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Work method

protection

statement

for

cathodic

STOD-ECM-TPL-0806-QC-MST-0003
Project Title : EPCC Trunk Line and Waha Reception Facilities
Contract No : OMV/ECM+-OTP/PP/211
ECM Job No : 2140025
Prepared by :

ECM+
EPC Contractor
Fax :
(+216) 71 965 780
Tel :
(+216) 71 965 765
Project web site: www.stod.tn

REVISION RECORD
REV

Status

Date

Description

Prepd

Checkd

Apprvd

OMV

B01

IFR

11-052015

Issued for Review

IARD

FSAI

TJHI

--

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NOTES:

(i)

(ii)

Revision and status is as follows:


Revision

Status

Description

DMS Version

DRA

Draft

IFR

Issued for Review

IFA

Issued for Approval

IFU

Issued for Use

Revision numbers are A, B, C, etc. for DRA, IFR and IFA, if


appropriate, up until Issue for Construction (IFD), which shall be
Rev 0. Subsequent revisions are 1, 2, 3 etc.

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TABLE OF CONTENT
1.INTRODUCTION..........................................................................4
1.1 PROJECT PRESENTATION........................................................4
1.2 SCOPE.................................................................................5
1.3 REFERENCE CODES...............................................................5
1.4 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS......................................................5
2 GENERAL.....................................................................................7
2.1 PIPE LINE.............................................................................7
3 CRITERIA OF PROTECTION.........................................................7
3.1 DESIGN LIFE........................................................................8
4 RESISTIVITY...............................................................................8
5 CURRENT REQUIREMENT............................................................8
5.1 STRUCTURES TO BE PROTECTED...........................................10
6 CATHODIC PROTECTION CALCULATION FOR PIPELINE SYSTEM10
6.1 DESIGN OF CATHODIC PROTECTION STATION.........................10
6.2 CURRENT REQUIREMENT OF CATHODIC PROTECTION...............11
6.3 DESIGN OF ANODE GROUNDBED OF CATHODIC PROTECTION
STATIONS................................................................................11
7 INSTALLATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION.............................15
7.1 CATHODIC PROTECTION STATION..........................................15
7.2 ANODE BACKFILL................................................................15
7.3 SPARK GAPS.......................................................................16
7.4 GROUNDING SYSTEM...........................................................16
7.5 TEST STATIONS...................................................................16
7.6 REFERENCE ELECTRODES.....................................................16
7.7 CABLE CONNECTION............................................................17

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Presentation


EPCC OF Trunk line (50km - 8) and associated reception facilities and tieins at Waha CPF in the AED development comprising:

A multiphase pipeline from Anaguid Gathering Point (AGP) to the


existing WAHA CPF including pig launching and receiving facilities,

02 Line Valve Stations along the Trunkline,

A Slug catcher,

A dedicated new flare system and downstream tie-ins for Oil, Gas
and water at the Waha CPF.

The general configuration of the Trunkline Project is shown below:

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1.2 Scope
Scope of this study is the design of a Cathodic Protection System necessary to
safeguard against electro-chemical corrosion of external surfaces of buried
pipelines 8 WAHA-ANAGUID.
1.3 Reference codes
NACE RP0169
U.S. ARMY
CORPS
OF
ENGINEERS / UFC 3-570-06
U.S. ARMY
CORPS
OF
ENGINEERS / UFC 3-57002N
U.S. ARMY
CORPS
OF
ENGINEERS / UFC 3-57002A
TS 5141 / EN 12954
TS-9234

Control of External Corrosion on Underground


or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems
Cathodic Protection Systems - Operation And
Maintenance
Design:
Electrical
Protection

Engineering

Cathodic

Cathodic Protection
Cathodic Protection Principles for
pipelines
Cathodic Protection Galvanic Anodes

buried

1.4 Terms and Definitions


Anode: 1: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs
(electrons flow away from the anode, conventional current toward the anode in
the normally metallic external circuit; the anode is usually the electrode where
corrosion occurs and metal ions enter solution) 2: In cathodic protection, an
electrode that discharges current to the electrolyte, where it flows to the
cathodically protected surface.
Anode cable: In an impressed-current cathodic-protection system, the cable
from the positive terminal of the DC power source to the ground bed.
Backfill: Low-resistivity material placed around an anode.
Bond: See continuity bond.
Casing: (pipelines) a larger pipe through which the pipeline passes, sometimes
installed at road and railroad crossings.
Cathode: An electrode at which electrochemical reduction of its surface or some
component of the electrolyte occurs; in a cathodic protection system, the
cathode is the cathodically protected surface.
Cathodic protection: A technique to reduce the corrosion rate of a metal
surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

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Coating: A dielectric material applied to a structure to separate it from the


environment.
Corrosion: The deterioration of a material, usually a metal, by reaction with its
environment.
Criterion: Standard for assessment of the effectiveness of a cathodic protection
system.
Current: In this manual current means conventional current, i.e., the reverse of
electron flow. Electrons flow away from the anode, conventional current flows
toward the anode in the normally metallic external circuit. The anode is usually
the electrode where corrosion occurs and metal ions enter solution.
Current density: The current per unit area.
Drain point: The point on a cathodically protected structure where the drain
cable is connected.
Electrode: An electronic conductor used to establish electrical contact with an
electrolyte part of a circuit.
Electrolyte: A chemical substance or mixture containing ions that migrate in an
electric field; in this manual, the soil or liquid, including the moisture and other
chemical contained therein, adjacent to and in contact with a buried or
submerged metallic structure.
Foreign structure: any structure that is not intended as a part of the system to
be protected.
Galvanic anode: A metal which, because of its relative position in the galvanic
series, provides protection to metal or metals that are more noble in the series,
when coupled in an electrolyte.
Ground bed: one or more anodes installed in the Earth or water to supply
cathodic protection current.
Holiday: A discontinuity in a coating.
Impressed current: Direct current supplied by a cathodic protection system
utilizing an external power source.
Instant-off
potential:
A
structure-to-electrolyte
immediately after the protective current is interrupted.

potential

measured

Interference: Any electrochemical disturbance on a structure as a result of


stray current.
Line current: The direct current flowing on a pipeline.
Rectifier: A device for converting alternating current to direct current.
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Reference electrode: A reversible electrode with a potential that may be


considered constant under similar conditions of measurement (examples:
saturated coppercopper sulfate, saturated calomel, and silver-silver chloride).
Resistivity: The resistance measured between two parallel faces of a cube of
the substance under consideration (the usual unit is ohm-centimeters, the
resistance, in ohms, of a cube one centimeter on a side).
Test station: the enclosure and support for a test lead or group of test leads,
usually including terminals connected to the test leads.

GENERAL

2.1 Pipe Line


The gas lines 8 will be established for 54 km between WAHA and ANAGUID
The underground steel pipe line will be constructed at this project is listed below.
Table 1: Underground Steel Pipe Line in the Scope of the Project
Item
Nominal diameter
Wall thickness
Pipe
Length of pipelines
No
of pipeline
of pipe
coating
Polyethylen
8; 203.2 mm
54,000m
11.1mm
e
The cathodic protection requirements for the pipeline system are as follows:
Entire pipelines system coated with polypropelene (thickness 3mm).

CRITERIA OF PROTECTION

Acceptance criteria for determining the adequacy of protection on a buried


underground pipe or metallic component shall be in accordance with NACE
RP0169 and specified below.
The following method a. shall be used for testing cathodic protection voltages. If
more than method is required method b. shall be used.
a. A negative polarized potential of at least 850 mV relative to a saturated
copper/copper sulfate reference electrode.
b. A minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization between the structure surface
and a stable reference electrode contacting the electrolyte.
3.1 Design life
The design life of the pipeline CP system shall cover the period from installation
to the end of pipeline operation. Design life for cathodic protection anodes is 50
years since the structure will no longer be needed after that time.

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RESISTIVITY

The soils are classified in UFC Cathodic Protection (UFC 3-570-02A) as per their
corrosivity with respect to their electrical resistivities. The measured values
during the site survey will be evaluated in accordance with the Table-1 below:
Table 2: Corrosivity of soils on steel based on soil resistivity
Soil Resistivity (Ohm x cm)

Corrosivity of soil

0 to 2000
2000 to 10000
10000 to 30000
Above 30000

Severe (High corrosive)


Moderate to severe (Corrosive)
Mild (Low corrosive)
Not Likely

Soil resistivity is measured by using earth resistivity tester using Wenner Four
Pin Method. Electrode distanced shall be taken as 1.5 m and 3m. Soil resistivity
measurements were carried out along the line with a Chauvin Arnoux CA 6462
tool.
Average soil resistivity is to be calculated by using arithmetic average method.
Av= [ sum ( min + max)] /(Number of measuring -1)
Average soil resistivity is taken into account 2500 ohm-centimeters. Average
resistivity of the soil is at Corrosive level and this is appropriate for designing
Galvanic Cathodic Protection.

CURRENT REQUIREMENT

The current required for cathodic protection depends upon the metal being
protected and the environment. To achieve these protective potentials, current
must flow from the anode to the structure being protected. The amount of
current required to protect a given structure is proportional to the area of the
structure that is exposed to the electrolyte.
Therefore, current requirements are usually given as current densities in units of
amperes or milliamperes (0.001 amperes) per square meter (foot) of exposed
surface. Coatings are dielectric in nature, and to some degree, isolate the
structure from the electrolyte. For coated structures, the amount of current
required is much lower than for bare structures, as only those areas where the
coating has been damaged or has deteriorated require or will receive current.
The coating efficiency is the percent of the structure that is effectively isolated
from the electrolyte. Efficiencies of coatings can vary greatly due to the type of
coating, quality of surface preparation, quality of application, structure handling,
structure installation, backfill techniques, and backfill material used. Coatings
efficiencies normally range from about 80 percent up to 99.7 percent. Current
requirements for coated structures are best determined by actual testing after
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the structure is installed. The current densities required for cathodic protection
depend on the metal being protected and the environment.
Typical values for the current densities required for cathodic protection of bare
steel structures are shown in Table 2. Typical values of the current densities
required for cathodic protection of coated steel structures are shown in Table 4
(UFC Operation and Maintenance: Cathodic Protection Systems, UFC 3-570-06).
Table 3: Current Requirements for Cathodic Protection of Bare Steel
ENVIRONMENT
Soil with resistivity >30,000 ohm-cm
Soil with resistivity 10,000 30,000 ohm-cm
Soil with resistivity 1,000 and 10,000 ohmcm
Soil with resistivity <1,000 ohm-cm
Highly aggressive soil with anaerobic bacteria
Still fresh water
Moving fresh water
Turbulent fresh water
Hot fresh water
Still seawater
Moving seawater
Concrete

MILLIAMPERES
PER SQUARE
PER SQUARE
METER
FOOT
10.7 21.5
1- 2
21.5 32.3
2- 3
43.0 64.6

4- 6

75.3 269.1
161.5 430.5
21.5 43.0
43.0 64.6
53.8 161.4
53.8 161.4
10.7 32.3
32.3 269.1
5.4 16.1

7- 25
15- 40
2- 4
4- 6
5- 15
5- 15
1- 3
3- 25
0.5 1.5

Table 4: Current Requirements for Cathodic Protection of Coated Steel


STRUCTURE
Pipeline, epoxy or other high performance coating
Pipeline, reinforced coal tar or asphalt enamel
Pipeline, grease coating with wrapper

Pipeline, asphalt mastic thick


Pipeline, old asphalt or other deteriorated coating
Pipeline, old paint coating
Tank bottoms
Tanks for cold potable water
Tanks for cold sea water
Hot potable water tanks
Steel sheet piling fresh water side
Steel sheet piling sea water side
Steel sheet piling soil side

MILLIAMPERES
PER SQUARE
METER (FOOT)

COATING
EFFICIENC
Y

0.0100.054(0.0010.005)
0.0540.269(0.0050.025)
0.5381.615(0.050.15)

99.5 - 99.9
97.5 - 99.5
85.0 - 95.0

0.0010.005(0.001
0.005)
0.5383.767(0.050.35)
1.0760.522(0.100.30)
0.53821.529(0.052.00)
0.53821.529(0.052.00)
0.53843.056(0.054.00)
0.52232.292(0.303.00)
1.07616.146(0.101.50)
1.07621.529(0.102.00)
0.2154.304(0.002-0.40)

99.5 - 99.9
65.0
70.0
33.3
33.3
20.0
40.0
70.0
60.0
80.0

95.0
90.0
98.3
98.3
99.0
94.0
98.0
98.0
99.0

Taking into account the above statements for the current needs of the pipeline as
I = 0.2 mA/m2 is taken into account.
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5.1 Structures to be Protected


In order to estimate total protective current requirements, External surface area
of buried steel pipeline has been determined. Surface area of the one buried
steel pipeline.
External surface area of the buried steel pipe line has been calculated by using
the given formulas below as an example.
A= x Dex x L
Where A is total surface area of buried steel pipeline, Dex is external diameter and
L is the total Length of the buried steel pipelines.
8 pipe lines area:
Dex = 8 = 0.2032m
L = 54,000m
A = 3.14 x 0.2032 x 54000
= 34,454.592 m2

CATHODIC PROTECTION CALCULATION FOR PIPELINE SYSTEM

6.1 Design of Cathodic Protection Station


1) Average soil resistivity is 2500 ohm-centimeters.
2) Design for 20-year life.
3) Design for 0.2 milliampere per square meter (I) of bare pipe after
polarization (corrosion history of area indicates this value is adequate).
4) System is insulated well enough from foreign structures.
5) All piping is coated with Polyethylene. Coating has been tested over the
trench for holidays and defects have been corrected. Coating is assumed
better than 95 percent perfect at installation.
6) We have decided that the cathodic protection system circuit resistance
should not exceed 2,0 ohm.
7) There must be 220 V or 380 V a.c. for supplying Transformer / Rectifier
T/R units.
8) Cathodic protection of the pipeline will be assured by two (2.0)
Transformer / Rectifier Units that will be installed respectively in : P.K
00.00 (AGP) and P.K 54.00 (WAHA CPF)
9) The anode groundbed must be far away from the other metallic
underground structures to prevent the interference.
10)
The anode groundbed will be established as horizontal anode
groundbed.

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6.2 Current Requirement of Cathodic Protection


The current requirement of the pipeline is calculated in accordance to the specific
soil resistivity of the location where the polyethylene coated line lies, depending
on the potential change of current drainage point as stipulated in the terms of
reference.
A= 34,454.592 m2
I= 0,2 mA/m2
Ip = A.I
= 34454.592 m2 x 0.2 mA/m2
= 6890.92 mA.= 6.891 A
6.3 Design of Anode Groundbed of Cathodic Protection Stations
6.3.1 Establishment of Anode Groundbed w/ Fersilisyum Anodes
In the scope of this project, the anode groundbeds will be established by
Fersilisyum tube anodes, which are widely used in recent years as technological
product. The calculations for the establishment of anode groundbed are
presented in this section.
The Fersilisyum tube anodes with 50 mm diameter,1500 mm length and 20 kg
weight will be utilized in this application.
Anode ground bed = x D x L = 3.14 x 50 x 1500 = 235500mm2
= 0,2355 m2
If 10A/m2 current can be taken from one anode for 20 years, the maximum
current from one anode for 50 years is calculated as follows:
i = 10 x 0,2355
= 2,23 A
The anode groundbeds are the one of the most significant items of the cathodic
protection stations. They are established by the parallel connection of adequate
amount of Fersilisyum tube anodes having the characteristics pursuant to the
terms of reference. The minimum number of anodes in one anode groundbed
should be a number that would provide the required current outlet for the
protection of the system for a lifespan claimed in the terms of reference.
Lifespan claimed in the terms of reference: 50 years.
15% excess of the current requirement calculated in anode groundbed
calculations is considered.
Another issue to be taken into consideration in establishment of anode
groundbed is to design the resistivity of the anode groundbed in a way that the
resistivity at the circuit of cathodic protection will be lower than 2 Ohm.
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The anode groundbeds are established by the parallel connection of anodes of


adequate number that provides two basic elements explained above.
Accordingly:
Table 5: Design Current Capacity of Anode Groundbed and Minimum Required Anode Amount
Minimum
CPS
Calculated Current
Design Current Capacity of
Anode
No
Capacity (A)
Anode Groundbed, A (x 1.15)
Number (n)

CPS-1

6.891

7.925

13

6.3.2 Anode Groundbeds Established at Cathodic Protection Stations and Their


Resistivity
According to the terms of reference, total resistivity at the circuit of the cathodic
protection must be less than 2 Ohm.
Circuit resistivity of cathodic protection system = T/R Unit Internal Resistivity
(generally neglected) + Negative line cable resistivity + Positive line cable
resistivity + Anodes groundbed resistivity + Pipe soil transition resistivity.
Anode groundbed can be formed by adequate number of Fersilisyum tube anodes
connected in parallel. Anodes are 1.6m deep and horizontally placed and the
distance between anodes is 5m at the anode groundbed. Typical anode
groundbed layout plan is given in Figure 1.

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Groundbed cables

Anode Lead Cable

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180

100

A - A S e c tio n

40

30

40

Figure 1 Anode Groundbed Plan


Table 6: Tubular Anode Dimensions

Diameter
50mm

Length
1500m
m

Weight
20 kg

The number of the anode to be used at the anode groundbed will be 20 anodes
and the anode ground bed will be established at least 91m (usually 91 to 213
meters -300 to 700 feet-, UFC Operation and Maintenance: Cathodic Protection
Systems, UFC 3-570-06) far from the anode groundbed.
6.3.3 Amount of Backfill Material (coke breeze) of Anode Groundbed
To reduce the resistivity of assistant anode and to prevent the polarization, the
coke breeze is used as backfill material of anode groundbed.
The biggest diameter of coke breeze must be 10 mm and passing part of coke
breeze form number 100 sieve must be 5%.
6.3.3.1 Lifespan of Anode Groundbed
Control of Number of Anodes:
Cathodic protection system is designed for at least 50 years. Therefore, the
amount of anodes must provide the lifespan mentioned above :
Number of anodes used in cathodic protection station, n = 20 unit
Current outlet from cathodic protection station, I = 6.891 A
Maximum drawn current from one anode, Ione = 2.3 A
Maximum drawn current from 20 anode, I one = 20 x 2.3 = 46 A > 5,57 A
(enough anode number)

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T/R

RK
R3

6.3.3.2
Resistivity
of
Cathodic
R2 Circuit
Transformer / Rectifier Unit

Protection

and

The voltage capacity of T/R unit to be used in cathodic protection system with
exterior current source depends on the design current requirement and total
circuit resistivity atR1the circuit of cathodic protection.
ET/R = IDESIGN x RT
According to the terms of reference, the current capacity of T/R Unit is
considered to be 25%more of the protection current requirement. The calculated
design current capacity of T/R Unit to be installed at the cathodic protection
R1 : T/R Unit internal resistivity
station is given in Table-9.
R2 : Resistivity of anode groundbed R3 : Cable resistivity on the system
RK : Pipe-soil transition resistivity,
Characteristic resistivity

Table 7: Design Current Capacity of T/R Unit to be installed for Protection of Pipeline
Current Capacity of T/R nit,(a)
Calculated Current
Design
Requirement
x 1.15

CPS
No

CPS-1

6.891

7.925

The resistivities in the cathodic protection circuit with a exterior current source
are shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: Resistivities on Cathodic Protection Circuit


It is the addition of resistivities of the cables of the positive line laying from T/R
unit to the anode groundbed and the negative line laying towards the pipe. These
cables are installed as 1x25mm2 and 1x16 mm2.

s
Cable Resistivity =
By the use the following three values and the lengths L given in the figure above,
r = 0.018Ohm.mm2/m, specific resistivity of cable
s = 25mm2 , Cross-section of cable
L = Length of cable
NOTE: RK = 0,4052 Ohm (The arithmetic average diameter of all R K)
Voltage Capacity of T/R Unit:
ET/R = IDESIGN x RT
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IDESIGN = 7.925A
RT = 1.5927 Ohm
ET/R = 6,96 x 1.5927
= 12,62 Volt

INSTALLATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION

7.1 Cathodic protection station


Cathodic protection station in accordance with approved projects will be
established. Transformer-Rectifier unit for 220 V or 380 V ac supply lines will be
done with 2x6 mm2 NYRY cable. Feed line in place the 60 mm PVC or
galvanized pipe will be in conservation. T / R unit necessary with 25 mm cable
and copper grounding bar with dimensions 20x1500 mm housing 5 ohm earth
station systems to be integrated into the soil will be. Protection of cables laid
Cathodic station, is shown in the project will be branded with the cable carrying
signal.
7.2 Anode Backfill
Specification:
Fixed carbon
99%
Ash
0.1%
Volatiles
0.2%
Sulphur
0.45 %
Density
2.1
Resistivity
35-55ohm.cm
Special backfill can be supplied upon receipt request.
NOTE: The chemical composition listed is for example only. The actual type and
composition required shall be determined by the design engineer to provide
adequate and economical service.
7.3 Spark Gaps
The pipeline will be separated from the existing underground metallic structures
via fabricated isolated couplings at the beginning of the pipeline and at the end
of the line. The static electricity accumulated on the pipeline will be removed by
the surge diverters.
7.4 Grounding System
The T/R units will be grounded separately from the existing grounding system
where the T/R unit will be present. The grounding system will be established
without exceeding the total resistivity of 5 Ohm.

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7.5 Test Stations


All test stations will be of tubular type. The test stations will be hot galvanized
and the galvanized lining will be painted with white colours epoxy paint.
cable 1 x 16 mm2 type U 1000 R O2 V resistant soil aggressiveness is attached to
the pipe by thermite welding Cadweld type.
The cables used for different potential type will be taken U1000 R 02 V and shall
have the following color code:
Anode: Red
Cathode: Black
Third Structure: Grey
Earth: Yellow / Green
Metal sheath: Yellow
Insulating Joint: Blue
Location of test stations (See Appendices).
7.6 Reference electrodes
Fixed type saturated Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode will be used. Technical
characteristics of reference electrode:
Diameter : 40mm
Length : 400mm
Ingredient : 99,9 %Copper electrode
Copper sulphate crystals in a saturated copper
Solution :
sulphate gel
Stability : +/- 5 mV
Potentiel thorique : 300 mV
Cable : 6mm
7.7 Cable Connection
All measurements in the cable-station, source pipe connection will be used in the
termite.
Pipe layer polyethylene coating will be opened in the size 50x50mm, coated with
other tubes without damaging the coating is clear. Cable 50mm from end around
by opening a portion of the pipeline cadweld source and will be boiling. Source
location for the insulation pipe coating materials, such as PPWeld Cap equal or
bitumen-based materials will be used mastik.

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