Things to remember:
Divisions can be:
Think:
 Exact.
 Integer.
Relation of divisibility
When we divide a number by another and the remainder is zero, there is a
relation of divisibility between both numbers. For example, 30 and 6.
Here, 30 is a multiple of 6; and 6 is a divisor of 30
Multiples
 Every time we multiply a number by any other natural number, we get a multiple of it:
for example, to get multiples of 17: 17 2 = 34
17 3 = 51
17 4 = 68 ...
 Any number is multiple of itself and of 1.
Activities
1. Calculate 10 multiples of 7:
Add them:
______ + _____ = ______
Add it to 20 (no multiple):
____+ __20__ = ______
Divisors
 All the numbers that can divide another number (and get zero as remainder) are
called divisors of that number. Example:
5 is a divisor of 20, because 20 : 5 = 4 (and zero in the quotient)
 Any number has got a finite quantity of divisors.
 Any number has got, at least, two divisors: 1 and itself.
 1 is divisor of any number; the quotient is always that number.
Activities
1. Have these numbers got a relation of divisibility?
12 and 5
33 and 11
8 and 1
100 and 9
43 :
21 :
3. Read the following list of numbers and then answer the questions:
2

14
27
35
50
68
72
84
99
111
95
100
150
21 :
200 :
18
Multiples of 3 Multiples of 5
40
54
65
77
88
Criteria of divisibility
How to find out if a number is a multiple of 2, 3, 5, 9, 10? Remember the rules:
Multiples of 2
Multiples of 5
Multiples of 10
They are even numbers; their They always finish in 0 or 5. They always finish in 0.
last digit is 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 or 8.
Multiples of 3
Multiples of 9
Activities
1. Are these numbers multiples of 2, 3, 5, 9 or 10? Check the right squares:
Numbers Multiple of
2?
10
16
27
153
270
900
Multiple of
3?
Multiple of
5?
Multiple of
9?
Multiple of
10?
Activities
1. Factor these composite numbers (with only prime factors in the answer):
16:
40:
85:
108:
15
Prime
numbers
17
24
Composite
numbers
35
53
Even
numbers
69
75
Odd
numbers
92
113
Multiples of
3
131
150
Divisors of
150
104
126
144
190
198
In order to find out the lowest common multiple of two (or more) numbers:
 First, get the prime factors of each number.
 Then, multiply all those factors by each other, taking their highest power.
Example: the lowest common multiple of 30 and 40:
 Prime factors of both :
30 = 2 3 5
; 40 = 23 5
3
 And multiplying them:
2 3 5 = 120
Activity
Find the lowest common multiple of these numbers:
14 and 16:
25 and 45:
33 and 52:
80 and 120:
Activity
Find the highest common factor of these numbers:
26 and 104:
35 and 105:
14 and 60:
27 and 180:
The absolute
value of an
integer is the
positive form of
the number:
3 = 3 3 =
3
The opposite of
an integer is the
same number, but
with
different
sign:
Opposite of 5 is 5.
Comparing
positive
integers, the greater is
the one with a bigger
absolute value (6 > 4);
but in negative integers
the greater is that with
a smaller absolute
value
(6 < 4).
Positive integers are
greater than negative
ones. Zero is greater
than negatives.
Activities
1. What's the absolute value of...?
 7  : .................
12
12
4
5
19
1
7
.......................................................................................................................................
4. Write < or > to compare the numbers:
5 ..................... 3
25 .....................5
2 ..................... 12
7 ................. 1
6 ....................6
18 .................. 19
13 ...................... 12
 1 .....................0
5 8 = 13
72=5
Activities
1. Solve the operations:
+ 3 4 + 5  1 =
364+9=
7+38+1=
5 + 6 +9 8 =
 5 + 2 +3 8 =
425=
8 + 6 + 3 5 =
+ 14 3 4 + 2 =
(+15) =
+(+12) =
(18) =
+(30) =
+(+7) =
(5) =
(2)  (4) =
+(6 8 + 10) =
+(23)  (7) =
+(+2)  (+8) =
(9 + 4 + 1) =
(+9) + (+12) =
+(+5) + (+20) =
+(+6 7  5) =
(+6) : (+2) = 3
(6) : (+2) = 3
(+6) : (2) = 3
Mixed operations
When different operations are mixed together:
 First solve the operation inside the brackets.
 Then, do the multiplications and divisions.
 Finally, do the additions and subtractions.
Activities
1. Solve these multiplications:
(+3) (+5) =
(+7) (2) =
(+45) : (3) =
(+35) : (+7) =
(144) : (+12) =
(72) : (9) =
(+88) : (11) =
(+18) : (3) =
2. Divide:
20 : 5 + [(+6) (4) + 5] =
the product will be positive if the index is an even number: (4)2 = +16
but the product will be negative if the index has got an odd number: (4)3 = 64
If the base is one, the answer will always be one. Example: 112 = 1
Activities
1. Calculate the base ten powers:
103 =
(10)5 =
(10)4 =
(10)0 =
4 4 4 4 4=
6 6 6=
5 5 5=
10 10 10 10 =
2x = 512
x6 = 1
3x = 27
x4 = 625
(7)2 =
(4)4 =
(3)6 =
( 8)3 =
(2)5 =
(1)7 =
To evaluate the
power of a power,
we multiply their
indices.
Example: 32 33 = 32+3 = 35
Example: 46 : 42 = 462 = 44
Ex: (24)2 = 24 2 = 28
Activities
1. Resolve the operations:
24 34 =
63  42 =
52 + 23 =
54 : 52 =
32 22 =
54 34 =
103 : 53 =
95 23 =
(42)5 = 4x =
43 45 = 4x =
x5 55 = 155
36 : 34 = 3x =
x4 : 44 = 64
(10)3 (4)4 =
[(5)2 (+3)2] : 82 =
[(2)3 (+4)2] 44 =
33 (3)4 (3)2 =
9 = 3 and
32 = 9
 A positive number has two square roots, one positive and one negative. The square
roots of 25 are 5 and 5 (because 5 5 = 25). A negative number hasnt got any square
roots.
 As well as square roots, there are cube roots 3
, fourth roots 4
, etc.
Activities
1. Get the opposite operation:
81 = 9 and __________
_________
25 = 5 and
144 = 12 and
_________
(+ 36) =
3 ( 64 ) =
4
(+ 16) =
0 =
6
1=
( 88) =
(+ 169) =
3
3=
( 2) =
UNIT 2
THINGS TO REMEMBER!
 In the decimal system the value of a digit depends on its position:
Hundreds
Tens
Units
DOT ( . )
Tenths
Hundredths Thousandths
For example, in the number 238.136 the 3 in the tens has a value of 30 units (because of its
position) but the other 3 in the hundredths has a value of 0.03 units.
 How to multiply or divide decimal numbers, paying attention to the dot and the quantity of
decimals involved in the operation. Example: 25.346 12.41 = 314.54386 (the factors have
altogether 5 decimals, then the product has 5 decimals, except if the last one(s) is/are zero).
 Rounding decimals to the nearest whole number, to the tenths, hundredths or thousandths:
Example:
Whole number:
Tenths:
Hundredths:
Thousandths:
762.8469
763
762.8
762.85
762.847
 Do not mix quantities and operations made in the decimal system with others in the
sexagesimal system. Example: 1 hour and ten minutes is not 1.10 hours!
Activities
1. Whats the value of each digit?
184.35: the value of 1 is ................; the value of 8 is ..............; the value of 4 is ...............;
the value of 3 is ....................... and the value of 5 is ...........................
2. How many hundredths are there in ...?
7 units:
1 hundred:
8 tens:
3 thousandths:
8 tenths:
4 hundredths:
3. Calculate (remember in English there isnt a comma to separate decimals, but a dot):
15.67 10 =
16.5 : 10 =
148.1 100 =
1.65 : 10 =
1.481 100 =
505.1 : 10 =
Whole number:
Tenths:
Hundredths:
Thousandths:
43.6491
hundredths, one hundredth is divided in ten thousandths, and so on with even smaller
submultiples. We generally dont use full units in our lives, but parts of a unit. I buy things
that cost 3.15 or I drink half a litre of water (0.5), for example.
There are different types of decimal numbers:

Activities
1. Are these decimals exact, repeating or non terminating non repeating?
2.236067977499
6.6161616161
8.265
9.748888888
Look at the integer part; the decimal with a higher integer part is the highest: 5.75 < 6.75
If the integer parts are equal, the decimal with the highest tenths is the highest: 2.5 < 2.7
If the integer and the tenths are equal, look at the hundredths. Example: 2.55 < 2.56
And then to the thousandths: 2.552 < 2.558
 Tip: you can add extra zeros at the end of each decimal so that all the decimals have the
same number of digits: remember that 2.2 is equal to 2.200, for example.
 Between two decimal numbers we can always find other decimals, in fact, there is an
infinity of decimals. Example: between 6.4 and 6.5, you can find 6.41, 6.42, 6.421 ...
 A number with many decimals is not often used in fast calculations, so we round it. How
to round decimals? Delete the digits you don't need beginning with the lowest in value on
the right; if the first deleted digit is equal or higher than 5, add 1 to the previous digit. The
most common rounding is called to one decimal place (there is only one digit in the decimal
part).
Activities
1. Order these decimals from greatest to lowest:
0.901
>
0.91
>
0.9
>
0.091
0.1
>
9.01
>
9.101
>
9.11
>
9.1
>
To the nearest
hundredth:
7.4893
186.5067
12.999
29.081
3. Which decimal is the nearest to 5.15 ? (underline it):
5.05
5.50
15.15
5.14
5.149
5.1415
5.155
5.152
49.05
10.936
17.564
17.56
88.9
10.94
25.7
89
12.78469
25.8
12.785
Activities
1. Solve the operations vertically:
7.04 + 10.203 =
105.88  7.99 =
12.67 8.3 =
25.83 : 9.2 =
2. Calculate without using your calculator (round the products to the hundredths):
8.4 + 6.51 5.02 =
32.54 =
140.16 =
0.86 =
524.55 =
254.302 =
 Angles: as a complete circle has got 360, we can have four right angles measuring 90
each. One degree has got sixty minutes (60) and one minute has got sixty seconds (60).
Geographic coordinates of latitude and longitude are also expressed in sexagesimal degrees.
Finally, we can express the same sexagesimal quantity in two ways:
 Complex form: the measure is expressed with different units: 2 hours and 20 minutes.
 Noncomplex form: the measure is expressed with a same unit: 140 minutes.
We have to know how to change a quantity from one form to another. It is necessary to
remember that a degree, or an hour, is made up of 60 minutes and each minute is 60
seconds.
Activities
1. Are these quantities complex or noncomplex?
4.33 hours
37 15
30 minutes
240
95
3 hours, 20 minutes
10 10
70 seconds
2. Change the complex quantities in the previous activity into noncomplex ones, and vice versa:
24.5 hours:
3000:
2000:
SUBTRACTION
MULTIPLICATION BY A NUMBER
DIVISION BY A NUMBER
First get the product of the hours or degrees First, divide the hours or degrees by the
and then the product of the minutes.
given number; its remainder becomes
minutes to add to the previous minutes; then
Example: (12 14) 4 = 48 56
continue dividing all the minutes by the
If the product of the minutes is greater than given number.
60, remember that every 60 minutes
completes another full hour or degree. So, Example:
divide that quantity by 60 to get new degrees.
(50 18) : 4 = 12 (120 + 18) : 4 =
The remainder in that division is the seconds.
Example: (40 15) 5 = 200 75 = 201 15
= 12 (138: 4) = 12 34 and 2 left.
Activities
1. Operating with angles:
63 15
+ 29 48
56 28
 22 57
(123 25) 3 =
(225 15) : 5 =
( 8 h. 15 m.)
 ( 5 h. 19 m.)
(12 h. 50 m.) 6 =
(15 h. 40 m.) : 7 =
UNIT 3
FRACTIONS
INTRODUCTION:
THINGS TO REMEMBER!
In Mathematics, a fraction expresses a part of a whole. There are full objects, but sometimes
we need to speak about just a part of it. Each fraction consists of a numerator (at the top,
showing the part of a whole) and a denominator (at the bottom, expressing the whole). When
we say 2/3 (read two thirds) of a cake, we are talking about two parts of the complete cake
(which was previously divided in three parts).
A fraction can also be:
A division
An operator
1
= 0.11111... = 0. 1
9
Activities
1. Express these fractions as decimal numbers (dividing numerators by denominators). Then,
say if the decimals are exact, repeating or non terminating non repeating
4
5
6
2
7
3
0.8
Exact
decimal
Integer
2
7
5
5
9
4
23
16
12
13
1
4
8
8
2. Now, classify the previous fractions from the greatest to the lowest:
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
2 / 7 of 80
4 / 10 of 35
1 / 6 of 60
4 / 11 of 150
Equivalent fractions
Definition: If two fractions have the same quotient when the numerator is divided by the
denominator, they are equivalent.
Example: 6 / 8 and 12 / 16 are equivalent because the quotient in both divisions is 0.75.
How to get equivalent fractions: multiply or divide both numerator and denominator
by the same number. Then, the quotient wont change. Consequently, there are infinite
equivalent fractions. This is the main property of fractions.
Example: 2 / 3 equivalents are 6 / 9 (multiplying it by 3) and 10/15 (by 5).
How to simplify fractions: divide both numerator and denominator by the same
number. This process is called cancelling. When nothing more can be cancelled, we say that
the fraction is simplified or reduced to its lowest terms (irreducible).
Example: 8 / 10 is simplified dividing both terms by 2: 4 / 5 and that fraction is irreducible.
Activities
1. Find the two equivalent fractions in every group:
8
12
4
6
6
4
5
15
4
14
1
5
9
8
30
21
10
7
50
6
1
4
25
100
2. Find two equivalent fractions for those without any in the previous activity:
3. Simplify these fractions, if possible, and express them in their simplest form (irreducible):
15
12
20
36
2
7
24
72
20
5
3
2
75
125
108
27
and
and
4
x
x
78
6
18
25
x
and
and
24
x
5
20
8
40
15
9
and
and
40
x
x
45
x
15
9
x
and
and
9
45
1
10
5
8
16
21
17
11
8
32
3
33
40
15
30
23
24
30
21
14
2
14
14
5
6. Choose the greatest fraction in every group; then, find one equivalent and its irreducible one:
8
15
1
8
10
12
12
30
18
4
30
14
100
15
15
100
16
2
2
8
2
10
3
18
Activities
1. Find the lowest common denominator:
3
2
and
2
5
5
6
and
8
7
7
3
6
,
and
10 5
25
11
5
,
20
24
and
4
2
1
,
and
7 11
14
10
28
5 6
,
9 5
and
8
15
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
4. Find the common denominator of these fractions; get their equivalent ones and order them
from the lowest to the greatest:
6
7
4
15
5
4
8
20
7
25
6
18
Common denominator: _ _ _ _
 Equivalent fractions:
 Order them:
<
<
<
<
<
=
5 5 5
7 7 7
4 7 28 28 28
8 11 88 88 88
+6= + = +
=
Example : 6 =
1
4
4 1 4 4
4
When fractions to add or subtract are inside brackets, do the same as with integers:
Positive signs before the brackets Negative signs before the brackets () change the inner
(+) dont change the inner signs. signs from positive to negative and vice versa.
If we add two fractions and the sum is zero, they are called opposite fractions.
Activities
1. Solve these additions and subtractions with different denominators:
5 2
+ =
2 7
12 3
=
13 8
6 2 1
+ + =
7 9 5
8 1
+ =
6 7
5 4
=
4 3
20 13 4
=
21 15 9
2
=
5
4
3=
3
2
=
3
15
15
=
2
40 +
6 8
+ +2=
7 4
2 3
5 + =
9 8
5 9 2 1
+ + =
4 3 5 4
10 6 10 1
+ =
12 15 12 8
8 7 4 2
+ + =
21 6 7 6
Activities
1. Multiply the fractions and simplify (if possible) the product:
85
=
93
61
=
54
5 3
2 =
12 4
5 5
=
13 2
6 11
=
11 6
35
4 =
82
2
and
7
4
and
3
6
and
17
11
and
52
12 1
: =
5 2
4 10
:
=
9 11
14 3
: =
19 2
9:
3
:2=
18
27
5 2 4 1
: =
3 7 9 6
2 8 3 4
: =
5 3 7 9
3 6 8 2
: : =
4 5 5 9
1. Suppose
8
8
metres by 4
metres. If I wanted to carpet the bedroom, and
9
9
I was able to buy a carpet measuring 5 metres by 5 metres, how many square metres of
2. My bedroom measures 4
4. Josephs mum made a big pizza for him and his three friends. She divided it in 18 portions.
Joseph ate
1
1
1
of it; Robert ate of the rest of the pizza; David and Paul ate
of the rest
3
4
3
each.
Guess how many portions everyone ate. Did they eat the
whole pizza?
Joseph: 1/3 of 18.
 Joseph:
Robert: 1/4 of the rest.
 Robert:
Is there anything
David: 1/3 of the second rest.  David:
left for me?
Paul: the same as David.
 Paul:
5. Johnny is a good football player. Last season, he scored 17 goals. That was
goals of his team. How many goals did the team score?
1
of the total
5
a a
a
=
b b
b
n+m
a a
a
: =
b b
b
nm
a
= 1 (for b 0)
b
n m
a n
a
=
b
b
a c
a c
=
b d
b d
an
a
= n (for b 0)
b
b
Activities
1. Calculate (follow the above index laws):
2
3
=
5
2 4
=
7 3
1 2
: =
4 9
3 3
=
10 10
( 3)3 ( 5)3
3 2 4 2
=
62
30 3
3 2
=
5
3
=
5
0
=
2
2
=
0
2
=
7
1
 =
9
Activities
1. Answer the questions:
 Whats the difference between
American billions and ours?
 How do we write our billions?
 Why are there three different
colours in the table?
 Whats the difference between
positive and negative powers?
2. Say some very big things we
measure with billions: _________
____________________________
___________________________.
3. Say some very small things we
measure with billionths: ________
____________________________
___________________________.
4. Write the whole numbers:
8 106: ...
5 109: ..
6 107: ...
RATIONAL NUMBERS are those that cant be expressed as a fraction, as they are non
repeating non terminating ( 2 =1,414213562373095048801688724209). Consequently,
it is impossible to get a fraction for such decimals.
75
100
3
4
Activities
a) Convert these fractions to decimals:
5
:
20
1
:
4
4
:
25
0.92:
0.845:
0. 6 :
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UNIT 5
ALGEBRA
Things to remember!
Activities
1. What property is involved?
a+5=5+a
2xy = 2 y x
x y z = y z x a (4 + b) = a 4 + a b
a+4=0
20 2a = 10
a + 8 = 15
a
5
a2 = 64
4
14
5
45
6
21
16
80
82 83 84 =
x3 : x2 =
y6 : y2 =
Algebraic expressions
Remember the concepts we learned last year:
Monomial
Degrees
Similar monomials
8xy + 5x2y3
Activities
1. Which expressions are monomials?
xy
2a
5ab
8+ab
3x2
5+b
1/a
a3
3x25y3
7x6y42z
x32y43z2
2xy3z5
x3y2
2x4y5
Coefficient
Literal part
Degree
5ab
5a2b
8a2b
6a3b
6a2b2
6a2b
2y + 3y y =
x2 + 3x 4x2 =
Division of monomials:
a
4x (3x3 + 2y3) = 4x 3x3 + 4x 2y3 =
23aaa 2
An algebraic fraction: (6a3) : (3a4) =
= 12x1+3 + 8xy3 = 12x4 + 8xy3
3aaaa a
Activities
1. Multiply a number by a monomial:
5 4x =
2
15 y
5
6 (2y) =
1
 ( 20b)
4
3 2x
4 5
5y6 (7y3) =
(2b2) (5a4b) =
6a2 (5ab) =
8
6x
2a : 6a3 =
15a3b2 : 5ab4 =
x2 : x4 =
4x3y2 : 2xy =
25xy4 : 5x5y3 =
Polynomials
 In general, a polynomial is an expression constructed from variables (or
indeterminates) and constants, using the operations of addition, subtraction or
multiplication. Examples:
x2 4x + 7 is a polynomial, but x2 4/x + 7x3/2 is not (because its second term
involves division by the variable x and also because its third term contains an exponent
that is not a number).
 We can also talk about binomials or trinomials (when two or three terms are
involved).
 The degree of a polynomial is that of its greatest monomial. Examples:
3x2 + 5xy 8
(second degree)
6x 1
(first degree)
 When the literal part takes a supposed numerical value, we can calculate the value of
the polynomial for that case. Example:
If x = 3 in the polynomial 3x + 4, then the value of the polynomial is 13.
But if x = 4, the value of the polynomial would change (16).
Activities
1. Say if the following expressions are polynomials or not; if not, explain why:
4a + 3b 2c  d
9 3a 8b
15x : 8y
9x + 1 = 19
5x2 + 2y3 8z + 1
4 (5 + 3)  1
(x 2) (y + 1)
 x2 + y2  2
x4 y3 + z 2
For x = 3
For x = 6
4x2 + 5
2x4 8
5x2 3x + 8
6x4 + 9x2  3
x3 + 8x2 x
3x2 x2 + x
SUBTRACTING POLYNOMIALS
3a + b  3c
3b + c  d
2a
+ 4d
5a + 4b 2c + 3d
8a 2b
10a + b
2a  3b
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL
A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
We make use of the distributive property Multiply each term of the multiplicand
of multiplication. This is illustrated in the separately by each term of the multiplier
following examples:
and combine the results with due regard to
signs.
4 (5 + a) = 20 + 4a
It is often convenient to place the
3 (a + b) = 3a + 3b
polynomial with the fewer terms beneath
the other and multiply term by term:
ab (x + y z) = abx + aby  abz
3x2  7x  9
Thus, to multiply a polynomial by a
2x  3
monomial, multiply each term of the
9x2 + 21x + 27
polynomial by the monomial.
6x3  14x2  18x
6x3  23x2 + 3x + 27
Activities
1. Add as indicated:
6x3  x 6
2x2 + 5x + 8
9x5 2x3 5x
2x6 + 5x4 + 8x3  1
5x3  4x2 7x + 6
 2x3 + 5x2 + 8x  9
2. Subtract:
(x + y) = x +2xy + y
(x  y)2 = x2 2xy + y2
(x  y) (x + y) = x2  y2
(x + a) (x + b) = x2 + (a + b)x + ab
(If you learn these usual products, you can save time when operating with polynomials.)
Activities
1. Calculate these special products:
(x + 5)2 =
(8 + x)2 =
(x 3)2 =
(4 x)2 =
(x 3) (x + 3) =
(x+ 8) (x + 5) =
(6 + x) (6 + y) =
(2x + 3) (2x + 6) =
6x + 3
3a2 + 9a
5x + 5y
UNIT 6
EQUATIONS
Things to remember:
 Definition: an equation is a
mathematical equality where two
things are exactly the same (or
equivalent), but only for one or
some values of the letters
involved. Equations are written
with an equal sign: 2x + 3 = 5.
An identity is an equality that
remains true for any value of the
variables that appear: 2x + 3x = 5x
 How to combine like terms: it is
the process used to simplify an
equation by adding and subtracting
the coefficients of terms. Example:
12x + 7 + 5x = 41 17x + 7 = 41
and finally 17x = 34
How to expand the brackets:
8 (5x 3) 40x 24 (distrib. property)

Activities
1. Tick on the equations. Give reasons for those that arent equations:
2x  4 = 12
4x + 9x = 13x
x+y=7
(5x 3) : 2 = 21
4x2 + 3x
3x2 8x + 6 = x
4 =
x2
5x 5
+4=
8x 8
x
7 =
( 3)( 2)
 Follow these basic rules to get x on its own on the LHS (Left Hand Side) of the equation:
a) Add or subtract the same number to each side of the equation.
3x + 1 = x  2
2x=3
Activities
1. Solve these linear equations:
5x + 6 = 46
x + 27
=2
2x
x3
=5
4
(x + 6) 3x = 30x
5x 3 + 6x = 10x + 1
10 x + 12
=6
2
2. Give the English names for the parts of the previous equations.
3. Are these equations equivalent or not?
6x 5 = 13 and 2x 2 = 4
8 4x = 0 and 16 2x = 0
x = 8 and x2 = 64
4. My father is 3 times older than me. Our ages sum 56 altogether. How
old are we?
Quadratic equations
A quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of the second degree. They are called
quadratic because quadratus is Latin for square; the leading term in the variable is squared.
The general form is:
ax2 + bx + c = 0
b b 2 4ac
x=
2a
Comments about it:
 You should learn it by heart, and then
change every letter in the formula by the real
numbers in any given quadratic equation.
 If b2 4ac is negative, there are no
solutions, because this would mean taking
the square root of a negative number.
 If b2 = 4ac, there is just one solution as no
square root is involved ( 0 ).
Activities
1. Solve these quadratic equations, if possible, by completing the square:
x2 = 64
6x2 + 6 = 300
2x2 10x = 0
x2 = 144
6x2 + 6 = 300
3x2 36x = 0
x2 5x + 6 = 0
3x2 5x 2 = 0
UNIT 8
First of all, remember some basic things about triangles we learned last year:
How to name the parts of a triangle (or other polygons):
 The vertices are named with a capital letter (A, B and C).
 The sides can be named with a small letter (a, b, and c) or with
the two capital letters (AB, BC, AC) of its end points.
 The angles are named with a capital letter and a ^ ().
How to measure angles:
 We use a protractor to measure the angles of any polygon. The
unity is the degree. One degree: 1/90 part of a right angle.
 About triangles, the sum of the measurement of angles equals
180 degrees (watch the yellow triangle on the right).
Types of triangles:
A) According to the measurement of the angles: at least two of
the three angles in any triangle must always be acute; looking at
the third angle, we can classify triangles as:
 Acute: if the third angle is < 90.
 Right: if the third angle measures 90.
 Obtuse: if the third angle is > 90.
B) According to the sides:
Equilateral: all the sides measure the same.
 Isosceles: two equal sides and one different.
 Scalene: the three sides are different.
Activities
1. Draw three triangles using your ruler and protractor:
Acute and equilateral
32, 59 and _____ 45, 45 and _____ 90, 24 and _____ 120, 41 and ____
5. According to their measurement, label the four triangles of the previous activity.
Area
Perimeter
Its the sum of its four sides.
Activities
1. Calculate the areas of the following polygons:
A square: side 7 cm:
2. With the data given in the previous activity, can you calculate the perimeter of those
polygons, or do you need some other measurement of the sides? Try to calculate perimeters.
Tip: Pythagoras can sometimes help.
Pythagoras Theorem
Pythagoras theorem shows the relationship among three
sides of a right triangle: the hypotenuse (c) and the two
catheti or legs (a and b). The theorem is as follows:
In any right triangle, the area of the square whose side is
the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to
the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two
legs or catheti. In other words:
The square of the hypotenuse
hypotenu is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other two sides.
Consequently, if we know the measure of two sides in a right
triangle, we can find out the length of the third side. It
doesnt work with acute or obtuse triangles.
Many real life problems can
ca be solved using Pythagorass
theorem.
Activities
1. Find out using Pythagoras theorem:
a) If the sides of a right triangle measure
measu 9 and 6 cm,
whats the approximate length of the hypotenuse?
In this real life triangle, what are the hypotenuse and the catheti?
2. A baseball problem:
You've just picked up a
ground ball at first base,
and you see the other
teams player running
towards third base. How
far do you have to throw
the ball to get it from first
base to third base, and tag
the runner out?
Similarity in triangles
Similarity expresses the relationship between two
t
or
more objects, in this case triangles. Consequently,
similarity studies the exact or approximate repetitions
of patterns in the compared triangles. Two triangles
(or any other geometrical objects) are called similar
if they both have the same shape.
Equivalently and more precisely, one triangle is
congruent to the result of a uniform scaling
(enlarging or shrinking) of the other. Corresponding
sides of similar triangles are in proportion, and
corresponding angles have the same measure.
Thales was
as known for his innovative use of Geometry. His
understanding was theoretical and practical. For example, he
said: "Place is the greatest thing, as it contains all things".
And he deduced: Parallel lines cutting two other lines
provide proportional measurements:
measu
AD DB
=
AE EC
Thales used the same method to measure the distances of
ships at sea, for example. We can find out measurements by
comparing proportionality of similar triangles or polygons.
Now, we can use Thales discoveries to
work with triangles.
Find the value of x and y:
Solution:: we have to write proportions
involving corresponding sides. Then, we
use cross products to solve:
4 x
= ; 6x = 36; x = 6
6 9
Whatss the measure of angle P?
4 7
Solution: P and S are corresponding angles.
= ; 4y = 42; y = 10.5
6 y
By definition of similar polygons, P = S = 86
Activities
1. Are the triangles shown in the figure similar?
Tip: Find the ratios of the corresponding sides; if the sides
are proportional,
tional, the angles are congruent.
4. Find EC:
Scale of a map
The scale of a map is the ratio of a single unit of distance on the map to the equivalent
distance on the ground. The scale can be expressed: in words, as a fraction, a ratio, a
fraction and as a graphical (bar) scale:
 The statement one millimetre represents 25 metres is an expression of scale in words.
 Scale expressed as a fraction, 1/25,000, means that any distance on the map is 1/25,000th
the distance on the ground. It expresses the amount of reduction of distances used to
represent detail on the map. The 25,000 value is called the scale denominator.
 Due to the curved surface of the earth on a flat map surface, the scale varies from place to
place. Thus a representative fraction is correct at the centre of the map but varies elsewhere.
So, a representative fraction is really a representative ratio.
 A graphical (bar) scale is a ruler with ground distances added, included in the margin of
most maps. The graphical scale is used to measure distances on the map. The distance on
the map is marked on the edge of a sheet of paper, which is then placed over the graphical
bar scale and the distance read.
Activities
1. Label the four ways to express scales:
0
500
1.000
1.500
Scale: 1 : 41.500.000
2.000 km
1
30,000
2. Order the previous scales and the maps they represent (from the highest to the lowest):
The highest:
After that:
Next:
The lowest:
3. Remember what you learned last year in Social Studies and match the columns:
A small scale map...
A large scale map...
A*
B*
o
o
o
o
1
2
3
4
c) The fraction
Unit 9
A polyhedron (plural polyhedra) is often defined as a geometric object with flat faces and
straight edges. We can say that a polyhedron contains different dimensions:
 3 dimensions: The body is bounded by the faces, and is usually the volume inside them.
 2 dimensions: A face is a polygon bounded by a circuit of edges, and usually including the
flat (plane) region inside the boundary. These polygonal faces together make up the
polyhedral surface.
 1 dimension: An edge joins one vertex to another and one face to another, and is usually a
line of some kind. The edges together make up the polyhedral skeleton.
 0 dimensions: A vertex (plural vertices) is a corner point.
Polyhedra are often named according to the number of faces, for example tetrahedron (4),
pentahedron (5), hexahedron (6), heptahedron (7), triacontahedron (30), and so on.
Often this is qualified by a description of the kinds of faces present, for example the rhombic
dodecahedron vs. the pentagonal dodecahedron.
Prisms, cubes and pyramids are the most common examples of polyhedra.
Activities
1. Describe the polyhedra shown above: number of faces, edges and vertices.
2. Are the above polyhedra regular or irregular? Why? Which ones are symmetrical?
3. According to the number of faces, what type of polyhedron is a pyramid?
A cube is a threedimensional
ensional solid object bounded by six square faces,
faces with three meeting at
each vertex. The cube can also be called a regular hexahedron.. It is a special kind of square
prism.
Activities
1. Describe this cube.
2. What are the differences
between a prism and a
cube?
3. How many edges and
vertices does a cube have?
A pyramid is a polyhedron formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point, called the
apex.. Each base edge and apex form a triangle.. It is a conic solid with polygonal base.
Pyramids can have from three to a virtually unlimited amount of sides. When unspecified,
unspecifi the
base is usually assumed to be square.
Activities
1. Describe these pyramids.
2. Whats the difference between
them?
3. Whats the meaning of h and s
on the second pyramid?
Extra activities
1. Can you think of any other types of polyhedra?
2. Surf the Net for information about the names in English of other polyedra.
3. Name the polyhedron built with the lowest quantity of sides, edges and vertices
4. Draw different polyhedra (overleaf). The teacher will tell you their measurements.
measurem
Activities
1. Calculate the surface areas of these polyhedra:
3. Calculate
te the surface area of a cube whose edge measures 15 cm.
4. A right pyramid 12 cm high stands on a square base of sides 10 cm. Calculate its surface area.
Activities
1. Describe
ibe these objects; say what solids of revolution are included in them:
2. Label the parts of the previous solids (base, lateral surfaces, edges, axis, radius, etc.)
etc.
3. True or false? If false, correct the sentences:
 A cone has got an appex. A cylinder has got two lateral surfaces.
 A hemisphere is half of a sphere. A sphere hasnt got any lateral surfaces.
 A conic section is a part of a full cone. A conic section
section has got two bases.
r=3m
r = 3 cm h = 4 cm
2. A solid sphere has a radius of 8 m. Calculate its surface area. (Take = 22/7)
Unit 10
Volumes
From these units, we see that 1000 millilitres equal 1 litre; so 1 millilitre equals 1 cubic
centimetre in volume.
Activities
1. Look at this picture and
answer the questions about it:
 What is its measurement?
 Translate into Spanish:
length:
height:
width:
 Is it a cubic metre or not?
 What type of polyhedra is it?
 How many faces has it got?
2. Calculate the equivalents to the cubic metre,, as the one shown in the previous picture:
 How many litress does it contain?
 How many centilitres does it contain?
3. Explain the meaning of these three
cubes drawn on your right:
 Why is the green cube included in the
pink one,, and both in the yellow one?
 What does m3 mean?
 How many pink cubes (dm3) can a
yellow cube (m3) contain?
4. About the English language:
 Whats the difference between litre
and liter, or centimetre and centimeter?
 Read aloud: 10 m3, 34 cm3, 67 dm3.
Equation
A cube
a3
A rectangular prism:
Variables
a = length of any side (or edge)
A nonright prism:
Bh
A pyramid:
1
Ah
3
A cylinder:
r 2 h
A cone:
1 2
r h
3
A sphere:
4 3
r
3
An ellipsoid:
r = radius of sphere
4
abc a, b, c = semiaxes of ellipsoid
3
Among the solids of revolution, the volume of
the cylinder is the largest. The volume of the
cone is one third of the volume of the
cylinder and it is the smallest. The volume of
a hemisphere is twice the volume of the cone
or two thirds the volume of the cylinder.
Activities
1. Calculate the volume of these solids:
(a) Cone: r = 6 cm, h = 8 cm
(b) Cylinder: r = 6 cm, h = 8 cm
(c) Hemisphere: r = 6 cm
2. Compare the volume of the above solids with the volume of a sphere whose radius is 6
cm:
3. Compare volumes of a prism and a pyramid: suppose they have the same measurements.
r = 5 cm
h = 9 cm
w=4m
h=6m
w=9m
h=4m
l=5m
Length of d ?
r = 200 m
Diameter = 50 m
Cylinder
Side = 14 cm
Height = 25 cm
r=9m
Cone frustum
h = 15 m
What is g?
Pyramid frustum
A frustum is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) which lies between two
parallel planes cutting the solid.
Unit 11
FUNCTIONS
Things to remember:
Cartesian coordinate
ordinate grid is the
system of axes where data are placed
both horizontal and vertically. The coco
ordinates are written as pairs of
numbers inside brackets, like (4, 3):
 The first number, called x coordinate
co
(abscissa),
), tells how many across from
zero to move.
 The second
ond number is the y coordinate (ordinate) and it tells how
many up or down to move.
 The origin is the point (0, 0).
 With negative numbers inside the
brackets, we will need four quadrants:
the axes are extended to create these
four sections: a negative x coordinate
co
means that you move to the left from
the origin; a negative y coordinate
co
means you move down from the origin.
A fourquadrants
quadrants grid
Activities
1. Write the coordinates
ordinates of the points shown on the left grid:
A: ( ,
) B: ( ,
) C:: ( ,
) D: ( ,
)
2. Plot and label the following points on the left grid:
(1, 4), (4, 1), (0, 3), (3, 0), (4,
4, 2), (0, 0), (1, 1)
3. Whats the point of origin?
4. Describe the Cartesian grid; say the names of axes,
quadrants and how to place data.
5. A company called
Natural Soda, Inc. sells
Sodium
Bicarbonate.
Have a look at its sales
graph and describe it.
...
...
...
...
...
...
The independent variable is the one shown horizontally (on the x axis).
The dependent variable is given vertically (on the y axis). And this variable y is said
to be the function of x:
x f(x). The dependent variable y depends on the independent one
x:: for every value given to x, there is only one value for y.
When the values of the variables are real numbers, we can draw the graph of the function:
function
it shows more clearly how the function works. There are different types of functions:
The largest value of y in a function is its maximum;; the smallest value is its minimum.
Activities
1. Say if the following graphs are functions or not; give your arguments:
Is it increasing or decreasing?
Is it increasing or decreasing?
3. Draw a graph where there is more than one value for x, so it isnt really a function:
Activity
Look at the following table and build its graph (give numbers from 1 to 12 for every month):
Months of the year
Temperature (C)
10
11
13
15
15
14
12
11
10
A functional equation expresses the relation between the value of a function (or functions)
at a point with its values at other points. Properties of functions can for example be
determined by considering the types of functional equations they satisfy; there is an algebraic
relation between x and the values of y;; consequently, we can find out values of y. Example:
y = x + 2 (if x = 1, then y =3; if x = 2, then y =4; and so on)
Then, the graph made in the previous activity cannot be expressed as an equation, because
temperature and months of a year cannot have any algebraic relationship.
Activity
Represent the graph of the function whose equation is y = x. Is it increasing or decreasing?
Linear functions
The term linear function refers to a firstfirst
degree polynomial function of
o one
variable. It is called linear because it is
represented with a straight line in the
Cartesian coordinate graph. Such a
function can be written as:
f(x) = mx + n
The terms m and b are real constants and
x is a real variable. The constant
constan m is
often called the slope or gradient,
gradient while n
is the yintercept,, which gives the point
of intersection between the graph of the
function and the yaxis.
axis. Changing m
makes the line steeper or shallower, while
changing n moves the line up or down.
Examples
les of functions whose graph is a
line include these:
f2(x) = x / 2 + 1 f3(x) = x / 2 1 f1(x) = 2x + 1
As a summary, the gradient of the straight line is m. The value of the gradient determines
the slope of the line. A value close to 0 makes the line more horizontal whereas greater
values make the line more vertical.
Activities
1. Real life example:
Brad sells a vacuum cleaner and earns 4
as commission for each vacuum cleaner he
sells. The owner pays him depending
dependin on
how many vacuum cleaners he sells.
Identify the table that best suits the
situation, and also plot a graph for the
input  output table:
Activities
1. Which of the following equations represent a constant function? Choose the right option:
A. x = 3
B. 2x + y = 4
C. y = 6
D. 2y + x = 12
Activities
1. Have a look at this graph and try
to explain its meaning, axes and
relation between them.
2. Questions about the graph:
a) Does it correspond to a direct
proportional function?
b) Why do you think so?
c) What is its functional equation?
d) What is its proportionality factor?
e) How many kilometres will be run
in 10 hours, for example?
3. Another reallife
life problem to work with:
Andrews computer downloads 3 songs a minute when it is
properly working:
a) What is its functional equation? ..............................................
........................................
b) Is it a linear function? .............................................................
c) Is it a direct proportional function? .........................................
d) Whats its proportionality factor m? .......................................
e) Guess the value of y for x = 8. ..............................................
f) Plot its functional graph.
Unit 12
STATISTICS
Activities
1. Tell if these variables are qualitative or quantitative:
Favourite football team.
Places to go on holidays.
TV programmes spectators.
2. Have a look at these two frequency tables and answer the questions about them:
The rain in Glasgow during a winter week:
Day
Rain (l/m2)
Sunday
8
Monday
12
Tuesday
0
Wednesday
5
Thursday
23
Friday
15
Saturday
12
Absolute frequency:
Relative frequency:
Number of people
5
45
32
14
5
2
Absolute frequency:
Relative frequency:
f (zero) = _______
f (three) = _______
fr (two) = _______
fr (four) = _______
Types of averages
One way of analysing data is to find averages; averages are used to represent a middle or
typical value in a set of numbers. There are three types of averages:
Mode
Median
It is the most popular or The numbers are placed in
frequent value in a list, the order and then we get the
most repeated one.
middle value; if there are two
middle values, the median is
Example: with the numbers in the number halfway between
this list (5, 7, 3, 4, 7, 5, 7) the them; in our example: 3, 4, 5,
mode is 7.
5, 7, 7, 7; and the median is 5.
Mean
We sum up all the numbers
and then divide the total by
the quantitity of numbers.
Ex: 3 + 4 + 5 + 5 +7 + 7 + 7 = 38
38 : 7 = 5.42
There is a fourth concept called range: it is the difference between the highest and the lowest
values in a set of numbers; it is useful because it gives us a sense of how the data differ.
Using the same example as above: the highest number was 7 and the lowest 3; then, 7 3 = 4
Activities
1. Find the mode, median, mean and range of this set of data:
Marias Maths test scores (out of 10):
Mode:
6, 5, 2, 5, 6, 4, 8, 4, 5, 6, 6, 3, 7
Median:
Mean:
Range:
2. Do the same with this table about the number of pupils in every classroom in our school:
E.S.O. 1 A:
E.S.O. 1 B:
Mode:
30
28
E.S.O. 2 A: 29
E.S.O. 2 B: 30
E.S.O. 3 A:
E.S.O. 3 B:
Median:
Mean:
25
27
E.S.O. 4 A:
E.S.O. 4 B:
24
26
Range:
c) The mean of nine numbers is 9. When a tenth number is added the average of the ten
numbers is also 9. What is the tenth number?
d) A class of 25 students took a science test. 10 students had an average (mean) score of 80.
The other students had an average score of 60. What is the average score of the whole class?