium abates, on exposure to the light.

Abstinence from

food should not be prolonged; food should be rather liquid,


scanty, and frequently administered, for food soothes the soul:

the proper time for giving

is

it

during the remissions, both of

But

the fever and of the delirium.


delirious

from want of food, and

are to give food that does not do

favourable circumstance,

when

if

if

they have become

the fever do not remit,

much harm

in fever.

It

we
is

the fever and the delirium agree

both as to the paroxysms and intermissions.


If,

therefore, the time for the administering of food be

in the

first

place,

to abstract blood.

fever at the

it

must be enquired whether


If,

commencement,

be proper to open a vein

But

if

in the

at the

first

be necessary

come on with

or second day,

will

it

elbow, especially the middle.

the delirium supervene on the third or fourth day,

are to open a vein up to the


if it

it

then, the delirium have

come,

first

was past the proper time

seventh day,

it

period of critical days.


for bleeding,

we

But

on the sixth or

will be proper to evacuate considerably before

the crises in acute diseases, either by giving purgative medicines, or

by using other

stimulants.

But when opening a


if you open the vein

vein you must not abstract much, even


at the

commencement;

vertible into syncope.

youthful, and

if

for phrenitis is

But

if

an ailment easily con-

the patient be plethoric and

the ailment be connected with fulness in

eating and drinking, those indications have nothing to do with

the phrenitis; for even without the delirium,


to abstract
is

much

it

would be proper

blood in such circumstances; but

much

less

to be abstracted, if such persons labour under phrenitis.

THERAPEUTICS

380

But we may open a vein the more boldly


disease proceed from the pnecordia,

in these cases, if the

and not from the head

for

But the head

is

the seat of sensation, and of the origin of the nerves; and

it

there (in the prsecordia)

life.

more blood from the heart than

attracts

If

others.
at the

the origin of

is

it

therefore suffer,

it is

it

imparts to the

not proper to open the vein

elbow; for these affections are such that

And

injury to evacuate in them.

if

no small

the strength be sufficient

we must

to withstand the evacuation,

it is

abstract only once, lest

during the interval between the acts of evacuation, the proper


season for food be

The

lost.

fevers, in cases of phrenitis, are

of a continual type, neither have they long intermissions,

But

but experience short and ill-marked remissions.

way

patient give
stracted, it

off until another remission, unless it

by odours, stroking the

having resuscitated the

if not,

face,

are immediately to abstract blood.


is

the

before a sufficient quantity has been ab-

must be put

occur at a distant period; but,


patient

if

and pricking the

The measure of

we

feet,

sufficiency

the strength.

Liquid food

is

proper in

all febrile diseases,

phrenitic cases, for these are

mulse

is

to

more

arid than

be given, unless they are

who

ible in patients

but especially in

mere

is

The

Alica 2 washed

are subject to bitter bile.

with water, or mulse,

fevers.

bilious, for it is indigest-

good thing;

also it is

good

to give

pottages of a plain kind, such as decoctions of savory, of parsley, or of dill, for these

are diuretic,

phrenetics.

gluten

As

is

and a

discharge of urine

term

is

of frequent

author, as in those of Hippocrates,

may be proper

for

all,

and

beneficial in

for lubricating the tongue, the trachea,

occurrence in the works of our

it

is

All kinds of pot-herbs, especially melons, for their

good

this

are beneficial to the respiration,

free

that the

to mention, once

of the

and

for

Greeks and the alica of the Romans


was the species of grain called Spelt
(Triticurn Spelta) broken down into
rough granules that is to say, it
was coarsely ground Spelt.
;

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
the alvine evacuations; but the best of

gourd in season, and whatever

The

are beet, blite, cress,

all

own

else is best in its

season.

juice of ptisan in a very liquid state, and containing

nourishment,

is

most proper

be diminished at the

if the disease

abstracted,

at

first,

little

being made always thicker

But the quantity of nourishment

as the disease progresses.

to

381

I.

and a

crises,

And,

before them.

little

is

be protracted, the customary food must not be

but

we must

give nourishing

cereals, in order to support the patient;

from the

articles

and when there

is

need,

of the flesh of the extremities of beasts and fowls, mostly dissolved in the soups: these ought to be completely dissolved

The rock

during the process of boiling.

fishes are preferable

on the whole we must choose the best in

to all others; 3 but

the country, for countries are believed to differ as to the kinds


of fish which are best in them.

be given restrictedly, for

we must

mulse or roasted in
with hot water,
stomach; but

if

Of other

you give

of the strength and of

things, each

for strength,

also

much.

is

oil

you must not

have described.

of the unripe olive pounded

we must mix

rose-oil is to

ing of the head.

if

is

to be

damped with
head

for in phrenitics the


if restlessness

and

equal parts of rose-oil at

be increased

But

But

not fond of being kept warm.

visions be present,

and the

to be diluted

In a word, the food must be

For the sake of refrigeration, the head


the

is

solely for the refreshment of the

it

wanted

dilute the vinous part

such as

state

give such articles as apples boiled in

suet.

if it is

Fruit containing wine must

apt to affect the head and praB-

by the

cordia; but if required

the stomach,

it is

for the astringing

false
first

and cool-

they become disordered in under-

standing, and their voice change, the hair {capillary leaves'?) of

the wild

thyme must be boiled

in oils, or the juice of ivy or

the Greek and Arabian

ticularly

authorities on dietetics hold, that

iEgineta,

All

fishes caught

among rocks

are par-

excellent.
t. i.

p. 159.

See

Paulus

THERAPEUTICS

332

of knot-grass

more
the

also to

is

oils,

But

be infused.

if the delirium

get

and cow-parsnip are to be boiled in

violent, hog's-fennel

and some vinegar poured

in

for these things dissipate

the vapours and heat, and are solvents of the thick humours

which contribute

to the delirium.

But

care

must be taken

that the moist application do not extend to the neck and the

tendons, for
season

is

it is

prejudicial to tendons

suitable for the

mencement of

damp

a paroxysm;

Every

and nerves.

com-

application, except the

should be used more rarely

it

during the increase, but most frequently at the acme; and

whenever they are

delirious,

then, in particular,

proper to use a cold application,

made

still

To

season of summer, but in winter tepid.


it is

it

will be

more cold

in the

soothe the delirium

well to foment the forehead with oxycrate, or the decoc-

tion of fleabane,

with the

oil of

by means of

a sponge,

and then to anoint

wild vine or of saffron, and also to anoint the

nose and ears with them.

These things, moreover,

awake

all

also

induce

For

sleep.

if

they lay

night, nor sleep during the day, and the eyes stand

quite fixed like horns, and the patients toss about and start up,

we must

contrive to procure sleep and rest for

them

first,

fomentations to the head, with unmixed rose-oil, or

oil

by
of

marjoram with the juice of ivy, or the decoction of wild thyme


or of melilot.

when

But poppy boiled

is

particularly soporific

applied to the fontenelle of the head, or with a sponge

to the forehead.

green,

in oil

may

But the poppies,

if

recently plucked and

be applied whole under the pillows;

thicken and humectate the spirit (pneuma), which


attenuated, and diffuse over the senses fumes

commencement of sleep. But

we may rub

in the

if

meconium

feet

with

oil,

it

is

they

dry and

which prove the

greater applications are needed,


(expressed juice of poppy) itself

on the forehead with water, and


the same, and pour

for

also anoint the

into the ears.

nostrils

with

Gentle rubbing of the

patting of the head, and particularly stroking of

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
the temples and ears

is

an effectual means;

383

I.

for

by the stroking

of their ears and temples wild beasts are overcome, so as to


cease from their anger

any one
repose

is

him

to

in a

and

fury. 4

But whatever

is

familiar to

Thus, to the

a provocative of sleep.

boat, and being carried about on the

sailor,

the

sea,

sound of the beach, the murmur of the waves, the boom of

But

the winds, and the scent of the sea and of the ship.
the musician the accustomed

to

notes of his flute in stillness; or

playing on the harp or lyre, or the exercise of musical chil-

To

dren with song.

a teacher, intercourse with the tattle of

by

Different persons are soothed to sleep

children.

different

means.

To

the hypochondria and region of the stomach,

distended

if

flatulence, embrocations

by inflammation, hardness, and

cataplasms are to be applied, with the addition of the


over-ripe olive, for
fore

in

thick, viscid,

required in inflammation

is

it,

it is

and

it is

all

fruits of

and

of the

calefacient; it there-

be boiled

let dill or flea-bane

good thing to mix

lence be present also, the

and

oil

together; but

cumin and

if flatu-

parsley,

and

whatever other things are diuretic and carminative, along


with

But

are to be sprinkled on the application.

sifted natron,
if

the liver experience suffering and pain, apply

wool just taken from the ewe,

we must mix

rose-oil;

but

boil in

melilot,

it

foment the

from the unripe

olive, or

Hellenic or Cretan rob, and

also

and mixing

liver therewith.

oil

unwashed

all

these things into one juice,

To

the spleen the oil must be

This passage savours much of magnetical manipulation. The following verses of Solon have been quoted as referring to the same
4

subject

'

/
Se

' ',
'
'.
epyov

'

'

ovbev

reXos'

(~ ylyvfrai

re

THERAPEUTICS

384

mixed with vinegar;

or if

should appear to be enlarged in

it

bulk, oxycrate, and instead of the wool a soft sponge; for the

spleen delights in and

is

by such

relieved

things.

But

if

the

hypochondria be collapsed and retracted upwards, and the


skin be stretched,

with

it

will be best instead of the oil, or along

and

to use thick butter in equal quantity,

it,

and rosemary be boiled in the decoction, and

let

fleabane

dill is

not

unsuitable.

But
same

if it

be the proper time for cataplasms,

oils to

being linseed, fenugreek, or


also, are

proper

use the

if

the

abdomen be

makes, along with honey,

soft

oil,

plasm for the hypochondria.

and seeds which

beans and vetches,

fine barley-meal;

makes a light and

also, in bags,
it

we may

the same places, the ingredients of the cataplasms

and

Also

Roasted millet,

swelled.

fomentation
linseed,

let the

when ground

an excellent cata-

same

flowers, herbs,

have described among the embrocations be

Honey,

used for the cataplasms.

also, is

useful along with

these things, to give consistency to the dry things, and for the

mixing of the toasted things, and


heat;

it

is

half-boiled,

as

and

to

diuretic,

effects

also a cataplasm

an emollient, calefacient, caiminative,

moderate the inflammations.

effects

trachea, the lungs, the thorax,

bowels,

also, are to

sitories or liniments (for

These

by mulse when drunk, and even


when conveyed internally to the

are produced also

more and greater

The

itself;

and an embrocation dissolved in some of the

liquids, is effectual

and

for the preservation of the

good thing, likewise, by

and the stomach.

be frequently stimulated by suppothey are generally constipated), in

order to act as derivatives from the head, and also for the

evaporation of the vapours in the chest, and for the evacuation


of the matters in the belly
several days,

it

but, if the belly be confined for

must be opened by

a clyster of mulse,

oil,

and

natron.

But

if

the distension of the inflammation do not properly

OF ACUTE DISEASES. -BOOK

we must apply a cupping-instrument with

subside,
cators
first

cate,

385

I.

where the inflammation points and

greatest,

is

direct;

on the

may

or second day, according as the inflamed parts

and the strength

scarifi-

indi-

and from those the amount of

the evacuation of the blood must be determined, for excess


occasions

During the

syncope.

and second day the

first

fomentation should be the same; but, on the third, cerate with

some of the

oils

then, if they be

used in the embrocations

to be applied:

is

in a state of inflammation, epithemes,

still

consisting of hyssop, fenugreek boiled in mulse, the resin of

the turpentine plant, and wax; the

the same for these

oils

If by these means the delirium do not at

places.

all

abate,

it

have recourse to cropping of the head,

will be necessary to

provided the hairs be very long, to the extent of one half;

down

but, if shorter,

to the skin:

then,

meantime

in the

having recruited the strength, to apply a cupping-instrument


to the vertex,

and abstract blood.

But dry-cupping

is first

to

be applied to the back.

But

since in all the acute diseases the chest

must be reme-

died, this part generally suffering with the heart

more especially from the


sometimes hot,

difficulty of the respiration,

at other times cold; and,

and complaint of the stomach, and

and of the diaphragm

(for

the heart,

never recovers),

particular

must be soothed.

cases arises
;

determined from
version of

illness

its

all

of the pleura

from any dread-

if it suffer

For, indeed, the delirium in certain

from some of the parts in the chest

thirst acrid

is

in cases of phrenitis these parts in

ful illness,

and dry

which

moreover, from ardent

humours, and sympathy of the

fever, cough, badness of the

nerves,

and lungs,

respiration hot

heat not easily endured, as being

febrile

parts to the chest ;

and

illness

from the per-

native heat, but greater and more intolerable the

communication of the same from the other parts to the chest:


for the extremities

hands

are

cold

the

head,

but, above these last, the chest.

c c

the

feet,

It is to

and the

be remedied,

THERAPEUTICS

386

by humectation and

then,

For bathing,

refrigeration.

oil

boiled with camomile or nard; in summer, also, Hellenic rob.

But

be necessary also to apply epithemes, dates moistened

if it

with austere wine, then levigated and pounded into a mass with
nard, barley meal, and flower of the wild vine, form a soothing

a cooling one

cataplasm for the chest:

bruised with mastich and melilot

all

formed of apples

these things, however, are

mixed up with wax and nard.

to be

is

But

if

the stomach be

and loathing of food, the juice or hair of

affected with torpor

mixed up with them

and the hypochondriac

worm- wood

are

region

be fomented with this boiled up

to

is

infusion or the juice of

it

may be drunk

amount of two cupfuls of the


bitter juice

in

oil.

The

before food to the

infusion, or one cupful of the

with two cupfuls of water.

But

if

the stomach

be affected with heartburn, not from the constitution of the


but of

disease,

from acrid and

itself

being pinched with

bile, or

in the food

of half a

hemina of milk

should swallow the most of


it

humours, or from

from being parched with

we

in one cupful of water ; the patient


it,

but he

may

take a small portion

with bread.

But

if the patient

thirst, restlessness,

give

them

of

less

we must

it

mania, and a desire of cold water,

But

if

we must

than in a case of Causus without phrenitis, for

take care lest

much

as

be also affected with Causus, and there be

we

we

injure the nerves;

as will prove a

little is sufficient, for

remedy

for the

are to give

stomach, and a

phrenitics are spare drinkers.

converted into syncope, and this also happens (the

powers of

life

sweat, and

all

being loosened, the patient being melted in


the

humours being determined outwardly, the

strength and spirit (pneuma) being also dissolved),

regard the delirium, and be upon our guard


resolved into vapours and humidity.
is

thirst,

milk mixed with water to the amount

must give

of

saltish

wine, to nourish quickly by

its

lest

we must

dis-

the patient be

Then the only support

substance, and to penetrate

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

387

I.

everywhere, even to the extremities; to add tone to tone, to

warm

rouse the torpid spirit (pneuma),


brace what

that

relaxed, restrain those portions

is

which

is

cold,

which are flowing

and running outwards, wine being sweet to the senses of smell


so as to impart pleasure; powerful to confirm the strength for
life

and most excellent

to soothe the

when drunk, accomplishes

all

these

mind

become composed by the soothing of


taneously

nourished

strength,

to

Wine,

in delirium.

good purposes;

for they

their minds, are spon-

and

are

with

inspired

pleasure.

But when the


the delirium

drium
ness,

is

is

fever has

converted

much

not

and the head

become protracted and


into

fatuity,

feeble,

and

but the hypochon-

injured by swelling, flatulence, or hardis

the part principally affected,

we must

boldly wash the head, and practise copious affusions on

it;

for

thus will the habit of body be moistened, the respiration of the

head and exhalation over the whole body

and thus

will that

purified of

and

firm.

its

which

is

will be restored;

dry become diluted, and the sense

mist, while the understanding remains

sound

These, indeed, are the indications of the removal

of the disease.

CHAPTER

II.

THE CURE OF LETHARGICS.


Lethargics

are to be laid in the light,

rays of the sun (for the disease

warm

is

and exposed

to the

gloom); and in a rather

place, for the cause is a congelation of the innate heat.

soft

colours,

couch, paintings on the wall, bed-clothes of various

and

all

things which will provoke the sense of sight;

conversation, friction along with squeezing of the feet, pulling,


tickling.

If deep sleep

prevail,

C c 2

shouting aloud,

angry

re-

THERAPEUTICS

388

proach, threats regarding those matters which, he

announcement of those things which he

tomed

to

desires

and expects.

dread,

of that which

With
known
:

is

accus-

is

Everything

to prevent sleep

the reverse

proper for phrenitics.

regard to the depletion of lethargies this should be

If the obliviousness be the sequela of another disease,

such as phrenitis,

we must

not open a vein, nor make a great

evacuation of blood in any way, but inject the


solely for the evacuation of its contents,

belly,

not

but in order to pro-

duce revulsion from above, and to determine from the head


there should be a good deal of salts and natron in

answers very well

you add a sprinkling of

if

clyster; for in lethargies the lower intestine

But, if the lethargy

as it were, to evacuation.

sequence of another disease, but


if the patient

is

it

is

and dead,

not the con-

the original affection, and

appear to be plethoric, provided

we must open

and

castor to the

cold,

is

it,

it

be with blood,

a vein at the elbow; but, if with a watery

phlegm, or other humours, we must purge by means of cneoros

with the ptisan, or by black hellebore with honeyed-water, in


the beginning, if you wish to do so moderately; but
greater extent,

you must give

to the patient

when

if to

fasting of the

medicine called Hiera, to the extent of two drams with three


cupfuls of honeyed- water

and, having waited until

then give food,

if

nourishment

be given the next day.

is

to

it

able then to give in the evening a


either in

purges,

It will

dram of the

be season-

hiera, dissolved

two cupfuls of water or of honeyed-water.

Total abstinence from food


is

it

be the proper season; but otherwise

is

withdraw food altogether;

of

its

duties

and fomented,

is

also

much

food.

It

little

food every day, but not

for the

stomach to be reminded

proper, then, to administer a

to

bad, as

as it were,

during the whole day.

Also the food must be attenuant and laxative, rather in the

form of soups than roasted, such as hens or


1

Daphne Cneorum

L.

shell-fish;

and the

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
herb mercury

And we may

is

to

be boiled with

add to the

juices, if

it,

it

389

I.

and some vinegar added.


be proper to use the juice

of ptisan, something to promote exhalation and the discharge


of urine, such as fennel, parsley

Horehound,

their fruits.

also,

and likewise colewort with

The sweet cumin

the pot-herbs themselves, or

by

oil,

its

acrid qualities, does good;

and the brine of

fish

{garum).

a most excellent medicine for the flatu-

is

lence and urine; for the stomach and bladder are to be stimu-

whole time of the

lated during the

The

disease.

moist applications to the head the same as in the case

of phrenitics; for in both the senses are

which must
such as the
exhalation

either be expelled
oil

by

by

filled

refrigerants

with vapours,

and astringents,

of roses or the juice of ivy, or dissipated into

attenuants, such as wild

thyme

with

in vinegar,

the rose-oil. But if there be pain of the nerves, and coldness of


the whole body, but more especially of the extremities,

must besmear and bathe the head and neck with


oil

of

dill,

Sicyonian

castor

we
and

and anoint the spine with the same along with


oil,

the

oil

of must, or old

oil

at the

same time, we

must rub both the arms from the shoulders and both the

With

from the groins.

legs

these, moreover, the bladder is to

soothed, which suffers, as being of a nervous nature, and


stressed as being the passage for the urine;

by the acrimony of the humours,


if

and

be
is

also is irritated

But

for the urine is bilious.

the trembling increase, and there be danger of a convulsion,

we must

necessarily use Sicyonian oil to the head, but use

in small quantity.

But

if there

it

be inflammation of the hypo-

chondria, and fulness thereof, flatulence, and tension of the


skin, or if there

be a hollow there from retraction inwards of

the hypochondria,
lasms, described

we must apply

by us under

The cupping-instrument

is

the embrocations and catap-

Phrenitics.

by no means

to

be used

disease be the consequence of phrenitis, but this

more boldly

if it

be the original

disease.

may

if

the

be done

If the tongue be

THEEAPEUTICS

393
black,

and a swelling point in the hypochondria, the cupping-

instrument must necessarily be used.

"When

in the course of

time the senses have been evacuated, and the patient


wise more tolerant of the disease,

we may
we can

instrument to the top of the head, since


it

other-

is

apply the cuppingevacuate from

without injury to the strength.


Flatulence

is

to be expelled both

upwards and downwards;

for lethargy produces collections of flatus both in the cavities

and in the whole frame, from


spirit,

inactivity, torpor,

which motion and watchfulness

and want of
wherefore,

dissipate;

having rubbed up green rue with honey and natron, we anoint


therewith;

will expel the

it

wind more

one part

effectually if

of the resin of turpentine be added to these things.


tation also will expel flatus, either with hot

A fomen-

unwashed wool,

or with rough old rags, or a sponge with water in

which hyssop,

marjoram, penny-royal, or rue, have been boiled. The potions 2


also

which are taken before food expel

and these

flatus,

also

bring away phlegm and bile in the stomach and bowels; such
Cretan dictamny, or marjoram

are hyssop, boiled mulse,

maiden-hair and agrostis


qualities, for

are acrid, but possessed of expulsive

indeed they evacuate flatus and urine.

If there be trembling of the hands and head, he

may

take

a draught, consisting of castor with three cupfuls of honeyedwater, for

some days; or

if

melt down the castor in a

he will not drink

sufficient quantity

this,

of

oil,

we may
wherein

rue has been boiled, to the amount of three cupfuls; and a

double amount of this

and

is

to

be repeated

derived from

it (for

is

to be injected into the lower bowel,

for several days

it

wards, and, in certain cases, urine and


2

Propomata,

or

whets.

See

Paulus iEgineta, vol. iii. p. 544.


They correspond to the Liqueurs
of the present day,

and

after the benefit

brings off flatus upwards and down-

but were

ta-

fseces),

if it

should

ken at the beginning of a


Comp. Horat. Sat. ii. 4, 11. 24

feast.

27.

Probably the Triticum repens.

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

391

I.

be diffused over the whole system in any way, the nerves


recover from

tremblings and become strong, and

their

changes the habit of body to the hot and dry, and


constitutions of diseases.

blow

it

is

mucus.

very excellent thing to

also a

into the nostrils, for in this

sneezing;

spect

It

way

expels flatulence

it

It effects these things

it is

by

gentle heat, in which re-

its

superior to the other sternutatories, pepper, hellebore,

euphorbium

both at their

for these things,

and last impression are harsh, and disorder the head and the

To

whereas castor gradually creates a gentle heat.


also otherwise suitable, because the nerves

is

by

for as the bladder secretes urine, so does the nose

soap- wort, and

it

it

the

alters

derive their origin from

it;

and

diseases of the nerves; but to

castor

mix

it

first

sense,

the head

everywhere

a remedy for the

is

with some one or more

of the medicines described will not be disagreeable, for if

be mixed,

will not immediately disorder the head,

it

a moderate degree, but after a time

The nose

to

is

will stir

it

up the

it

even in

heat.

be moistened by tickling; by odours acrid

indeed to the sense, but possessed of heating powers, such as


the castor

itself,

or savory, or penny-royal, or thyme, either

in a green state, or in a dried, moistened well with vinegar.

Anointing with acrid medicines


knees.

by

The

is

proper to the feet and

materiel thereof should be heating

degrees; for there

is

and pungent

need of both in cases of lethargy to

induce warmth and watchfulness.

In the

first

place, it is

proper to whip the limbs with the nettles, for the

down

thereof sticking to the skin does not endure long, but imparts

no disagreeable tingling and pain;


lates,

also

induces swelling, and provokes heat.

to have these effects produced


parts of lemnestis 4
4

it

An

efflorescence

about reeds in

same as

salt

for

collecting

The

which see

But

if

you

more powerfully, rub

and euphorbium, with

lakes.

moderately stimu-

oil

desire

in equal

of must.

It is

the Appendix to Dunbar's Greek


Lexicon,

THERAPEUTICS

392
also a
it

is

very good thing to rub with raw squill pulverised; but

necessary to rub off the oily matter of the limb (for

everything acrid loses


unless

stimulant

its

be medicinal

it

either the oil

But

of must, or the Sicyonian.

coma

prevail,

it

properties with

oil)

of privet, or

that

things a deep

if after these

be proper, having pounded the wild

will

cucumber with vinegar, and mixed

it

with an equal quantity

of a cake of mustard, to apply this as an acrid cataplasm,

and one which

ing and of wounds,


frequently,

and

and

will speedily occasion redness,

But

quickly produce swelling.


it

will

also

there be danger of blister-

if

will be proper to raise the cataplasm

see that

none of these

be produced.

effects

These things, therefore, are to be done to relieve the torpor

and

seasons,

except at the

commencement of the paroxysms.


But if the patient have already recovered

his sensibility,

insensibility of the

but there
thereof,

it

is still

parts

at

all

some heaviness of the head,

will be proper to evacuate

noise, or ringing

phlegm by the mouth,

first

by giving mastich

spit,

then again stavesacre, the granum cnidium, 5 but more

chew, so that he

to

especially mustard, because

because

it

is

if the patient

it

is

common

may

article,

more of a phlegmagogue than the


drink

it

willingly,

the matters in the stomach,

it

stomach and expel flatulence;

it

is

and

others.

also

And

will be sufficient to dissolve

will also be able to moisten the


for this

once fortunately hap-

pened to myself in the case of a man who drank


directions; for experience

constantly

it

by

my

a good teacher, one ought, then,

much caution is ignorance.


The head, then, after the hair has been clipped to the skin,
much good is not thereby accomplished, is to be shaven to

to try experiments, for too

if

procure insensible perspiration, and also to allow the anointing

with acrid medicines, such

as that

from lemnestis (or adarce),

Probably the fruit of the Daphne cnidium.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

393

I.

or thapsia, 6 or mustard moistened with water; these things,

with double the quantity of bread, are to be rubbed on an old


piece of skin, and applied to the head, taking

good care

at the

expiry of an hour to foment the parts with hot sponges.


It will also
least,

not be devoid of

utility,

when

all,

or most at

of the fatal symptoms of the disease are gone, but the

languor remains, to bathe; and then also gestation,

and

CHAPTER

III.

THE CURE OF MARASMUS.


In these
it

cases, indeed, if

Marasmus

by quickly having recourse

And

friction,

gentle motion will be beneficial.

all

truly milk

is

remedy

prevail,

to the bath

of

we must remedy
and to exercises.

marasmus by nourishing,

warming, moistening the stomach, and soothing the bladder.


Moreover, the same means are beneficial in cases of catochus,
for the

then,

is

form of these diseases

more

particularly soothing,

whether

inject into the bowel.

The

happen

to

is

alike

and the same.

particularly proper in these cases,

women from

Castor,

and most

to drink, to anoint with, or to

affections similar to these

the uterus, will be treated of

which

among

female diseases.

Thapsia Garganica

L.,

a spe-

cies of deadly carrot.


1

I agree with

the

editors in thinking that this chap-

ter is merely a portion

preceding

last one.

of

the

THERAPEUTICS

394

CHAPTER

IV.

THE CURE OF APOPLEXY.


should indeed the apoplexy be severe, for by

means the

patients are, as

whom

old, to

this

it

affection

survive the greatness of the

of advanced

were, dead
is

is

illness,

combined with the misery

to be estimated.

by me, how the

If the patient be

young, and the attack of apoplexy weak,


matter to effect a cure;

it

is

still

no easy

The

must, however, be attempted.

it

is

congenial, and they cannot

It has been formerly stated

life.

magnitude of the disease

all

men whenever one

equivalent remedy, then, as being the great assistance in a

a great disease,

venesection, provided there be no mistake

is

amount

as to quantity; but the


if

you take a

once; for to them a

which imparts the


But,

food.

But

remains.

blood

is

most potent,

heat to the frame

itself,

this

it is

to the

the great remedy, for the cause

still

should seem to have been deficient, and the appearance

We

vein again.

must open the vein

at the

elbow, for the blood flows readily from


in smaller attacks of apoplexy,

it

is

whether the paralytic seizure be on the


In a word, the abstraction
parts, for there the

revulsion

is

the patient

we

and

better to err on the side of smallness; for,

of the eyes, as seen from below, be favourable,

But

at

being that

as

the quantity be inferior to the cause, you do

good with

little

if it

if

little

vital

to determine, since

is difficult

much, you despatch the patient

too

little

to

in the

left

arm.

necessary to consider
left side

or the right.

be made from the healthy

blood flows more

made from

is

is

it

we can open

hollow of the

freely,

the parts affected.

seized with apoplexy without

and thither the

When,

therefore,

any obvious cause,

should decide thus concerning the abstraction of the blood.

But

if

the attack happen from a blow, a

fall

from a high place,

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

395

I.

or compression, there must be no procrastination, for in certain


cases this alone

But

if it is

sufficient for the cure

is

the patient's having been seized with

and

and to save

life.

not thought expedient to open a vein, owing to

insensibility,

much

coldness, torpor,

an injection must be given for the evacuation

of the engorgement in the bowels (for very generally persons


are seized with apoplexy from the immoderate use of food

and

wine), and for the revulsion of the humours seated in the head.

The

not only of natron, but also of euphorbium, to

amount of three

the

and an evacuant of phlegm and

clyster should be acrid;

bile, consisting

clyster,

the

also

oboli,

added to the usual amount of a

medullary part

of the

wild

cucumber,

or the decoction of the hair (leaves) of centaury in

oil

or

The following is a very excellent clyster: To the


usual amount of honey add rue boiled with oil and the resin
of the turpentine tree, and some salts, instead of natron, and
water.

the decoction of hyssop.

And

if

by

these

either from being

means the patient be somewhat aroused,

moved by

having recovered from his

become good, or

if

the supervention of fevers, or


insensibility,

or

the

pulse has

the general appearance of the face has

become favourable, one may entertain good hopes, and apply


the remedies more boldly.

Wherefore, when the strength

may

confirmed, the purgative hiera


fasting,

and particularly

objection,

it is

to be given, to the

honeyed-water.
laid

do

a full dose.

And we

be given to the patient


But, if the strength be an

amount of

move him

are to

one-half, with

about, after having

him stretched on a couch; and those who carry him must

so gently,

ducing

he being allowed

lassitude.

the bowels,

we

And

to rest frequently, to avoid in-

if there

are to permit

be a copious evacuation from

it;

but

if not,

give water, or

honeyed-water, to the amount of two cupfuls, for drink.


if

nausea supervene upon the purging,

with

is

it;

for the exertions of the

we

And

are not to interfere

body have some tendency

to

396

THERAPEUTICS

resuscitate the patient,

and the vomiting of the

The medicine

the cause of the disease.

hiera

bile carries off


is

a purger of

Enough, indeed,

the senses, of the head, and of the nerves.

has been said respecting evacuation of every kind at the

commencement.

But having wrapped the whole of


are to soak

it

with some

(gleucinum), or old

oil,

mixed together; but

oil

the

we
musk

his person in wool,

Sicyonian,

of

oil

either each of these separately, or all

it is

best to melt into

as to bring it to the thickness of ointments

it

and

wax, so

little
it is

to be ren-

dered more powerful by adding some natron and pepper


are to be reduced to a powder,

and strained

these

in a sieve.

But

castor has great efficacy in cases of palsy, both in the form of

a liniment with

some of the fore-mentioned

more potent when taken

oils,

and

it is still

in a draught with honeyed- water, the

we have stated under lethargies;


we must consider the age and disposition

quantity being to the amount


but, at the same time,

of the patient, whether he be ready to take the drink for several

Inunctions are more powerful than

days.

fomentations, as

being more easily borne, and also more efficacious; for the

ointment does not run


this

is

until,

down

so as to stain the bed-clothes (for

disagreeable to the patient), and adheres to the

being melted by the heat thereof,

over, the persistence of their effects

applications run

off.

The

is

it is

drunk up.

beneficial,

body
More-

whereas liquid

ingredients of the ointments are

such as have been stated by me; but along with them castor,
the resin of the turpentine-tree, equal parts of euphorbinm, of
lemnestis,
half,

with

and of

pellitory; of pepper,

triple the

so as to bring

it

and of galbanum one-

amount of Egyptian natron; and of wax,

to a liquid consistence.

But a much more

complex mode of preparing these medicines has been described

by me on various

occasions,

and under a particular head.

Cataplasms are to be applied to the hardened and distended


parts; their ingredients are linseed, fenugreek, barley-meal, oil

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


which rue or

in

has been boiled, the root of mallows

dill

pounded and boiled in honeyed-water,

They should be

consistence of wax.

These things are

consistence.

remains free of fever, or

no regard need be had

But

if

397

I.

if

to

become of the

so as to

of a soft and agreeable

be done

if

the patient

still

the fever be slight, in which case

to the heat.

the fevers be of an acute nature, and the remaining

disease appear to be of

minor consequence, and

urgent danger, the diet and the

accommodated

them.

to

if these

induce

of the treatment must be

rest

Wherefore, the patients must use

food altogether light and of easy digestion; and now, most


especially, attention

ought to be paid

to the proper season for

eating, and, during the paroxysms, the

whole of the remedial

means must be reduced; and, altogether, we must attend to


the fevers.

But

if

the disease be protracted, and if the head be at fault,

we must apply the cupping-instrument


and abstract blood unsparingly;

for

back of the head,

to the

it is

more

efficacious

phlebotomy, and does not reduce the strength.

cupping
to

is

to be first applied

than

But, dry-

between the shoulders, in order

produce revulsion of the matters in the occiput.


Sometimes,

paralysed,

the

also,

which

is

parts

concerned in deglutition are

the sole help and safety of persons in

apoplexy, both for the swallowing of food and for the trans-

For not only

mission of medicines.

is

there danger of

want

of nourishment and hunger, but also of cough, difficulty of


breathing, and suffocation; for if one pour any liquid food
into the

mouth

it

coming together
glottis

as

occupying

passes into the trachea, neither the tonsils

for the protrusion of the food,


its

proper seat where

the cover of the

windpipe;

we

it is

nor the epi-

placed by nature,

must,

therefore,

pour

honeyed-water or the strained ptisan into a piece of bread resembling a long spoon, and passing
its

it

over the trachea, pour

contents into the stomach; for in this

way

deglutition

is

THEKAPEUTICS

398
still

But

accomplished.

if

the patient be in the extremity of

danger, and the neck with the respiration

we

compressed,

is

must rub the neck and chin with heating things and foment.

They

effect nothing,

and are unskilful

who

in the art,

apply

the cupping-instrument to the throat, in order to dilate the


gullet; for distension, in

food,

is

not what

the purposes

is

order to procure the admission of

wanted, but contraction of the parts for

But the cupping-instrument

of deglutition.

distends further; and, if the patient wish to swallow,

vents

him by

its

expansion and revulsion, whereas

it

it is

pre-

neces-

sary to pass into a state of collapse, in order to accomplish the

contraction of deglutition; and in addition to these,

the trachea so as to endanger suffocation.

you

place

it

for muscles

of

And

on either side of the windpipe, does

and nerves, and tendons and

it stuffs

neither, if

any good

it

veins, are in front

it.

The bladder and

the loose portion of the rectum are some-

when

times paralysed, in regard to their expulsive powers,

bowels are constantly


bladder

is

swelled to a great

But sometimes they

size.

affected as to their retentive powers, for the discharges

away

as if

from dead

the

with the excrements, and the

filled

are

run

In this case one must not boldly

parts.

use the instrument, the catheter, for there

is

danger of in-

ducing violent pain of the bladder, and of occasioning a convulsion in the patient.

amount
the

It is better to

of strained ptisan;

fasces, it will

sole hope,

and

if the

inject with

no great

bowel be evacuated of

be proper to inject castor with

But the

oil.

both of general and partial attacks of paralysis,

consists in the sitz bath of

oil.

The manner

described under the chronic diseases.

of

it

will

be

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

CHAPTER

399

I.

V.

CURE OF THE PAROXYSM OF EPILEPTICS.

Even

the

fall

first

in epilepsy

attack in an acute form

The

one day.
therefore,

is

paroxysms are

periodical

the disease

if

sometimes proved

for it has

dangerous,

also

fatal in

dangerous; and,

on these accounts, epilepsy has been described among

But

the acute diseases.


to the illness,

and the

the patient has become habituated

if

disease has taken a firm hold of him,

it

has become not only chronic, but, in certain cases, perpetual;


for if it pass the

prime of

life, it

clings to

him

in old age

and

in death.

Such remedies, then,


as

must be done

the greater

as are applicable in the chronic state

among the

will be described

for a

chronic diseases; but such things

sudden attack of the

namely, venesection,

clysters, anointings, the

ment; these means being the most powerful


arousing.

But

I will

an attack of the

owing

now

falling sickness.

to dyspepsia, or

other humour,

is

is

iris,

for the purpose of

In children, then, to

from excessive

beneficial.

cold, the

whom,

disease is

phlegm, or of any

Feathers, then, dipped in the

excite vomiting;

and the unguentum irinum

not inapplicable for smearing the tonsils with.

first laid

apoplectics,

cupping instru-

describe the peculiar remedies for

familiar, vomiting, either of food, or of

ointment of

disease, of these

number have been described under

the child on his belly (this

is

But having

the easiest position for

vomiting), we must press gently on his lower belly.

But

if

the lower jaw be convulsed or distorted, or if the hands and


legs be tossed about,

and

if

the whole face be fixed, the limbs

are to be soothed by gentle rubbing with

oil,

and the

dis-

tortions of the countenance rectified; the straight parts are to

be gently bound, so that they

may

not become distorted.

The

THEKAPEUTICS

400

cold parts are to be fomented with unscoured wool, or with

The anus

old rags.

the

oil

is

to

be rubbed with honey along with

of rue, or with natron and liquid resin along with these

things; and they are to be gently pushed within the anus, for

they expel
if

flatus,

and children pass

we may

they can swallow,

cardamom, one
are to be

part;

of copper, one siliqua.

drunk with honeyed-water;


This

for either

a very excellent linctus

is

Of

These things

up along with the matter annoying the stomach,


are opened.

But

flatus in this disease.

give them of this medicine:

it

is

vomited

or the bowels

Of cardamom, of

mustard, and of the hair of hyssop equal parts; of the root of


iris,

the

one part, with a double quantity of natron; of pepper, to

amount of

one-third.

Having mixed up

all

these things

together, and having separated the jaw, pour into the mouth,

and even beyond the


lowed.

tonsils, so that

These things are proper

persons the

may be

and

for

swal-

young

But the more powerful

same are applicable.

emetics are to be taken:

the things

for infants,

the bulbous root of narcissus; of

mustard and of hyssop, equal parts; of copper and pepper,


one-half the proportion of the former things.

mixed with honey and given.

They

are to be

These things are proper, in

order to rouse from the paroxysm;

but those calculated to

produce the resolution of the disease will be described under


the chronic diseases.

CHAPTEK

VI.

THE CURE OF TETANUS.


Now, indeed, a soft,
warm bed is required

comfortable, smooth, commodious, and


;

and distended by the

for the nerves

disease;

and

become unyielding, hard,


also the skin, being

dry

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


and rough,
scarcely

is

stretched

wink the eyes


;

and the

401

I.

eye-lids, formerly so mobile,

and turned inwards

are fixed

and

wise the joints are contracted, not yielding to extension.


the house also be in a tepid condition; but, if in the

can

like-

Let

summer

season, not to the extent of inducing sweats or faintness; for

the disease has a tendency to syncope.


hesitate in
is

having recourse

We

must

also

not

to the other great remedies; for it

not a time for procrastination.

Whether, then, the tetanus

has come on from refrigeration, without any manifest cause,

wound, or from abortion in a woman, we

or whether from a

must open the vein

at the elbow, taking especial care

respect to the binding of the arm, that


as to the incision, that

ditious

manner,

and

coldness.

And

abstinence

be rather loose

with
;

and

be performed in a gentle and expe-

as these things

a moderate quantity at

total

it

it

first,

provoke spasms; and take away

yet not so as to induce fainting

the patient must not be kept in a state of

from food, for famine

is

frigid

and

arid.

Wherefore we must administer thick honeyed-water without

and strained ptisan with honey.

dilution,

not .press upon the

tonsils, so as to

over, they are soft to the gullet,

laxative of the belly,

the strength.

soaked in

oil

fleabane, or
to

For these things do

occasion pain; and, more-

and are

easily swallowed, are

and very much calculated

But the whole body

is

to be

to support

wrapped in wool

of must or of saffron, in which either rosemary,

wormwood

has been boiled.

All the articles are

be possessed of heating properties, and hot to the touch.

We

must rub with a liniment composed of lemnestis, eu-

phorbium, natron, and


castor

is

to be added.

pellitory,

and

The tendons

to these a

also are to

in wool, and the parts about the ears

good deal of

be well wrapped

and chin rubbed with

liniments; for these parts, in particular, suffer dreadfully, and


are affected with tension.

used

for

Warm

fomentations, also, are to be

the tendons and bladder, these being applied in bags

containing toasted millet, or in

D D

the bladders of cattle half

;;

THERAPEUTICS

402
filled

warm

with,

fomented

parts.

may

so that they

oil,

on the

lay broad

Necessity sometimes compels us to foment

the head, a practice not agreeable to the senses, but good for
the nerves;

for,

by

raising vapours,

mode

it

fills

the senses with

It is proper, then, to use

fume, but relaxes the nervous parts.

of fomentation the safest possible, and materials not of

a very heavy smell

and the materials should

devoid of smell, boiled

a double vessel, 1

in

consist

of

oil

and applied in

bladders; or of fine salts in a bag: for millet and linseed are


pleasant indeed to the touch, but gaseous, and of an offensive

The

smell.

patient having been laid on his back, the fomen-

tations are to be spread

below the tendons,

as far a6 the vertex

but we must not advance further to the bregma, for

common
means

seat of all sensation,

the starting-point.

it is

cataplasms to the tendons,


for if placed higher,

it

But

it

is

the

all

remedial and noxious

if it

be necessary to apply

must be done below the occiput;

they will

the linseed and fenugreek.

and of

the head with the steam of

fill

After the cataplasms,

it is

a good

thing to apply the cupping-instrument to the occiput on both


sides of the spine;

but one must be sparing in the use of heat,

for the pressure of the lips of the

and
and

excites contractions.
softly, rather

part in which

up without

instrument

is

thus painful,

better, then, to suck slowly

than suddenly in a short time; for thus the

you wish

pain.

It

is

Your

to

make

the incision will be swelled

rule in regard to the proper

of blood must be the strength.

amount

These are the remedies of

tetanus without wounds.

But

if

the spasm be connected with a wound,

A double

vessel was a smaller


which heat was applied
by placing it in a larger. It was
called balneum marice by the al1

vessel, to

chemists.

mention of

It is frequently

in the

made

works of the

it is

danger-

ancient writers on pharmacy. See,


in particular, Galen, sec. loc. vii. 2

De

Sanit.

viii.

tuend iv. 8

Dioscorid. ii. 95

Meth. Med.
;

Oribasius

Meth. Med. viii. 6, and the learned


note of Daremberg.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


and

ous,

little

however,

is

We

be hoped.

to

403

I.

must try

to

some persons have been saved even

for

we must

In addition to the other remedies,

wounds with the

remedy

it,

in such cases.
also treat the

by me,
by fomentations, cataplasms, and such other medicines as excite
calefacient things formerly described

much

gentle heat, and will create


sores are dry.

pus:

for in tetanus the

Let the application consist of the manna of

frankincense, and of the hair of poley,

and of the

resins of

turpentine and pine-trees, and of the root of marsh-mallow and

of rue, and of the herb fleabane.

These things are to be

mixed up with the cataplasms, melting some of them, sprinkling the others upon them, and levigating others beforehand
with

oil;

but the mallow, having been pounded,

We

beforehand in honeyed-water.

on the

castor

no

ulcer, for

little

is

to be boiled

are to sprinkle, also,

warmth

is

thereby

some

commu-

nicated to the whole body, because the rigors proceeding from

Rub

the sores are of a bad kind.

along with

oil

of saffron

the nostrils with castor

but also give

it

form of a draught, to the amount of three

stomach

But

all

castor, or of

these things are to be

if there

from Cyrene, wrap

it,

to swallow.

to the

amount of a

It is best

tare, in boiled

honey,

given in this way, as

it slips

it is

But

if it

it is

it

must be given

the most powerful of

all

swallowed, which are naturally

the medicines given to be

would remind the profes-

sional reader, that

which has a bad

cannot be swallowed thus,

dissolved in honeyed-water; for

and occasions

acrid,

disagreeable eructations, being a substance

the

myrrh the half of the sildrunk with honeyed- water.

unperceived through the palate; for

smell.

if

be a good supply of the juice of the silphium


2

and give

But

reject this, give intermediately of the root of silphium

an equal dose to the

phium

frequently, in the
oboli.

the Cyrenaic

silphium was a superior kind of


assa-fcetida, which at one time

D D

grew copiously in the region of


Cyrene.

See Paulus iEgineta, Syd.

Soc. Edit.,

t. iii.

337.

THERAPEUTICS

404

warming,

and can relax distensions and soothe the

diluent,

But

nerves.

if

into the anus with the oil of castor

anointed with

we must

they can swallow nothing,


;

With

or honey.

oil

the fundament, along with

is

we must

this, also,

But

or honey.

oil

inject

and thus the anus

to

it

be

anoint

they will

if

we must make an injection of some castor with


With this, also, we are to anoint the fundament,

drink nothing,
the

oil.

along with
use

it

wax

honey; and

fat or

also

foment the bladder; and

an ointment, having melted

as

it

with a sufficiency of

But if

to bring it to the proper consistence.

for evacuating flatulence

and

we

fasces,

it

be the time

are to inject

two drams

of the purgative hiera along with honeyed- water and

along with the expulsion of these,


for hiera is

oil,

warms the lower

it

since,

belly;

both a compound and heating medicine.

CHAPTER

VII.

THE CURE OF QUINSEY.

There
heat,

are

The one

two forms of quinsey.

and great inflammation of the

wardly; moreover, the tongue, uvula, and


are raised
parts,

up into

other

all

is

the parts there,

a collapse of these

In

it,

then,

we must

it

suffoca-

inflammation appears to be determined to the

then, particularly,

our remedies, for


If,

The

attended with

and compression inwardly, with greater sense of

tion, so that the

heart.

a swelling.

is

and swelling out-

tonsils,

it

we must make

quickly proves

proceed from taking too

inject the bowels

with two clysters

haste to apply

fatal.

much

food and wine,

on the day of the attack, and .that

the one a

common

clyster, so as to

bring off

the feculent matters; and the other for the purpose of pro-

ducing revulsion of the humours from the

tonsils

and

chest.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

405

I.

and the

but not undiluted

It will therefore be,

decoctions of centaury and hyssop; for these medicines also

And

bring off phlegm.


diet,

we open

if

the patient has been on a restricted

may

than usual, that the blood

heat most speedily,

is

is

sufficient to

no bad

It is

so as that

some from the shock have died

faint altogether, for

or binding

of the fainting

above the ankles and knees.

It

is

them with

ligatures

a very good thing, like-

wise, to apply ligatures to the forearms above the wrists,

above the forearms to the arms.

And

if deglutition

are to give elaterium with honeyed-water,

milk, as

much

as will

these cases, elaterium

and

practice, likewise,

and yet not

to bring the patient almost to fainting,

he should

mitigate the

able to relieve the strangulation,

the bad symptoms.

all

a larger incision

flow with impetuosity and in

large quantity; for such a flow

reduce

make

the vein at the elbow, and

and

be easy, we

and the whey of


In

be sufficient to purge the patient.


is

preferable to all other cathartics: but

cneoros and mustard are also suitable, for both these purge the
bowels.

If the inflammations do not yield to these means,

having bent the tongue back to the roof of the mouth,

open the veins in


piously,

it

it

and

if

proves more effectual than

all

applications to the inflamed parts, at

nature, so as to dispel the

we

the blood flow freely and co-

Liquid

other means.

of an astringent

first

morbid matters

unwashed wool,

then, with hyssop, moistened in wine, and the ointment from

the unripe olive. But the cataplasms are similar to the liquid applications,

dates soaked in wine, and levigated with rose-leaves.

But

in order that the cataplasm

and

soft, let flour

or linseed,

produce the admixture of


to a suppuration,
in the other

we

all

rendered glutinous

and honey and


the ingredients.

oil

be added, to

But

if it

turn

are to use hot things, such as those used

form of synanche.

and manna and

may be

Let fenugreek be the powder,

resin the substances

the hair of poley be sprinkled on

which are melted


it,

and

let

and a hot fomentation

THERAPEUTICS

406

be made with sponges of the decoction of the

And

and of hyssop.

sifted in a sieve, is

when

sprinkled

the powdered

most

bay

fruit of the

dung of pigeons or of dogs,

efficacious in

on the cataplasm.

producing suppuration,

As

gargles,

honeyed-

water, with the decoction of dried lentil, or of hyssop, or of


roses, or

of dates, or of

whole mouth,

all

together.

We

are also to smear the

as far as the internal fauces, either

with Simples,

such as the juice of mulberries, or the water of pounded pomegranates, or the decoction of dates; or with
rations, such as that

Compound

from mulberries, or that from

prepa-

besasa, 1 or

that from the juice of pomegranates, and that from swallows.

But

and

the ulcers proceed from eschars, these gargles,

if

washes

for the

mouth, the decoction of hyssop

water, or of fat figs in water, and along with

in

honeyed-

them starch

dis-

solved in honeyed- water, or the juice of ptisan, or of tragus


(spelt ?).

But
to

in the species of

make

synanche attended with collapse, we are

a general determination from within outwardly, of the

fluids, of the

swell out.

warmth, and of all the

flesh, so that

with rue and

dill,

natron being sprinkled upon them

with them the cataplasms formerly mentioned.


also to apply a cerate

for heat

may

the whole

Let the liquid applications then be of a hot nature,

with natron and mustard

It is a

for

and along

good thing

inducing heat;

determined outwardly is the cure of such complaints and


;

thus swelling takes place in the neck, and an external swelling


rescues from peripneumonia; but in cases of synanche, the evil

when inwardly is

of a fatal nature. But those who, in order to

guard against suffocation in quinsey, make an incision in the


trachea for the breathing, do not appear to

me

to

have proved

the practicability of the thing by actual experiment; for the


heat of the inflammation

is

increased

by the wound, and thus

contributes to the suffocation and cough.

And, moreover,

by any means they should escape the danger, the


1

The wild

rue, or

Peganum harmala.

lips

if

of the

See Dioscorides, iii. 46.

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK.
wound do not

coalesce; for they are both cartilaginous,

not of a nature to unite. 2

407

I.

CHAPTER

and
*

VIII.

cure of the affections about the columella (or


uvula).

Of

which form about the

the affections

to be treated

by excision; but the

come within the design of

cases does not

are to be treated as acute affections; for

prove

fatal

by

suffocation

which we

eases

call

some require

columella,

surgical treatment of such


this

work.

Some

some of them readily

and dyspnoea.

These are the

dis-

uva and columella', for both are attended

with inflammation and increase in thickness and length, so


that the parts

The columna
mity

hang down, and come

in the palate

at the palate

is

the uva

of unequal thickness
its

extremity

whence

lividity,

it

for its base

it is

rounded

gets the appel-

These, then, must be speedily relieved; for the

death from suffocation


If,

is

slender, whereas at

and thick, with redness and


lation of uva.

into the arteria aspera.

of equal thickness from the base to the extre-

is

is

very speedy.

then, the patients be young,

we must open

the vein at the

elbow, and evacuate copiously by a larger incision than usual;


2
On the Ancient History of
Laryngotomy, see Paulus ^Egineta,

t. ii.,

pp. 301

303,

Syd. Soc. Edit.

would avail myself of the present

the Sixth Book of Paulus iEgineta,


lately published in

Rene Brian.
it is

As

Paris

by Dr.

regards the text,

everything that could be de-

opportunity of bringing into the


notice of my learned readers the

sired;

very accurate and elegant edition of

rect.

and the translation which

accompanies

it

is

generally cor-

THEEAPEUTICS

408

for such an abstraction frees

from strangulation.

It is necessary, also, to inject

drawn from the

until one has


let ligatures

parts above

wrists

the suffocation be urgent,

the occiput and

instrument to
fications,

and

with a mild

by revulsion; and

also use the

and forearms

to the arms.

we must apply

to the thorax,

a cupping-

with some

do everything described by

also

synanche; for the

must

were,

be applied to the extremities above the ankles

and knees, and above the


if

it

but afterwards with an acrid one, again and again,

clyster,

But

one from suffocation, as

mode

of death

same medicines

is

scari-

me under

We

the same in both.

to the

mouth, both

astrin-

gents and emollients, with fomentation of the external parts,

For the forms named

cataplasms, and liniments to the mouth.


columella

and uva,

as

an astringent medicine take the juice of

pomegranate, acacia dissolved in honey or water, hypocistis,

Samian, Lemnian, or Sinopic earth, and the inspissated juice


of sour grapes.

But

if

the diseased part be ulcerated,

and starch moistened in the decoction of roses or of


the juice of ptisan or of spelt (tragus)
there be

But

and cyperus;

and

in columella let

more of the stronger medicines, from myrrh,


2

gum

dates,

costus, 1

for the columella endures these acrid substances.

But should the

part suppurate, in certain cases even the bones

of the palate have become diseased, and the patients have


died, wasted

by a protracted consumption.

The remedies of

these will be described elsewhere.


1

Auklandia Costus L. See Paulus

iEgineta,

t. iii.

p. 190.

* Cyperus
rotundus L.
Paulus iEgineta, t. iii. p. 204.

See

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

CHAPTER

409

I.

IX.

CURE OF THE PESTILENTIAL AFFECTIONS ABOUT THE


PHARYNX.
In some

respects, the treatment of these

is

the same as that of the

other affections in the tonsils, and in some peculiar.

mation and suffocation, the remedies are

In inflam-

clysters, venesection,

liquid applications, cataplasms, fomentation, ligatures, cupping;

and

all

these are applicable here. But, anointing with

medicines

is

form on the

But

surface.

if a sanies

from them run inwardly,

the parts, even if before in a healthy


ulcerated,
It

fatal.

but

state,

very soon become

and very soon the ulcers spread inwardly, and prove


might be

beneficial to

burn the

medicines resembling

affection

and

stop the spreading

fire to

with

fire,

But we must use

unsuitable owing to the isthmus.

it is

more potent

proper; for the ulcers do not stop, nor do eschars

also for

the falling off of the eschars: these are alum, gall, the flowers

of the wild pomegranate, either in a dried

honeyed-water.

by means of

is

the same medicines

a reed, or quill, or a thick

the medicines
cines

And

may

touch the

or with

be blown in

and long tube,

The

sores.

state

may

so that

best of these medi-

calcined chalcitis, 1 with cadmia 2 triturated in vinegar.

Let there be a double proportion of the cadmia, and of the


root of rhubarb, with some fluid.

guard against their pressure,


spread farther.
state

much

with a

We

quill.

It is necessary,

and

must, therefore, sprinkle them in a dry

But the

liquid

diluted, are to be injected

medicines, having been

upon the columella.

the eschars be already loosened, and the ulcers


1
Native Sulphate of Copper.
See Paulus iEgineta, t. iii. pp. 401,

402.

however, to

for the ulcers thus get moist

Calamine.

neta,

t. iii.

But

become

if

red,

See Paulus JSgi-

p. 150.

THERAPEUTICS

410

there

then most danger of convulsion; for generally the

is

ulcers

and thereby tonic contractions of the

are dried up,

nerves are induced.

It is necessary

by means of milk, with

starch,

then to soften and moisten

and the juice of

tragus, or linseed, or the seed of fenugreek.

uvula has been eaten

also the

palate

and the

off

by

bone of the

epiglottis;

patient could

sore, the

anything solid nor liquid

In certain cases
the

to

and

tonsils to their base

consequence of the

him

down

ptisan, or of

and

in

neither swallow

but the drink regurgitating has cut

starvation.

CHAPTER

X.

CURE OF PLEURISY.
In

cases of Pleurisy there

for putting off the great

is

no time

remedy.

for procrastination,

For the

fever, being

acute, hastens to a fatal termination; the pain also

succingens hurries on to the worse; and


agitate the chest

But

if it

we must by

of the

moreover coughs which

and head exhaust the powers.

then, on the selfsame day

nor

very

all

Wherefore

means open

a vein.

be in connection with repletion of food and drink,

having kept the patient fasting

for

one day,

we

are to abstract

blood from the vein in the hollow of the elbow, in a line

with the opposite


great

distance)

for there

is

side, (for

it is

better to take

it

from a very

but not to the extent of deliquium animi,

danger of Peripneumonia supervening

if the

body,

being congealed, should leave the soul; for the fluids rush in-

ward when deprived of their external heat and tension. For the
Lungs are of loose texture, hot, and possessed of strong powers
of attraction; the lungs also are the neighbours of the

ribs,

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


and

in

their associates

ease

is

and

suffering;

not readily recovered from

this succession of dis-

whereas in Pleuritis from

Peripneumonia, recovery readily takes place,


being milder.

It

411

I.

this

combination

necessary, therefore, after a moderate

is

flow of blood, to recruit the patient for a time, and afterwards


abstract again; if matters

go on

well, the

the remission belong; but

if not,

on the day following.

there

is

prevails

no remission of the fever

and increases

for

same day, provided

after

when

having anointed the patient

or the

tion

is

also to

decoction of

dill.

be applied to the

also food

freely,

is

having

with the heating ointment of

also applied to the side soft oil

rue,

if

one day), we are to abstract blood

the third day during the second remission,


to be given

But

(for generally the fever

very soothing fomenta-

In certain

side.

and inflammation are determined outwardly,


appear an affection of the parts there

but

cases, the

so as to

it is

pain

make

it

merely an ex-

acerbation of the internal symptoms.

Let us

now

treat of regimen, in

the system of treatment, there

food will consist the


food."

In kind, then,

it

is

to

consistent, detergent, solvent,

to

its

is to

order that, respecting

be no mistake.

medicines, but also

and attenuating phlegm.


ptisan

may

the

all

" For in

medicines in

be hot and humid, smooth and

having the power of dissolving

Of

all

kinds of food, therefore,

be preferred; at the commencement, then, strained

juice, so that the solid part of

made with honey


for seasoning

and variety be absent

is sufficient).

able to dissolve

it

may

be separated; and

only; and let the usual articles added to

It will

and

be calculated

clear

(for
to

now

it

the juice alone

moisten and warm, and

away phlegm,

to

evacuate upwards

without pain such matters as should be brought up, and also


readily evacuate
is

the bowels downwards.

agreeable and adapted to deglutition.

For

its

Moreover,

lubricity
its

glu-

tinous quality soothes heat, purges the membranes, concocts

coughs, and softens

all

the parts.

These are the virtues of

THERAPEUTICS

412

The next

barley.

place to

it

is

possessed of

some of the good

regard to

glutinous quality,

its

ateness for deglutition,

They

respects inferior.

The

alone.

tragus also

inasmuch

these,

it

is

qualities of

made

excellent.

more

it

broken into

fluid.

But

But

if

through a

up

his

administered in a soft

state,

and well boiled.

much

draught becomes

badness, and with

drunk up by the

and

sufficient nourish-

food, the ptisan of barley

however, not to boil


the

dry bread,

and

Dill

oil

to be

is

and

which

is

salts

thin,

without viscidity, without asperity;

quality,

thus

for

is

is

gently warmed,

sieve,

are to be the condiments of the ptisan,

better,

rather than of

the disease have already progressed, and the

patient have given

without

worse than

rice is

sides,

well concocted, which with honeyed- water

ment.

honey

plain, -with

very excellent thing

pieces, passed

appropri-

its

property of drying, roughening,

as it has the

and of stopping the purgation of the

making

and

lubricity,

its

For in

ptisan.

equal to the other, but in other

are to be
is

chondrus, 1 being

held by

much

boiling

And

juice.

bitter almonds,

is

let

of the
fatty,

oil

it

is

with the ptisan

and the

oil

loses

its

no longer perceptible, being

leek with

its

capillary leaves,

be boiled with the juice of ptisan;

for the

draught thus promotes perspiration, and becomes medicinal,

and the leeks eaten out of the juice are

Now

delicious.

but

if

also is the season for

to give new-laid eggs

the

Spelt, Triticum spelta, deprived

of its husks

and broken down into

granules. See Paul. iEgin.

t. i.

p.123,

The tragus

. N.

is

more humid than

(called tragutn

xviii. 10)

was a

by

culi-

fire,

all

to

and

nary preparation frym Spelt, and


would seem to have been much
the same as the chondrus.
Galen,

Syd. Soc. Edit.


2

them

But the best thing of

which have never been subjected

the heat of the hen

fire; for

Pliny,

and very

the expectoration be fluid and copious, sprinkle on

some native sulphur and natron.


is

beneficial

using wholesome eggs;

Comment, in

lib.

victus in morb. acut.

See

de ratione

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


more congenial
to

But

pour

into

oil

proceeding from one animal

phlegm be glutinous and viscid,


the eggs, and sprinkle some of the dried resin

another.

of pine

to the patient, as

413

I.

so that

the

if

the sulphur

may

be more powerful; melting

also

with them some of the resin of turpentine; pepper also

and

all

cognate substances are beneficial in eggs, and in

kinds of food;

the extremities

of animals

down

melted

all

in

soups, pigeons, boiled hens; the brains of swine roasted with

the cawl, but without

it

they are not savoury.

If the patient

has no rale,

we must

or rock

the best which the country produces.

fish,

may

the patient
appetite, nor
tified

give him

fish

not transgress

become wasted by

with some

fruit;

from the depth of the

owing

regimen,

in

he

a spare diet,

And

is

to

sea,

that

to

his

be gra-

such as apples boiled in water,

or

honeyed- water, or stewed in suet (but we must take off the


skin and rough parts within along with the seeds,)
season

we may

give some

autumn

other kind of

fumigated

which

in

side.

dill

which

with

Foment

manna

thuris. 3

containing

liquid,

it

wherefore
3

to diet.

and moistened with


is

to be laid

oil

on the

But

are to

if

boiled with honeyed-

melilot

some of the fleshy part of the

and sprinkling on

it

the meal of the

the expectoration be more fluid and

mix the

flour of

mustard, and sprinkle natron on


prolonged,

not only not hurtful but

of food, apply cataplasms, in addition to the

in a boiled state,

we

and in

the side constantly with these, and, before the

ingredients

copious,

is

sulphur

water, and mixing therewith

poppy

must give likewise of an

and rue have been boiled,

administration
usual

fruit

We

So much with regard

also beneficial.

Wool

figs.

it.

darnel,

But

or

if the

of hedge
disease

be

the pain having become fixed, and the purging


is

to

be apprehended that pus

mix with

See Paul. iEgin.

t. iii.

cataplasms

the

p. 241.

Probably the Cachrys libanotis.


M. iii. 78 and
See Dioscorides,
4

is

about to form;

mustard and cachrys ; 4

appendix to Dunbar's Greek Lexicon under

THERAPEUTICS

414

and

the patients have a feeling as if the internal parts were

if

cold,

some vinegar may be poured into

The heat of

it.

cataplasms should be of a strong kind, that


longer; for this

last

better than having the heat kept

is

the

the

up by

Let the fomentations consist of

renewal of the cataplasms.

and millet in bags, or of warm

salts

may

it

in bladders.

oil

Every

apparatus used for fomentation should be light, so that the

may

weight

And,

in addition to

time of cupping; but


this

These things moreover are

not add to the pain.

to be used also after the food,

if

the pain be urgent.

now

these means,
it

is

should be the

also

best after the seventh day: before

you should not be urgent with

it,

for the diseases are not

of a favourable character which require cupping before the


seventh day.

Let the instrument be large, broad every way,

and

to

sufficient

comprehend the place which

is

pained; for

the pain does not penetaate inwardly, but spreads in width.

There should be plenty of heat below the cupping-instrument,

warm

so as not only to attract, but also to

of the

And

fire.

more than
dria for

if

after the extinction,

much

to abstract as

having

scarified,

blood as the strength will permit;

you had

any other

before the extinction

to take

cause.

we are
much

away blood from the hypochonFor the

benefit from cupping

is

most marked in cases of Pleurisy.

But

be sprinkled on the

pungent and painful prac-

tice indeed,

scarifications, a

robust in body,
as to

come

But we must estimate the

but yet a healthful one.

powers and habits of the patient.

we must

sprinkle

natron are to

salts or

For

if

strong in

some of the

into immediate contact with the

salts,

mind and

not indeed so

wounds themselves,

but they are to be sprinkled on a piece of linen-cloth damped

with

oil,

and

it is

to be spread over the place; for the brine

which runs from the melting of the


the

salts

by

its

themselves.

salts is less

stimulant than

We must also pour in much of the oil, that

soothing properties

it

the acrimony of the other.

may obtund the pain occasioned by


On the second day it will be a very

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
good rule

to apply the

thin sanies
is

may be

much more

cupping-instrument again, so

abstracted from the wounds.

for

it is

nutriment of the body, but sanies that runs

made
day we

are to do after having

On

strength.

the third

we

not blood, the

This then

off.

are to apply cerate with the

But

if

the sputa

some

are to melt into the cerates

a fomentation.
it

to the

mix

to

is

have

form of the cupping-instru-

should either be an earthen vessel, light, and adapted

and capacious;

to the side,
to

With regard

require

still

resin, or

some native sulphur therewith, and again the part


ment,

and much

a previous estimate of the

ointments of privet and of rue.


purging,

as that a

This, indeed,

effectual than the previous cupping,

less calculated to impair the strength

you

415

I.

comprehend the

place below

it

or,

of bronze,

much

fire

along with

alive for a considerable time.

the

flat at

with pain; and

parts affected

oil,

so that

it

lips, so as

we are to
may keep

But we must not apply the

lips

close to the skin, but allow access to the air, so that the heat

may

not be extinguished.

And we

long while, for the heat within

must allow
indeed,

it,

is

it

a very

to

burn a

good

fo-

mentation, and a good provocative of perspirations.

And we must

not overlook purging downwards, in

injecting oil of rue into the gut, and, in

womb. And

let

But

if it is

of the

honey

men

also into the

something be constantly drunk and swallowed


honeyed-water, with rue and juice of ptisan,

for this purpose,


if there is a

women,

constant cough, as being a medicine in the food.

not the season of administering food,

compound

to a proper consistence.

let it

be one

such as butter boiled with

preparations,

Of

this,

round

balls the size

of a bean are to be given to hold under the tongue, moving

them about hither and


swallowed

entire,

thither,

poppies with honey and melilot

is

that they

so

of soothing and hypnotic properties.

when

not be

also

from

agreeable, being possessed

before the administration of food, after

the patient

may

The medicine

but melted there.

This
it,

and

is

to

be given

after sleep.

To

fasting, the following medicinal substances are

THERAPEUTICS

416

to be given: of nettle, of linseed, of starch,

and of pine

fruit in

powder, of each, a cupful (cyathus), and of bitter almonds twentyfive in

number, and

many

as

These things

seeds of pepper.

being toasted and triturated with honey, are to be mixed up


into a linctus; of these the dose

But

if

one spoonful (cochleare).

is

he expectorate thin and unconcocted

drams of myrrh, one of

and

saffron,

matters,

pepper to

fifteen grains of

be mixed with one pound of honey.

two

This medicine should be

given also before the administration of food to the amount of


half a

spoonful.

oxymel likewise

It
is

Such physicians

to
as

is

good

be given

in

also
if

chronic

have given cold water

to pleuritics, I

cannot comprehend upon what principle they did


I

when

cases,

the dyspnoea be urgent.

approve the practice from experience; for

so,

nor can

if certain patients

have escaped the danger from having taken cold water, these

would appear

But by the

to

me

not to have been pleuritic cases

being a secretion

pleuritis,

attended with

But sometimes

in the side, creates thirst

heat; and

this

of bile with pain of the side,

either slight fever or

affection, indeed, got the


reality.

at all.

older physicians, a sort of congestion was called

name

no fever

of pleurisy, but

at

This

all.

it is

not so in

a spirit (or wind, pneuma) collecting

and a bad

sort of pain,

ignorant persons have

called

and gentle

pleurisy.

In

them, then, cold water might prove a remedy through the

good luck of the person using


been extinguished, and the

bile

for the thirst

it;

may have

and wind expelled downwards,

while the pain and heat have been dissipated.

But

in in-

flammation of the side and swelling of the succingeus, not only


cold water but also cold respiration
If,

then,

owing

is

bad.

to the treatment formerly

described

sons affected with pleurisy survive the attack, but have


short cough, and

now and

then are seized with heat,

perstill

we must

hasten to dissipate these symptoms; for the residue of the


disease either produces a relapse, or

puration.

it is

converted into a sup-

OF

ARET^US, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

THERAPEUTICS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

II.

CONTENTS.
The
The
The
The
The
The

Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure
Cure

op Peripneumonia

...

....
....
.....

of the Bringing: up op Blood.

CHAP.
I.

II.

op Cardiacs

III.

op Cholera

IV.

op Ileus

......

V.

op the Acute Affections about the

Liver

....

The Cure of the Acute Disease of the Dorsal


Vein and Artery
The Cure of the Acute Disease about the
Kidneys

......

VI.

VII.

VIII.

The Cure of the Acute Affections about the


Bladder

The Cure of the Hysterical Convulsion


The Cure op Satyriasis
.

IX.

X.

XL

OF

ARE J\EUS, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


r

ON THE

THERAPEUTICS OF ACUTE DISEASES

BOOK

II.

CHAPTER

I.

THE CURE OF PERIPNEUMONIA.


Inflammation and

swelling of the lungs, and along with them

a sense of suffocation, which does not long endure, constitute a

very acute and


fore,

The remedies opposed

fatal ailment.

to

ought to be of equal power and speedily applied.

to open instantly the veins at the elbow,

on the right and on the

left side,

it,

there-

We are

and both together,

rather than abstract blood

revulsion of the

humours may

take place from either side of the lungs: but

we must not

from one larger

carry

it

orifice, so that

to the extent of deliquium animi for the deliquium co-

But when even

operates with the suffocation.

has been obtained,

more afterwards;

we must

for,

the venesection carries


or

if

a small respite

suppress the flow and abstraet

the exciting causes be from blood,

them away; and

if

phlegm, or

froth,

any other of the humours be the agent, the evacuations of the

ee

THEKAPEUTICS

420

veins widen the compass of the lungs for the passage of the
breath.

We must

expel the fluids and flatus downwards, by anoint-

ing the anus after the venesection with natron, honey, rue,

and the liquid


section,

from turpentine.

resin

Instead of the vene-

provided there be a greater impediment,

give a clyster of acrid juice, namely, of

salts,

we must

in addition to

the natron, and turpentine resin with the honey;


boiled in the

and hyssop boiled

oil,

and rue
and the

in the water;

fleshy parts of the wild cucumber, boiled with

water,

are

very excellent.

Dry-cupping applied to the back, the shoulder, and the


hypochondria,

bruise the skin about the bones,


for if the

the
in

spirit

And

altogether beneficial.

is

fleshy, so that the cupping-instrument

humours be

it is

attracted from

may

if

the chest be

not by

its

pressure

to be also applied there;


all

and

parts of the body,

(pneuma) be determined outwardly, in those cases

which the lungs

are, as it were,

from the mischief;

for

choked, there will be respite

peripneumonia

to be attacked

is

in

every possible way.


But, likewise, neither are
cines

we

any of the medi-

to neglect

which prove useful when swallowed by the mouth,

for

the lungs attract fluids whether they be in health or diseased.

We

must, therefore, give such medicines as attenuate the

promote their perspiration, and such

fluids so

as

lubricate

and render them adapted

speedy

relief,

to

then, natron

is

for

expectoration.

with

sprinkle on each
also these things,

honeyed- water;

powder along with honey.

iris

if

is

to be feared lest they

become

But

be given in a

the patients get no sleep

during the day, and remain sleepless also during


it

confidently

and pepper.

sifted, are to

But

or mustard

may

and we

some of the root of


having been

For

be drunk with the decoction

to

of hyssop, or brine with vinegar and honey;

moistened

as will

delirious,

all

the night,

and there will be

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

421

II.

need of various soporific medicines unless the disease give


these medi-

way, so that the seasonable administration of


cines

may

soporific.

lull

But

suffocation, or

the suffering, for these

things

you give a medicine

at the

if

when death

is

at

are

usually

acme of the

may be blamed

hand, you

for

the patient's death by the vulgar.

The

food also must be suitable, acrid, light, solvent of thick

matters, detergent
nettle,

of pot-herbs, the leek, or the cress, or the

or the cabbage boiled in vinegar;

of austere things

(frumentacea?) the juice of ptisan, taking also of marjoram,


or of hyssop,
salts.

Also

and of pepper, and more natron instead of the

spelt in grains well boiled

the course of the boiling, they should

with honeyed- water in


:

all

be deprived of their

flatulence, for flatulent things are hurtful to persons in peri-

If they are free from fever,

pneumonia.
for drink,

but not such as

is

possessed of

for astringency condenses bodies;

rather to be relaxed.

On

the sputa.

drenching
tract

is

We

wine

must

much

salts.

be given

astringency,

also

promote the expulsion of

the whole the drink should be scanty, for

prejudicial to the lungs, because the lungs at-

from the stomach and

belly.

best ointment

is

oil,

cerate; and,

on the whole, we

are to determine outwardly the fluids, the heat,

And

anointings, and

smelling to acrid things


ligatures

natron, and

that prepared of the lemnestis,

and dried mustard with liquid


(pneuma).

to

but in these the parts are

Let the chest be covered up in wool, with

The

is

is

of the extremities.

and the

spirit

beneficial,

When

things are done, if the disease do not yield, the patient


a hopeless condition.

also

these
is

in

THERAPEUTICS

422

CHAPTER

II.

CURE OF THE BRINGING UP OF BLOOD.

All

the forms of the bringing

character, not only as to

up of blood

and whether

rupture, erosion, or even rarefaction;

from the

are of an unmild

mode, whether the flow proceed from

chest, the lungs, the stomach, or the liver,

it

come

which are

the most dangerous cases; but also from the head, although

For the flow

occasions less mischief.

the food of

is

all parts,

the heat of

It is dreadful to see it

all parts.

any way; but bad indeed


viscus,

and

worse

still

if it

if

all parts,

and the colour of

flowing from the mouth in

it

proceed from an important

proceed from rupture and erosion.


should

It is necessary, therefore, that the physician

the more haste in bringing assistance to this affection


the

place, the patient

first

must get coldish

not be shaken

should be

solid,

(for all

shaking

fixed, so that

he

the bed

stimulant);

is

make

and, in

air to breathe, a

chamber on the ground, and a couch firmly

may

it

of blood; and blood

is

not very yielding, nor deep, nor heated; his

position erect; rest from speaking

and hearing;

tranquillity of

mind, cheerfulness, since depression of spirits especially accompanies these cases; for

who

is

there that does not dread death

when vomiting blood ?


If,

therefore, the patient be full of blood,

veins, in every

ther

it

form of rejection we must open a vein; whe-

proceed from rupture, or erosion, venesection

suitable;

and even,

if

from rarefaction, there

the fulness of blood burst forth. 1

hollow vein

and
1

it is

It is

and have large

at the

elbow

And we

is

very

is

danger,

lest

are to open the

(for the blood flows readily

from

it,

easily opened, and the orifice can be safely kept open


to be understood that

by rarefaction our author means

exhalation

that

is to say,

action of the exhalants.

increased

OF ACUTE DISEASES BOOK


In a word, then, in

for several days).

the vital organs,

tliis is

423

II.

the diseases of

all

all

For the one

the outlet of the blood.

higher up and this are both branches of the humeral, so that


the one above can have no

They

mesal.

more remedial power than the

who have

are ignorant of these divisions

nected the upper vein with the stomach and

But

liver.

conif

the

flow proceed from the spleen, they direct us to open the vein
of the

left

hand, which runs between the

one next the middle


in the spleen; but

for certain physicians

it is

Why,

the elbow.

little

held

then, should

the blood flows readily from


stop before

coming

and the

to terminate

it

a branch of the vein below those at

we

rather open the vein at the

fingers than the one at the elbow ? for there

much

finger

it.

it

is

larger,

we

Altogether, then,

Yet

to deliquium animi.

and

are to

neither, also,

blood to be abstracted; for the hemorrhage

is

itself is cal-

culated to enfeeble the patient; but, after abstracting a small


quantity, repeat the bleeding the same day, the next,

day following.

But

plied with blood,

if

and the

the patient be thin, and scantily sup-

we must not open

So much

a vein.

re-

specting the abstraction of blood.

We

are also to assist

Above

by means of ligatures

to the extremities.

the feet to the ankles and knees, and above the hands

and arms, a broad band

to the wrists

constriction

maybe

regions, also, from

strong,

is

to be used, so that the

and yet not produce pain.

which the blood

flows,

we

washed wool from the sheep; but moisten


such as austere wine, and the

But

if

oils

To

the

are to apply unit

with a liquid,

of roses and of myrtles.

the hemorrhage be of an urgent nature, instead of the

wool we are to use sponges, and vinegar instead of the wine,

and

let

dust

upon the sponges some of the dry

the part be anointed with myrtle

oil;

and we are to

inspissated juices, such

as that of acacia, or of hypocistis, or else of aloes.

of the unripe grape, dissolved in vinegar,


cellent thing.

But

if the liquid application

is

also a

The

juice

very ex-

be troublesome or

THERAPEUTICS

424
disagreeable,

we

are to use plasters; for these stretch the skin

around, and press

it,

as

were, with the hand, and they are

it

possessed of very strong powers as astringents and desiccants.

In addition to these, there are very


efficacy

but the best are those

many

others of tried

which contain vinegar, and the

expressed juice of ivy leaves, and asphaltos, and verdigris,

alum, frankincense, myrrh, calcined copper, the squama

seris,

and such of the plasters as resemble these; or unscoured wool,


or sponges

damped

But

in a small quantity of vinegar.

patients cannot bear the distension of the plasters,

make

these things into an epitheme

austere wine, are

on

it

fat dates,

damped

pounded into a cake; then we are

acacia in a soft state,

these things having been

all

if

the

are to

in dark

to sprinkle

and the rinds of pomegranate;

rubbed upon a rag, are applied to

Barley-meal, moistened in wine or vinegar, or the

the chest.

fine flour of the dried lentil, sifted in a sieve,

with cerate or rose ointment,

mix some

we

is

to

be applied

of the root of the comfrey

and made up

we

are also to

Another: Boil

sifted.

the roots of the wild prunes in vinegar, and having pounded


into a cake,

mix

little of

sumach, and of gum, and of myrtle.

These are to be mixed with one another

differently, according

as the strength of the medicines, mildness, or smell thereof is

wanted.

For we must

also gratify the sick.

These are the

external remedies.

But a more important part of the treatment

lies

in things

drunk and swallowed, since these remedies come nearest the


injured parts.

Of

these there are three distinct kinds: either

they are calculated by the contraction or compression of the


vessels to

bind the passages of the flux; or to incrassate and

coagulate the fluid, so that

it

sages were in a state to convey


retaining the blood in

its

may
it

not flow, even


or to dry

is.

if the pas-

outlets,

pristine state, so that the parts

not thus remain emptied by the flux, but

where the effusion

up the

For rarefaction of the

may

by

may

regurgitate

veins, astringency

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


is sufficient, for

when

runs through the pores like a fluid

it

And

poured into a water-cask newly wetted.


division of vessels stypticity
traction of the lips;

is

hemorrhage be that from

in the

also

the remedy, by producing con-

we must

but for this purpose

But

more powerful medicines.

greater and

425

II.

erosion,

and

if

if

use the

the form of

the lips of the ulcer

do not coalesce by the action of the astringents, but the wound


gapes, and cannot be brought together

by compression, we must

produce congelation of the blood, and

also of the heat; for the

flow

To

is

stopped by the immobility and coagulation of these.

the rare parts, then, oxy crate

astriction

for the fluid

is

and even of

from small

orifices;

necessity of

much being

cases, the

is

is

astringent nature, and if not


at all

when drunk,

the oxycrate,

let

has by

by pharmaceutical preparation,

be such as by time has become acrid and

it

But

astringent.

So, likewise, the

sufficient.

Let the vinegar be from wines of an

sufficient.

events let

no

given, or frequently; and in certain

external treatment

proved

producing

this medicine, there is

decoction of dates and of edible carobs,


itself

for

sufficient

not pure blood, but the sanies thereof

in dilatations of the wounds, in addition to

there be given the simple medicines at

first,

such as the juice of plantain, of knot-grass, or of endive; of


each an equal part with the oxycrate. But
sprinkle on

it

on three cupfuls of the oxycrate.


grape

is

sprinkle

But

very excellent.

on

it

and the sea

triturated gall,

The

juice, also, of the wild

and

the oxycrate alone; or,

some of the

To
root,

dried.

more powerful than these

is

if

over

But the

to cool, to dry,

But

more powerful things

it is

used with

are required,

the juices of endive with plantain

namely, three oboli of

cyathi of the fluid.

But

this,

and the dried root of the bramble,

to astringe; in short, for every purpose.

remedy.

flow increase,

if the ailment prevail

stone, the coral, triturated

root of rhubarb

as a

if the

one dram of the dried hypocistis, or of acacia,

in erosions,

it

we add

to three or four

we must produce

astrin-

THERAPEUTICS

426

gency even
flows,

and

in

it,

so as to induce coagulation of the blood that

also for the sake of the containing vessels, so that

the veins which have sustained a large

But the medicines which

mouths.

are

wound may

shut their

drunk should be strong,

and capable of inducing coagulation.

Wherefore, give the

juice of coriander with vinegar, and the rennet of a hare, or

of a hind, or of a kid, but not in great quantity (for certain of


these have proved fatal in a large dose); but of the juice of

the coriander give not less than half a cyathus to three of the

For

oxycrate, and of the rennet three oboli, or at most four.

such modes of the flow, the Samian earth

very excellent, and

is

the very white Aster, and the Eretrian, and the Sinopic, and the

Lemnian

seal

of these, at

one dram weight, and

least,

some of the decoctions,

three, with

carobs, or of the roots of brambles.

as of dates, or

But

of the windpipe, and cough along with


these things on Cretic rob.

most excellent thing


with

its

If,

there be roughness

it,

we must

sprinkle
is

for lubricating the windpipe; for along


it

also possesses that of aggluti-

must

therefore, the flow of blood be not urgent, it

be given once a day, before the administration of food


it

most

Starch, dissolved in these,

power of lubricating,

nating.

if

at

of edible

but

be urgent, also a second and third time in the evening.

if

And

from the medicines are to be made draughts of the dried substances with honey, boiled to the proper consistence; galls pul-

verised

and a very good thing

also grape-stones,

by

itself,

and the

or all together.

to be kept

fruit

is

sumach

for the condiments,

of the sharp dock, either each

These things, moreover, are good

below the tongue during the whole time of melting;

but likewise

common gum with

tragacanth.

The compound medicines of

infinite;

the plant, (?) and the


tried

and various are the usages of trochisks

gum

efficacy

are

of that from

Egyptian thorn, of another from amber, and another named


from

saffron,

separately.

of which the composition has been described

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
In the absence of fevers, everything

is

427

II.

to be attempted in

regard to medicines, giving them copiously and frequently.

But

if

come on

fever

and

most frequently fever takes place,

along with inflammations of the wounds

we

must not stop

the flow suddenly, nor give medicines during the paroxysms,

many die sooner of


The articles of food

for

the fevers than of the flow of blood.


are various in kind like the medicines,
;"

but also "the medicines are in the food


easy to find

nor even

if a solitary

one only be used,


but

we must

would

for neither

it

be

the good properties of food in any one article,

all

as

thing were sufficient for the cure, should

one would thus readily produce satiety;

grant variety

the disease should prove pro-

if

Let the food, then, be astringent and refrigerant in

longed.

properties, as also to the touch, for heat encourages bleeding.

Washed

added

rice

alica;

oxycrate;

to

excite coughing, the decoction of dates;

down

has been dried and pounded


things a draught

these

all

seasoned with
if

salts,

is

and sumach

but

to

is it

to the taste; for in these cases

things.

But

you must
let

if

it is

let

coriander be

agreeable, or any of the

hemorrhage be urgent, but

spare the juice, for neither

sifted.

Lentil, then, with the juice of

diffusible seeds.

plantain, if the

and

to be

added, for this purpose, whenever

and

vinegar

Of
made with oil; savory
be sprinkled upon it. And
to meal,

you wish to gratify the patient's palate,

diuretic

if the

baked bread which

if not,

we

should

of easy digestion, nor pleasant

we must

not give indigestible

you apprehend death from the hemorrhage,


what is unpalatable and indigestible nay,

also give

even harsh things be given

if

they will preserve

wherefore, let galls, dried and pulverised, be sprinkled


dry,

and cold

lentil:

of pomegranate or

the medicines.

eggs thick from boiling, with the seeds

galls, for

The drink

the food necessarily consists in

altogether should be scanty, since

liquids are incompatible with a dry diet.

per things, provided

life;

when

These are the pro-

wish to astringe and

cool.

But

if

THERAPEUTICS

428

you wish

and

also to thicken the blood

spirit

(pneuma), milk

along with starch and granulated spelt (chondrus), the milk

being sometimes given with the starch, and sometimes with


the chondrus; they should be boiled to such a consistence as
that

the

incrassate

draught

may

and astringe

But

not be liquid.
still

more,

you wish

if

with dates, and for the sake of giving consistence,


starch

and milk

and the Tuscan far

to

the chondrus be boiled

let

let

there be

a very excellent thing,

is

being thick, viscid, and glutinous when given along with the
milk; the rennet of the kid

is

added to the liquid

to be

decoctions for the sake of coagulation, so that with the milk,


it
is

attains the consistency of

new cheese

still

thicker than these

millet boiled with milk like the far, having gall

granate rind sprinkled on

it

as a

and pome-

powder. But we must look to

the proportions of the desiccants and incrassants, for

all

these

things provoke coughing, and in certain cases, from excess of


desiccant powers, they have burst the veins.

But

if

things

is stopped, we must gradually


change to the opposite plan of treatment, " and nothing in

turn out well, and the blood

excess," for these cases are apt to relapse, and are of a

We must
by means of

put flesh and

on the

character.

also strive to

patient

gestation, gentle frictions, exercise

foot, recreation, varied

wound adhere and

ulcer remain and


is

on

and suitable food.

These are the means to be used


the

fat

bad

if,

after the flow of blood,

the part heal properly.

But

if

the

become purulent, another plan of treatment

needed, for a discharge of different matters succeeds.

however, will be treated of among the chronic

diseases.

This,

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

CHAPTER

429

II.

III.

THE CURE OP CARDIAC AFFECTIONS.


In Syncope,

necessary that the physician should exercise

it is

fore-knowledge

for, if

you foresee

its

present co-operate strongly with you, 1

When

its arrival.

from

for

it,

when

on, patients do not readily escape

when

We

the circumstances stated by us

we have

before

it

the dissolution of

is

We

dissolved cannot be restored.

to prevent it then,

commencement.

at the

things

if

you may avert

have said that syncope

nature; and nature

must try

come

it is

approach, and

impending, or

still

if not,

must form our prognosis from

among

the acute diseases, where

described the cause and also the symptoms.

fever Causus, then,

the

is

commencement of the

The

attack,

and

with Causus the worst of symptoms, dryness, insomnolency,


heat of the viscera, as
the extremities, that

if

from

but the external parts cold

fire,

to say, the

is

hands and

very cold;

feet,

breathing slowly drawn; for the patients desiderate cold

because they expire

me among

the symptoms,

you

by

commencement.

Unless, then,

when everything

vein, and even if


especial

is

many symptoms

one require

black (for

it is

Allusion

is

pocrates Aph.
it is

stated

will immediately give assistance

against

age, the season, the timidity of the patient,

air,

pulse small, very dense, and trem-

Judging from these and the other things

bling.

at the

fire:

i.

it,

the habit, the

we must open

contra-indicate

here

made

but an

it,

such as the tongue rough, dry, and

indicative of all the internal parts).

to Hip'

In the Aphorism

"the attendants and exter-

nals " (tovs

it,

),

which our author condenses into

" things

present "

and this

why

is

And

in

no doubt the reason

in this instance the

neuter

plural is construed with a verb


plural.

See the text.

THERAPEUTICS

430
all

we must form an

cases

or not

estimate of the strength, whether

has failed owing to the pains of the disease and the

it

regimen; for the

of strength takes place, not only from

loss

deficiency, but also

from smothering; and

from redundancy, and

or of the liver strongly indicate, there

We

ferring the bleeding.

if

the syncope arise

inflammation of the hypochondria,

if

no necessity

is

for de-

are to open the hollow vein at the

elbow, and abstract the blood by a small

may

orifice, that it

not have a marked effect on the strength ; for sudden depletion


tries

than

the natural strength: and


if

from any other cause

man

take readily sends a

we must

much

take away

for in syncope,

less

even a slight mis-

We

to the regions below.

must,

immediately give food for the restoration of the

therefore,

strength; for Nature delights in the removal of the old, and

new

in the supply of

But

if

present,

things.

the strength reject venesection, and inflammations be

we must apply

the cupping-instrument to the seat

thereof a considerable time previous to the

crisis

of the dis-

ease; for the crisis takes place at the critical periods; since at

the same periods Nature brings on a favourable


diseases prove fatal.

And

if

a state as to require wine,


in inflammations

mation

is

for,

the patient should


it

is

it is

come

and

to such

not very safe to take wine

wine to persons labouring under inflam-

an increase of the pains, but to those

flammation

crisis,

free

two before the cupping there

is

from in-

A day

an increase of the natural strength.

or

need of cataplasms, both in

order to produce relaxation of the parts and to procure a flow

of blood; and in certain cases, after the cupping,

apply a cataplasm on the next day.

moderation
of too

moving

much

for there

is

In

we

this, too, let

are to

there be

the same danger from the abstraction

blood by cupping.

Use

clysters only for re-

scybala which have long lodged in the bowels; but

spare the strength.

Cold lotions to the head, such

as

have been directed by

me

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
under Phrenitis, but somewhat more

is

everything

to

The

may be

delight of

The

regarded with pleasure.

part of the patient.

silence

conversa-

and cheerfulness on the

Smells fragrant, not calculated to prove

And

to the senses in the head.

possess a fragrant smell, such

also

air,

be studied as to plants, painting, waters, so that

tion of attendants cheerful;

heavy

Pure

liberally.

rather cooler than otherwise, for respiration.

the sight

431

II.

let

the articles of food

with

flour moistened

as

The mouth

water or vinegar; bread hot, and newly baked.


not to be very often rinsed with wine, nor

is it

to be altogether

rejected.

Drink

to be given

in other complaints.

more frequently and more copiously than

Food every

from grain, and that which

is

day, light, digestible, mostly

pleasant, even if

somewhat

less

suitable.

For, in these cases, rather than in any other, the

palate

to be gratified, since not unusually the

is

disease is

generated in the stomach, so as to occasion resolution thereof.

Abstinence or famine by no means


to

devour up

all.

if there

crisis,

But

for the disease

be a dew on the clavicle and forehead, the

extremities cold; the pulse very small


if creeping,

and

be strengthened by

effectually.

must take a

The head,

lotions, as also the bladder.

medies have been described by

me

to give wine, not copiously nor to

by unseasonable

and very frequent,

feeble in tone, the patient

and partake of wine

food,

sufficient

is

period be already come to a

if the

and drink; and

petite,

when

to

many

too, is

to

These

re-

We

are

under Phrenitis.

satiety, for certain patients

repletion have died of anorexia,

to eat

as

little

and

patients having a

inability

good ap-

the natural powers were dissolved, the abundant

supply of food was of no avail; the food descending, indeed,


into
cruit

the stomach, but not ascending from the belly


the

for the

strength.

Let the food, therefore, be

most part from grain,

so as

that

rather than masticated; or if solid, let

it

to

re-

diversified,

may be supped
be made easy to

it

THERAPEUTICS

432

Eggs, not quite consistent nor roasted whole, but

swallow.

deprived of their solid portion

soaked in wine, at

two or three pieces of bread

hot; but, after these, everything cold,

first

The wine

unless there be latent inflammations.


grant,

is to

and not very astringent; but by no means

be

fra-

Of

thick.

the Greek wines, the Chian or Lesbian, and such other of the
insular wines as are thin; of the Italian,

the Surrentine, or

Fundan, or Falernian, or Signine, unless

be very astringent;

but of these
It is to be

we must

given

reject such as are very old or very

amount of not

at first hot, to the

four cyathi, before the

crisis,

we

are again to give

it

But

cold as if for a

but this from necessity, and not by


food.

We

brain;

and

wish to

must

after this, abstain.

sleep, quiet is to

come

the breast lose

its

hope of

we

But

are to give as

For those who are

Wine,

life.

if after

be enforced.

past,

thirst

but along with the

wine do not

to a stop, the voice

heat,

patient can drink.

And

if

after these things,

remedy of the

itself,

also take care that the

flow, the pulse

than

less

symptoms of inflammation be

the

if

young.

nor more than a hemina even

the patient be accustomed to drink.

having given food,

it

affect the

an interval, he
if

much

become

much wine

cold,

wine

sweat

sharp,

is

and

as the

the only

accustomed

therefore, if the patient be

sometimes to be taken in drink, and sometimes food

to

it, is

is

to be eaten

with the wine,

after

an interval,

as a respite

from the fatigue induced by the disease and the food, for

when
by the

the strength

is

small, they

act of taking food.

are

much

fatigued,

Wherefore the patient must be

stout-hearted and courageous,

and the physician must en-

courage him with words to be of good cheer, and


diversified food

The

even

assist

with

and drink.

other treatment

restraining the sweats,

is

and

also to

be applied energetically for

for resuscitating the spark of

life.

Let, therefore, an epitheme be applied to the chest on the


left

mamma,

dates

triturated in

wine along with

aloes

and

OF ACUTE DISEASES.-BOOK

and

mastich,

let these

composed of nard. 2

may

things be mixed up with a cerate

And

this

if

become disagreeable, we

made by taking

apply another epitheme,

whatever

433

II.

the seed, and

hard out of the apples, and having bruised them

is

down, mix up with some fragrant meal; then we are


together some of the hair of
acacia,

and of the manna of frankincense,

rubbed up together, are

all

But

wormwood, and of

wild grape

is

gum, and the

to

cool air,

all sifted

which being

to the cerate of wild vine.

be added to the mixture, and

oil

acacia,

and alum, and

edible part of sumach,

and the scented juice of

this at the

be added

and

dates,

All these things along with

roses.

of wild vine are to be applied to the chest; for

same time cools and

is

Let him

astringent.

and in a house having a northern exposure

upon him, "

cool breeze of Boreas breathe

The

soul sadly gasping for breath."

and

And, moreover,
But

incentive to eat and to drink.

enough

if

it

is

the

for

warm
an

also

from want one

to possess these things,

imitation of the cool breeze,

in

the

if

prospect should be to-

sweet exhalations from them, and the delightful view,


the soul and refresh nature.

lie

will refresh his

it

wards meadows, fountains, and babbling streams,

fortunate

mix

sweat be not thereby restrained, the juice of the

if the

nard and

to

to

myrtle, and of

not

is

we must make an

by fanning with the branches of

by strewing
at hand.
The

fragrant boughs, and, if the season of spring,

the ground with such leaves and flowers as are

coverlet should be light and old, so as to admit the air,

and

permit the exhalation of the heat of the chest; the best kind

an old linen sheet.

is

We

are to sprinkle the neck, the region

of the clavicle and chest with flour, so that


its

fragrance, and restrain

by

its

dryness

it

may

nourish by

and the spongy parts

of the body are to be dusted with meal, but the face with
the Samian earth, which

No

is

to be passed

through a sieve; and

doubt the Indian nard, namely, Patrinia Jatamatisi, Don.

F F

THERAPEUTICS

434

having been bound into a spongy

cloth, it is to

the part, so that the finer particles


pores

to

may

through the

pass

And

forehead and cheeks.

the

be dusted on

slaked lime and

roasted gypsum, sifted in a small sieve, are to be applied to

A sponge

the moist parts.

out of cold water applied to the


the sweats, by occasioning con-

face has sometimes stopped

gelation of the running fluids, and

The anus

pores.

is

may

from the cold and food


recall

the heat of the

onian

oil,

along with

melting into them a

And we

stick.

by condensation of the

to be anointed, so that the flatus arising

pepper,

castor,

or Sicy-

natron, and

cachry, 4

wax, so that the liniment may

are to resuscitate the heat by

means of the

ointment of lemnestis, and of euphorbium, and of the


the bay.

the powdered lees of vinegar,

but

it

is

every hour, for there

From

fruit

of

small red onions raw, along with pepper, and

The

to the feet;

are to

by gleucinum,

extremities

little

And we

be discharged.

make an

excellent cataplasm

to be constantly raised
is

these things there

from the place

danger of ulceration and


is

blisters.

hope that the patient may thus

escape.

And

if

the physician should do everything properly, and

if

everything turn out well, along with the syncope the inflammations that supervene are resolved; and sweat, indeed,

nowhere, but a restoration of the heat everywhere, even at

is

the extremities of the feet and

the nose;

but the face

is

of a good colour; pulse enlarged in magnitude, not tremulous,


the same

strong; voice
respect lively.
is also

if

must.
p. 596.

customary, loud, and in every

Lassitude not out of place, but the patient

seen sleeping:

and, if sleep seize him, he digests his

food, recovers his senses,

and

as

and sprouts out into

roused from sleep, the breathing

fragrant

oil

prepared from

See Paulus iEgineta,

t. iii.

The

notis,

L.

is free,

fruit of the

new
he

nature;
is

light

Cachrys liba-

See Dioscorides,

iii.

79.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


and vigorous; and here

calls to his

memory

435

II.

the circumstances

of the disease like a dream.

But

in other cases obscure fevers are left behind,

times slight inflammations, and a dry tongue

have
is

rigors, are enfeebled,

a conversion to

gestation,

life

may be

and

male child;

diet,

woman who

so that the

if

milk of an

ass

which has had a

cannot be obtained,

it

particularly thin; 4

embers of

are to give milk, espe-

has just borne a child, and that a

Or

is

We

for such persons require nursing like

children.

milk

cases there

but have recourse to motions,

and baths,

to friction

roused and mended.

cially that of a

they are parched,

and relaxed, in which

marasmus; when we must not waste time

witb rest and a slender

by

and some-

foal not

we must

new-born
give the

long before, for such

and by these means the patient

is

to

be brought back to convalescence and his accustomed habits.

CHAPTER

IV.

CURE OF CHOLERA.
In Cholera, the suppression of the discharges
they are undigested matters.

mit them to go on,

if

We must,

is

bad thing,

for

therefore, readily per-

spontaneous, or if not, promote them by

giving some tepid water to swallow, frequently indeed, but in


small quantity, so that there

excited in the stomach.


coldness of the feet,

we

may

But

if

be no spasmodic retchings
there also be tormina and

are to rub the

abdomen with hot

boiled with rue and cumin, to dispel the flatulence; and


are to apply wool.

And, having anointed the

The author appears to refer


common way of trying
the specific gravity of milk, by
*

to

the

FF

feet,

oil,

we

they are to

pouring a small quantity on the


See Paulus JSgineta, i. 3,

naiL

Syd.Soc. Ed.

THEEAPEUTICS

436

be gently rubbed, stroking them rather than pinching them.

And

and the same

restoration of the heat;

the

up

these things are to be done

downwards, and the

pass

faeces

the knees for the

to
is

be practised until

to

bilious

matters ascend

upwards.

But

if all

the remains of the food have been discharged

downwards, and

be evacuated, and

if bile

bilious vomiting, retchings,

we must

strength,

there

if

be

still

and nausea, uneasiness and

loss

of

give two or three cupfuls (cyathi) of cold

water, as an astringent of the belly, to stop the reflux, and in

order to cool the burning stomach

and

this

done when what even has been drunk

warm

water, indeed, readily gets

the stomach rejects

but

it

it,

annoyed

if

the pulse also

fall to

ingly rapid and hurried,

and region of the

The

vomited.

is

in the stomach,

as

restrained,

if

it is

cold

and then

both by hot and cold:

is

may

by

the

tributed

its

senses

to

its

spirit,

upwards over the system,

the habit, and

We

it

is

when poured

and astringent, that


and

contribute to

swiftly dis-

is

so as to restrain the reflux;

into the frame

strengthens

it

strong so as to restrain the

But

if

it

the

to the restoration

For wine

are also to sprinkle on the

and fragrant meal.

all

not

cold water a small

the

bouquet,

its

is

vomits, with retchings and

nutritious powers.

subtil, so that

powers.

still

fragrant

strength of the stomach by

of the body by

and become exceed-

state,

run in large drops from

we must add

quantity of wine, which


refresh

low

and the discharge from the bowels

and the stomach

deliquium animi,

there be sweat about the forehead

clavicles, if it

parts of the body,

is

to be repeatedly

constantly desiderates cold drink.

But,

and

is

the bad

dissolving

body some

fresh

symptoms become urgent,

with sweating, and strainings, not only of the stomach, but


also of the nerves,

and

if

there be hiccups

and

if

contracted, if there be copious discharges from

and

if

the patient

the feet are


the bowels,

become dark-coloured, and the pulse

is

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK.
coming

we must

to a stop,

forehand; but

if it

try to anticipate this condition be-

be come on,

we must

give

and wine, not indeed wine slightly diluted,


tion,

437

II.

much

cold water

for fear of intoxica-

and of hurting the nerves, and along with food, namely,

pieces of bread soaked in

it.

We

are likewise to give of other

kinds of food, such as have been described by

me under

syn-

cope, autumnal fruit of an astringent nature, services, medlars,


quinces, or the grape.

But

if

everything be vomited, and the stomach can contain

we must

nothing,

return again to hot drink and food, for in

change stops the complaint; the hot thin

certain cases the

moreover, must be intensely

we

avail,

But

so.

are to apply the cupping-instrument between the

shoulder-blades, and turn

it

below the umbilicus;

it

we

are

it is

remains on a place, and exposes to the risk of

blister-

The motion

ing.

-but

painful

to shift the cupping-instrument constantly, for

when

/?,

if none of these things

of gestation

is

beneficial

by

its

ventilation,

so as to recreate the spirit (jmeuma), stay the food in the

make

bowels, and

But

if

these

the patient's respiration and pulse natural.

symptoms

increase,

we must apply epithemes

over the stomach and chest; and these are to be similar to


those for syncope

mixed up with

dates

soaked in wine, acacia, hypocistis,

rose cerate, and spread

and

upon

a linen cloth, are

we

to

be applied over the stomach;

to

apply mastich, aloe, the pulverised hair of wormwood,

to the

chest

are

with the cerate of nard, or of wild vine, as a cataplasm to the

whole chest; but

if

the feet and muscles be spasmodically dis-

tended, rub into them Sicyonian


a

little

wax

feet also

and

also

oil,

that of must, or old oil with

add in powder some

taining lemnestis and euphorbium,


rectify

castor.

And

if

the

be cold, we are to rub them with the ointment con-

wrap them in wool, and

by rubbing with the hands.

The

spine

also,

the

tendons, and muscles of the jaws are to be anointed with the

same.

THERAPEUTICS

438
If,

by

therefore,

these

means the sweat and discharges from

the bowels are stopped, and the stomach receives the food

without vomiting

it

again, the pulse becomes large and strong,

and the straining ceases

if

the heat prevails everywhere, and

reaches the extremities, and sleep concocts

second or third day the patient

But

to his usual course of living.


if the

sweat flow incessant,

livid, if his pulse


it

if

matters, on the

all

to be bathed,

is

if

and remitted

he vomit up everything,

the patient become cold and

be almost stopped and his strength exhausted,

make

will be well in these circumstances to try to

one's

escape with credit.

CHAPTER
CURE
In

Ileus

it

is

pain that

ILEUS.
along with inflammation of the

kills,

bowels, or straining and swelling.

gusting form of death


illness, fear

For

V.

others,

most acute and most

when

nothing except their impending death

in ileus, from excess of pain

earnestly

dis-

in a hopeless state of
;

but those

death.

desire

The

physician, therefore, must neither be inferior to the affection,

nor more dilatory; but,

open a vein

which
and
is

it

is

at the

if

he find inflammation to be the cause,

elbow by a large

orifice,

so that blood,

may

flow copiously;

the pabulum of the inflammation,

may be

carried the length of deliquium animi, for this

commencement of an escape from

either the

torpor ending in insensibility.


for a short space,

even from

loss

For

of sensibility, will prove an

interval from

pain;

pains, to die

happiness, but to impart

is

since,

also,

pain, or of a

in ileus a breathing-time

to

persons

the respectable physician; but at times

it is
it

is

enduring these
not permitted to
permitted,

when


OF ACUTE DISEASES.-BOOK

lull

symptoms cannot be escaped from,

that present

lie foresees

439

II.

to

the patient asleep with narcotics and anaesthetics.

But

if

the ileus arise without inflammation, from corruption

of the food or intense cold,

we

are to abstain from bleeding,

but at the same time to do

all

the other things, and procure

vomiting frequently by water, and drinking plenty of


then, again,

pulsion

we

downwards, by stimulant medicines.

of the flatus

Such a stimulant

Cumin and

salts.

rub in together

is

the juice of sow-bread, and natron, or

Wherefore we must

rue are carminatives.

all

oil;

and produce the ex-

are to procure vomiting,

these things with turpentine resin,

and

foment with sponges; or we must inject with these things and


oil,

honey, hyssop, and the decoction of the fleshy parts of the

wild cucumber.

And

matter be evacuated,

if feculent

we

are again to inject hot oil with rue; for, if this remain in-

wardly,

it

proves a grateful fomentation to the bowels: and

apply to the suffering parts lotions composed of

been strongly boiled with rue and


also

is

to

vessels, or

And

dill.

oil

which has

the fomentation

be applied, either by means of earthen or brazen


with millet and roasted

may

ordinary cataplasms, one

In addition to the

salts.

be made of the flour of darnel

and cumin, and the hair of hyssop and of marjoram.

Cup-

ping, without the abstraction of blood, indeed, but frequently


applied, sometimes to one place,

and

to the epigastric region,

and behind
spine; for
all

means.

to the ischiatic

it is

and sometimes to another

to the loins as far as the groins,

region as far as the kidneys and

expedient to produce revulsion of the pain by

They should

also get whetters

(propomata

of the

decoction of cumin, or of rue, and of sison f or along with


these
1

some of the anodyne medicines.

See Bekker's Charicles,

and Paulus iEgineta,


2

t. iii.

p.

248

p. 546.

The Sison amomum, Stone


German amomum. See

parsley, or

Of these

. M.

Dioscorid.

Simpl. vii.
t.iii.

p. 339.

there are very

iii.

57

Galen, de

and Paulus iEgineta,

THERAPEUTICS

440

many

The medicine from vipers is also a


amount than usual. But if

of tried efficacy.

good one, when drunk

to a larger

neither the pain remit, nor the flatulence nor faeces pass,

must necessarily give of the purgative hiera;


medicine

is

rejected with

phlegm and

we

for either the

bile, or it passes

down-

wards, bringing off flatus, scybala, phlegm, and bile, which


occasion the intensity of the

Laxative food: soups of

evil.

hens, of shell-fish; the juice of ptisan boiled with

poured in at

before the boiling; boil along with

first

nation, leek with

snails

Water

that of limpet.

Or the cure

its hair.

some laxative soup

is

much
to

boiled,

is

to be

much

oil

cumin,

it

made with

and their gravy, or

be taken for drink,

if there

be

For these

fever, boiled with asarabacca, or nard, or cachry.

things dispel flatus, are diuretic, and promote free breathing.

But

if

he be

free

from pain, wine

also

is

beneficial

for the

heat of the intestines, and for the restoration of the strength

and likewise the decoction of

fennel-root, in a draught,

and

maiden-hair and cinnamon.

But

if

the inflammation turn to an abscess,

it

is

better to

contribute thereto by using the medicine for abscesses.

have been described under chronic

ment of cholics

is

diseases,

where the

These
treat-

described.

CHAPTER

VI.

CURE OF THE ACUTE AFFECTIONS ABOUT THE LIVER.

The

formation of the blood

distribution of
is,

it

is

in the liver,

over the whole system.

as it were, a concretion of blood.

And

and hence the


the entire liver

Wherefore the inflam-

mations there are most acute; for nutrition

is

seated in this

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK


place.

therefore, inflammation form

If,

remarkably acute;

for it

but in the liver there


another quarter.
liver

For

anywhere

is

an influx of blood that

is

no necessity

for its

becomes inflamed by being deprived of


still

is

inflamed;

coming from
outlets, the

its efflux,

since

continues patent;

no other passage of the food but

is

not

else, it is

any obstruction shut the

if

the entrance of the food to the liver


for there

441

II.

this

from the

stomach and intestines to the whole body.


It is necessary, therefore, to

opening the veins

make

at the elbow,

quently, but not in large quantity at a time.

from food

at first,

may be

also,

by external applications

devoid of

Total abstinence

customary ingesta.

its

It is necessary,

to dispel the matters

impacted in

Lotions, therefore, with aloe or natron are proper,

and unwashed wool

to

is

is

hot.

The

There

be applied.

cooling means, because the liver

the blood

fre-

but restricted diet afterwards, so that the

liver

the liver.

by

a copious evacuation,

and taking away blood

is

is

need, then, of

inflamed by the blood ; for

cataplasms, also, should be of such a

nature, consisting of the meal of darnel, or of hedge-mustard,

or of barley, or of linseed;

and of liquid substances, such

as

acid wine, the juice of apples, of the tendrils of the vine, or of

the leaves of the vine in season, or of the

oil

prepared with

Fomentations are to be applied on sponges, of the decoc-

it.

tion of the fruit of bays, of the lentisk, of penny-royal, and of


iris.

"When you have soothed by

these means,

you must apply a

cupping-instrument, unusually large, so as to comprehend the

whole hypochondriac region, and make deeper


usual, that

you may

attract

cases, leeches are better

much

animal sinks deeper, and

the animals

fall

incisions than

And,

in certain

than scarifications; for the bite of the


it

makes larger

flow of blood from these animals

when

blood.

is

off quite full,

holes,

and hence the

difficult to stop.

And

we may apply the cup-

ping-instrument, which then attracts the matters within.

And

THERAPEUTICS

442

there be sufficient evacuation,

if

the wounds;

we

are to apply styptics to

but these not of a stimulant nature, such

manna

spiders' webs, the

as

of frankincense, and aloe, which are to

be sprinkled in powder on the part; or bread boiled with rue


or melilot, and the roots of marsh-mallow; but on the third,

made with nut-ben, or the hairy leaves of wormwood and iris. The malagmata should be such as are calculated to attenuate, rarify, or prove diuretic.
Of these the
best is that " from seeds" (diaspermaton) well known to all
day a

cerate,

physicians from experience.

That

also is a

good one of which

marjoram and melilot are ingredients.

The food should be


qualities,

and which

light, digestible, possessed of diuretic

will quickly pass

such as granulated seeds of spelt

and
of

draught of these

ptisan, also, is

seeds of carrot,

(alica

with

detergent; and if

you

make

will

by the passages which


this is the

articles

it

1
)

salts

you

more

through the bowels;


with honeyed-water,

and

The

dill.

juice

add some of the

will

diuretic

for

it

evacuates

lead from the liver to the kidneys;

most suitable outlet

for matters

and

passing out from

the liver, owing to the wideness of the vessels and the straightness of the passage.

We

must

by cupping,

also attract thither

applying the instrument to the region of the kidneys in the


loins.

To

these parts, lotions are also to be applied, prepared

By

with rue, the juncus, or calamus aromaticus.


it is

to

be hoped that the patient

But when

it

is

may

these means,

escape death.

we must use the


me under
formed, how the collection is
will be explained by me in

turning to a suppuration,

suppurative medicines which will be described by


the head of

colics.

to be opened, and

another place.

But

how

if

pus

is

treated,

The same

observations apply to the spleen, in

the event of an inflammation seizing this part


1

See, in particular, Dr.

berg's

elaborate

Daremon

dissertation

the

p. 559.

also.

ap.

Oribasium,

t. i.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

CHAPTER

443

II.

VII.

CURE OF THE ACUTE DISEASE OF THE DORSAL VEIN


AND ARTERY.

The

inflammation of the vena cava and large artery, which

extend along the spine, was called a species of Causus by


those of former times.

For in these

similar: febrile heat acute

restlessness;

palpitating

and

cases the affections are

acrid, loathing of food, thirst,

pulsation

the hypochondriac

in

region and in the back, and the other symptoms described by

me under

Moreover, the febrile heat tends to syn-

this head.

cope, as in cases of causus.

by the
artery.

roots of the veins,

You may

For, indeed, the liver

and the heart

suppose, then, that the upper portions of

these viscera are subject to fatal ailments; for

which imparts heat

formed

is

the original of the

is

to the artery,

and the

liver

it is

the heart

which conveys

blood to the vein; and being both mighty parts, the inflammations, likewise,

which spring from them are

Wherefore we are to open the veins


abstract a considerable

great.

amount of blood; not

ever, but at

two or three times, and on a

the strength

may

elbow, and

at the

once,

all at

how-

different day, so that

recruit during the interval.

Then we

are to

apply a cupping-instrument and cataplasms to the hypochondrium, where

is

the pulsation of the artery

and

the scapulas, for there, too, there are pulsations.


scarify unsparingly,

and abstract much

sort of evacuation the patients are

The

bowels,

also, are

lient clysters are to

not

also

between

We

blood; for

are to

from this

much prone to deliquium.

apt to be unusually confined, and emol-

be used to lubricate them, but not on any

account acrid ones; for they suffer an increase of fever from


brine and the melting of the natron.
linseed

The

juice, therefore, of

and of fenugreek, and the decoction of the roots of

THERAPEUTICS

444

The

mallows, are sufficient to rouse and stimulate the bowels.


extremities, namely, the feet

and hands, are to be warmed

with gleucinum, 1 or Sicyonian

oil,

lemnestis; for these parts of

or with the liniment from

them become very

we must

before the administration of food,

And

cold.

give draughts to

promote the urinary discharge, containing spignel, asarabacca,

and wormwood, to which some natron in powder


added.

But of

cinnamon, provided one has plenty of


is

both food and medicine

tion, a sort of fire

food,

In such cases, milk

it.

for they stand in

need of refrigera-

and of that a copious supply in small bulk.


article of food.

which has just had a

of the milk one of water


also

very good

be

to

being wrapped up within; and also of sweet

milk possesses as an
ass

is

such medicines the strongest are cassia and

all

foal is to
is

Such virtues

Plenty of the milk of an

be given, and to two cupfuls

That of the cow

to be added.

The

and, thirdly, that of a goat.

articles

is

of

food should be of easy digestion; for the most part juices,

such as that from the juice of the fennel

be added to

it,

and honey.

And

and

let parsley

the water which

is

seed

drunk

should contain these things.

But we must

also

promote sweats, and in every way make

the perspiration moist and


cases of causus.

An

such as in syncope.
that everything

free.

Lotions to the head, as in

epitheme to the chest and

To

may be

lie

in bed with the

alike as in causus.

left

mamma,

head elevated, so
Gestation to a

small extent, so as to provoke sweats; a bath, also, if he be

burned up within.
crises,

For these

affections

do not pass

off

by

even though they be forms of causus.

The ointment

or oil from must.

See Paulus iEgineta,

t.iii. p.

596.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

CHAPTER

445

II.

VIII.

CURE OF THE ACUTE DISEASE IN THE KIDNEYS.

Inflammation

in the kidneys

is

of an acute nature; for the

veins passing from the liver to the kidneys are inflamed at the

same time, and with these the

liver; for these veins

are not

very long, but are very broad, so as to give the kidneys the
appearance of being suspended near the

But suppres-

liver.

sion of urine takes place along with the inflammation, thereby

contributing

to

the intensity of the inflammation;

cavity of the kidneys

which

fails

to escape.

is

for the

by the overflow of the urine

filled

The same happens

also

with stones,

provided one larger than the breadth of the ureters be formed


in the kidneys:

through,

it

it

then becomes seated there, and, not passing

among

treat of the formation of calculi

how
may

they

But we

occasions a stoppage of the urine.

may

either be prevented from forming, or

be broken when formed.

will

the chronic diseases;

With regard

how

to heat

they

and ob-

struction, such of these affections as prove quickly fatal will

me

described by

Whether
mation,

be impaction of stones, or whether

we must open

period of
full

it

life

be

in this place.
it

be inflam-

the vein at the elbow, unless a particular

prove an obstacle, and blood must be taken in a

For not only are inflam-

stream and in large quantity.

mations alleviated by evacuation, but also impacted stones are


slackened by the evacuation of the vessels, and thus the stones

Then

escape during the passing of the urine.


to be relaxed

by bathing them with

oil

the parts are

of must or of privet,

and by fomentations and cataplasms.

The herb southern-

wood, the schoenus, and calamus aromaticus, should form the


ingredients

of

the

cataplasms.

Then

we

are

to

apply

the cupping-instrument over the kidneys, in the loins, more

THERAPEUTICS

446

especially if the evacuation from this place has been of service

The bowels

by lubricating

are to be softened

clysters, rather of

a viscid than of an acrid nature, such as the juiees either of

Sometimes,

mallows or of fenugreek.

also, diuretic

medicines

are to be given before food, such as are described respecting

the

liver,

and

cases indigestion
cially that of

goat

similar food of easy digestion

also

an

bad.

is

ass;

of fever,

is

most excellent

kind of milk.

such

article, espe-

ewe

or a

then, they be free

If,

better also to prescribe the bath

it is

for in

next, of a mare; even that of an

useful, as being a

is

Milk

but

if not,

they

are to be placed in a sitz-bath formed of the decoction of herbs,


filling

But

the vessel up to their navel.

if it

be turned

what cataplasms and other medicines we

suppuration,

to

are to

down by us on many occasions.


we are to use the same fomentations

use have formerly been laid

But,

if the stone stick,

and cataplasms, and

try to break the stones with medicines

taken in the form of drink.

The

parsnip and prionitis, 1 boiled with

the juice of

it

named from
skink,

taken

for

simples are the herbs wateroil

drink: the

or edible vinegar,

compound ones

and

are, that

Vestinus, that from vipers and the reptile the

and such

as

from experience appear to be

best.

Gesta-

and succussion are calculated to promote the movement

tion

and protrusion of the


the bladder
patients

is

calculi; for the passage of calculi into

very painful.

become

But

if the

stones drop out, the

from pain, which they have not been

free

accustomed to be, not even in their dreams; and, as

from inevitable

evils,

they

feel relieved

if

escaped

both in mind and in

body.
1

am

at a loss to decide

what

herb this was. It is not noticed


either by Theophrastus or Dioscorides.

that

it

Indeed, I

am

not aware

occurs elsewhere, except in

the work of Trallian,

viii. 4.

Petit,

know not on what

suggests that
ceterach.
tify it

it is

authority,

the asplenium

Liddel and Scott iden-

with the

but do not

give their grounds for holding this


opinion.

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

CHAPTER

447

II.

IX.

CURE OF THE ACUTE AFFECTIONS ABOUT THE BLADDER.

Acute

affections,

in the

bladder; namely,

resembling those of the kidneys, form also


inflammations, ulcerations, calculi,

and the obstructions from


pression of urine

more

acute,

clots,

and, along with these, sup-

and strangury.

But

and death most speedy

in this part the pain

for the bladder

is

ia

a broad

nerve, whereas the kidneys are like a concretion of blood, of

the same species as the liver.

But, moreover, the sufferings

most dreadful and most lamentable

are

for there,

On

We

men most cruel

wretched

much

make an

straightway

must, therefore,

and soothe the bladder by means of

flanks,

oil,

with rue and

But

dill.

incision

and

clots,

in

we

are to give

with honeyed-

also such other things,

both herbs and seeds, as promote the secretion of urine.


if there

the

grumous blood be the

if

to drink, or a little quantity of lime

water for the solution of the

far,

a fomentation of

cause of the pains and stoppage of the urine,

oxymel

by

pains inflicts the god of war.

be danger from hemorrhage,

it is

But

to be stopped with-

out delay, more than in the other cases; for the danger from
it is

We

not small.

beneficial; bathing

parts in cloths

must remedy

by the medicines which

it

In this case refrigeration of the bladder

stop bleeding.

is

with rose-oil and wine, and wrapping the

made of unwashed

wool. 1

An

epitheme

may

be formed with dates soaked in wine, with pomegranate or the


juice of sumach.

But

if

the patient

is

averse to the weight of

is

very circum-

Coll. x. 18.

stantially described

by Oribasius
Med.

lates

This process

under the name of

it,

bandes.

Dr. Daremberg trans-

Venroulement

avec

les

THEEAPEUTICS

448

the epithemcs and the great cooling, they must both be given

up; for

we must

not cool greatly a part naturally thin and

cold like the bladder.


oil

But we

are to anoint the parts with

But we must

of must, or acacia, or hypocistis with wine.

not use sponges, unless the hemorrhage be very urgent.


food

should be farinaceous, of easy

diuretic, such as

digestion,

have been described by

me under

The

wholesome,
the head of

the kidneys; milk, sweet wine, the Theraean and Scybelitic.

Medicines should be drunk which are diuretic, fragrant, and


diffusible,

and other such things.

the bladder

is

and out of season, when dried and

very excellent thing for

things

may be

triturated with water.

nard be boiled up with the

also a little of the root of

The same

cicada roasted, in season, as an article of food;

used for preparing a bath to

Let

cicadce.

sit

in for

relaxation of the bladder.

But,

if it

be the impaction of calculi which stops the urine,

we must push away

the calculus and draw off the urine, with

the instrument, the catheter, unless there be inflammations;


for, in

inflammations, neither do the passages well admit the

instrument, and in addition they are hurt by the catheter.

But

if this

treatment be inadmissible, and the patient

killed with the sufferings,

we must make an

is

nearly

incision in the

part under the glans penis, and the neck of the bladder, in

order to procure an outlet for the stone and the expulsion of


the urine.
part

And we must

particularly endeavour to cure the

by bringing the wound

to cicatrization.

But

if not, it is

better that the patient should have a flux of urine for the

remainder of his
of the pain.

life,

than that he should die most miserably

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK

CHAPTER

449

II.

X.

CURE OF THE HYSTERICAL CONVULSION.

The

and

in smelling; for

and
If,

women

uterus in

at the flanks,

from

flees

it

has membranes extended on both sides

also

is

subject to the affections of an animal

follows after fragrant things as if for pleasure,

fetid

and disagreeable things

annoy

therefore, anything

beyond the genital organs.


applied to the os,

times
liver,

will

it

go

it

to

retreats

from above,

it

But

if

as if for dislike.
it

protrudes even

any of these things be

backwards and upwards.

this side or to that,

to

Some-

the spleen and

while the membranes yield to the distension and con-

traction like the sails of a ship.


It suffers in this

its

if

way

more than usual

trudes

neck

for

from inflammation; and

also

in this affection

to the feet, it protrudes externally, a trouble-

some, painful and unseemly complaint, rendering


to walk, to lie

on the

it

it

difficult

on the back, unless the

side or

from inflammation of the

wards,

pro-

inflammation of the fundus inclines upwards ; but

downwards

suffer

it

and in the swelling of

But

feet.

if it

woman

mount up-

very speedily suffocates the woman, and stops the

respiration as if with a cord, before she feels pain, or can

scream aloud, or can


cases

the

speech.

respiration

call
is

upon the

spectators, for in

stopped,

first

many

and in others the

It is proper, then, in these cases, to call the physi-

cian quickly before the patient die.


arrive in time

and ascertain that

open a vein, especially the one

it is

Should you fortunately


inflammation, you must

at the ankle,

and pursue the

other means which prove remedial in suffocation without in-

flammation:

ligatures of the

hands and

induce torpor; smelling to fetid substances

feet so tight as to

liquid

pitch, hairs

and wool burnt, the extinguished flame of a lamp, and

GG

castor,

THERAPEUTICS

450
since, in addition to

its

bad

smell,

like state,

warms

the congealed

Wherefore we

and drives the uterus downwards.

must apply fragrant things on


uterus

it

Old urine greatly rouses the sense of one in a death-

nerves.

any ointment

pessaries to the region of the

of a mild nature, and not pungent to

the touch, nard, or ^Egyptian bacchar, or the medicine from


the leaves of the malabathrum, the Indian tree, 1 or cinnamon

pounded with any of the fragrant


be rubbed into the female
these things

to be

is

oils.

And

parts.

thrown into the

These

articles are to

also

an injection of

The anus

uterus.

is

to

be rubbed with applications which dispel flatus; and injections


of things not acrid, but softening, viscid, and lubricant, are
to be given for the expulsion of the fseces solely, so that the

region of the uterus

may be

emptied,

marsh-mallow, or of fenugreek, but

be boiled along with the

oil.

But,

with

let melilot
if

the juice
or

of

marjoram

the uterus stands in

need of support rather than evacuation, the abdomen

is

to

be

compressed by the hands of a strong woman, or of an expert

man, binding

it

round

also

replaced the part, so that

it

with a

may

roller,

when you have

not ascend upwards again.

Having produced sneezing, you must compress the nostrils;


for by the sneezing and straining, in certain cases, the uterus
also

its place.
We are to blow into the nostrils
some of the root of soapwort, 2 or of pepper, or of castor.

We

are also to apply the instrument for dry-cupping to the

has returned to

thighs,

loins,

the ischiatic regions, and groins, in order to

And, moreover, we

attract the uterus.

spine,

and between the

of suffocation.

But

with inflammation,

if

are to apply

A species

to the

the feeling of suffocation be connected

we may

also scarify the vein leading along

the pubes, and abstract plenty of blood.

cassia-tree.

it

scapulae, in order to relieve the sense

of wild cinnamon or

See Edinburgh Greek

Friction

of the

Lexicon, Appendix, under the term,


2

The Saponaria

officinalis.

OF ACUTE DISEASES. BOOK

451

II.

countenance, plucking of the hair, with bawling aloud, in

Should the patient partially recover, she

order to arouse.

and fumigated from

to be seated in a decoction of aromatics,

below with fragrant perfumes.


drink of castor, and a
castor.

And
is

to the

woman

Also before a meal, she

to

is

quantity of the hiera with the

little

if relieved,

to return to her

season

is

she

is

bathe, and at the proper

to

accustomed habits and we must look


;

that her menstrual discharges flow freely.

CHAPTER XL
CURE OF SATYRIASIS.
Inflammation
erection of the

there arise

in the

desire

and pain

in re venerea

spasmodic strainings which at no time abate, since

the calamity

maddened

of the nerves in the genital organs occasions

member with

is

not soothed by the coition.

They

also

open performance of the act ;

for the inability to refrain

when they

renders them impudent; but afterwards

have recovered, their understanding becomes quite

For
and

all

become

in understanding, at first as regards shamelessness

these causes,

also the

one

we must open

at the ankle,

quantity and frequently, for

and

now

it

settled.

the vein at the elbow,


abstract blood in large

not unseasonable to

is

induce deliquium animi, so as to bring on torpor of the


understanding and remission of the inflammation, and also
mitigation of the heat about the

member

for it is

much blood

which strongly enkindles the heat and audacity;

pabulum of the inflammation, and the

it

is

the

fuel of the disorder of

the understanding, and of the confusion.

The whole body

is

to be purged with the medicine, the hiera; for the patients

not only require purging, but also a gentle medication, both

GG

THERAPEUTICS

452

which

objects are accomplished

by the

The

hiera.

genital

organs, the loins, the perineum and the testicles, are to be

wrapped in unwashed wool; but the wool must be moistened


with rose-oil and wine, and the parts bathed, so

more

that

the innate heat


fluids.

much

the

no heating may be produced by the wool, but that

may

be mitigated by the cooling powers of the

Cataplasms of a like kind are to be applied

bread with

the juice of plantain, strychnos, 1 endive, the leaves of the poppy,

and the other narcotics and

refrigerants.

Also the genital

organs, perineum, and ischiatic region, are to be rubbed with


similar things, such as cicuta with water, or wine, or vinegar

mandragora, and acacia; and sponges are to be used instead of


wool.

In the interval we are to open the bowels with a

decoction of mallows,

oil,

But everything

and honey.

acrid

Cupping-instruments are to be fixed to the ischiatic


region, or the
tracting

abdomen; leeches

also are

very good for

at-

blood from the inner parts, and to their bites a

made of crumbs of bread with marsh-mallows.


is to have a sitz bath medicated with wormwood, and the decoction of sage, and of flea-bane. But when

a cataplasm

Then

the

the patient

affection

protracted for a considerable time without

is

any corresponding intermission, there

is

danger of a convul-

sion (for in this affection the patients are liable to convulsions),

we must change
is

need of

oil

the system of treatment to calefacients, there

of must or of Sicyonian

instead of oil of roses,

oil

along with clean wool and warming cataplasms, for such


treatment then soothes the inflammations of the nerves,

we must

also give castor

Food containing
quantity,

mallow, the

little

and such
blite,

nourishment, in a cold

as is

and

with honeyed-water in a draught,

farinaceous;

state, in

small

mostly pot-herbs, the

the lettuce, boiled gourd, boiled cucumber,

Doubtful whether he means

the Solanum nigrum or Physalis

somnifera.
t. iii.

p. 359.

See Paulus iEgineta,

OF ACUTE DISEASES.BOOK
ripe pompion.

Wine and

convalescence have
parts

warmth

made

453

II.

fleshes to be used sparingly until

considerable progress

for

wine im-

to the nerves, soothes the soul, recalls pleasure,

engenders semen, and provokes to venery.

Thus
eases.

far

have

One must

to apply his

I written respecting

also

mind

be

fertile in

expedients, and not require

entirely to the writings of others.

diseases are thus treated of, so that

what has been written of them,


or

all

together.

the cures of acute dis-

you may

Acute

avail yourself of

in their order,

either singly

OF

ARET.EUS, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CURE OF CHRONIC DISEASES

BOOK

I.

CONTENTS.
The Preface
Cure of Cephalgia
Cure of Vertigo
Core of Epilepsy
Cure of Melancholy
*
*
Cure of Mania
*
Cure of Paralysis *
*
Cure of Phthisis
*
*
Cure of Empyema *
Cure of Abscesses of the Lungs
*
*
Cure of Asthma
*
Cure of Pneumodes *
*
Cure of the Liver *
*
Cure of the Spleen *
*
Cure of Jaundice *
*
Cure of Cachexia *
.

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.
>

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

*
*

X.
XI.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

OF

ARET.EUS, THE CAPPADOCIAN,


ON THE

CURE OF CHRONIC DISEASES


BOOK

I.

CHAPTER

I.

THE PKOCEMIUM.
In chronic
bad thing;
tions,

diseases, trie
for,

by procrastination, they pass into incurable

is

strong,

and

if

protracted by time, they will

and end only in death. Small

if

become

diseases also are succeeded

greater, so that although devoid of

progeny proves deadly.

affec-

being of such a nature that they do not readily go off

they once attack

by

postponement of medical treatment

danger at

first,

their

Wherefore neither should the patient

conceal his complaint, from the shame of exposure, nor shrink

from

fear of the treatment;

nor should the physician be inac-

tive, for

thus both would conspire to render the disease in-

curable.

Some patients, from ignorance of the present and


come at last, are content to live on with the disease.

what

For

will

most

since in

cases they

do not

fear death, nor, for this reason,

the physician.
first

place, is

Cephalsea, of

die, so neither

do they

do they entrust themselves to

which

am

a proof of these statements.

about to treat in the

ON THE CURE

458

CHAPTEE

II.

CURE OP CEPHAL^EA.

The

head, inasmuch as

it

necessary towards

is

And

also very dangerous in disease.

about

is

it

life,

so

is it

the onset of diseases

quite tolerable, being attended with slight pain,

noises in the ears,

they become

and heaviness; but

they acquire increase,

if

Wherefore even

fatal at last.

slight pains should

not be overlooked, and, in certain cases, they have been cured

by

slight remedies.

But

if

prolonged

greater sufferings supervene,

longer space, as
the vein at the

But, for two days previous, the patient must get wine

elbow.
to drink,

lated

for a

we must open

and the quantity of blood abstracted must be regu-

by the strength; and

it

is

evacuation at once, so that the strength


thereof; and the disease

the

The same

means.

During an

is

rather

bear the amount

removed by the

repetition of

interval of three or four days, a fuller diet

draught; for

it,

in an especial

the disease from the head.


is to

may

hiera

is

we

The

razor,

Then again we

five

drams.

are

And

if

are to open the straight

amount, about a hemina

But we must not evacuate

we

be

quantity of the medicine

vein (temporal?) on the forehead, for abstraction by

emptying the

to

are to administer the bath, give wine, and

improve the strength.

efficacious; the

is

be taken in a

to

manner, draws the pabulum of

be to the amount of four or

well purged,

more.

the whole

rule applies to all chronic diseases.

given, and then the purgative

given

make

best not to

vessels.
first

it is

most

(half-pint?) or a little

further, for

we must

avoid

Then, having removed the hair with a

to apply

one cupping-instrument to the

vertex, and another between the scapulae,

without drawing

blood ; but along with the instrument applied to the vertex,

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


we

459

I.

are to scarify unsparingly, for the purpose of attracting the

redundant fluid and of making an incision in the deep-seated

For remedial means applied even to the bones are bene-

parts.

When

in cephalsea.

ficial

wounds

the

excise a portion of the arteries; 1

behind the

ears, at a little distance

from their pulsations


to

it,

for

they

by

discovered

lie close

one

from them, being obvious

and these

to the antitragus;

we

ones at the bones, for they afford

The mode

are to

the others in front of the ear, and close

their pulsations);

others, very slender,

we

are cicatrised,

(of these there are two,

are to incise the larger

Adjacent to them are

relief.

which there

is

also are

no

benefit

from excising.

of operating has been described under operative

This

surgery.

the great remedy in cephalsea,

is

epilepsy,

vertigo, and, in fine, in all the diseases of the head.

In

we

all cases

bowels, either

are to bring off phlegm,

by a purgative draught,

sometimes from the

nostrils

by

first

by

or

sternutatories;

Among

from the mouth by sialogogues.

evacuating the

and

a clyster;

and sometimes

the kinds of sternu-

tatories are pepper, the root of soapwort,

and the

testicle

of

may all be used together; having levigated


them, we are to blow the powder in, either with a

the beaver; these

and

sifted

reed or the thick stalk of a goose


active

Euphorbium

quill.

It is also

mixed up with the

oils,

more

such as gleucinum,

Sicyonian, or the ointment from storax.


liquid form as an injection,
nasal

is

and stronger than these when mixed with any of them.

pipe;

together

the

by one

same time.

and

it is

injected

outlet, so that

dilate

which could not be borne,

we can

the

into a

by means of a

inject

by both

each nostril separately


as the

thus contracts a sharp pain.

phlegm from the mouth

made

of two pipes united

instrument consists

For to

It is

head gets quickly

is

at the

a thing

filled,

and

The medicines which evacuate

are, mustard, the

See Paulus iEgineta,

b. vi. 5.

granum cnidium,

ON THE CURE

460

pepper, stavesacre, these either together or separately; and

one may masticate these substances and

out constantly;

spit

and give them mixed up with water or honeyed-water,

rinse

the mouth, and press them back to the tonsils with stretching

of the neck, thus wash out along with the breath in expiration; 2

and when you have evacuated phlegm

much

as

you

as

think proper, you must bathe and foment the head with a

very large quantity of hot water to promote perspiration, for


the obstructions become strong.

Supper should be spare

but wine also

restore the tone of the stomach,

When,

complaint.

much

it

to abstract blood

On

tree.

suffers in this

re-established

common clyster having

natron, or dissolving

of the resin of the turpentine

be given, to

to

you have

in the meantime,

the strength, you will require to give a


sprinkled upon

is

for it also

from the inside of the

it

two drams

in

the next day


nostrils,

and

we

are

for this

purpose push into them the long instrument named Katiadion,


or the one

named

Toryne, or, in want of these,

we must

take

the thick quill of a goose, and having scooped the nervous


part of

far as

the ethmoid

hands so that the part may be


shall

we

are to push

it

down the

cells,

then shake

it

with both

its teeth.

Thus we

into teeth like a saw,

it

nostrils as

scarified

by

have a ready and copious flow of blood;

for slender

veins terminate there, and the parts are soft and easily cut.

The common people have many modes

of scarification, by

rough herbs, and the dried leaves of the bay, which they
introduce with the fingers

and move strongly. 3

evacuated to a sufficient amount

hemina

we

or blow in

are to

some

Having

say to the amount of half a

wipe the parts with sponges and oxycrate,


styptic

powder,

gall,

fissil

alum, or the

flower of the wild pomegranate.


2

This

is

rather an obscure de-

On

this practice,

scription of the simple process of

iEgineta, torn.

gargling.

Edit.

See the note of Petit.

i.

p. 326,

see Paulus

Syd.

Soc.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


Whether

461

I.

we

the pain remain, or cease after these things,

must go on

the conclusion of the system of treatment;

to

for the mischief


seat of the

is

apt to return, and frequently lurks in the

Wherefore, having removed the hair

disease.

with a razor (and

this also is beneficial to the head),

we

are to

burn with heated cauteries, superficially, down to the muscles;


or if

you wish

to carry the burning to the bone,

avoid the muscles, for the muscles

And

vulsions.

if

you burn

when burnt

superficially

you must

occasion con-

you must foment the

part with plenty of fragrant sweet wine, along with rose-oil;

a linen cloth wetted with this


until the

But,

third day.

is

if

pounded the hairy leaves of


a linen rag,

we

are to apply

to be spread over the eschars

the eschars be deep, having

leeks with

On

it.

salt,

and spread upon

the third day,

we

are to

put the cerate from rose-oil upon the superficial eschars, and
lentil

with honey upon the deeper.

The medicinal

applications

be made to the wound will be described in another place.

to

Some have made an

incision in the skin above the forehead,

at the coronal suture,

the bone, and having scraped

or cut out a

down to
portion down

to

brought the

part to

incarnation.

the bone, even to the meningx.

but are to be used,

if,

after

it,

the diploe, have afterwards

all,

Some have

perforated

These are bold remedies,


the cephalasa

continue,

and the patient be courageous, and the tone of the body


good. 4
But,

if

they progress gradually, they are to take exercises

in the erect state of the

body

for the benefit of the chest

5
shoulders; the chironomy, the throwing of the halteres;

ing,
*

and

leap-

and the well-regulated contortions of the body accom-

On

this heroic

method

of treat-

ing diseases of the head, see Paulus


iEgineta,

t.ii.

pp. 248-250,

Syd. Soc. Edit.


trial of

it,

and 258,

Before making

would recommend the

reader to consult the part of

De

Haen's -works there referred to.


5
See Oribasius, vi.30, and p.663,
ed. Bussemaker and Daremberg.

ON THE CURE

462

panying

friction,

it;

first

and

of the limbs, of the head

last

in the middle of the process.

process of pitching 6

The

be frequently applied to the

to

is

head; and also rubefacients, sometimes rubbing in mustard

with double quantity of bread, so that the heat

and sometimes other medicines are

intolerable;
like the

The

compound from

may

to be so used,

lemnestis, euphorbium,

and

made with

juice of thapsia, and the medicines

not be

pellitory.
it

which

produce swelling of the skin, and an eruption resembling vari,

and contributing

are beneficial both for allaying present pain


to eradicate the evil.

The
little

diet in both kinds of the complaint should be light;

drink, water for drink, especially before

medicine;

giving any

complete abstinence from acrid things, such as

onions, garlic, the juice of silphium, but not altogether from

mustard, for
is

its

acrimony, in addition to

its

being stomachic,

not unpleasant to the head, dissolving phlegm, and exhaling

Of

or discharging downwards.

mon

bean and

called ochrys, 7

are the lentils,

its

pulse, the worst

is

the com-

common peas, and the species


common kidney-beans; next to them

species, the

and the

which have indeed

certain

good properties

for

promoting digestion and secretion, but induce fulness of the

head and occasion pain


are not to be rejected.
is

only

when

boiled with pepper they

Granulated spelt

(alica)

when washed,

pleasant along with wine and honey, so as to sweeten, and,

in like manner, their soups,

and with plain broths.

The

seeds

of carui, coriander, anise, and parsley, in the Lydian sauce 8


are excellent.

But, of these

articles,

the best are the herbs

mint and penny-royal, with the fragrant things which have

some

diuretic

and carminative

See Paulus iEgineta,

The pisum

p. 82,

and

Syd. Soc. Edit.


7

t. i.

properties.

ochrys.

Of

fleshes, all

such

See Hesychius, under

, Athen. Deip.

Casaub.

p. 516,

Ed.

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
as are old are

good;

463

I.

of the recently killed, that of the hen

bad;

wood pigeon,

of birds, the

such others as are not very

common

the

the extremities of the swine;

fat;

the roasted hare; that of the ox and of the sheep

and

the head;

fills

the kid

Of

headache.

cheese

occasion

rocks,

and those things that are best in

Of potherbs, such

country.

is

as

found among

those

fishes,

incrassant

Milk and

not altogether bad.

is

is

pigeon, and

each

particular

promote the urinary and alvine

discharges, the mallow, the blite, the beet, and asparagus; but

the kale
best of

Among raw

also acrid.

is

articles,

the lettuce

Roots are bad, even when boiled, such

all.

the

is

as radishes,

navews, and parsnips, which are diuretic, but occasion repletion; the garden parsnip indeed

is

Wine which

admitted,

have some astringency, so

if it

All

bowels.

is

Repletion of

particular season.
is

as not to

In autumn the

wholesome, and whatever other

proper,

and sweet,

white, thin,

articles of the dessert occasion

dates of every species.

bad; and

fruit

all

less injurious

than indigestion, but

morning walk

after

and grape are

very good at any

is

is

still

is

good

to a drier,

one's life at sea

head;
a

is

A journey

humid

is

The

hurtful.

is

evacuation of the bowels, but so as not to

for the

Sexual intercourse
nerves.

Lassitude

bad.

it

is

it

also

very

Prolonged gestation, not exposed to wind

after supper.

or sun,

bind the

headache, except

fig

affect the breathing nor induce weariness; and

good

be

to

is

things, even of such as are

indigestion

so, also,

and swells up

flatulent

the stomach.

but the dog-star

self-inflicted

is

bad

for

it.

the head and

evil to

from a cold to a warmer climate, or from


is

proper;

and

if

also a sea-voyage,

one lives by the sea-side

and passing
it

is

good

thing to bathe in the sea- water, to tumble on the sands, and to


reside close

by the

The remedies

sea.

for heterocrania are the

same

for it is well to

apply to a portion of the head the same remedies as are proper


for the

whole of

it.

In

all

cases in

which the

disease

is

not

ON THE CUKE

464

removed by these means, we are


and most potent of

last

all

to use hellebore, as being the

methods of treatment.

CHAPTER

III.

CURE OF VERTIGO.

Vertigo
up

cephakea; but

arises as the successor of

a primary affection from certain causes,

as

of the hemorrhoidal flux;

and

blood which used to flow

if

from the nose has ceased to flow;


perspired properly, either

been used to labour.


cephahea,

we must do

or

by sweating,

If then

the body has not

if

or labour,

arise as the

it

also springs

as the suppression

for its cure those things

when

it

had

consequence of

which have been

described under cephakea; and I will afterwards state certain

more powerful means which must be

other

But

if

tried ultimately.

the disease happen from the suppression of any of the

humours, we must excite the customary secretion


recurrence of nature promotes recovery.

If

it

for the

be delayed, and

the disease increases, in the other suppressions, those by the

we

nose or sweats,

are to open the vein at the elbow;

but in

plethora of the liver, spleen, or any of the viscera in the

middle of the body, cupping affords


as

is

them

taken from a vein, so


;

manner
to

for

it is

much

is

relief,

to

but as

the nutriment of the exciting cause, in like

as the belly.

After this the remedies of the head are

be applied, opening the straight vein on the forehead, or

those at the canthi on either side of the nose;

instrument

is

arteries are to

to

much blood

be thus abstracted from

it,

to

a cupping-

be fastened to the vertex, the {temporal ?)

be excised, the head shaven, rubefacients applied

phlegm evacuated from the

from the mouth

as I

have stated

nostrils

all

by

sternutatories, or

these things are to be


OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK

465

I.

done in the order described under cephalasa, except that the


juice of sow-bread or of pimpernel

to be used as

is

an injec-

tion into the nose.

But when you have exhausted

all

the remedies for cephalaea,

the more violent means which are applicable for vertigo are
to be used;

we must

from radishes, which


hellebore

for the

more violent
and

fit

use the emetics after supper, and those


also required as a preparation for the

is

stomach

is

to

be trained beforehand to the

But the phlegm now becomes

emetics.

thinner,

There are several modes

for solution in the hellebore.

of giving the hellebore to the stronger sort of patients


;

be given to the

size

of a sesame, 1 or a

with washed chondrus or

lentil,

little

it is

to

larger; or, in slices,

the dose, about two drams.

In the case of feebler and more slender persons , the decoction

with honey, to the amount of two or three spoonfuls,

to be

is

given.

The manner of preparing

where.

In the interval between each remedy, the patient

be supported, in order that he

it

may be

will be

described else-

able to endure

is

to

what

is

to be given in the intermediate periods.

The patient is to be assisted during the paroxysms thus:


The legs are to be bound above the ankles and knees; and the
The
wrists, and the arms below the shoulders at the elbows.
head

is

to

we must

be bathed with rose-oil and vinegar; but in the

boil wild-thyme, cow-parsnip, ivy, or

Friction of the extremities and face.

oil

something such.

Smelling to vinegar,

penny-royal, and mint, and these things with vinegar.

Sepa-

ration of the jaws, for sometimes the jaws are locked together;

the tonsils to be tickled to provoke vomiting; for by the dis-

charge of phlegm they are sometimes roused from their gloom.

These things, then, are to be done, in order to

paroxysm and

dispel the

The sesamum

alleviate the

gloomy condition.

orientate, or oily-grain of the East.

the Edinburgh Greek Lexicon.

See Appendix to

ON THE CURE

466

With

regard to the regimen during the whole period of the

bad, and likewise insomnolency


fies

From

the senses of the head.

there

is

for truly

a redundance of vapours

disinclination to every exertion;

the cause of the


flashes of light,

Much sleep is
much sleep stupe-

treatment and afterwards, I hold as follows:

and these are

weight in the head, the

which are the marks of the

also

and the

noises,

disease.

Insom-

nolency induces dyspepsia, atrophy, and wearies out the body;


the spirits flag, and the understanding

is

unsettled; and for

these reasons such patients readily pass into

Moderate

choly.

mania and melan-

sleep is suitable for the proper digestion of

the food and refreshment from the labours of the day; care

and perseverance in these

respects;

and particular attention

to be paid to the evacuation of the bowels, for the belly

is

is

the

Next, friction of

greater source of the bodily perspiration.

the limbs, by means of rough towels, so as to produce rubefaction; then, of the

back and

sides; last, of the head.

wards, exercise in walking, gentle at


carried to running in the middle

rest

and tranquillity of the

breathing (pneuma) after the walking.


vociferation, using grave tones,

After-

and in the end;

first

They

are to practise

for sharp occasion distension

of the head, palpitation of the temples, pulsatory movements


of the brain, fulness of the eyes, and noises in the ears.
of

medium

intensity are beneficial to the head.

Then

Sounds

the season

of gestation should be regulated so as to promote the expulsion


of the weight in the head;
as to

it

should be prolonged, yet not so

induce fatigue; neither should gestation be made in

tortuous places, nor where there are frequent bendings of the


road, for these are provocative of vertigo.

be

straight, long,

and smooth.

in the habit of taking lunch,

But

let

the walks

If then the patients have been

we must

only allow of a

little

bread, so as to be no impediment to the exercises; for digestion should take place previously.

and the

frictions thereof, are to

The head and

be attended to

the hands,

in the latter

it

OF CHRONIC DISEASES.BOOK
to

is

467

I.

be gently performed for the restoration of the heat,

Then

plumpness, and strength.

the head

is

to

for

be rubbed while

the patient stands erect below a person of higher stature than

Gymnastics

himself.

performed which tend to disten-

skilfully

sion of the neck, and strong exercise of the hands.


also,

by

throwing the quoit, or contending

at

It is proper,

raising the head, to exercise the eyes at chironomy, or


at boxing.

both with the large and the small ball

The

exercise

bad, for the rolling of

is

the head and eyes, and the intense fixing of them, occasion
vertigo.

thing that

Leaping and running are very excellent;


is

keen

is

beneficial to the limbs,

the general system. 2


all

no bath

The

at all is better

cold bath

and gives tone to

better than

is

for every-

than the hot bath

no bath

at

the cold bath

is

very powerful as an astringent, incrassant, and desiccant of the


head, which

is

the condition of health

most powerful

is

while the

these are the causes of disease of the head,

and such

south winds, which occasion dulness of hearing.

be

warm

bath

and create mistiness

to humectate, relax,

rest after exercises, to allay the perturbation.

for

also are

There should
Pinching of

the head, even to the extent of producing excoriation of the


skin.

Whetters made of water, or of wine diluted with water,


should be given before a meal.
tives

Lunch should be

from the capillary leaves of pot-herbs,

and of

blite.

slight: laxa-

of mallow, of

A condiment of a stomachic nature, which

sant to the mouth, laxative of the bowels,

induce heaviness of the head,


or of mustard.

is

is

made of thyme,

to

or of savory,

Eggs, hot in winter, and cold in summer,

meat

Granulated spelt washed, with some of the sweet

things, so as to give

plea-

and not calculated

stripped of their shell, not roasted; olives, dates, pickled


in season.

beet,

it

a relish,

For an account of most of the

ancient exercises mentioned

by

is

to

be chosen; and, with

our author, see Paulus JEgineta,


t. i.

p.

22

27, Syd. Soc. Edit.

ON THE CUBE

468
these, salts.

and speaking.

Solitude, rest as regards hearing

Promenades in a well- ventilated

But

trees or herbs.

place, rendered agreeable

by

be come to supper-time, they are

if it

again especially to take the cold bath, having been slightly

anointed with

or,

oil;

otherwise, the limbs only.

The supper

should be of frumentaceous

articles,

such as pastry, or a soup

from chondrus (granulated

spelt),

or a carminative ptisan,

The medicines used

rendered easy of digestion by boiling.

for seasoning of the ptisan, pepper, penny-royal, mint, a small

proportion of onions or of leeks, not so

much

the stomach

suitable ; of fleshes,

the acrid part of vinegar

is

as to float

on

the parts of fat animals which are not fat; of swine, the feet

and head;

all

winged animals

them what

variety of

is

you must

suitable

of venison are proper; the hen

All

articles

figs in

from

the

from the great

the hare and the other kinds

is

easily procured,

and

suitable.

of the dessert create headaches, except the date, or

summer

flatulence;

without

select

fat,

season, or the grape if the patient be free

and of sweetmeats, such

and

as are well seasoned,

Walking, exhilaration;

light.

in solitude,

resignation to sleep.

CHAPTER

IV.

CURE OP EPILEPSY.

Or

remedies, whatever

is

for epilepsy, so as to find


affection,

great and most powerful

and one dangerous

at

who

needed

each attack, but from the

gust and opprobrium of this calamity.


that if the patients

is

an escape not only from a painful

For

it

dis-

appears to me,

endure such sufferings were to look at

one another in the paroxysms, they would no longer submit to


live.

But the want of

sensibility

and of seeing conceals from

OF CHRONIC DISEASES. BOOK


every one what
is

best that the

469

I.

own

dreadful and disgusting in his

is

method of cure should follow the

case.

It

alleviation of

nature, when, with the changes of age, she changes greatly

For

the man.

diet akin to the ailment,

if the

and on which

the disease subsisted, be changed, the disease no longer seizes


the man, but takes

its

departure along with that in which

it

delighted. 1
then,

If,

we

fore,

me

it

on the head,

seize

it

settles there; to it, there-

which have been described by

are to do those things

under cephalsea, regarding the abstraction of blood (and

also the purgings)

from the veins

at the

vein at the forehead, and by cupping

elbow, the straight

but the abstraction

not to be carried the length of deliquium animi; for

quium has
all

a tendency to induce the disease;

we

also to practise purgings,

draw

which are more potent than

by the purgative

off

hiera

phlegm from the head

deli-

are to open

the ordinary arteries before and behind the ears, and

things,

is

we

all

are

these

and those medicines which


but the medicines should be

particularly powerful, for the habit of such persons renders

them

tolerant of pains,

and their goodness of

hopes render them strong in endurance.


to apply heat to
place,

we must

the head, for

it

spirits

effectual.

is

and good

It is necessary, also,

In the

perforate the bone as far as the diploe,

first

and

then use cerates and cataplasms until the meninx separate

The exposed bones

from the bone.


the trepan if

removal,

still

when

are to be perforated with

any small portion prevent

meninx

the

there

is

its

spontaneous

found black and thick-

ened; and when, having gone through the process of putrefaction

the

and cleansing under the bold treatment of the physician,

wo