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Power System Operation and Control


Most of the Power Systems nowadays are Interconnected power

systems. PSOC (Power System Operation & Control) emerged in the
context of interconnected system.
PSOC aims at utilizing the merits and addressing or controlling the
challenges or issues of interconnected system

PSOC Course Outline:

Introduction to PSOC
Unit Commitment and Economic Load Dispatch: ELD, OPF
Real Power- Frequency Control: LFC, AGC
Reactive Power- Voltage Control
Computer Control of Power System
State Estimation

Interconnected System: Pros

Reduces reserve capacity
Reduces capital cost

Cost per kilowatt is less for larger units

Effective use of generators

Most efficient unit is run at high load factor and inefficient unit is
run at peak hours reducing total cost of generation

Reduces requirement of high installed capacity

Diversity in use of load

Improves reliability

Alternate sources share the load in case of fault

Improves stability

Effect of individual system is minimal in the grid

Reduces line losses

Load is supplied from different sources

Interconnected System: Cons

Unpredictable causes of faults
Fault in one system gets propagated to other system causing more
Sequential tripping of units due to limit violations

Leads to system collapse (black out)

High switchgear rating is required

Fault level is increased

Sophisticated (automated) operation is required


Major Concerns of Power System Operation

Continuity of supply at desired frequency and voltage. Frequency +/- 3% and
voltage +/5% for EHV and +/- 10% for HV and distribution.
Equipment perform better in this narrow band of voltage and frequency.
Operation of PS in normal state in case of outages (Power outage and branch
outage) together with reserve margin.
In normal state, both load and operational constraints are satisfied and
sufficient reserve margin available.
Probability of outage (LOLP, equipment failure rate etc.)

Ability of system to maintain synchronism after a disturbance at
state, dynamic and transient conditions


Min capital cost, operation cost and maintenance cost. Results into cheap

Goals in Power System Operation:

Load constraints to be satisfied


= PD + PL : Power Balance

Operating limit constraints to be satisfied

i. Power Quality Constraints


< f(t) < f


: Frequency regulation

vmin < v(t) < vmax : Voltage regulation

ii. Security Constraints
pmin < p(t) < pmax : Equipment rating
line flow < line flow limit etc.

Objective of Power System Control:

To keep the operational requirement intact all the times
To ascertain optimized dispatching
To allocate incremental load changes to the generators

Types of Operation/Control:

Centralized (based on system-wide data)

Decentralized (based on local data)

PS control has a Hierarchical Structure.

Uses both centralized & decentralized control strategies

Slow events are often handled by centralized controls

Fast events are tackled by decentralized controls

Centralized Vs. Decentralized Control:

Centralized controls are done by:


Software running on computer-based systems e.g.:


Decentralized controls are driven by local measurements, deploying:

Traditional analog control systems

Micro-processor based systems

Protection systems are mostly decentralized

PS Centralized Controls:
Examples of centralized controls:

Generation dispatch (control of generating units)

Generation scheduling (units on/off status)

System security assessment & enhancement (both static and


Frequency control (regulation)

Interchange control

PS Decentralized Controls:
Examples of decentralized controls:

Generator speed control (governor action)

Generator terminal voltage control (excitation system)

Equipment protection against over-voltage and over-current


Centralized vs. Decentralized Control Summary: