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DCC 5152 WATER SUPPLY AND

WASTE WATER ENGINEERING


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TOPIC 1.0 :
WATER RESOURCES AND QUALITY

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.1.1 List the


importance of water
usage

1.1.2 Describe the sources of


water supply;
a)Surface water resources:
rivers,lakes, reservoirs/dam
b)Ground water resources
1.1 know the sources
of water supply

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2.1 Physical
Characteristics:
a.Turbidity
b.Taste and odour
c.Colour
d.Temperature

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2.2 Chemical
Characteristics:
a.pH
3
b.Hardness
c.Chlorides
d.Sulphates
e.Iron
f.Solids
g.Nitrates

1.2.3 Biological
Characteristics:
a.Coliform
b.Bacteria
c.Virus
d.Protozoa

1.3 Study about water


contaminant
generation

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.3.1 Study the human


impact results in a
reduction of fresh water
and degradation of water
quality

1.1 1.1.1 Importance of Water Usage


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1. Water Supply drinking water , irrigation and industrial purposes after the water
chemistry is determined based on its suitability for intended purposes.
2. Water resources management groundwater reservoirs cross property line and
political boundaries. Therefore, decision on who is allowed to pump, how much can be
pumped, location of potential contaminant sources etc should be made. Surface water
projects e.g dams, diversions for irrigation and sewer systems have impact on
groundwater quality and quality and must be properly considered.
3. Engineering and construction Dewatering of excavations is important in many
construction projects. Groundwater flowing into the excavation may depress local water
table and cause settlement of nearby land. All dams leak to some extent, and this
seepage rate and the pore water pressure affect stability of the dam. Landfills and other
waste storage facilities should be designed to limit the risk of groundwater and surface
water contamination.
4. Environmental Investigations and clean-up some contaminants are degraded by
naturally occurring microbes that live in groundwater, but other contaminants require
more active remediation efforts, e.g contruction of trenches to capture contaminants,
pumping and treating water, and injecting air.
5. Geologic processes Large scale geologic processes involving groundwater are
studied for academic interest and to better understand processes involving the origins of
oil, gas, and mineral deposits. Some investigations are shedding light on past climates,
earthquake mechanisms, and geologic hazards.
BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1..1.2 describe the sources of water supply (surface


water resources:river,lakes, reservoirs/dam)
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BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1..1.2 describe the sources of water supply


(surface water resources:river,lakes,
reservoirs/dam)
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Characteristics of groundwater:
a) Groundwater spread over a wide area and therefore is available for utilization or
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

g.

development.
Movement of groundwater is very slow.
Changes to discharge and storage are small and the storage is not affected by the dry spell.
Cost of pumping operation to extract groundwater is higher than the treatment of surface
water.
Groundwater require low capital investment cost.
The quality of groundwater:
i. are always free from harmful organisms
ii. Are treated through layers of rock and soil
iii. Contains high soluble salts
iv. Are difficult to treat if contaminated
v. have quite uniform temperature.
Data for analyses are sparse and insufficient

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 understand the surface and ground


water quality characteristics
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1. Physical
Parameters

2. Chemical
Parameters

3. Biological
Parameters

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


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- This parameters respond to the sense of sight, touch,

taste or smell.
Turbidity

Taste & Odour

Temperature

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Colour

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Turbinity)
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- Is a measure of the amount of particulate matter that

is suspended in water. Unit NTU


(Nephlometric Turbidity Unit)
- Water that has HIGH turbidity appears CLOUDY /
OPAQUE
- HIGH turbidity can cause INCREASED of water
TEMPERATURE

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Turbinity Cont)
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- More suspended particle will absorb more heat

which in turn lowers dissolved O2 levels.


- Such particles (SS clay,silt,finely divided organic
material, plankton) can also prevent sunlight from
reaching plants below surface hence DECREASE
the rate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS
- So, LESS O2 is produced by plant.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Turbinity Cont)
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- Desirable limit 5NTU should be below 1 NTU when

disinfection is practices.
- Permissible limit-10NTU

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Temperature)
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- It is a major factor in determining which species are

present in the stream.


- Temperature will impacts:
i. The rates of metabolisme and growth of aquastic
organism.
ii. Rate of plant photosynthesis
iii.Solubility of O2 in water [O0 C,DO=14.6mg/l; 200C, DO =
9.1 mg/l]
iv.Organisms sensitivity to disease, parasites and toxic
materials.
BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Temperature Cont)
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- Cool water taste better


- Temperature affects rate of chemical and

microbiological reactions
- The most suitable drinking water are consistently
cool and do not have temperature fluctuations of
more than a few degrees.
- Groundwater and surface water from mountain area
generally meet these criteria.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Colour)
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- It is due to the presence of dissolved and suspended

matter (metallic ions, chemical pollutants, plankton


and plant pigments from humus and peat).
- These substance do not threaten stream water

quality, but indicate INCREASE DEVELOPMENT


in watershed.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Colour Cont.)
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- Dissolved organic material from humic substance generally lend

a brown or tea color to water.


- Dissolved organic material from vegetation and certain

inorganic matter may cause colour in water


- Taste problems relating to water could be indicators of changes

in water sources or treatment process


- Inorganic compound such as magnesium,calcium, sodium,

copper, iron and zinc are generally detected by taste of water.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.1 Physical Characteristics


(Taste & Odor)
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- Caused by foreign matters such as organics compounds,

inorganic salts, bacteria, algae and dissolved gases.


- Measurement : Threshold Oder Number (TON)
- Example;
i. addition of ammonia to form monochloramine in the
pipes.
ii. Excessive manganese & iron present in the finish water.
**manganese & iron often found in groundwater supplies where the
overall quality of the water is good but there is a high amount of
soluble salt. These metals then react with O2 in the distribution
system to produced the reduced insoluble from of the metal**

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


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- Substance that dissolved in water


- Total dissolved solid, alkalinity, hardness, metals,

organic compounds and nutrients.


pH

HARDNESS

SOLIDS

SULPHATES

IRON

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NITRATES

CHORIDES

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(pH)
19

pH
- it is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions
- the term pH was derived from the manner in which the
hydrogen ion concentration is calculated.
- pH scale range from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is consider to be
neutral
- Substances with pH of less than 7 are acidic
Substances with pH greater than 7 are basic.
Affect chemical and biological reaction;
- Low pH is corrosive
- High pH cause deposits
1.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(pH Cont)
20

Calculating the Hydronium Ion Concentration

from pH The hydronium ion concentration can be found


from the pH by the reverse of the mathematical operation
employed to find the pH.
[H3O+] = 10-pH or [H3O+] = antilog (- pH)
Example: What is the hydronium ion concentration in a

solution that has a pH of 8.34?


8.34 = - log [H3O+]
- 8.34 = log [H3O+]
[H3O+] = 10-8.34 = 4.57 x 10-9 M
On a calculator, calculate 10-8.34, or "inverse" log ( - 8.34).
BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(HARDNESS)
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Stream water hardness is the total of concentration of

cations, specifically calcium (Ca2+ ), Magnesium (Mg2+ ),


iron (Fe2+ ), manganese (Mg2+ ) in the water.
Water rich in these cations is said to be hard. Stream water

hardness reflects the geology of the catchment area.


Sometimes it also provides a measure of the influence of

human activity.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(HARDNESS Cont..)
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For instance, acid mine drainage often results in the release

of iron into the stream. The iron produces extraordinarily


high hardness is a useful water quality indicator.
Hardness is a reflection of the amount of calcium and

magnesium entering the stream through the weathering of


rock such as limestone (CaCo3)

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(HARDNESS Cont..)
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Temporary or carbonate hardness: It is combination

calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) ion with Co32- or HCO3 Temporary hardness is mostly destroyed by boiling of water

or additional of lime.
The settlement of these ion will remove

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(HARDNESS Cont..)
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BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(HARDNESS Cont..)
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Permanent or non-carbonate hardness: It is

combination calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) ion


with Cl- , SO42- , NO3Unlike temporary hardness, permanent hardness is

not destroyed on boiling. The removal of


noncarbonate using soda ash or soda lime.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(HARDNESS Cont..)
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The degree of hardness of drinking water has been

classified in terms of the equivalent CaCO3


concentration as follows

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(HARDNESS Cont..)
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BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(NITRATES)
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- Increasing level of nitrate due to Agricultural


fertilizers, manure, animal dung, nitrogenous material,
sewage pollution (blue baby diseases to infants)
- Under normal conditions, the nitrogen cycle keeps
the amount of available nitrogen in balance with the
demands. However, excessive use of fertilizers and
nutrient rich sewage release have created a surplus of
nitrate. The result is eutrophication from excess algae
and bacteria with reduced dissolved oxygen.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.2 Chemical Characteristics


(IRON)
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-One of the earths most plentiful resource


-High iron causes brown or yellow staining of laundry,

household fixtures
-Metallic taste, offensive odour, poor tasting coffee
-Cause iron bacteria
-Acceptable limit 0.3 mg/l

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.3 Biological Characteristics


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- Living Organism that can be found in the water


- It may lead to bad taste, odor,corrosion and

production
- Pathogen
Bacteria

Coliform

virus

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Protozoa

1.2 1.2.3 Biological Characteristics


(Bacteria)
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- Phatogenic bacteria causing cholera, typhoid fever

etc
- Indicator Bacteria;
- Coliform
- Fecal Coliform (E.coli)

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1.2 1.2.3 Biological Characteristics


(Virus)
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- One virus can cause illness


- Hard to detect
- Specify treatment process (disinfection dose and

contact time) instead of measuring virus


concentration.
- Smallest microorganisms with sizes range from 0.01
to 0.3 m. Could cause certain disease like hepatitis,
flu, jaundice and polio.
BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.3 Biological Characteristics


(Algae)
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- Taste and odor


- Some algae could be harmful to animals;

- fish
- bird
- Increase the level of DO in water. But too much algae,
will affect taste and smell and can reduce the
intensity of light penetration.
BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN

1.2 1.2.3 Biological Characteristics


(Protozoa)
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- Simplest animal species. Infection are usually

characterized by gastrointestinal disorders.

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1.3 Study about water contaminant


generation
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- STUDENT MUST SEARCH 1( ONE ) ARTICLE

ABOUT HUMAN IMPACT RESULTS IN A


REDUCTION OF FRESH WATER AND
DEGRADATION OF WATER QUALITY.
- P/s : Discuss this topic in next class.

BY NORAIDAWATI BINTI NORDIN