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Feeders

jumpers, more flexible cables


Feeder cables

Container

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)


A/DConverter

300 - 3400 Hz

Amplitude
o
o

1
8000

8000 Hz x 8 Bit/s
64,000 Bit/s

64000 bit / sec

Time
o

125 s

(8000 samples / second)


o

o
o

PCM30
32 time slots

TS 0
used for synchronisation
and alarms

TS 16
often used for common
Exchange
channel signalling

Exchange
1

125 s time frame

DMR (Link path)


Repeater site

Terminal site

Fres

ne
o
z
l
ne

Fre
sne
l-zo
ne

Note: Fresnel zone must be cleared from obstacles.


Fresnel-zone becomes larger in diameter with lower frequency
and smaller with higher frequencies.
Higher frequency generates a more narrow Fresnel-zone and the
opposite for lower frequencies.
Linkpaths passing on top of lake should be avoided due to risk
for reflections and fading, which might affect the quality targets.

Terminal site

Lake

DMR (System overview 1+0)


Line-unit
(Interface)

Modulator
D/A

Up-converter

Parabolic
antenna

Transmitter

PDH or
SDH signal

Filter +
Branching

Line-unit
(Interface)

Demodulator
A/D

IF amplifier

Receiver +
Down
converter

Note: This picture shows a typical 1+0 system, un-protected


system. A 1+1 system contains one more system + a switch unit
that is selecting which system to be used. Faulty receiver in main
system forces a switch over to the protection system etc

Waveguide

DMR (System overview 1+1)

Line-unit
(Interface)

Modulator
D/A

Up-converter

Transmitter

Modulator
D/A

Up-converter

Transmitter

PDH or
SDH signal

Parabolic
antenna
Filter +
Branching

Line-unit
(Interface)
+
Bit
Combiner

Demodulator
A/D

IF amplifier

Receiver +
Downconverter

Demodulator
A/D

IF amplifier

Receiver +
Downconverter

Waveguide

Hardware configurations
Frequency Diversity Configuration
F1

1100101

Tx

Tx

Rx

Rx

F1
F2

1101101

Tx
Rx

011010

Tx
F2

101010

Rx

Protection
Radio link protection

Hot Standby
Working Standby

DMR (System overview 1+0 SD)


Line-unit
(Interface)

Modulator
D/A

Up-converter

Transmitter

PDH or
SDH signal

Line-unit
(Interface)

Demodulator
A/D

IF amplifier
(MAIN)

Receiver +
DownConverter
(MAIN)

IF amplifier
(SD)

Receiver +
Downconverter
(SD)

Filter +
Branching

Waveguide

Filter
(SD)

Waveguide

IF combiner

Access Module Magazine

There are different sizes depending of the need on the site


and they house the plug-in units.
Provides backplane interconnection of traffic, power and
control signals.

Node Processor Unit, NPU

NPU2 for AMM 2p


+24/-48VDC as supply voltage
4xE1 Interfaces (120ohm G.703)
10/100 BASE-T Ethernet interface for
management and traffic
USB interface for local maintenance

E1 Bus in back-plane of AMM.

NPU, Traffic Termination

4xE1

3A
3B
3C
3D

NPU2
E1:3A3D

Node Processor Unit, NPU

The Node Processor Unit is the brain of the node


Mandatory plug-in unit
Holds the configuration of the node
The interface for management and local
maintenance
Centralized node processor with DCN router,
SNMP Master Agent
Traffic interfaces

NPU, Traffic Termination

E1 Bus in back-plane of AMM.

4xE1 4xE1

3A
3B
3C
3D
2A
2B
2C
2D

NPU1 B
E1 3A 3D

E1 2A 2D

Modem Unit, MMU

MMU2 (previous release):


C-QPSK modulation
Traffic Capacities in Mbit/s: 2x2, 8, 2x8 or 34+2
To be used together with an SMU2 in a
protected terminal 1+1

Modem Unit, MMU

MMU2 B:
C-QPSK modulation
Traffic Capacities in Mbit/s: 2x2, 8, 2x8 or 34+2
Compact 1+1 configuration

Modem Unit, MMU

Interface to the radio


One MMU per radio
Modulates the digital traffic into analogue radio-modulation
Sets the traffic capacity and frequency bandwidth

Modem Unit, MMU

MMU2 E:
16, 64 or 128 QAM modulation
Traffic Capacity in Mbit/s: 155+2
ELP configuration for MSP 1+1 support
SFP for traffic termination
Compact 1+1 configuration

Line Termination Unit, LTU

E1 Bus in back-plane of AMM.

4xE1

4xE1

4xE1

3A
3B
3C
3D

E1:3A3D

2A
2B
2C
2D

E1:2A2D

1A
1B
1C
1D

E1:1A1D

Plesiochronous Digital
Frame
Hierarchy
Synchronization
64kbit/s
Multiplexing
Hierarchy
in
ETSI
PDH
Time slot 0
31 x 64kbit/s

8000Hz

Primary Rate
E1, 2.048Mbit/s +/- 50ppm
E1 2Mbit PCM frame

A
Voice

Structured E1
Pay load 31 x 64kbit/s,

D
8000 samples/sec.
with 8 bit(1 byte)/sample

E0 64kbit Time Slots Channels


Muxed byte by byte

= 64000bit/s (E0)
Frame length=125s

Plesiochronous Digital
Hierarchy
32x 64kbit/s

Clock

theETSI
world of PDH
multiplexing is:
Multiplexing HierarchyIn4 in
PDH
x 2,048 = 8,448 (?!)

Primary Rate
E1, 2.048Mbit/s

4 x 8,448 = 34,368 (?!)

E1
Clock

Clock
E1

Secondary Rate
E2, 8.448Mbit/s

Clock
Tertiary Rate
E3, 34.368Mbit/s

E2
E2

Clock

E1

E3

E2
E2

Clock

E1

Multiplexing
De-Multiplexing

Line Termination Unit, SMU


SMU2

3A 1.1
3A 1.2
3A 1.3
3A 1.4

(E2:3A 1)

3A 2.1
3A 2.2
3A 2.3
3A 2.4

(E2:3A 2)

3A 3.1
3A 3.2
3A 3.3
3A 3.4

(E2:3A 3)

3A 4.1
3A 4.2
3A 4.3
3A 4.4
2A

(E3:3A)
E3:3A

E1:2A
(E2:3A 4)
(E1:2A)

Configured for:
1xE3 and
1xE1

Modem Unit, MMU

E1 Bus in back-plane of AMM.

MMU2 2x2
1
2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

BB1
BB2

MMU2 8
(E2:1)

BB1

MMU2 2x8

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

(E2:1)

BB1

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

(E2:2)

BB2

E1 Bus in back-plane of AMM.

Modem Unit, MMU


MMU2 34+2

1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4

(E2:1)

1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4

(E2:2)

1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4

(E2:3)

1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4

(E2:4)

(E1:17)

(E3:1)

BB1

BB2

Line Termination Unit, LTU


1.1.1
1.1.2

E1 Bus in back-plane of AMM.

1.1.3
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
1.7.1
1.7.2
1.7.3

2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3

LTU 155

3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3

RX

STM-1
TX

Radio Terminal Configuration


with LCT

Modem configuration
(AM Setup)

Radio configuration
(Hop Setup)

Radio Terminal Configuration


with LCT

Radio configuration
(Hop Setup)

Loops

IF Loop

MMU

RF Loop

RAU

Near-end

Rx Loop

RAU

MMU

Far-end

Loops

Traffic Node
with BERT

Line Interfaces

Loop functions/Connection Loop


Connection loop back

Connection loop:
A traffic connection set up in the
traffic function is looped back to
Its origin.
Connection loop is realized by
the traffic routing function in the
node.
Connection loop is used in
combination with a BERT in
another node to test network
AIS
connections including the termination
plug-in unit in case a local loop cannot
be used due to the lack of a cross-connection.

Plug-In
Unit

AIS

Plug-In
Unit

Loops

Traffic Node
with BERT

Line Interfaces

Loop functions/Local Loop


Plug-In
Unit

Local loop: the whole line signal


with traffic received from the
backplane is looped back to its
origin.
Local loop in combination with a
BERT in another node can be used
to test a connection as far as
possible in the looped node.

nxE1
Plug-In
Unit

Local loop back


Line Interfaces

AIS

AIS

Loops
Traffic Node
with BERT
Line Interfaces

Loop functions/Line Loop


Line loop back

Line loop: the whole incoming


signal is lopped back to its origin.
Line loop in combination with a
BERT in an adjacent node is used
to test the transmission link (cable,
fiber, radio link) between two Nodes.

Plug-In
Unit

AIS

Plug-In
Unit

Loops

Loops

Traffic routing function


Backplane

List View
MMU2 B 4-34 1/2 NPU1 B 1/11
Interface 1

E1 1/2/1 1.1
E1 1/2/1 1.2
E1 1/2/1 1.3
E1 1/2/1 1.4

Interface 2

E1 1/11/2A
E1 1/11/2B
E1 1/11/2C
E1 1/11/2D
E1 1/11/3A
E1 1/11/3B
E1 1/11/3C
E1 1/11/3D

Pos 2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

MMU2 B
(E2)

8 Mbit/s

Pos 11
3A
3B
3C
3D
2A
2B
2C
2D

NPU1 B
E1 3A 3D

E1 2A 2D

Traffic routing function

MUX PLAN

Antenna Units
Gain and size
Frequency range (GHz)
Antenna size (m)

7/8

13

15

18

0.2
0.3

23

26

28

32

38

31.8

33.8

34.6

35.4

37.5

32.1

34.4

36.2

37.3

38.0

38.8

40.4
44.3

0.6

32.0

36.0

36.6

39.2

40.0

41.5

42.4

43.5

1.2

37.0

41.8

42.7

44.6

46.0

47.1

47.9

49.0

1.8

41.0

45.3

46.4

48.5

49.5

2.4

43.1

47.7

48.7

3.0

45.1

49.7

3.7

47.3

Different Thresholds

MMU

DMR (Frequency/Distance/Capacity)
Frequency band

Antenna diam.

Path length (km)

Capacity

3.6 4.2 GHz

3.0 3.7 m

40 65 km

E4 & STM-1

4.4 5.0 GHz

2.4 3.0 m

40 60 km

E4 & STM-1

5.9 6.4 GHz

2.0 3.0 m

30 55 km

E4 & STM-1

6.4 7.1 GHz

2.0 3.0 m

30 55 km

E4 & STM-1

7.1 7.9 GHz

0.6 3.0 m

15 50 km

E1 - E4 & STM-1

7.7 8.3 GHz

0.6 3.0 m

15 45 km

E1 - E4 & STM-1

10.7 11.7 GHz

0.6 3.0 m

5 35 km

E4 & STM-1

12.7 13.3 GHz

0.3 2.4 m

5 30 km

E1 - E4 & STM-1

14.5 15.3 GHz

0.2 2.0 m

5 30 km

E1 - E3 & STM-1

17.7 19.7 GHz

0.2 1.8 m

2 20 km

E1 - E4 & STM-1

21.2 23.6 GHz

0.2 1.2 m

0.5 5 km

E1 - E3 & STM-1

24.2 26.5 GHz

0.2 0.6 m

0.1 3 km

E1 - E3 & STM-1

37.0 39.5 GHz

0.2 0.6 m

0.1 1.5 km

E1 - E3 & STM-1

60 GHz

0.2 0.6 m

0.1 1 km

E1 - E3

Note: Distance values are approximate and valid for


Swedish climate

RAU

C-QPSK

16QAM

128QAM

(PDH)

(PDH)

(SDH)

7 GHz
8 GHz
13 GHz
15 GHz
18 GHz
23 GHz
26 GHz
28 GHz
32 GHz
38 GHz

7 GHz
8 GHz
13 GHz
15 GHz
18 GHz
23 GHz
26 GHz
28 GHz
32 GHz
38 GHz

7 GHz
8 GHz
13 GHz
15 GHz
18 GHz
23 GHz
26 GHz
28 GHz
32 GHz
38 GHz

Performance Management

DCN parameters Configuration

Initial setup
The initial setup includes two major steps
1. Radio Terminal Configuration
2. Configuration of NE parameters

USB

LCT Terminal Window


MINI-LINK Craft

Default IP address of the TN


Two different users:
view_user
control_user
Default password: ericsson

LCT Terminal Window


EEM

LCT Terminal Window


EEM

Default IP address of the TN

Two different users:


view_user
control_user
Default password: ericsson

Naming of Physical Entities


Node

Slot

NPU1 B in slot 11 = NPU1 B 1/11


Port
E1 2A on the NPU1 B in slot 11 = E1 1/11/2A

The first E1 of a MMU in slot 2 configured as 2*2 = E1 1/2/1 1

The first E1 of a MMU in slot 2 configured as 34+2 = E1 1/2/1 1.1.1

The first E1 in an LTU155 in slot 20 = E1 1/20/1 1.1.1

The first Ethernet bridge on the ETU2 in slot 5 = Bridge 1/5/1

LCT Terminal Window


EEM

Alarm
Handling
All software and hardware in operation is
monitored by the control system
Errors are mapped down to
faulty replaceable unit
Alarm notification can be enabled/disabled for
the entire node, for an individual plug-in unit
and for individual interfaces

Alarm Handling

Re-use example (1)


A standard problem, with the standard
solution:

f1
Horizontally
polarized

f2

f3

Horizontally
polarized

Horizontally
polarized

Re-use example (2)


An improvement on the solution:

f1
Horizontally
polarized

f2

f1

Horizontally
polarized

Horizontally
polarized

Thus saving one frequency

Re-use example (3)


An additional adaptation:

f1
Horizontally
polarized

f1
Vertically
polarized

f1
Horizontally
polarized

And another frequency gained (not taking polarization


discrepancy taken into account)

Re-use example (5)


Only one frequency and one polarization is required:

f1
Horizontally
polarized

f1
Horizontally
polarized

f1
Horizontally
polarized

Thus, frequency re-use is relatively simple, when really


looking into it.

MINI-LINK TN traffic interfaces


MINI-LINK TN
MINI-LINK TN
E1
2Mbit/s

E2
8Mbit/s

MINI-LINK TN
x4

x4

x63

STM-1
155Mbit/s

E3
34Mbit/s

x4

STM-4
x4

622Mbit/s

E4
140Mbit/s

PDH

STM-16
x4

2.5Gbit/s

SDH
MINI-LINK TN