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# UNIT 1

## DIVISIBILITY AND INTEGER NUMBERS

Things to remember:
Divisions can be:
Think:
- Exact.
- Integer.

## Types of numbers: In mixed operations, calculate

When are
first the brackets, then
- Integer
negative numbers
- Natural
multiply or divide and finally
- Negative...
necessary?

Relation of divisibility
When we divide a number by another and the remainder is zero, there is a
relation of divisibility between both numbers. For example, 30 and 6.
Here, 30 is a multiple of 6; and 6 is a divisor of 30

Multiples
- Every time we multiply a number by any other natural number, we get a multiple of it:
for example, to get multiples of 17: 17 2 = 34
17 3 = 51
17 4 = 68 ...
- Any number is multiple of itself and of 1.

Activities
1. Calculate 10 multiples of 7:

- Is 7 a multiple of 7? ............................ Why? ..............................................................
- How many multiples has 0 got? ......................... Why? ..............................................
- How many multiples has 8 got? ......................... Why? ............................................
- How many multiples has 1 got? ......................... Why? ...............................................
- Is there a multiple of ? ..................................Why? ...............................................
3. Check the property of adding two multiples of a number:
Get two multiples of 9:
______ and _______
Get another multiple of 9:
____________

______ + _____ = ______
Add it to 20 (no multiple):
____+ __20__ = ______

## Is the sum a multiple of 9 ?

Yes ? - No ?
Is the sum a multiple of 9 ?
Yes ? - No ?

Divisors
- All the numbers that can divide another number (and get zero as remainder) are
called divisors of that number. Example:
5 is a divisor of 20, because 20 : 5 = 4 (and zero in the quotient)
- Any number has got a finite quantity of divisors.
- Any number has got, at least, two divisors: 1 and itself.
- 1 is divisor of any number; the quotient is always that number.

Activities
1. Have these numbers got a relation of divisibility?
12 and 5
33 and 11

8 and 1
100 and 9

## 2. Write all the divisors of...:

18 :
25 :

43 :
21 :

3. Read the following list of numbers and then answer the questions:
2
-

14

27

35

50

68

72

84

99

111

95

100

150

## Which ones are divisors of 100?: .....................................................

Which ones are divisors of 27?: .....................................................
Which ones are multiples of 2? .....................................................
Which ones are multiples of 9? .....................................................

6 :
11 :

21 :
200 :

## 5. Classify among the following numbers:

2

18

Multiples of 3 Multiples of 5

40

54

65

77

88

## Multiples of 25 Divisors of 40 Divisors of 54 Divisors of 300

Criteria of divisibility
How to find out if a number is a multiple of 2, 3, 5, 9, 10? Remember the rules:
Multiples of 2

Multiples of 5

Multiples of 10

They are even numbers; their They always finish in 0 or 5. They always finish in 0.
last digit is 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 or 8.
Multiples of 3

Multiples of 9

## When a number is a multiple of 3, When the sum of the digits of a

the sum of all its digits is a multiple number is a multiple of 9, that
of 3.
number is consequently a multiple of
9, too.

Activities
1. Are these numbers multiples of 2, 3, 5, 9 or 10? Check the right squares:
Numbers Multiple of
2?

10
16
27
153
270
900

Multiple of
3?

Multiple of
5?

Multiple of
9?

Multiple of
10?

- Are all the multiples of 3 also multiples of 9?

## - Are all the even numbers multiples of 10?

.
- Can an odd number be a multiple of 2?
..
- Can an odd number be a multiple of 3?
..
- Can an even number be a multiple of 9?
.

## Prime numbers and composite numbers

A prime number can be divided only by itself and 1.
A composite number can be divided by other numbers than 1 and itself.
Composite numbers can be factored (written as a multiplication). Example: 15 = 3 5

Activities
1. Factor these composite numbers (with only prime factors in the answer):
16:
40:

85:
108:

7

15

Prime
numbers

17

24

Composite
numbers

35

53

Even
numbers

69

75

Odd
numbers

92

113

Multiples of
3

131

150

Divisors of
150

65

104

126

144

190

198

## Lowest common multiple

In general, a common multiple is the multiple of more than one number. Example: 30 is a
common multiple of 2, 3, 5, 6, 10 and 15.
The lowest common multiple is the smallest among all the common multiples of several
numbers. 18 is the lowest common multiple of 6 and 9, but not of 2 and 3 (which is 6).

In order to find out the lowest common multiple of two (or more) numbers:
- First, get the prime factors of each number.
- Then, multiply all those factors by each other, taking their highest power.
Example: the lowest common multiple of 30 and 40:
- Prime factors of both :
30 = 2 3 5
; 40 = 23 5
3
- And multiplying them:
2 3 5 = 120

Activity
Find the lowest common multiple of these numbers:
14 and 16:

25 and 45:

33 and 52:

80 and 120:

## Highest common factor

In general, a common factor can divide several numbers. 3 is a common factor of 6 and 9.
The highest common factor is the biggest among all the common factors we can find.
Example: 3 is a common factor of 30 and 45, but not their highest common factor (it is 15).
In order to find out the highest common factor of two (or more) numbers:
- First, get the prime factors of each number.
- Then, multiply only the factors they have in common, taking their lowest power
(if there are several).
Example: the highest common factor of 30 and 40:
- Prime factors of both :
30 = 2 3 5
; 40 = 23 5
- And multiplying them:
2 5 = 10

Activity
Find the highest common factor of these numbers:
26 and 104:

35 and 105:

14 and 60:

27 and 180:

Things you should remember!
Integer numbers (Z)
include all whole
positive (1, 2, 3, 4)
and negative (-1, -2, 3, -4) numbers plus
zero (0). Decimals
and fractions are not
integers.
Integers are infinite.

The absolute
value of an
integer is the
positive form of
the number:
|3| = 3 |-3| =
3

The opposite of
an integer is the
same number, but
with
different
sign:
Opposite of 5 is 5.

Comparing
positive
integers, the greater is
the one with a bigger
absolute value (6 > 4);
but in negative integers
the greater is that with
a smaller absolute
value
(-6 < -4).
Positive integers are
greater than negative
ones. Zero is greater
than negatives.

Activities
1. What's the absolute value of...?
| 7 | : .................

## 2. What's the opposite of...?

-4 : ................. 25 : ..................... -65 : ..................... 19 : .................. -12 : ..............
3. Write these numbers from the lowest to the greatest:
12

-12

|-12|

-4

|5|

-19

-1

-7

.......................................................................................................................................
4. Write < or > to compare the numbers:
5 ..................... -3

-25 .....................-5

2 ..................... |-12|

7 ................. -1

|-6| ....................-6

18 .................. 19

-13 ...................... 12

- 1 .....................0

## With the same sign:

Examples: 7 + 9 = +16

-5 8 = -13

## With different signs:

Examples:-8 + 3 = -5 -5 + 9 = 4

72=5

## Additions and subtractions with brackets

Example: + (+7) = +7
Subtracting a positive number:
Example: - (+7) = -7

Example: + (-7) = -7
Subtracting a negative number:
Example: - (-7) = +7

## Adding and subtracting inside the brackets

( GENERAL RULE: add all the positive numbers; add all the negative numbers;
subtract both results; and get the sign of the result with greater absolute value )
+(-7 + 2 -3) = +(-8) = -8
+(7 2 + 3) = +(+8) = +8

## -(-7 + 2 -3) = -(-8) = +8

- (7 2 + 3 ) = -(+8) = -8

Activities
1. Solve the operations:
+ 3 -4 + 5 - 1 =
-3-64+9=

7+38+1=
-5 + 6 +9 -8 =

- 5 + 2 +3 -8 =
-42-5=

8 + 6 + 3 -5 =
+ 14 3 4 + 2 =

-(+15) =
+(+12) =

-(-18) =
+(-30) =

+(-6) =
- (+3) =

+(+7) =
-(-5) =

+(+3) - (+6) =

-(-2) - (-4) =

+(-6 8 + 10) =

+(-23) - (-7) =

+(+2) - (+8) =

-(-9 + 4 + 1) =

-(+9) + (+12) =

+(+5) + (+20) =

+(+6 7 - 5) =

## Multiplication of integer numbers

The rule of the signs:
The product of two integer numbers is:

## Positive, if the factors have the same sign:

+ +=+
- -=+
Negative, if the factors have different
signs:
+ -=- +=-

## Positive, if there is an even number of

negative factors: (+3) (-2) (-1) (+4) =
+24
Negative, if there is an odd number of
negative factors: (+5) (-2) (-4) (-1) = 40

## Division of integer numbers

It is exactly the same as in the multiplication, but there are only two elements: dividend
and divisor. And the rules of the signs work just the same as in the other operations:
(-6) : (-2) = 3

(+6) : (+2) = 3

(-6) : (+2) = -3

(+6) : (-2) = -3

Mixed operations
When different operations are mixed together:
- First solve the operation inside the brackets.
- Then, do the multiplications and divisions.
- Finally, do the additions and subtractions.

Activities
1. Solve these multiplications:
(+3) (+5) =

(+7) (-2) =

(+45) : (-3) =

(+35) : (+7) =

(-144) : (+12) =

(-72) : (-9) =

(+88) : (-11) =

(+18) : (-3) =

2. Divide:

## 3. Solve the mixed operations in the right order:

15 3 [(-8) + (-4) : (+2)] =

20 : 5 + [(+6) (-4) + 5] =

## Powers of integer numbers

Remember that... :
A power is a short form to write the factors in a multiplication if the factors are equal:
3 3 3 3 3 = 35
Here, 3 is called the base and 5 is the index or power (or exponent in American
English).

## BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT THE POWERS:

A positive index corresponds to a multiplication. Example: x 5 = x x x x x
When the base is negative:

the product will be positive if the index is an even number: (-4)2 = +16
but the product will be negative if the index has got an odd number: (-4)3 = -64

## If the index is zero the result is always equal to 1. Example: x0 = 1

If the base is one, the answer will always be one. Example: 112 = 1

Activities
1. Calculate the base ten powers:

103 =

(-10)5 =

(-10)4 =

(-10)0 =

4 4 4 4 4=

6 6 6=

5 5 5=

10 10 10 10 =

2x = 512

x6 = 1

3x = 27

x4 = 625

(-7)2 =

(-4)4 =

(-3)6 =

(- 8)3 =

(-2)5 =

(-1)7 =

## Operations with powers

a) When the powers are equal:
To multiply two powers together, you should To divide two powers, you should divide the
multiply the bases and keep the same bases and keep the same power.
power.
Example: 45 55 = (4 5)5 = 205

## b) When the bases are equal:

To multiply two powers together
This works for both positive and
negative index numbers.

## To divide one power by another

you should subtract the indices.
This works for both positive and
negative index numbers.

To evaluate the
power of a power,
we multiply their
indices.

Example: 32 33 = 32+3 = 35

Example: 46 : 42 = 46-2 = 44

Ex: (24)2 = 24 2 = 28

Activities
1. Resolve the operations:
24 34 =

63 - 42 =

52 + 2-3 =

54 : 52 =

32 22 =

54 34 =

103 : 53 =

95 23 =

5 5 5 5 = x4 =

(42)5 = 4x =

43 45 = 4x =

x5 55 = 155

36 : 34 = 3x =

x4 : 44 = 64

362 : (62 22) =

## 524 : (53 57) =

(-10)3 (-4)-4 =

[(-5)2 (+3)2] : 82 =

[(-2)3 (+4)2] 44 =

33 (-3)4 (-3)2 =

## Square roots of integer numbers

General characteristics:
- Square roots and powers are opposite operations:

9 = 3 and

32 = 9

- A positive number has two square roots, one positive and one negative. The square
roots of 25 are 5 and -5 (because -5 -5 = 25). A negative number hasnt got any square
roots.
- As well as square roots, there are cube roots 3

, fourth roots 4

, etc.

Activities
1. Get the opposite operation:
81 = 9 and __________
_________

25 = 5 and

144 = 12 and

_________

(+ 36) =
3 ( 64 ) =
4

(+ 16) =

0 =
6
1=

( 88) =

(+ 169) =
3

3=

( 2) =

UNIT 2

## DECIMAL SYSTEM OF UNITS. SEXAGESIMAL SYSTEM

THINGS TO REMEMBER!
- In the decimal system the value of a digit depends on its position:
Hundreds

Tens

Units

DOT ( . )

Tenths

Hundredths Thousandths

For example, in the number 238.136 the 3 in the tens has a value of 30 units (because of its
position) but the other 3 in the hundredths has a value of 0.03 units.
- How to multiply or divide decimal numbers, paying attention to the dot and the quantity of
decimals involved in the operation. Example: 25.346 12.41 = 314.54386 (the factors have
altogether 5 decimals, then the product has 5 decimals, except if the last one(s) is/are zero).
- Rounding decimals to the nearest whole number, to the tenths, hundredths or thousandths:
Example:

Whole number:

Tenths:

Hundredths:

Thousandths:

762.8469

763

762.8

762.85

762.847

- Do not mix quantities and operations made in the decimal system with others in the
sexagesimal system. Example: 1 hour and ten minutes is not 1.10 hours!

Activities
1. Whats the value of each digit?
184.35: the value of 1 is ................; the value of 8 is ..............; the value of 4 is ...............;
the value of 3 is ....................... and the value of 5 is ...........................
2. How many hundredths are there in ...?
7 units:
1 hundred:

8 tens:
3 thousandths:

8 tenths:
4 hundredths:

3. Calculate (remember in English there isnt a comma to separate decimals, but a dot):
15.67 10 =
16.5 : 10 =

148.1 100 =
1.65 : 10 =

1.481 100 =
505.1 : 10 =

Example:

Whole number:

Tenths:

Hundredths:

Thousandths:

43.6491

## Decimal numbers (general concepts)

The decimal (base ten) numeral system has ten as its base. It is the most widely used
numeral system, perhaps because humans have ten digits over both hands.
Decimal numbers have an integer part, a dot and a decimal part, where parts of a full unit are
indicated. Example: 15.369
(and we read it: fifteen point three six nine).
Why are decimal numbers necessary? Because we can have more precise quantities of
anything with decimal numbers; one unit is divided in ten tenths; one tenth is divided in ten

hundredths, one hundredth is divided in ten thousandths, and so on with even smaller
submultiples. We generally dont use full units in our lives, but parts of a unit. I buy things
that cost 3.15 or I drink half a litre of water (0.5), for example.
There are different types of decimal numbers:
-

## Terminating decimals (also called exact): in the operation 15 : 4 = 3.75

there is a decimal number with a finite quantity of digits.
Repeating decimals (also called recurring decimals) have an infinite
quantity of digits. We can get two possibilities among recurring decimals:
20 : 3 = 6.6666
(just repeating the same digit).
35 : 6 = 5.83333
(in the decimal part, some digits arent
repeating until it becomes periodic).
Non terminating non repeating decimals: there are infinite digits, without
being repeated: 3 = 1.7320508075688772935274463415059

Activities
1. Are these decimals exact, repeating or non terminating non repeating?
2.236067977499

6.6161616161

8.265

9.748888888

## Working with decimals (Review):

- How to order decimal numbers:

Look at the integer part; the decimal with a higher integer part is the highest: 5.75 < 6.75
If the integer parts are equal, the decimal with the highest tenths is the highest: 2.5 < 2.7
If the integer and the tenths are equal, look at the hundredths. Example: 2.55 < 2.56
And then to the thousandths: 2.552 < 2.558

- Tip: you can add extra zeros at the end of each decimal so that all the decimals have the
same number of digits: remember that 2.2 is equal to 2.200, for example.
- Between two decimal numbers we can always find other decimals, in fact, there is an
infinity of decimals. Example: between 6.4 and 6.5, you can find 6.41, 6.42, 6.421 ...
- A number with many decimals is not often used in fast calculations, so we round it. How
to round decimals? Delete the digits you don't need beginning with the lowest in value on
the right; if the first deleted digit is equal or higher than 5, add 1 to the previous digit. The
most common rounding is called to one decimal place (there is only one digit in the decimal
part).

Activities
1. Order these decimals from greatest to lowest:
0.901
>

0.91
>

0.9
>

0.091

0.1
>

9.01
>

9.101
>

9.11
>

9.1
>

Number:

## To one decimal place:

To the nearest
hundredth:

7.4893
186.5067
12.999
29.081
3. Which decimal is the nearest to 5.15 ? (underline it):
5.05

5.50

15.15

5.14

5.149

5.1415

5.155

5.152

49.056

49.05

10.936

17.564

17.56

88.9

10.94

25.7

89

12.78469

25.8

12.785

## Operations with decimal numbers

- Write the whole numbers in columns. Make sure the decimals are in the same place.
- Add or subtract units with units, tenths with tenths...
- Negative decimals behave exactly like negative integers (see the rules).
Examples:
2.5 + 3.64 = 6.14
5.76 3.426 = 2.334
Multiplications
- Multiply the factors like integers.
- In the product, be careful with the decimal: count the total number of decimals in both
factors and add that quantity in the product (example: if there are two decimals in one factor
and three in the other, the product should have five decimals).
Example:
5.2 2.42 = 12.584
Divisions with decimal numbers
When only the dividend is a decimal number:

## - Divide like integer numbers.

- When the decimal (dot) appears in the
dividend, write it in the quotient.
- Continue dividing the rest of the digits.
- Add zeros in the divident for a more precise
decimal quotient.

## - Multiply dividend and divisor by the unit

(1) followed by as many zeros as the number
of decimals in the divisor.
-Then, the divisor becomes integer and the
quotient won't change (as it is equivalent).
-Divide following the rules.

Activities
1. Solve the operations vertically:
7.04 + 10.203 =

105.88 - 7.99 =

12.67 8.3 =

25.83 : 9.2 =

2. Calculate without using your calculator (round the products to the hundredths):
8.4 + 6.51 5.02 =

## 3. Solve the problem:

John works as a shop-assistant. He receives 4.70 euros an hour; he works for 4.5 hours every
day, six days a week. Solve:
How much does he earn in one day?

in 4 weeks?

## Square roots and decimal numbers

Solve square roots with decimal numbers in the same way you solved square roots of
integers. Just be careful when you get to the decimal point: keep the decimal point in the
same spot and continue to solve. If necessary, you can round large decimals.

1. Search these square roots; round large decimals to the thousandths:
6 .4 =

32.54 =

140.16 =

0.86 =

524.55 =

254.302 =

- Can negative decimals have square roots?................. Why? .
- Can decimals have two square roots, or just one? ...
- Can we subtract one decimal square root from another? .
- Whats the difference between square roots of integers and those of decimal numbers?.......
- Which internal operations must we do when calculating square roots? ..

## SEXAGESIMAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

At the beginning of the unit we said that the decimal (base ten) numeral system has ten as its
base. Now we are going to learn about the sexagesimal system, where number sixty is the
base for operations. With it we can measure:
- Time: there are sixty seconds in one minute and sixty minutes in one hour; consequently,
half an hour is 30 minutes. Be careful not to mix it up with decimal system operations:
1
1
1
Example: 1 minute is
in the sexagesimal system, but
or even
in the decimal one.
60
10
100
The quantity expressed can be rather different, so careful not to become confused.

- Angles: as a complete circle has got 360, we can have four right angles measuring 90
each. One degree has got sixty minutes (60) and one minute has got sixty seconds (60).
Geographic coordinates of latitude and longitude are also expressed in sexagesimal degrees.
Finally, we can express the same sexagesimal quantity in two ways:
- Complex form: the measure is expressed with different units: 2 hours and 20 minutes.
- Non-complex form: the measure is expressed with a same unit: 140 minutes.
We have to know how to change a quantity from one form to another. It is necessary to
remember that a degree, or an hour, is made up of 60 minutes and each minute is 60
seconds.

Activities
1. Are these quantities complex or non-complex?
4.33 hours

37 15

30 minutes

240

95

3 hours, 20 minutes

10 10

70 seconds

2. Change the complex quantities in the previous activity into non-complex ones, and vice versa:

## 3. Change these complex quantities to non-complex ones:

3 60: .............. min. 24 hours, 10 minutes:
90 14 60:
3598 min., 120 sec.:
3 60: .............. sec. ................... seconds. .................... seconds. ...................... hours.
4. Change these non-complex quantities to complex:
6500 minutes:

24.5 hours:

3000:

2000:

SUBTRACTION

## When time or the measure of two angles are

expressed in a complex form, we have to sum
separately the hours (or degrees) and then
their minutes. Examples:
Time: (2 h. 5 m.) + (4 h. 15 m.) = 6 h. 20 m.
Degrees: (23 35) + (17 14) = 40 49
But if the minutes sum to more than 60,
know that every 60 forms a new hour or
degree:
Time: (2 h. 55 m.) + (4 h. 7 m.) = 7 h. 2 m.
Degrees: (23 55) + (17 14) = 41 9

## First, the minuend should be bigger than the

subtrahend; we have to subtract the hours or
degrees and then the minutes. Examples:
Time: (5 h. 35 m.) (3 h. 30 m.) = 2 h. 5 m.
Degrees: (55 30) (25 25) = 30 5

MULTIPLICATION BY A NUMBER

DIVISION BY A NUMBER

## If the minutes in the minuend are less than

those in the subtrahend, add 60 to the
minuend; subtract 1 hour or degree on its
left:
Time: (5 h. 35 m.) (3 h. 36 m.) = 1 h. 59
m.
Degrees: (55 30) (25 31) = 29 59

First get the product of the hours or degrees First, divide the hours or degrees by the
and then the product of the minutes.
given number; its remainder becomes
minutes to add to the previous minutes; then
Example: (12 14) 4 = 48 56
continue dividing all the minutes by the
If the product of the minutes is greater than given number.
60, remember that every 60 minutes
completes another full hour or degree. So, Example:
divide that quantity by 60 to get new degrees.
(50 18) : 4 = 12 (120 + 18) : 4 =
The remainder in that division is the seconds.
Example: (40 15) 5 = 200 75 = 201 15
= 12 (138: 4) = 12 34 and 2 left.

Activities
1. Operating with angles:
63 15
+ 29 48

56 28
- 22 57

(123 25) 3 =

(225 15) : 5 =

( 8 h. 15 m.)
- ( 5 h. 19 m.)

(12 h. 50 m.) 6 =

(15 h. 40 m.) : 7 =

## 2. Operating with time:

( 3 h. 54 m.)
+ ( 4 h. 18 m.)
3. Problems:
a) Yesterday, Tom started reading a book. He read for 2 hours and 30 minutes. Today he
read for another hour and 45 minutes until he finished the book. How long did he read for in
total?
b) Johns sister, Paula, read the same book last month. She read it in 7 hours and 12 minutes.
Who read the book faster? Whats the difference in minutes between the two?

UNIT 3

FRACTIONS
INTRODUCTION:

THINGS TO REMEMBER!

In Mathematics, a fraction expresses a part of a whole. There are full objects, but sometimes
we need to speak about just a part of it. Each fraction consists of a numerator (at the top,
showing the part of a whole) and a denominator (at the bottom, expressing the whole). When
we say 2/3 (read two thirds) of a cake, we are talking about two parts of the complete cake
(which was previously divided in three parts).
A fraction can also be:

A division

An operator

## It is the quotient of the numerator divided by the

denominator. Then, we can express it with a decimal number:
3
= 3 : 5 = 0 .6
5
If the numerator is a multiple of the denominator, the quotient
is a natural number without decimals:
8
= 8:4 = 2
4
But, as a division the quotient can also be a repeating decimal
with infinite digits. Then, a fraction is more accurate than a
decimal:

1
= 0.11111... = 0. 1
9

## It is a number that changes

another quantity.
To calculate a fraction of a
full number, the quantity is
divided by the denominator
and then multiplied by the
numerator. Example:
3
of a five litres bottle:
4
5 : 4 = 1.25 1.25 3 = 3.75 l.

Activities
1. Express these fractions as decimal numbers (dividing numerators by denominators). Then,
say if the decimals are exact, repeating or non terminating non repeating
4
5

6
2

7
3

0.8

Exact
decimal

Integer

2
7

5
5

9
4

23
16

12
13

1
4

8
8

2. Now, classify the previous fractions from the greatest to the lowest:
>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

## 3. Fractions as operators. Calculate:

5 / 8 of 30

2 / 7 of 80

4 / 10 of 35

1 / 6 of 60

4 / 11 of 150

Equivalent fractions
Definition: If two fractions have the same quotient when the numerator is divided by the
denominator, they are equivalent.
Example: 6 / 8 and 12 / 16 are equivalent because the quotient in both divisions is 0.75.

How to get equivalent fractions: multiply or divide both numerator and denominator
by the same number. Then, the quotient wont change. Consequently, there are infinite
equivalent fractions. This is the main property of fractions.
Example: 2 / 3 equivalents are 6 / 9 (multiplying it by 3) and 10/15 (by 5).

How to simplify fractions: divide both numerator and denominator by the same
number. This process is called cancelling. When nothing more can be cancelled, we say that
the fraction is simplified or reduced to its lowest terms (irreducible).
Example: 8 / 10 is simplified dividing both terms by 2: 4 / 5 and that fraction is irreducible.

Activities
1. Find the two equivalent fractions in every group:
8
12

4
6

6
4

5
15

4
14

1
5

9
8

30
21

10
7

50
6

1
4

25
100

2. Find two equivalent fractions for those without any in the previous activity:

3. Simplify these fractions, if possible, and express them in their simplest form (irreducible):
15
12
20
36

2
7
24
72

20
5
3
2

75
125
108
27

16
20
2
6

and
and

4
x
x
78

6
18
25
x

and
and

24
x
5
20

8
40
15
9

and
and

40
x
x
45

x
15
9
x

and
and

9
45
1
10

## 5. Find the irreducible fraction in every group:

6
10

5
8

16
21

17
11

8
32

3
33

40
15

30
23

24
30

21
14

2
14

14
5

6. Choose the greatest fraction in every group; then, find one equivalent and its irreducible one:

8
15

1
8

10
12

12
30

18
4

30
14

100
15

15
100

16
2

2
8

2
10

3
18

## Finding the common denominator

In many operations we can't use fractions because they have different denominators. So it is
necessary to find a common denominator. There are two steps to finding it:
a) Get the lowest common multiple of the denominators. Remember how to do it (getting
their prime factors and multiplying them using their highest index):
1
1
Example: and (the denominators are 2 and 3; 6 is their lowest common multiple).
2
3
b) Change every fraction into its equivalent with that common denominator. Consequently,
we have to divide their lowest common multiple by the denominators. Then, we get the
number we need to be multiplied by the numerators and get equivalent fractions:
1
3
1
2
Example: (multiplying by 3) is equivalent to and (multiplying by 2) is equivalent to .
2
6
3
6

Activities
1. Find the lowest common denominator:
3
2

and

2
5

5
6
and
8
7

7
3
6
,
and
10 5
25

11
5
,
20
24

and

4
2
1
,
and
7 11
14
10
28

5 6
,
9 5

and

8
15

## 3. Order the previous fractions from the greatest to the lowest:

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

4. Find the common denominator of these fractions; get their equivalent ones and order them
from the lowest to the greatest:
6
7

4
15

5
4

8
20

7
25

6
18

Common denominator: _ _ _ _

- Equivalent fractions:
- Order them:

<

<

<

<

<

## Addition and subtraction of fractions

With the same denominator

## - Find the lowest common multiple of the

- Just add or subtract the nominators denominators.
among themselves and keep the same - Get the equivalent fractions with that
denominator.
denominator.
- Add or subtract the nominators. Examples:
2 3 5
4 1 3
Examples:
+ =
=
1 2 7
8 15
5 4 55 32 23
+ =
+
=
// =

=
5 5 5
7 7 7
4 7 28 28 28
8 11 88 88 88

## Some other things to remember:

When we have to add or subtract fractions with integer numbers:
- An integer number is a fraction with 1 as a denominator.
6
1
1 6 1 24 25

+6= + = +
=
Example : 6 =
1
4
4 1 4 4
4
When fractions to add or subtract are inside brackets, do the same as with integers:
Positive signs before the brackets Negative signs before the brackets (-) change the inner
(+) dont change the inner signs. signs from positive to negative and vice versa.
If we add two fractions and the sum is zero, they are called opposite fractions.

Activities
1. Solve these additions and subtractions with different denominators:
5 2
+ =
2 7

12 3
=
13 8

6 2 1
+ + =
7 9 5

8 1
+ =
6 7

5 4
=
4 3

20 13 4
=
21 15 9

6+

2
=
5

4
3=
3

2
=
3
15
15
=
2

40 +

6 8
+ +2=
7 4
2 3
5 + =
9 8

5 9 2 1
+ + =
4 3 5 4

10 6 10 1
+ =
12 15 12 8

8 7 4 2
+ + =
21 6 7 6

## Multiplication and division of fractions

How to multiply fractions:

## - Multiply the first fraction by the inverse of

the second fraction. In other words:
The numerator of the result will be
- Multiply denominators together.
the product of the numerator of the
first fraction and the denominator of
32 6
3
4 1 3 12 1
the second fraction.
=
//
=
=
Examples: =
The denominator of the result will
4 5 20 10
5 6 2 60 5
be the product of the denominator of
the first fraction and the nominator of
Inverse fractions are those whose product is
the second fraction.
20 21 2021
the unity (= 1). Exam.:
=
=1
3 2 37 21
21 20 2120
Example:
: =
=
4 7 42 8
- Multiply the nominators together.

Activities
1. Multiply the fractions and simplify (if possible) the product:
85
=
93

61
=
54

5 3
2 =
12 4

5 5
=
13 2

6 11
=
11 6

35
4 =
82

5
and
6

2
and
7

4
and
3

6
and
17

11
and
52

8 7
: =
5 3

12 1
: =
5 2

4 10
:
=
9 11

14 3
: =
19 2

9:

3
:2=
18

27

5 2 4 1
: =
3 7 9 6

2 8 3 4
: =
5 3 7 9

3 6 8 2
: : =
4 5 5 9

## Problems with fractions involved

2
3
of our class (of 24) was absent one day; and
of the absent people went to to
3
4
visit the museum. Calculate:

1. Suppose

## What fraction of the class What fraction of the class

went to the museum?
expresses the non absent
pupils?
Fraction:
Fraction:

## What fraction expresses the

students who werent in class
or in the museum?
Fraction:

## Exact number of pupils:

8
8
metres by 4
metres. If I wanted to carpet the bedroom, and
9
9
I was able to buy a carpet measuring 5 metres by 5 metres, how many square metres of

2. My bedroom measures 4

## 3. My grandparents gave me 300 euros because I had passed all my exams.

I spent the money like this:
200 : I paid for my private English lessons.
25 : I bought a present for my little sister.
30 : I bought a ticket for a concert.
I kept the rest.

## What fractions express every quantity?

- The whole amount of money:
- The private lessons:
- My sisters present:
- The ticket:
- My savings:

4. Josephs mum made a big pizza for him and his three friends. She divided it in 18 portions.
Joseph ate

1
1
1
of it; Robert ate of the rest of the pizza; David and Paul ate
of the rest
3
4
3

each.

## Total amount: 18 portions

Guess how many portions everyone ate. Did they eat the
whole pizza?
Joseph: 1/3 of 18.
- Joseph:
Robert: 1/4 of the rest.
- Robert:
Is there anything
David: 1/3 of the second rest. - David:
left for me?
Paul: the same as David.
- Paul:

5. Johnny is a good football player. Last season, he scored 17 goals. That was
goals of his team. How many goals did the team score?

1
of the total
5

## Powers and fractions

10 is called the base.
2 is called the index or power (or exponent) because it
indicates the power to which the base, 2, is raised.
100 is the basic numeral (or number).
102 is read as '10 to the power 2' or simply '10 squared'.
Source: www.mathsteacher.com.au/year7/ch02_power/roots.htm

## Powers and fractions

actions have the same rules as powers and integers. Lets remember them:
First index law

a a
a
=
b b
b

n+m

a a
a
: =
b b
b

nm

a
= 1 (for b 0)
b

## When multiplying powers with When dividing powers with the

the same base, add the indices. same base, subtract indices.

## Any number, except 0, raised to

the power zero has a value of 1.

n m
a n
a
=
b
b

a c
a c
=
b d
b d

## When a power of a fraction is

raised to another power, multiply
the indices.

an
a
= n (for b 0)
b
b

## When a product is raised to a

power, every factor of the product
is raised to that power.

## When a quotient is raised to a

power, numerator and denomidenomi
nator are both raised to that power.

Activities
1. Calculate (follow the above index laws):
2

3
=
5

2 4
=
7 3

1 2
: =
4 9

3 3
=
10 10

2 3 4 3
=
16 3

( 3)3 ( 5)3

3 2 4 2
=
62

30 3

3 2
=
5

0

3
=
5

0
=
2

2
=
0

2
=
7

1
- =
9

## Powers of base ten

American Billions
109 = 1,000,000,000
10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000,000,000
Millions
6
10 = 1,000,000
10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000,000
Hundred Thousands
105 = 100,000
10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 100,000
Ten Thousands
104 = 10,000
10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 10,000
Thousands
103 = 1,000
10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000
Hundreds
102 = 100
10 x 10 = 100
Tens
101 = 10
Ones
100 = 1
Tenths
10-1 = 1/10
1/10 = 0.1
Hundredths
10-2 = 1/102
1/102 = 0.01
Thousandths
10-3 = 1/103
1/103 = 0.001
Ten Thousandths
10-4 = 1/104
1/104 = 0.0001
Hundred Thousandths
10-5 = 1/105
1/105 = 0.00001
Millionths
10-6 = 1/106
1/106 = 0.000001
American Billionths
10-9 = 1/109
1/109 = 0.000000001

## The Powers of Base 10 help with

scientific notation. Imagine the
difficulty to write high integers or
low decimals with so many zeros.
Think, for example, about errors in
the writing of a number with one
zero more or one zero less. Have a
look at the table on the left.

Activities
- Whats the difference between
American billions and ours?
- How do we write our billions?
- Why are there three different
colours in the table?
- Whats the difference between
positive and negative powers?
2. Say some very big things we
measure with billions: _________
____________________________
___________________________.
3. Say some very small things we
measure with billionths: ________
____________________________
___________________________.
4. Write the whole numbers:
8 106: ...
5 10-9: ..
6 107: ...

## Convert fractions to decimals

The simplest method is to use a calculator:
- Get your calculator and type in "5 / 8 =", the answer should be 0.625
- Convert these fractions to decimals:
4
6
9
:
:
:
15
21
81
Sometimes we have to do it manually, however. Then, follow these steps for exact decimals:
- Find a number you can multiply by the bottom (denominator) of the fraction to make it 10,
or 100, or 1000, or any 1 followed by zeros.
- Multiply both the top and bottom by that number.
- Then write down just the top number, putting the decimal place in the correct spot (one
space from the right for every zero in the bottom number).

## Example: Express 3/4 as a decimal

- We can multiply 4 by 25 to become 100.
- Multiply top and bottom by 25.
- Write down 75 with the decimal place 2 spaces from the right (because 100 has 2 zeros).

## Convert decimals to fractions

- Write down the exact (or terminating) decimal divided by 1.
- Multiply both top and bottom by 10 for every number after the decimal point. (For
example, if there are two numbers after the decimal, then use 100, if there are three then use
1000, etc.)
- Simplify (or reduce) the fraction.
(Repeating decimals get their fractions differently).

RATIONAL NUMBERS are those that cant be expressed as a fraction, as they are non
repeating non terminating ( 2 =1,414213562373095048801688724209). Consequently,
it is impossible to get a fraction for such decimals.

## Example: Express 0.75 as a fraction

0.75
- Write down:
1
- Multiply both top and bottom by 100 (because there were 2 digits after the decimal place in 75):
- Simplify the fraction:

75
100

3
4

Activities
a) Convert these fractions to decimals:
5
:
20

1
:
4

4
:
25

## b) Convert these decimals to fractions:

0.92:
0.845:
0. 6 :

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UNIT 5

ALGEBRA
Things to remember!

## - Algebra is the branch of Mathematics concerning the study of operations with

unknown numbers; when we have to operate with unknown numbers, we use letters. So,
in algebraic operations we can work with numbers and letters (such as a, x, y) together.
- The main properties (commutative, distributive and associative) will be useful to
operate with numbers and letters.
- The basic rules about brackets and how to eliminate them (with positive or negative
signs).
- How to simplify fractions: getting equivalent ones, their lowest common multiples
and greatest common divisors.
- When operating with powers, remember their properties:
Examples: 24 25 = 24 + 5 = 29
25 : 22 = 25 2 = 23

Activities
1. What property is involved?
a+5=5+a

2xy = 2 y x

x y z = y z x a (4 + b) = a 4 + a b

6a = 12

a+4=0

20 2a = 10

a + 8 = 15

a
5

a2 = 64

6
9

4
14

5
45

6
21

16
80

## 4. Operate with powers:

35 32 =

82 83 84 =

x3 : x2 =

y6 : y2 =

Algebraic expressions
Remember the concepts we learned last year:
Monomial

Degrees

## This is the name given to the

simplest algebraic expression
and it is made up by products
(multiplications) of letters
and numbers. So, a monomial
consists of a known number
(called coefficient) and
one or more letters (named
literal part).
Example: 8x
(Coefficient: 8; literal part: x)

## The degree of a letter is its

power. Example: the degree
in x2 is 2 and the whole is a
second degree monomial.

Similar monomials

## Similar monomials are those

which contain the same letters
with the same exponents or
powers. Their coefficients can
The degree of a monomial is be different, however.
the sum of its degrees.
Example:
Examples: 3x is a first degree 2ax ; -3ax ; ax ; 5ax
monomial. 7ab is a second
degree (1 for a + 1 for b = 2). (They are similar monomials)
7ab2 is a third degree
monomial (1 + 2).

## How to add or subtract monomials:

- It is possible to add or subtract similar monomials (if they have got the same literal
part):
Example: 3xy + 5xy 2xy = 6xy (we add or subtract their coefficients keeping the literal
part)
- When the monomials are not similar, they cant be added or subtracted:

8xy + 5x2y3

Activities
1. Which expressions are monomials?
xy
2a

5ab
8+a-b

3x2
5+b

1/a
a3

3x25y3
7x6y42z

x32y43z2
2xy3z5

3x5y
6xyz2

x3y2
2x4y5

Monomial
-3xy3
1/4x4y
x2y4

Coefficient

Literal part

Degree

8ab2

5ab

5a2b

8a2b

6a3b

6a2b2

6a2b

3x + 5x 4x =

2y + 3y y =

x2 + 3x 4x2 =

## Multiplication and division of monomials

Multiplication of monomials:

Division of monomials:

## - The product of two monomials is always

another monomial (remember how to
multiply powers).
Examples: x4 x3 = x4+3 = x7
x2 y2 = (x y)2
- The multiplication of a monomial by a sum:
when one of the factors is a sum, use the
distributive property. Examples:

## The quotient of two monomials can be a

number, another monomial or an algebraic
fraction (a fraction with letters in the
denominator).

## To operate, follow the same rules as with the

integers. Examples:
3a
3a
1
A number:
(3a) : (6a) =
=
6a 32a 2
4aaa
3
2
2a
7 (2a + 3b) = 7 2a + 7 3b = 14a + 21b A monomial: (4a ) : (2a ) =
2

a
4x (3x3 + 2y3) = 4x 3x3 + 4x 2y3 =
23aaa 2
An algebraic fraction: (6a3) : (3a4) =
= 12x1+3 + 8xy3 = 12x4 + 8xy3
3aaaa a

Activities
1. Multiply a number by a monomial:
5 4x =

2
15 y
5

6 (-2y) =

1
- ( 20b)
4

3 2x

4 5

-5y6 (-7y3) =

(2b2) (5a4b) =

6a2 (5ab) =

8
6x

18x x2 =
3. Reduce:
(3ab) (4ab) =

## 4. Divide the monomials; simplify them if possible:

9a : 3 =

2a : 6a3 =

15a3b2 : 5ab4 =

x2 : x4 =

4x3y2 : 2xy =

25xy4 : 5x5y3 =

Polynomials
- In general, a polynomial is an expression constructed from variables (or
indeterminates) and constants, using the operations of addition, subtraction or
multiplication. Examples:
x2 4x + 7 is a polynomial, but x2 4/x + 7x3/2 is not (because its second term
involves division by the variable x and also because its third term contains an exponent
that is not a number).
- We can also talk about binomials or trinomials (when two or three terms are
involved).
- The degree of a polynomial is that of its greatest monomial. Examples:
3x2 + 5xy -8

(second degree)

## 5x4 + 4y (fourth degree)

6x -1

(first degree)

- When the literal part takes a supposed numerical value, we can calculate the value of
the polynomial for that case. Example:
If x = 3 in the polynomial 3x + 4, then the value of the polynomial is 13.
But if x = 4, the value of the polynomial would change (16).
Activities
1. Say if the following expressions are polynomials or not; if not, explain why:
4a + 3b 2c - d

9 3a 8b

15x : 8y

9x + 1 = 19

5x2 + 2y3 8z + 1

4 (5 + 3) - 1

5x6 2x4 + x2 +3

(x 2) (y + 1)

- x2 + y2 - 2

x4 y3 + z -2

For x = 2

For x = -3

For x = 6

4x2 + 5
2x4 -8

5x2 3x + 8
6x4 + 9x2 - 3

x3 + 8x2 x
3x2 x2 + x

## Operations with polynomials

SUBTRACTING POLYNOMIALS

of their like (similar) terms. One method is
to place like terms in columns and to find
the algebraic sum of the like terms. For
example, to add 3a + b - 3c, 3b + c - d and
2a + 4d, we would arrange the
polynomials as follows:

## Subtraction is performed by using the

same arrangement (by placing terms of the
subtrahend under the like terms of the
minuend). But remember in subtraction
the signs of all the terms of the subtrahend
must first be mentally changed and then
the process completed as in addition. For
example, subtract 10a + b from 8a - 2b:

3a + b - 3c
3b + c - d
2a
+ 4d
5a + 4b 2c + 3d

8a 2b
10a + b
-2a - 3b

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL
A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
We make use of the distributive property Multiply each term of the multiplicand
of multiplication. This is illustrated in the separately by each term of the multiplier
following examples:
and combine the results with due regard to
signs.
4 (5 + a) = 20 + 4a
It is often convenient to place the
3 (a + b) = 3a + 3b
polynomial with the fewer terms beneath
the other and multiply term by term:
ab (x + y z) = abx + aby - abz
3x2 - 7x - 9
Thus, to multiply a polynomial by a
2x - 3
monomial, multiply each term of the
-9x2 + 21x + 27
polynomial by the monomial.
6x3 - 14x2 - 18x
6x3 - 23x2 + 3x + 27

Activities
6x3 - x 6
2x2 + 5x + 8

9x5 2x3 5x
2x6 + 5x4 + 8x3 - 1

5x3 - 4x2 7x + 6
- 2x3 + 5x2 + 8x - 9

## 7x4 5x3 + 3x2 - x

- 2x5 + 7x3 + 8x2 - 1

2. Subtract:

- 4x (2x2 +6x 2)

## Special products of polynomials

The products of certain binomials occur frequently. It is convenient to remember the
form of these products so that they can be written immediately without performing the
complete multiplication process. We present four such special products as follows:
SQUARE THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO
NUMBERS:

## SQUARE THE SUM OF TWO NUMBERS:

2

(x + y) = x +2xy + y

(x - y)2 = x2 -2xy + y2

OF TWO NUMBERS:

## PRODUCT OF TWO BINOMIALS HAVING A

COMMON TERM:

(x - y) (x + y) = x2 - y2

(x + a) (x + b) = x2 + (a + b)x + ab

(If you learn these usual products, you can save time when operating with polynomials.)

Activities
1. Calculate these special products:
(x + 5)2 =

(8 + x)2 =

(x 3)2 =

(4 x)2 =

## 2. Multiply these binomials:

(5x 2y) (5x + 2y) =

(x 3) (x + 3) =

## 3. Calculate the product of these binomials having a common term:

(x+ 8) (x + 5) =

(6 + x) (6 + y) =

(2x + 3) (2x + 6) =

6x + 3

3a2 + 9a

## 4. Get the common factor:

5x + 5y

UNIT 6

EQUATIONS

Things to remember:
- Definition: an equation is a
mathematical equality where two
things are exactly the same (or
equivalent), but only for one or
some values of the letters
involved. Equations are written
with an equal sign: 2x + 3 = 5.
An identity is an equality that
remains true for any value of the
variables that appear: 2x + 3x = 5x
- How to combine like terms: it is
the process used to simplify an
the coefficients of terms. Example:

## - How to operate with algebraic fractions, by getting

the lowest common multiple of denominators and then
combining like terms, or by using the properties:
3x 3
3( x 1)
3
3 8 3 32 35
+8 =
+8 = +8 = + = +
=
4x 4
4( x 1)
4
4 1 4 4
4
- First degree equations are properly called linear
equations; second degree equations are called
4x 6 = 14 (linear)
- Finally, the names for the parts of an equation:

12x + 7 + 5x = 41 17x + 7 = 41
and finally 17x = 34
-How to expand the brackets:
8 (5x -3) 40x -24 (distrib. property)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## - How to multiply fractions and

integers (integers are fractions
with 1 as its denominator).
5 25 10 5
Example: 2 =
=
=
4 14 4 2

Activities
1. Tick on the equations. Give reasons for those that arent equations:
2x - 4 = 12

4x + 9x = 13x

x+y=7

(5x 3) : 2 = 21

4x2 + 3x

3x2 8x + 6 = -x

## The coefficients are . The variable .... Two (2) is .

The operators . The constant
The expressions are The terms

## 3. Combine like terms and order them:

6x 8x2 + 2 3x + 5 + 3x2= 2x + 1

3x + 6

4 =
x2

5x 5
+4=

8x 8

x
7 =
( 3)( 2)

## Working with equations

A) An equation is made up of two algebraic
expressions which include numbers and
letters (unknown factors or variables). The
expressions are equal to each other and are
separated by an equals sign.
B) An equation with one variable only has
one letter (usually represented by the x). if
there is a second variable involved, it is
called y.
C) In order to solve an equation we need to
find a value for x, which when substituted
back into the equation satisfies it (i.e. both
sides are equal to each other). Thus, solving
an equation means to find its solution.
Sometimes there is more than one solution.

## D) Equivalent equations are those with the

same solution in their variables. Example:
8x + 3 = 19 and 5x 4 = 6 (x = 2 in both)
E) If we try to solve an equation
numerically, we first need to get x "on its
own", isolating it on one of the expressions.
This involves carrying out certain operations
and bringing terms over from one side to the
other until x = a number. Remember how the
signs change before the terms. Example:
6x - 6 = 8 - 4x - 4
(be careful with signs)
6x + 4x = 6 + 8 - 4; 10x = 10; x = 10/10 ; x = 1
(combine like terms and isolate x)
F) We can solve equations numerically and
also graphically (not all of them).

- Follow these basic rules to get x on its own on the LHS (Left Hand Side) of the equation:
a) Add or subtract the same number to each side of the equation.
3x + 1 = x - 2

## If you subtract 1 + x from each side you get:

3x +1 -1 - x = x - x - 2 -1, which when simplified gives us: 2x = -3. We get
the same answer if we "change the sign (+ to - or - to +) when we take terms
over to the other side of the equation".
b) Multiply or divide both sides of the equation by the same number.
In this case by 2, so: 2x/2 = -3/2, which when simplified gives us x = -3/2
which is the solution. We get the same answer by doing the following:
"when you take a factor over to the other side of the equation divide what
the other side is multiplied by or multiply what the other side is divided by."

2x=-3

Activities
1. Solve these linear equations:
5x + 6 = 46

x + 27
=2
2x

x3
=5
4

(x + 6) 3x = 30x

5x 3 + 6x = 10x + 1

10 x + 12
=6
2

2. Give the English names for the parts of the previous equations.
3. Are these equations equivalent or not?
6x 5 = 13 and 2x 2 = 4

8 4x = 0 and 16 2x = 0

x = 8 and x2 = 64

## Solving real-life problems using linear equations

1. Five times a number less 7 is equal to 7 times the number plus 13.
What is the number?
(Tip: it may be a negative number)

## 2. I bought 3 packets of rice and 2 packets of sugar. One packet of rice

costs 1 euro. How much does one packet of sugar cost if I paid 6 euros
in total for everything?

## 3. My grandmother gives me some money every time I visit her. I

always go once a week. If I have received 260 in one full year, how
much do I get in one single visit?

4. My father is 3 times older than me. Our ages sum 56 altogether. How
old are we?

## 5. Last week I went to the shopping centre with my family. I bought a

computer game. It cost exactly double that of a book that my sister
bought. Then, my parents bought some other things which cost 47 . We
paid 80 cash for everything. Calculate how much my computer game
cost.

## 6. There were 98 sandwiches at my birthday party. Every child ate 3.

There were 20 adults, too, who had two sandwiches each. If at the end
there were 13 sandwiches left, calculate how many children were at the
party.

## 7. The perimeter of a rectangle is 80 cm. If the longest sides are 4 cm

longer than the shortest sides, calculate the measure of all the sides.

A quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of the second degree. They are called
The general form is:

## a 0. (If a = 0, the equation becomes a linear equation).

The letters a, b, and c are called coefficients: the quadratic coefficient
a is the coefficient of x2, the linear coefficient b is the coefficient of
Example:
x, and c is the constant coefficient, also called the free term or
3x2 + 5x 8 = 0
constant term. The signs may be positive or negative.
Most of the quadratic equations have got two different solutions or roots, but others may
have no solution or just one solution.

ax2 + bx + c = 0

## How to solve quadratic equations:

By completing the square
2
If the equation has the form x = k :
(no linear term and no constant involved)
Take the square root of each side. Then:
x = k (If k is a negative number, there is
no solution, as its root is impossible).
2

## With the form ax + c = 0 (no linear term):

Bringing its terms over we get this solution:
c
(and there is only one solution,
x=
a
the one of its positive root).
2
In the form ax + bx = 0 (no constant):
If we factorise it: x (ax + b) = 0 :
Then, x = 0 or ax + b = 0. Two solutions:
1) x = 0
b
2) ax + b = 0 x =
a

## By using the formula

In the full form of a quadratic equation (with
all its terms present), we have to use the

b b 2 4ac
x=
2a
- You should learn it by heart, and then
change every letter in the formula by the real
numbers in any given quadratic equation.
- If b2 4ac is negative, there are no
solutions, because this would mean taking
the square root of a negative number.
- If b2 = 4ac, there is just one solution as no
square root is involved ( 0 ).

Activities
1. Solve these quadratic equations, if possible, by completing the square:
x2 = 64

6x2 + 6 = 300

2x2 10x = 0

x2 = 144

6x2 + 6 = -300

3x2 36x = 0

2x2 + 3x 8 = 0

x2 5x + 6 = 0

3x2 -5x -2 = 0

UNIT 8

## PYTHAGORAS THEOREM. SIMILARITY.

First of all, remember some basic things about triangles we learned last year:
How to name the parts of a triangle (or other polygons):
- The vertices are named with a capital letter (A, B and C).
- The sides can be named with a small letter (a, b, and c) or with
the two capital letters (AB, BC, AC) of its end points.
- The angles are named with a capital letter and a ^ ().
How to measure angles:
- We use a protractor to measure the angles of any polygon. The
unity is the degree. One degree: 1/90 part of a right angle.
- About triangles, the sum of the measurement of angles equals
180 degrees (watch the yellow triangle on the right).

Types of triangles:
A) According to the measurement of the angles: at least two of
the three angles in any triangle must always be acute; looking at
the third angle, we can classify triangles as:
- Acute: if the third angle is < 90.
- Right: if the third angle measures 90.
- Obtuse: if the third angle is > 90.
B) According to the sides:
-Equilateral: all the sides measure the same.
- Isosceles: two equal sides and one different.
- Scalene: the three sides are different.

Activities
1. Draw three triangles using your ruler and protractor:
Acute and equilateral

## 2. Name their vertices, sides and angles.

3. Measure all their angles. Do they sum up to 180 in total?
4. Calculate the measurement of the third angle if we know the degrees of the other two angles:

32, 59 and _____ 45, 45 and _____ 90, 24 and _____ 120, 41 and ____
5. According to their measurement, label the four triangles of the previous activity.

## About areas and perimeters of polygons

Remember the definitions, names in English and areas of the most important polygons:
Area is the size of a figure on a two-dimensional surface.
Perimeter is the distance around a given two-dimensional object.
(Area is the inside of a figure and perimeter is the measure of the line that sorrounds it).
In rectangles and squares:
Multiply its base by its height.

Area

Perimeter
Its the sum of its four sides.

## In the rest of parallelograms:

Area
Perimeter
Multiply the measure of the longest side (called base) by its Its the sum of its four sides.
height (which is not the measure of the smaller side).
In a rhombus:
Area
Perimeter
Multiply the length of its two diagonals (D and d) and then Its the sum of its four sides.
divide the product by two.
In a trapezium:
Area
Perimeter
Sum the measure of its two parallel sides (called bases: B and Its the sum of its four sides.
b); then, multiply the result by its height (distance between
both bases); finally, divide the product by two.
In a triangle:
Area
Perimeter
First, multiply the base (one of its sides) by its height or Its the sum of its three sides.
altitude; then, divide it by two. In right triangles, the height is
equal to one of the sides (or catheti).
In the rest of polygons:
Area
Perimeter
First, divide the polygon in triangles; then calculate their Its the sum of all its sides. In
areas (as if they were isolated); finally sum their products.
regular ones, multiply sides.
In a circle:
Area
Perimeter
If r is its radius and is 3.14, then well obtain the Multiply its diameter by 3.14 (called );
2
area with this operation: r
or also: 2 r

Activities
1. Calculate the areas of the following polygons:
A square: side 7 cm:

and height 5 cm:
and 40 cm:

## A trapezium: bases, 15 and A right triangle: base, 9 cm;

20 cm; height, 12 cm:
height, 15 cm:

## A circle: radius, 20 cm:

2. With the data given in the previous activity, can you calculate the perimeter of those
polygons, or do you need some other measurement of the sides? Try to calculate perimeters.
Tip: Pythagoras can sometimes help.

Pythagoras Theorem
Pythagoras theorem shows the relationship among three
sides of a right triangle: the hypotenuse (c) and the two
catheti or legs (a and b). The theorem is as follows:
In any right triangle, the area of the square whose side is
the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to
the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two
legs or catheti. In other words:
The square of the hypotenuse
hypotenu is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other two sides.
Consequently, if we know the measure of two sides in a right
triangle, we can find out the length of the third side. It
doesnt work with acute or obtuse triangles.
Many real life problems can
ca be solved using Pythagorass
theorem.

Activities
1. Find out using Pythagoras theorem:
a) If the sides of a right triangle measure
measu 9 and 6 cm,
whats the approximate length of the hypotenuse?

## b) If the hypotenuse measures 12 cm and one side is 5

cm, whats the approximate measure of the other side?

## 2. The sides of this rectangle measure 14 and 8 cm.

Calculate the approximate length of its diagonal:

## 3. My TV set has a screen whose base measures 60 cm. and its

diagonal is 80 cm. Whats the length of its height?

## 4. Think of other objects

bjects dimensions we can calculate by using Pythagoras theorem:
...., .., , ., , ............

## Practical problems using Pythagoras Theorem

1. I havent got the keys!
You're locked out of your house and the only open window is on the
second floor, 6 metres above the ground. You need to borrow a
ladder from one of your neighbours. There's a bush along the edge
of the house, so you'll have to place the ladder 2 metres from the
house wall. What length ladder do you need to reach the window?

In this real life triangle, what are the hypotenuse and the catheti?
2. A baseball problem:
You've just picked up a
ground ball at first base,
and you see the other
teams player running
towards third base. How
far do you have to throw
the ball to get it from first
base to third base, and tag
the runner out?

## 3. The height of this tree:

There are 8 metres from this tree to where Im standing
now. I am pulling a rope measuring 10 metres and coming
from the top of the tree to my eyes. I am 1.70 m tall.
Guess the height of the tree.

## 4. Dimensions of the football pitch:

I usually play football in this pitch. It measures 100 m
from goal to goal and its width is 50 metres. But Id
like to know the measurement from this corner flag to
the opposite flag. Can you help me?

Similarity in triangles
Similarity expresses the relationship between two
t
or
more objects, in this case triangles. Consequently,
similarity studies the exact or approximate repetitions
of patterns in the compared triangles. Two triangles
(or any other geometrical objects) are called similar
if they both have the same shape.
Equivalently and more precisely, one triangle is
congruent to the result of a uniform scaling
(enlarging or shrinking) of the other. Corresponding
sides of similar triangles are in proportion, and
corresponding angles have the same measure.
Thales was
as known for his innovative use of Geometry. His
understanding was theoretical and practical. For example, he
said: "Place is the greatest thing, as it contains all things".
And he deduced: Parallel lines cutting two other lines
provide proportional measurements:
measu
=
AE EC
Thales used the same method to measure the distances of
ships at sea, for example. We can find out measurements by
comparing proportionality of similar triangles or polygons.
Now, we can use Thales discoveries to
work with triangles.
Find the value of x and y:
Solution:: we have to write proportions
involving corresponding sides. Then, we
use cross products to solve:
4 x
= ; 6x = 36; x = 6
6 9
Whatss the measure of angle P?
4 7
Solution: P and S are corresponding angles.
= ; 4y = 42; y = 10.5
6 y
By definition of similar polygons, P = S = 86

Activities
1. Are the triangles shown in the figure similar?
Tip: Find the ratios of the corresponding sides; if the sides
are proportional,
tional, the angles are congruent.

## 2. Can you calculate the measurement of sides UW and KM

with the given data? Are they right triangles? Can we use
Thales Theorem?

## MORE PROBLEMS ABOUT SIMILAR TRIANGLES

1. Find the value of x (create a
proportion
matching
ching
the
corresponding sides):

## 2. Make couples of angles that

measure the same:

## Many problems involving similar triangles have one

triangle ON TOP OF another triangle. Since DE is
parallel to AC, we know that we have angle BDE
equal to angle DAC (corresponding angles). And
angle B is shared by both triangles.
3. Calculate the measurement of BE:
(Tip: Use the rule related to
t parallel lines, cross
multiply and solve).

4. Find EC:

## 5. At a certain time of the day, the

shadow of a 5' boy is 8' long. The
shadow of a tree at this same time is 28'
long. How tall is the tree?

Scale of a map
The scale of a map is the ratio of a single unit of distance on the map to the equivalent
distance on the ground. The scale can be expressed: in words, as a fraction, a ratio, a
fraction and as a graphical (bar) scale:
- The statement one millimetre represents 25 metres is an expression of scale in words.
- Scale expressed as a fraction, 1/25,000, means that any distance on the map is 1/25,000th
the distance on the ground. It expresses the amount of reduction of distances used to
represent detail on the map. The 25,000 value is called the scale denominator.
- Due to the curved surface of the earth on a flat map surface, the scale varies from place to
place. Thus a representative fraction is correct at the centre of the map but varies elsewhere.
So, a representative fraction is really a representative ratio.
- A graphical (bar) scale is a ruler with ground distances added, included in the margin of
most maps. The graphical scale is used to measure distances on the map. The distance on
the map is marked on the edge of a sheet of paper, which is then placed over the graphical
bar scale and the distance read.

Activities
1. Label the four ways to express scales:
0

500

1.000

1.500

Scale: 1 : 41.500.000

2.000 km

1
30,000

## One centimetre represents 100 kilometres

2. Order the previous scales and the maps they represent (from the highest to the lowest):
The highest:

After that:

Next:

The lowest:

3. Remember what you learned last year in Social Studies and match the columns:
A small scale map...
A large scale map...

A*
B*

o
o
o
o

1
2
3
4

## ... shows a large portion of land.

... shows a more restricted area.
... is more useful to represent continents.
... is more useful to represent a city.

## 4. Calculate measurement using the different scales:

a) I measure 120 cm between two cities on a map. How many kilometres do they represent if
the scale is 1: 50,000?
b) According to the following scale, whats the distance in kilometres between two points, if
the measurement is 7 cm on the map?
Scale: 1 : 15.000.000
1
expresses the scale on a map. How many km do 6 cm represent?
5,000
d) If one centimetre represents 5 kilometres, how many km do 20 cm represent?

c) The fraction

Unit 9

## GEOMETRIC OBJECTS: POLYHEDRA

A polyhedron (plural polyhedra) is often defined as a geometric object with flat faces and
straight edges. We can say that a polyhedron contains different dimensions:
- 3 dimensions: The body is bounded by the faces, and is usually the volume inside them.
- 2 dimensions: A face is a polygon bounded by a circuit of edges, and usually including the
flat (plane) region inside the boundary. These polygonal faces together make up the
polyhedral surface.
- 1 dimension: An edge joins one vertex to another and one face to another, and is usually a
line of some kind. The edges together make up the polyhedral skeleton.
- 0 dimensions: A vertex (plural vertices) is a corner point.
Polyhedra are often named according to the number of faces, for example tetrahedron (4),
pentahedron (5), hexahedron (6), heptahedron (7), triacontahedron (30), and so on.
Often this is qualified by a description of the kinds of faces present, for example the rhombic
dodecahedron vs. the pentagonal dodecahedron.
Prisms, cubes and pyramids are the most common examples of polyhedra.

Activities
1. Describe the polyhedra shown above: number of faces, edges and vertices.
2. Are the above polyhedra regular or irregular? Why? Which ones are symmetrical?
3. According to the number of faces, what type of polyhedron is a pyramid?

## Prisms, cubes and pyramids

A prism is made of two n-sided
n
polygonal bases and n faces joining corresponding sides.
Thus these joining faces are parallelograms. All cross-sections
cross sections parallel to the base faces are
the same. A right prism is the one in which the joining edges and faces are perpendicular to
the base faces. This applies if the joining faces are rectangular. If the joining edges and faces
are not perpendicular to the base faces, it is called an oblique prism. Describe these prisms:

A cube is a three-dimensional
ensional solid object bounded by six square faces,
faces with three meeting at
each vertex. The cube can also be called a regular hexahedron.. It is a special kind of square
prism.

Activities
1. Describe this cube.
2. What are the differences
between a prism and a
cube?
3. How many edges and
vertices does a cube have?
A pyramid is a polyhedron formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point, called the
apex.. Each base edge and apex form a triangle.. It is a conic solid with polygonal base.
Pyramids can have from three to a virtually unlimited amount of sides. When unspecified,
unspecifi the
base is usually assumed to be square.

Activities
1. Describe these pyramids.
2. Whats the difference between
them?
3. Whats the meaning of h and s
on the second pyramid?

Extra activities
1. Can you think of any other types of polyhedra?
2. Surf the Net for information about the names in English of other polyedra.
3. Name the polyhedron built with the lowest quantity of sides, edges and vertices
4. Draw different polyhedra (overleaf). The teacher will tell you their measurements.
measurem

## Polyhedra: their dimensions and areas

Length is a measurement in one dimension (sides of a polyhedron).
Area is a measurement in two dimensions (faces and bases).
Volume is a measurement in three dimensions (the full object, its inside).
Surface area is the sum of all the areas of all the shapes that cover the surface of an object.
The surface area of any prism (cubes included) equals the sum
of the areas of its faces (lets say the floor, roof and walls).
Because the floor and the roof of a prism have the same shape,
the surface area can always be found as follows:
2 Area of base + perimeter of base H (height)
As it is a 2D
D measurement, the area is expressed in square
metres, square kilometres, square centimetres, etc.
The surface area of a regular pyramid has two parts:
1. The Base Area depends on the shape; there are
different formulas for triangles, squares, etc. Use the
apotheme to calculate the areas of polygons.
2. The Lateral Area is simpler. Just multiply the
perimeter by the side length and divide by 2 (the
(t sides
are always triangles).
1

## /2 Perimeter [Side Length] + [Base Area]

Activities
1. Calculate the surface areas of these polyhedra:

## 2. Whats the surface area of this prism? (Round decimals

to the nearest tenth).

3. Calculate
te the surface area of a cube whose edge measures 15 cm.
4. A right pyramid 12 cm high stands on a square base of sides 10 cm. Calculate its surface area.

## GEOMETRIC OBJECTS: SURFACES AND SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION

A solid of revolution is a figure obtained by rotating a 2D shape around a straight line (its
axis) that lies on the same plane. Its outer structure is called surface of revolution;
revolution the general
name (solid of revolution)) is mainly used when we are talking about volumes. The solids of
revolution can have
ve only a round face (sphere),
(
), or a combination of round and flat faces
(cone and cylinder).
). These are the most important ones, but there are many other solids, built
by mixing different shapes or by cutting a cone or a sphere: conic sections or spherical caps.
A cone is a three-dimensional
dimensional geometric shape
with a flat, round base and a lateral surface
finishing in a point called the apex or vertex.
The axis of a cone is the straight line passing
through the apex, about which the lateral surface
has its rotational
tational symmetry.
A cylinder has two faces, zero vertices, and
zero right edges. Its axis is a straight line that
rotates 360. The solid enclosed by this surface
sur
and by two planes perpendicular to the axis is
consequently called a cylinder. If we cut a
cylinder and its cross section is an ellipse,
parabola or hyperbola,, we can find elliptic
parabolic or hyperbolic cylinders.
cylinders
A sphere is a symmetrical geometrical object. It
is built up by all the equidistant
equid
points to
another inner fixed point in three-dimensional
three
space (R3). That distance r is called the radius
of the sphere.

Activities
1. Describe
ibe these objects; say what solids of revolution are included in them:

2. Label the parts of the previous solids (base, lateral surfaces, edges, axis, radius, etc.)
etc.
3. True or false? If false, correct the sentences:
- A cone has got an appex. A cylinder has got two lateral surfaces.
- A hemisphere is half of a sphere. A sphere hasnt got any lateral surfaces.
- A conic section is a part of a full cone. A conic section
section has got two bases.

## How to calculate surface area of a surface of revolution

Total Surface Area of a Cone:
If a cone of base radius r and slant height s is cut along the slant height and opened out flat,
then the radius of the sector formed is s and the arc length AB is 2 r.
r If the curved
surface area of a cone is equal to the area of sector ABC, then the area of the curved surface
is r s.. Then, the total surface area of the cone is:
Area of the base + Area of the curved surface: r2 + r s

## Surface Area of a Sphere:

Its area is equal to the lateral area of the cylinder which
contains that sphere: 4 r2
Surface Area of a Cylinder:
If h is the height of the cylinder and r is the radius of the base,
then its surface area is:
Areas of top and bottom + Area of the side
r2 + r2 + 2 r h
2 r2 + 2 r h
Activities
1. Calculate the surface areas of these solids of revolution:

r=3m

r = 3 cm h = 4 cm

2. A solid sphere has a radius of 8 m. Calculate its surface area. (Take = 22/7)

Unit 10

Volumes

## The volume of any solid or liquid object is how much three-dimensional

dimensional space it occupies,
occupies
often quantified numerically. One-dimensional
One dimensional figures (such as lines) and two-dimensional
two
shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero
z
volume in the three-dimensional
dimensional space. Volume is
commonly presented in units such as mL or cm3 (millilitres or cubic centimeters).
The standard unit of volume in the metric system is the litre.. One litre is equal to 1000 cubic
centimetres in volume. Other
Other units of volume (multiples and submultiples) and their
equivalents in litres are as follows:
1 millilitre = 0.001 litre

## 1 kilolitre = 1000 litres

From these units, we see that 1000 millilitres equal 1 litre; so 1 millilitre equals 1 cubic
centimetre in volume.

Activities
1. Look at this picture and
- What is its measurement?
- Translate into Spanish:
length:
height:
width:
- Is it a cubic metre or not?
- What type of polyhedra is it?
- How many faces has it got?
2. Calculate the equivalents to the cubic metre,, as the one shown in the previous picture:
- How many litress does it contain?
- How many centilitres does it contain?
3. Explain the meaning of these three
- Why is the green cube included in the
pink one,, and both in the yellow one?
- What does m3 mean?
- How many pink cubes (dm3) can a
yellow cube (m3) contain?
- Whats the difference between litre
and liter, or centimetre and centimeter?
- Read aloud: 10 m3, 34 cm3, 67 dm3.

## - How many millilitres does it contain?

- How many kilolitres does it contain?

## How to calculate volumes of geometric objects

Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged and circular shapes can be
easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. The units of volume depend on the units of
length. If the lengths are in metres, the volume will be in cubic metres. The most common
shapes and their formulas are the following:
Shape

Equation

A cube

a3

A rectangular prism:

Variables
a = length of any side (or edge)

## l w h l = length, w = width, h = height; (l w = area of base)

A non-right prism:

Bh

A pyramid:

1
Ah
3

A cylinder:

r 2 h

A cone:

1 2
r h
3

## r = radius of circle at base, h = distance from base to tip

A sphere:

4 3
r
3

An ellipsoid:

4
abc a, b, c = semi-axes of ellipsoid
3
Among the solids of revolution, the volume of
the cylinder is the largest. The volume of the
cone is one third of the volume of the
cylinder and it is the smallest. The volume of
a hemisphere is twice the volume of the cone
or two thirds the volume of the cylinder.

Activities
1. Calculate the volume of these solids:
(a) Cone: r = 6 cm, h = 8 cm
(b) Cylinder: r = 6 cm, h = 8 cm
(c) Hemisphere: r = 6 cm
2. Compare the volume of the above solids with the volume of a sphere whose radius is 6
cm:
3. Compare volumes of a prism and a pyramid: suppose they have the same measurements.

1. Calculate the volume of these solids:
r = 4 cm
h = 7 cm

r = 5 cm
h = 9 cm

w=4m
h=6m

w=9m
h=4m
l=5m
Length of d ?

r = 200 m

Diameter = 50 m

## 2. Some other solids and their volume:

Regular hexagon prism

Cylinder

Side = 14 cm
Height = 25 cm

r=9m

Cone frustum

h = 15 m

What is g?

Pyramid frustum

A frustum is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) which lies between two
parallel planes cutting the solid.

Unit 11

FUNCTIONS
Things to remember:

Cartesian co-ordinate
ordinate grid is the
system of axes where data are placed
both horizontal and vertically. The coco
ordinates are written as pairs of
numbers inside brackets, like (4, 3):
- The first number, called x co-ordinate
co
(abscissa),
), tells how many across from
zero to move.
- The second
ond number is the y coordinate (ordinate) and it tells how
many up or down to move.
- The origin is the point (0, 0).
- With negative numbers inside the
brackets, we will need four quadrants:
the axes are extended to create these
four sections: a negative x co-ordinate
co
means that you move to the left from
the origin; a negative y co-ordinate
co
means you move down from the origin.

Activities
1. Write the co-ordinates
ordinates of the points shown on the left grid:
A: ( ,
) B: ( ,
) C:: ( ,
) D: ( ,
)
2. Plot and label the following points on the left grid:
(1, 4), (4, 1), (0, -3), (-3, 0), (-4,
4, -2), (0, 0), (1, -1)
3. Whats the point of origin?
4. Describe the Cartesian grid; say the names of axes,
quadrants and how to place data.
5. A company called
Natural Soda, Inc. sells
Sodium
Bicarbonate.
Have a look at its sales
graph and describe it.
...
...
...
...
...
...

## Variables and graph

h functions
How to read the information given in grids:
Real life situations can be represented in co-ordinate
co ordinate grids; it is then necessary to know the
meaning of every axis: age / height, price / weight, speed / petrol, etc. The grid will show
both variables and their relationship (and this is called a function):

The independent variable is the one shown horizontally (on the x axis).
The dependent variable is given vertically (on the y axis). And this variable y is said
to be the function of x:
x f(x). The dependent variable y depends on the independent one
x:: for every value given to x, there is only one value for y.

When the values of the variables are real numbers, we can draw the graph of the function:
function
it shows more clearly how the function works. There are different types of functions:

## Increasing:: if the value of x increases, then the value of y increases, too.

Decreasing:: if the value of x increases, the value of y decreases.
Constant:: if the value of y is always the same, no matter what the value
val of x is.

The largest value of y in a function is its maximum;; the smallest value is its minimum.

Activities
1. Say if the following graphs are functions or not; give your arguments:

## It (is / isnt) a function It (is / isnt) a function It (is / isnt) a function

because .. because . because .....
.. ..
2. Find data in thee previous graphs:
Is it increasing or decreasing?

Is it increasing or decreasing?

Is it increasing or decreasing?

va

## What is its minimum value?

3. Draw a graph where there is more than one value for x, so it isnt really a function:

## Building Function Graphs

Function graphs are made up of three important parts: the vertical axis (y),
( the horizontal
axis (x),
), and the line showing the relationship between the figures on the vertical axis and
those on the horizontal. In order to build a graph:
- Determine the topic of the graph.
- Locate data on the axes.
- Plot the points where data from x and y meet.
- Join thesee points with a line to understand the relationship that is being illustrated.

Activity
Look at the following table and build its graph (give numbers from 1 to 12 for every month):
Months of the year

Temperature (C)

10

11

13

15

15

14

12

11

10

A functional equation expresses the relation between the value of a function (or functions)
at a point with its values at other points. Properties of functions can for example be
determined by considering the types of functional equations they satisfy; there is an algebraic
relation between x and the values of y;; consequently, we can find out values of y. Example:
y = x + 2 (if x = 1, then y =3; if x = 2, then y =4; and so on)
Then, the graph made in the previous activity cannot be expressed as an equation, because
temperature and months of a year cannot have any algebraic relationship.

Activity
Represent the graph of the function whose equation is y = x. Is it increasing or decreasing?

Linear functions
The term linear function refers to a firstfirst
degree polynomial function of
o one
variable. It is called linear because it is
represented with a straight line in the
Cartesian coordinate graph. Such a
function can be written as:
f(x) = mx + n
The terms m and b are real constants and
x is a real variable. The constant
constan m is
often called the slope or gradient,
is the y-intercept,, which gives the point
of intersection between the graph of the
function and the y-axis.
axis. Changing m
makes the line steeper or shallower, while
changing n moves the line up or down.
Examples
les of functions whose graph is a
line include these:
f2(x) = x / 2 + 1 f3(x) = x / 2 1 f1(x) = 2x + 1

As a summary, the gradient of the straight line is m. The value of the gradient determines
the slope of the line. A value close to 0 makes the line more horizontal whereas greater
values make the line more vertical.

Activities
1. Real life example:
Brad sells a vacuum cleaner and earns 4
as commission for each vacuum cleaner he
sells. The owner pays him depending
dependin on
how many vacuum cleaners he sells.
Identify the table that best suits the
situation, and also plot a graph for the
input - output table:

- Does it have a straight line? .. What is its function called? .....
- Can you write its functionn in algebraic language? ...........
- What is its slope or gradient? .... What is its y-intercept?
intercept?
- Imagine Brad earns 88 for each vacuum cleaner. Will the graph line be steeper or not? ....

## Constant functions and identity functions

f
A constant function is a type of linear function whose
value does not vary and thus is constant. For example,
if we have the function f(x)) = 4, then f is constant since
f maps any value to 4:
- A constant function is a linear function of the
th form
y = b, where b is a constant.
- It is also written as f(x)) = b.
- The graph of a constant function is a horizontal line.
An identity function is another type of linear
functions. Its value on the x-axis corresponds to the
same number on the y-axis. In other words, the
coordinates of each of the points are the same: (1,1), Example
mple of a constant function: y = 12
(2,2), (5,5). Its graph is a straight line with a 45 slope. The value of y is always 12 for any x.

Activities
1. Which of the following equations represent a constant function? Choose the right option:

A. x = 3

B. 2x + y = 4

C. y = 6

D. 2y + x = 12

## 2. Why have you

ou chosen that option? (Give your arguments)
.
.
3. Represent its graph on the right.

## 4. Whats the difference between a constant function and an

identity function?
.
.
5. Plot the graph for the following function: f(x) = x

## 6. How many degrees does its angle measure? ..

7. Which straight line is steeper, the one of a constant
function or the one of an identity function? ...........................
Why? ...
.
8. True or false? If false, correct
corr the sentences:
- All constant functions have straight lines. All constant functions have horizontal lines.
- All identity functions have straight lines. All identity functions have horizontal lines.

## The direct proportional function y = mx

The function y = mx implies that for every corresponding pair of values y / x = m, we can get
other pairs: y1 / x1 = y2 / x2 = y3 / x3 = m, which is called the factor of proportionality.
proportionality
The function y = mx is the function of direct proportionality.
If there iss a direct proportionality m between two quantities, you know immediately its
functional equation, because it can only be y = mx.
Example:: The salary for work done (y
( euros) is proportional to the time worked (x
( hours);
then, y = mx.. You can determine the constant m by means of a single pair of values (x,
( y). If
a worker receives 20 euros (y)
( in 2 (x) hours, then 20 = m 2 or m = 10, and the functional
equation is y = 10 x.. For x = 1, one has y = m; consequently, the proportionality factor m
yields the value of y for unit x,, which in the present problem is the salary per hour.
The functional equation has at the same time a graphical solution of the problem (by plotting
its graph). It will always be a straight line, crossing the point (0, 0).
Direct proportional
ortional functions are linear, but not all the linear functions are proportional.

Activities
1. Have a look at this graph and try
to explain its meaning, axes and
relation between them.
a) Does it correspond to a direct
proportional function?
b) Why do you think so?
c) What is its functional equation?
d) What is its proportionality factor?
e) How many kilometres will be run
in 10 hours, for example?
3. Another real-life
life problem to work with:
properly working:
a) What is its functional equation? ..............................................
........................................
b) Is it a linear function? .............................................................
c) Is it a direct proportional function? .........................................
d) Whats its proportionality factor m? .......................................
e) Guess the value of y for x = 8. ..............................................
f) Plot its functional graph.

Unit 12

STATISTICS

## Things to remember about statistics:

Statistics is a mathematical science working with the collection, analysis, interpretation and
presentation of data.
Statistical analysis of data can reveal that two variables vary together, as if they were
connected. If the variables conform only to nominal or ordinal measurements and cannot be
reasonably measured numerically, they are called categorical or qualitative variables
But ratio and interval measurements can be grouped together
as quantitative variables due to their numerical nature.
Frequency is the number of times that an event occurs in an experiment or study. We can
also call it absolute frequency (because the number of times of the event is exactly shown).
Relative frequency refers to the proportion between the absolute frequency and the total
number of data (expressed in a fraction).
We can present data in different types of charts: pie charts, bar charts and line charts.

Activities
1. Tell if these variables are qualitative or quantitative:
Favourite football team.
Places to go on holidays.
TV programmes spectators.

## Pupils in every classroom.

The childrens weight.
Number of subjects at school. Births in a hospital.
Height of mountains.
Teenagers hobbies.

2. Have a look at these two frequency tables and answer the questions about them:
The rain in Glasgow during a winter week:
Day
Rain (l/m2)
Sunday
8
Monday
12
Tuesday
0
Wednesday
5
Thursday
23
Friday
15
Saturday
12
Absolute frequency:

Relative frequency:

## f (Sunday) = ______ fr (Monday) = _____

f (Friday) = _______ fr (Thursday) = ____
3. Label these types off charts:

## Survey about number of TV sets at home:

Number of TV sets
Zero
One
Two
Three
Four
More than four

Number of people
5
45
32
14
5
2

Absolute frequency:

Relative frequency:

f (zero) = _______
f (three) = _______

fr (two) = _______
fr (four) = _______

Types of averages
One way of analysing data is to find averages; averages are used to represent a middle or
typical value in a set of numbers. There are three types of averages:
Mode
Median
It is the most popular or The numbers are placed in
frequent value in a list, the order and then we get the
most repeated one.
middle value; if there are two
middle values, the median is
Example: with the numbers in the number halfway between
this list (5, 7, 3, 4, 7, 5, 7) the them; in our example: 3, 4, 5,
mode is 7.
5, 7, 7, 7; and the median is 5.

Mean
We sum up all the numbers
and then divide the total by
the quantitity of numbers.
Ex: 3 + 4 + 5 + 5 +7 + 7 + 7 = 38
38 : 7 = 5.42

## The mean is approximately 5.4

There is a fourth concept called range: it is the difference between the highest and the lowest
values in a set of numbers; it is useful because it gives us a sense of how the data differ.
Using the same example as above: the highest number was 7 and the lowest 3; then, 7 3 = 4

Activities
1. Find the mode, median, mean and range of this set of data:
Marias Maths test scores (out of 10):
Mode:

6, 5, 2, 5, 6, 4, 8, 4, 5, 6, 6, 3, 7

Median:

Mean:

Range:

2. Do the same with this table about the number of pupils in every classroom in our school:
E.S.O. 1 A:
E.S.O. 1 B:
Mode:

30
28

E.S.O. 2 A: 29
E.S.O. 2 B: 30

E.S.O. 3 A:
E.S.O. 3 B:

Median:

Mean:

25
27

E.S.O. 4 A:
E.S.O. 4 B:

24
26

Range:

## 3. Calculate averages and solve the following problems:

a) The arithmetic mean of 3 numbers is 60. If two of the numbers are 50 and 60, what is the
third number?
b) In the triangles below what is the mean of a , b, c, x, and y?

c) The mean of nine numbers is 9. When a tenth number is added the average of the ten
numbers is also 9. What is the tenth number?

d) A class of 25 students took a science test. 10 students had an average (mean) score of 80.
The other students had an average score of 60. What is the average score of the whole class?