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#Chapter1.

1 History,Taxonomy,
Morphology of Bacteria 13.6.2016
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 (13.6.2016) 13.6.2016
#Chapter1.1 History , Taxonomy, Morphology of Bacteria
#ApurbaSastry

#Question-1- Who is the discoverer of these following contributions


1. Principles of fermentation
2. Sterilization techniques and developed steam sterilizer, hot air oven and autoclave.
3. Pasteurization of milk
4. Germ theory of disease
5. Isolation of bacteria in pure culture
6. Hanging drop method for testing motility
7. Introduced staining techniques
8. Discovered simple microscope and named organisms as Little animalcules
9. Founder of electron microscope.
10. Developed the first vaccine of the world
11. Father of antiseptic surgery. He used carbolic acid during surgery.
12. Discovered L forms of bacteria.
13. Discovered transposons.
14. Discovered PCR
15. Discovered Monoclonal Antibody

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 (13.6.2016)


#Chapter1.1 History , Taxonomy, Morphology of Bacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question2- Match the following: Bacterial Classifications with the Principles are used
:

Principles are used


1. Branching tree-like arrangement, based on weighted characteristics
2. Based on giving equal weight to every character of the organism
3. Based on genetic relatedness
Bacterial Classifications
a. Molecular classification
b. Phylogenetic classification

c. Adansonian (or phonetic) classification:

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 (13.6.2016)


#Chapter1.1 History , Taxonomy, Morphology of Bacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question3- Organisms that are Exceptions to Kochs postulates

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 (13.6.2016)


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question4- Which Organism is known for the following names
1. Kleb-Loeffler bacillus
2. Preisz Nocard bacillus
3. Koch Week bacillus
4. Johnes bacillus
5. Gaffky Eberth bacillus
6. Whitmore bacillus
7. Battey bacillus
8. Eatons agent

9. Pfeiffers bacillus

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question5- The resolution power of
a. Unaided human eye is about
b. Light microscope is about ..
c. Electron microscope is about ..

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question6- Answer the following about Electron microscope

1. Highest practical magnification_____ times


2. Best resolution- _______
3. Radiation source ______
4. Medium of travel 5. Specimen mounted on
6. Type of lens
7. Source of contrast

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question7- Which Bacteria show the following Gram stain arrangement
Gram positive cocci arranged in
1. Cluster
2. Chain
3. Pairs, lanceolate shaped
4. Pair or in short chain, spectacle eyed shape
5. Tetrads

6. Octate

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question8- Which Bacteria show the following Gram stain arrangement
Gram negative cocci arranged in
1. Pairs,lens shaped
2. Pairs, kidney shaped

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question9- Which Bacteria show the following Gram stain arrangement

Gram positive bacilli arranged in


1. Chain(bamboo stick appearance)
2. Chain
3. Chinese letter or cuneiform pattern
4. Palisade pattern
5. Branched and filamentous form

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question10- Which Bacteria show the following Gram stain arrangement
Gram negative bacilli arranged in
1. Pleomorphic (various shapes)
2. Thumb print appearance
3. Comma shaped (fish in stream appearance)
4. Curved (gullwing shaped)
5. Spirally coiled, flexible
6. Rigid spiral forms
7. Bacteria that lack cell wall

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question11- Match the following:
A.Gram Positive cell wall and B. Gram Negative cell wall
1. Thick Peptidoglycan layer
2. L Lysine at 3rd position of tetrapeptide side chain
3. Pentaglycine bridge absent
4. More Lipid content
5. Lipopolysaccharide present
6. Teichoic acid present
7. Variety of amino acids present
8. Aromatic amino acids present

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question12- Characteristics of Prokaryotes
1. Example Bacteria or virus or fungi or parasites or blue green algae
2. Nucleus-Diffuse or Well defined
a. Nuclear membrane-Absent or Present
b. Nucleolus -Absent or Present
c. Ribonucleoprotein-Absent or Present
d. Cell division-Binary fission or Mitosis
e. Chromosome-One, circular or Many, liner
f. Extrachromosomal DNA Found in .

3. Cell membrane- sterols -Absent or Present


4. Cellular organelles-Absent or Present
5. Ribosome size.
6. Site of respiration ..
7. Pinocytosis- Absent or Present

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question13- Types of motility
1. Tumbling motility
2. Gliding motility
3. Stately motility
4. Darting motility
5. Swarming motility
6. Corkscrew, lashing, flexion extension motility

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question14- Size of 1. Flagella
2. Fimbriae

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question15- E.g. of Bacteria showing the following
1. Monotrichous flagella
2. Lophotrichous flagella
3. Peritrichous flagella
4. Amphitrichous flagella

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question16- True or False about Fimbriae
1. Organ of adhesion
2. Help in bacterial gene transfer
3. Found only in motile organisms
4. Found only in Gram positive organisms
5. Detection of fimbriae by Hemagglutination
6. Detection of fimbriae by Cragie tube method
7. Detection of fimbriae by Hanging drop
8. Surface pellicle are e.g. of fimbriae

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016

#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question17- Involution forms1. Definition
2. Examples

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 13.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #MorphologyofBacteria
#ApurbaSastry
#Question18- Use of the following stain
1. Tannic acid staining(Leifsons method & Ryus method)
2. Negative staining by India ink and nigrosin stain
3. MFaydean capsule stain
4. Quellung reaction
5. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining using 0.25% sulphuric acid
6. SchaefferFulton stain and the Moeller stain.

#Chapter1.1
#PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
14.6.2016
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016
#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question1

A.Lag Phase
B.Log Phase
C.Stationary Phase
D.Decline Phase
Which phase of bacterial growth curve the following event occurs
1. Accumulation of enzymes & metabolites
2. Attains max. size
3. Uniformly stained
4. Metabolically active
5. Produce Granules
6. Produce Exotoxin
7. Produce Antibiotics
8. Produce involution forms

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question2

A.Lag Phase
B.Log Phase
C.Stationary Phase
D.Decline Phase
Which phase of bacterial growth curve the following event occurs
1. Bacteria divide but not die
2. Bacteria do not divide but die
3. Bacteria divide and die
4. Bacteria do not divide and do not die

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016

#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question3

Match the following: Classify bacteria based on oxygen requirements


1. Aerobes that can also grow anaerobically
2. Anaerobes that can also grow aerobically
3. can grow only in the presence of oxygen
4. Can grow in the presence of low oxygen tension, i.e., 5-10%
5. These bacteria can grow only in the absence of oxygen
6. They can tolerate oxygen for some time, but do not use it

A. Obligate aerobes
B. Facultative anaerobes
C. Facultative aerobes
D. Microaerophilic bacteria
E. Aerotolerant anaerobe
F. Obligate anaerobes

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question4

Match the following:

1. Psychrophiles
2. Mesophiles
3. Thermophiles

A. Bacillus stearothermophilus
B. Pseudomonas
C. E.coli

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question5

Infective dose of the following organisms is A)Low or B)High?


Shigella
Cryptosporidium parvum
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Entamoeba coli and Giardia
Campylobacter jejuni
Escherichia coli
Salmonella
Vibrio cholerae

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question6

What is the Infective dose of the following organisms


1. Shigella
2. Salmonella
3. Vibrio cholerae

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question7

Mechanism of intracellular survival


1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2. Mycobacterium leprae
3. Chlamydia
4. Listeria
5. Rickettsia

A. Inhibition of phagolysosome fusion


B. Resistance to lysosomal enzymes
C. Adaptation to cytoplasmic replication

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question8

Endotoxins: The following statements are True or False


1. Only large doses are fatal
2. Secreted both by Gram positive & negative bacteria; diffuse into surrounding medium
3. Poorly antigenic
4. Heat labile
5. Mostly enzyme like action
6. No effective vaccine is available
7. Specific action
8. Neutralisation by antibodies is ineffective

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 14.6.2016


#Chapter1.1 #PhysiologyBacterialPathogenecity
#ApurbaSastry

#Question9

Match the following: Toxins and their mode of action


1. Diphtheria toxin
2. Heat stable toxin of E.coli
3. Botulinum toxin
4. Enterotoxin and TSST of S.aureus
5. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin
6. Tetanus toxin (tetanospasmin)
7. Verocytotoxin (EHEC)
8. Exotoxin-A of Pseudomonas
9. Anthrax toxin
10. toxin of Clostridium perfringens
11. Heat labile toxin of ETEC
12. Shiga toxin (Shigella dysenteriae type-1)
13. Cholera toxin (V.cholerae)

A. Act as super antigen; stimulate T cell non-specifically


B. Inhibits protein synthesis (by inhibiting EF-2)
C. Lecithinase
D. GABA and glycine release from inhibitory neurons Spastic paralysis
E. acetyl choline release from neurons Flaccid paralysis
F. cAMP in target cell
G. cGMP
H. Inhibit protein synthesis (by inhibiting ribosome)

#Chapter1.2 #Sterilization 15.6.2016


ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016
#Chapter1.2 #Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question1

Definition of Sterilization, Disinfection and Decontamination (or Sanitization). Answer


the following in terms ofA. Reduction of at least

log CFU of microorganisms

B. Spores are killed or Not killed

1. Sterilization
2. Disinfection
3. Decontamination (or Sanitization)

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2 #Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question2

The decreasing order of resistance of microorganisms to disinfectant or sterilizing


agents is as follows
1. Enveloped viruses.
2. Protozoan Trophozoites
3. Mycobacteria
4. Prions
5. Cryptosporidium oocysts
6. Bacterial spores
7. Coccidian cyst
8. Other parasite cysts (Giardia)
9. Fungi
10. Gram-negative bacteria
11. Large non-enveloped viruses
12. Small non-enveloped viruses
13. Gram-positive bacteria

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question3

Mechanism of action
1. Dry heat
2. Moist heat

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question4

Dry Heat (Hot air oven)


Holding Temperature required Materials sterilized
Sterilization Control-

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question5

Pasteurization Used for ...


o Temp used; Holder method (.) and Flash method ().
o All non-sporing pathogens are killed except ..

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question6

Inspissation
Also called as .
Heating an article by
Used for sterilization of .

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2 #Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question7

Autoclave: True or False:

1. Principle-Autoclave functions similar to a pressure cooker. At normal pressure,


water boils at 100C but when pressure inside a closed vessel increases, the
temperature at which water boils also increases.
2. Sterilization conditions- 105C for 5 min at pressure of 5 psi
3. Uses of autoclave- Autoclave is useful for surgical instruments and culture media and
those materials which cannot withstand the higher temperature of hot air oven or media
containing water that cannot be sterilized by dry heat.
4. Biological indicator of Sterilization control- Bacillus anthracis

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question8

Filtration: True or False:


1. Depth filters They are porous; retain all the particles on the surface that are smaller
than their pore size.
2. Membrane filters- They are porous filters that retain particles throughout the filter,
rather than just on the surface.

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question9

Write the list of sproicidal agents

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question10

Filtration:
1. HEPA filter removes from the air ..% of particles of size ..m .
2. ULPA filters - Removes from the air ..% of particles of size ..m .
3. Sterilization control of membrane filters includes.
4. Membrane filters are made up of
5. Pore size- Membrane filters.

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2 #Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question11

The following are e.g. of : Ionising radiations or Non-ionizing radiation


1. X-rays
2. Gamma rays (from Cobalt 60 source)
3. Cosmic rays.
4. Infrared rays.
5. Ultraviolet radiations
6. Cold sterilization

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 15.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Sterilization
#ApurbaSastry

#Question12

The following are sterilized by: Ionising radiations or Non-ionizing radiation:


1. Disposable rubber or plastic syringes, infusion sets and catheters.
2. Catgut sutures, bone & tissue grafts and adhesive dressings
3. Operation theatres
4. Laminar flow hoods
5. Water treatment.

#Chapter1.2#Disinfection 16.6.2016

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question1

List the type of Organisms killed by the following Levels of disinfectant


1. Low level disinfectant
2. Intermediate level disinfectant
3. High level disinfectant
4. Chemical sterilants

A. Bacterial spores
B. Tubercle bacilli
C. Non enveloped viruses
D. Fungi
E. Enveloped viruses
F. Vegetative bacteria

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question2

Best Method of sterilization/disinfection used in following clinical situations


1. Clinical thermometer
2. Paraffin
3. Glass syringe
4. Glass Flask,
5. Glass slide,
6. Oil, grease, fat, glycerol
7. OT, entryway, ward, laboratory fumigation
8. Preservation of anatomical specimen
9. Cystoscope and bronchoscope

10. Heart lung machine, respirator, dental equipments


11. Vaccine
12. Sera
13. Antibiotic solution
14. Sugar solution
15. Sharp instruments
16. Milk
17. Metallic inoculation wire
18. Plastic syringe
19. Catgut suture
20. Infective material like soiled dressing, bedding, animal carcasses
21. Metallic surgical instruments
22. Water
23. Skin
24. Contact lenses

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question3

List the Levels of disinfectant the following belong to?


1. Glutaraldehyde
2. Formaldehyde
3. H2O2 Chlorine
4. Isopropyl alcohol
5. Phenol Iodophore
6. Quatern. ammonium

A. Low level disinfectant

B. Intermediate level disinfectant


C. High level disinfectant
D. Chemical sterilants

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question4

Match the following according to Spauldings classification of medical devices


1. Critical device
2. Semi-critical device
3. Non-critical devices
4. Non-critical surfaces

A. Comes in contact with intact skin


B. Enter a normally sterile site
C. Come in contact with mucous membranes or minor skin breaches
D. Less direct contact with patient

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question5

Match the following : What is the Biological Sterilization Indicator


A. Hot air oven
B. Autoclave
C. Filtration
D. Ionizing radiation
E. Ethylene oxide
F. Plasma sterilization

1. Clostridium tetani non toxigenic strain,


2. Brevundimonas diminuta,
3. Serratia
4. Bacillus pumilus
5. Bacillus globigi
6. Geobacillus stearothermophilus,
7. Bacillus subtilis subsp.niger

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question6

Which of the following disinfectant are NOT Inactivated by organic matter


1. Glutaraldehyde
2. Formaldehyde
3. H2O2 Chlorine
4. Isopropyl alcohol
5. Phenol Iodophore
6. Quatern. ammonium

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question7

Match the following according to Spauldings classification of medical devices


A. Critical device
B. Semi-critical device
C. Non-critical devices
D. Non-critical surfaces

1. Endoscopes,
2. Surgical Instruments
3. Stethoscope
4. Computers
5. Implants
6. Eye & dental instruments

7. Respiratory therapy equipments,


8. Anesthesia equipments,
9. Thermometer
10. Examination table
11. Rectal/vaginal /esophageal probes
12. BP cuff
13. Cardiac and urinary catheters
14. ECG electrodes
15. Bedpans
16. Crutches
17. Surfaces of medical equipments
18. Laryngoscope

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question8

Which of the following are Sporicidal agents:


1. Pasteurization
2. Ethylene oxide
3. Isopropyl alcohol
4. Formaldehyde

5. Glutaraldehyde
6. Iodophore
7. Hydrogen peroxide
8. Phenol
9. Peracetic acid
10. O-Phthalic acid
11. Plasma sterilization
12. Quatern. ammonium
13. Autoclave
14. Arnold Steamer
15. Hot air oven

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question9

Which is the most resistant structure to sterilization and which methods are
recommended for sterilization of this material?

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question10

TESTING OF DISINFECTANTS:

True or Falser reading Phenol coefficient (Rideal Walker) test


1. E.coli is taken as test organism
2. Phenol is taken as standard disinfectant against which the test disinfectant is
checked
3. Phenol coefficient >10 is taken as is satisfactory
4. Can be used to test any disinfectant
5. It can assess the ability of the disinfectant to act in presence of organic matter.

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 16.6.2016


#Chapter1.2#Disinfection
#ApurbaSastry

#Question11

MATCH THE FOLLOWING REGARDIG TESTING OF DISINFECTANTS:

1. Kelsey and Maurer test


2. Capacity (Kelsey-Sykes) test
3. Chick Martin test

A. Check the ability to work the presence of organic matter


B. Checks the capacity of a disinfectant to retain its activity when repeatedly used
microbiologically.
C. Checks the disinfectant is effective in actual use in hospital practice.

#Chapter1.3
#CultureMediaIdentification 17.6.2016
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question1

Agar: True or False


Used for solidifying the culture media.
It has nutritional property.
Prepared from the cell wall of seaweeds
Agar is less preferred over gelatine, as it melts at 42C and usually solidifies at 98C
Concentration of agaro For solid agar preparation-It is used in concentration of 6%
o For semisolid agar- 0.5%
o For solid agar to inhibit Proteus swarming- 1-2%
#Question1 AnswerAgar: True or False
Used for solidifying the culture media. T
It has nutritional property.F
Prepared from the cell wall of seaweeds T
Agar is less preferred over gelatine, as it melts at 42C and usually solidifies at 98C F
( Corrected- it melts at 98C and usually solidifies at 42C )

Concentration of agar
o For solid agar preparation-It is used in concentration of 6% F (2%)
o For semisolid agar- 0.5%T
o For solid agar to inhibit Proteus swarming- 1-2%T

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016


#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question2

Which is NOT a Simple/ basal media


a) Peptone water
b) Nutrient broth
c) Nutrient agar
d) Alkaline Peptone water
#Question2 AnswerWhich is NOT a Simple/ basal media
d) Alkaline Peptone water (its enrichment broth)
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question3

What are the compositions of the following Simple/ basal media (select from the options
given below)?
a) Peptone water
b) Nutrient broth
c) Nutrient agar

1. Peptone (1%)
2. NaCl (0.5%)
3. Water
4. Meat extract (1%)
5. 2% agar

#Question3 AnswerBasal Media


1. 1) peptone water :- peptone 1% + NaCl 0.5% and water
2. 2) nutrient broth :- peptone water + meat extract 1%
3. 3) nutrient agar:- nutrient broth + 2% agar

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016


#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question4

Which media is used for the following function?


A. Simple/ basal media
B. Enriched media
C. Enrichment broth
D. Selective media
E. Transport media
F. Differential media

1. Growth of fastidious organism


2. Testing the non-fastidiousness of bacteria
3. Liquid media used for Selecting a pathogen from stool or sputum specimens
4. They serve as the base for the preparation of many other media.
5. Nutrient broth is used for studying the bacterial growth curve
6. Performing the biochemical tests such as oxidase, catalase and slide agglutination
test
7. To study the colony character and Pigment demonstration
8. Differentiating between gram negative bacilli into LF or NLF
9. Test hemolysis
10. Solid media used for Selecting a pathogen from stool or sputum specimens
#Question4 AnswerWhich media is used for the following function?

B. Enriched media
C. Enrichment broth
D. Selective media
E. Transport media
F. Differential media
1. Growth of fastidious organism- A. Simple/ basal media
2. Testing the non-fastidiousness of bacteria- A. Simple/ basal media
3. Liquid media used for Selecting a pathogen from stool or sputum specimens C.
Enrichment broth (to inhibit commensals)
4. They serve as the base for the preparation of many other media.- A. Simple/ basal
media
5. For studying the bacterial growth curve- Liquid media (Nutrient broth is used)
6. Performing the biochemical tests such as oxidase, catalase and slide agglutination
test - A. Simple/ basal media
7. To study the colony character and Pigment demonstration- A. Simple/ basal media
(Nutrient agar)
8. Differentiating between gram negative bacilli into LF or NLF- F. Differential media
(MacConkey agar)
9. Test hemolysis (Enriched- Blood agar)
10. Solid media used for Selecting a pathogen from stool or sputum specimensD.Selective media
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question5

What type of media and used for which organisms?


1. Stuarts medium
2. Pikes medium
3. Cary Blair medium
4. Amies medium
5. Buffered glycerol saline
6. VR(Venkatraman-Ramakrishnan) medium

7. Cary Blair medium


8. Autoclaved sea water
#Question5 AnswerWhat type of media and used for which organisms?
1. Stuarts mediumTRANSPORT-Neisseria
2. Pikes medium-TRANSPORT-Streptococcus
3. Cary Blair medium-TRANSPORT-V.cholerae,Shigella,,Salmonella
4. Amies medium-TRANSPORT-Neisseria
5. Buffered glycerol saline-TRANSPORT-Shigella,Salmonella
6. VR(Venkatraman-Ramakrishnan) medium-TRANSPORT- V.cholerae
7. Cary Blair medium - TRANSPORT-V.cholerae ,shigella,,salmonella
8. Autoclaved sea water-Transport-V.cholerae
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question6

List the methods for Preservation of Microorganisms


#Question6 Answer1. Short term :- subculturing , freezing at - 20 degree, immersing the culture in glycerol
or sterile distilled water , drying
2. Long term :- ultra freezing and lyophilization
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question7

Match the following: Anaerobic Culture Methods and principle used:


1. Evacuation of air and replacement with hydrogen gas manually)
2. Evacuation of air and replacement with hydrogen gas done by automated instrument
3. Absorption of oxygen chemically, e.g. using alkaline pyrogallol
4. Cooked meat pieces

A. Gas pak System

B. McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar


C. Reducing agents
D. Anoxomat System

1. Short term preservation methods2. Long term preservation method


#Question7 AnswerMatch the following: Anaerobic Culture Methods and principle used:
1. Evacuation of air and replacement with hydrogen gas manually)-McIntosh and Filde's
anaerobic jar
2. Evacuation of air and replacement with hydrogen gas done by automated instrumentAnoxomat system
3. Absorption of oxygen chemically, e.g. using alkaline pyrogallol-Gas pak system
4. Cooked meat pieces-Reducing agents
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question8

Indicators of anaerobiosis are:


Chemical indicator- _______________
Biological indicator- _______________
#Question8 AnswerIndicators of anaerobiosis are:
Chemical indicator- Reduced methylene blue
Biological indicator- Pseudomonas
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

PRAS media

#Question9

1. Full form and


2. Where it is used?
#Question9 AnswerPre-reduced anaerobic sterilization
2.. Anaerobic culture method

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016


#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question10

Most common typing methods used for this organisms?


1. Staphylococcus aureus
2. Shigella sonnei
3. Gonococcus
4. C.diphtheriae( gravis, intermedius and mitis)
5. Lancefield grouping
6. Vibrio choleraeO1(classical and El Tor)
7. Yersinia pestis (Antiqua, Medievalis, or Orientalis)

1. Serotyping
2. Bacteriophage typing
3. Bacteriocin typing4. Biotyping
5. Auxotyping
#Question10 AnswerMost common typing methods used for this organisms?
1. Staphylococcus aureus - BACTERIOPHAGE
2. Shigella sonnei-BACTERIOCIN (colicin typing)
3. Gonococcus-AUXOTYPING
4. C.diphtheriae( gravis, intermedius and mitis)-BIOTYPING
5. Lancefield grouping-SEROTYPING

6. Vibrio choleraeO1(classical and El Tor) -BIOTYPING


7. Yersinia pestis (Antiqua, Medievalis, or Orientalis)- BIOTYPING
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question11

Match the following. Which type of PCR is used in the following situations?
1. For amplifying 6S rRNA genes
2. Double round of amplification
3. Syndromic approach4. Uses >1 primer targeting DNA sequences of several organisms
5. Uses 2 primers: 2nd primer targets the same organism but a different DNA sequence.
6. Quantitative analysis
7. Amplification can be visualized simultaneously during the process of amplification

A. Nested PCR
B. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)C. Multiplex PCR
D. Real-time PCR (rt-PCR)
#Question11 Answer1. For amplifying 6S rRNA genes- RT-PCR (reverse trasnscriptase)
2. Double round of amplification-NESTED PCR
3. Syndromic approach-MULTIPLEX PCR
4. Uses >1 primer targeting DNA sequences of several organisms-MULTIPLEX PCR
5. Uses 2 primers: 2nd primer targets the same organism but a different DNA sequenceNESTED
6. Quantitative analysis-rt-PCR (real time)
7. Amplification can be visualized simultaneously during the process of amplification-rtPCR (real time)

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016

#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question12

Which of the culture method is used in the following purpose?


1. Streak culture
2. Lawn or carpet culture
3. Stroke culture
4. Stab culture5. Liquid culture
6. Pour-plate culture

1. Routinely used for isolation of bacteria from clinical specimen


2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing
3. Bacteriophage typing
4. Used for citrate media
5. Used for urease test
6. Used for TSI (triple sugar iron test)
7. Maintaining stock cultures,
8. Mannitol motility medium,
9. Nutrient agar semisolid butts\
10. Blood culture
11. For sterility testing.
12. When large yields of bacteria are required
13. For demonstration of bacterial growth curve
14. To estimate viable bacterial count
#Question12Answer1. Routinely used for isolation of bacteria from clinical specimen-STREAK culture
2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing-LAWN culture
3. Bacteriophage typing - LAWN culture
4. Used for citrate media- Stroke culture
5. Used for urease test - Stroke culture

6. Used for TSI (triple sugar iron test) - Stroke & Stab culture
7. Maintaining stock cultures- stab culture
8. Mannitol motility medium- Stab culture
9. Nutrient agar semisolid butts- Stab culture
10. Blood culture-Liquid culture
11. For sterility testing- Liquid culture
12. When large yields of bacteria are required- Lliquid culture
13. For demonstration of bacterial growth curve- Liquid culture
14. To estimate viable bacterial count-Pour plate culture
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question13

What is the Sequence of steps occurs in a PCR cycle? And what temp all these steps
take place?
1. Extension of the primer
2. Denaturation
3. Primer annealing
#Question13 AnswerStep1- Denaturation= dsDNA------(95'C)----> ssDNA
Step2- Primary annealing55 degreeC
Step3- Extension of the primer- 72 degreeC- Taq polymerase enzyme
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question14

Math the following: Principle used in automated culture methods?


1. 1.BACTEC
2. 2.BacT/Alert
3. 3.ESP culture system
4. MGIT (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube)

A. For M.tuberculosis
B. Based on fluorescent based detection technique
C. Based on colorimetry
D. Based on pressure change, detected by manometry
#Question14 AnswerMatch the following: Principle used in automated culture methods?
1. BACTEC- Based on fluorescent based detection technique
2. BacT/Alert----- Based on colorimetry
3. ESP culture system---pressure change, detected by manometry
4. MGIT (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube)- M.tb
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2 17.6.2016
#Chapter1.3 #CultureMediaIdentification
#ApurbaSastry

#Question15

Answer the following about the following aspects of the culture media1. Name of the media
2. Type of Media - Basal
/Enriched/Enrichment/Selective/DIfferential/Transport/Anaerobic/for AST
3. Where used
4. Expected growth.

1.TCBS agar - Selective media -for Vibrio species

2. Chocolate and Blood agar -Enriched media -Hemolytic properties - Growth of


fastidious nutritionally exacting Bacteria.

3. Robertson's cooked meat broth - Anaerobic culture media-Growth of obligate


anaerboes such as Clostridium

4.Brain heart infusion broth & agar biphasic medium

5.disc diffuseion method of antibiotic susceptibility testing -lawn culture-antibiotic


susceptibility

6. Lowenstein - Jensen medium -Selective media - Used for isolation of M.Tuberculosis Solid medium

#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
18.6.2016
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
#ApurbaSastry
18.6.2016 Q 1
Property of Plasmid: true or False
1. Extra chromosomal
2. ss linear DNA
3. Cannot replicate independently
4. Can be integrated with chromosome
5. Essential for life of bacteria
6. They may be present always single in number.
7. Curing is The process of eliminating the plasmids from bacteria
#Q1Answer: Property of Plasmid: true or False
1. Extra chromosomal TRUE

2. ss linear DNA FALSE (ds circular)


3. Cannot replicate independently. FALSE (Can replicate independently)
4. Can be integrated with chromosome. TRUE
5. Essential for life of bacteria FALSE (Not essential for life)
6. They may be present always single in number. FALSE (multiple no.)
7. Curing is the process of eliminating the plasmids from bacteria TRUE
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
#ApurbaSastry
18.6.2016 Q2
Plasmid may integrate with chromosomal DNA of bacteria and such plasmids are called
as .?
A. Episomes
B. Transposons
C. Monosomes
D. Plasmosomes
#Q2Answer Plasmid may integrate with chromosomal DNA of bacteria and such
plasmids are called as .?
A. Episomes
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
#ApurbaSastry
18.6.2016 -Q 3
Horizontal gene transfer occurs in all except:
i)Transformation
ii) Transduction
iii) Lysogenic conversion
iv) Conjugation
v) Mutation
#Q3Answer Horizontal gene transfer occurs in all except:

v) Mutation
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
#ApurbaSastry
18.6.2016 -Q 4
Transformation has not been studied so far in which of the following bacteria:
A. Streptococcus,
B. Staphylococcus
C. Bacillus,
D. Haemophilus,
E. Neisseria,
F. Acinetobacter
G. Pseudomonas
#Q4Answer
B. Staphylococcus
Transformation has been studied so far only in certain bacteria: Streptococcus,
Bacillus, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas.
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
#ApurbaSastry
18.6.2016 -Q 5
1. List the five toxins that are coded by bacteriophage DNA?
2. Bacteriophage coded toxins are transferred by transduction or lysogenic
conversion?
#Q5Answer
Phage coded toxins- ABCDE
A and C strep pyrogenic exotoxin
Botulinum toxin
Cholera toxin
Diphtheria toxin

EHEC (Verocytotoxin)
2) Lysogenic Conversion
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
#ApurbaSastry
18.6.2016 -Q 6
Griffith experiment (1928) on mice using pneumococci. Which strain of Pneumococcus
can kill mice?
A. Live Rough strains
B. Dead Smooth strains
C. Live Smooth strains
D. Dead Rough strains
#Q6Answer Griffith experiment (1928) on mice using pneumococci. Which strain of
Pneumococcus can kill mice?
C. Live Smooth strains
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialGenetics
#ApurbaSastry
18.6.2016 -Q 7
Griffith experiment (1928) is used to demonstrate ?
i)Transformation
ii) Transduction
iii) Lysogenic conversion
iv) Conjugation
v) Mutation
#Q7Answer Griffith experiment (1928) is used to demonstrate ?
i)Transformation

#Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
19.6.2016

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2


#Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
#ApurbaSastry
19.6.2016 -Q 1
The following Resistance is an e.g. of
A. Intrinsic antimicrobial resistance or
B. Acquired antimicrobial resistance

1. Anaerobic bacteria to Clindamycin


2. Anaerobic bacteria to Aminoglycosides
3. Aerobic bacteria to Metronidazole
4. Aerobic bacteria to Penicillin
5. Gram-negative bacteria to Vancomycin
6. Gram-psotive bacteria to Vancomycin
7. E.coli to Ampicillin
8. Klebsiella species to Ampicillin
9. E.coli to Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol
10. Pseudomonas to Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol
11. Enterococci to Vancomycin
12. Enterococci to Aminoglycosides and All cephalosporins
#AnswerQ1 19.6.2016 #Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
1. Anaerobic bacteria to Clindamycin-ACQUIRED
2. Anaerobic bacteria to Aminoglycosides-INTRINSIC
3. Aerobic bacteria to Metronidazole-INTRINSIC
4. Aerobic bacteria to Penicillin-ACQUIRED
5. Gram-negative bacteria to Vancomycin-INTRINSIC
6. Gram-psotive bacteria to Vancomycin-ACQUIRED
7. E.coli to Ampicillin-ACQUIRED
8. Klebsiella species to Ampicillin-INTRINSIC

9. E.coli to Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol-ACQUIRED


10. Pseudomonas to Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, or chloramphenicolINTRINSIC
11. Enterococci to Vancomycin-ACQUIRED
12. Enterococci to Aminoglycosides and All cephalosporins- INTRINSIC

ASM Discussion on FB Round-2


#Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
#ApurbaSastry
19.6.2016 -Q2
The following statements hold true for
A)Mutational drug resistance
B) Transferable drug resistance
1. Resistance to one drug at a time
2. High degree resistance
3. Resistance can be overcome by combination of drugs
4. Virulence of resistance mutants - not decreased bcoz of resistance
5. Resistance is not transferable to other organisms; but spread to off springs by
vertical spread only
#AnswerQ2 19.6.2016 #Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
1. Resistance to one drug at a time - mutational
2. High degree resistance -transferable
3. Resistance can be overcome by combination of drugs - mutational
4. Virulence not decreased bcoz of resistance- transferable
5. Resistance is not transferable to other organisms; but spread to off springs by
vertical spread only- mutational
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
#ApurbaSastry
19.6.2016 -Q 3
True or false regarding Bacteria showing resistance to eta-Lactam Antibiotics

1. Drug inactivation (by producing -lactamase enzyme)- seen in mainly Gram negative
bacteria
2. Alteration of target site-PBP (penicillin-binding protein) is altered to PBP2a- seen in
mainly Gram negative bacteria
3. Decreased permeability - due to altered outer-membrane porins- seen in mainly
Gram- positive bacteria
4. Efflux pumps mediate expulsion of the drug(s) from the cell I the main mechanism
seen in anaerobic organisms
#AnswerQ3 19.6.2016 #Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
1. FALSE -Drug inactivation (by producing -lactamase enzyme)- seen in BOTH Gram
negative AND POSITIVE bacteria
2. FALSE- Alteration of target site-PBP (penicillin-binding protein) is altered to PBP2aseen in mainly Gram POSITIVE bacteria
3. FALSE- Decreased permeability - due to altered outer-membrane porins- seen in
mainly Gram- NEGATIVE bacteria
4. FALSE- Efflux pumps mediate expulsion of the drug(s) from the cell I the main
mechanism seen in anaerobic organisms- NOT SEEN
ASM Discussion on FB Round-2
#Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
#ApurbaSastry
19.6.2016 -Q 4
The antibiotic-organism combination given below show which of the following Broad
resistance category ?
A. Decreased permeability across the cell wall
B. Efflux pumps
C. By modification of the antimicrobial target sites within the bacteria
D. By enzymatic inactivation

1. S.aureus to Vancomycin
2. Members of Enterobacteriaceae to Chloramphenicol
3. Resistance to Aminoglycosides
4. MRSA to betalactams
5. Streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

6. Enterococcus to Vancomycin
7. Rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8. Quinolone resistance seen in S.aureus and S. pneumoniae
9. Staphylococci against macrolides and streptogramins
10. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae against fluoroquinolones
#AnswerQ4 19.6.2016 #Chapter1.4 #BacterialDrugResistance
1. S.aureus to Vancomycin- C. By modification of the antimicrobial target sites within
the bacteria
2. Members of Enterobacteriaceae to Chloramphenicol- D. By enzymatic inactivation
3. Resistance to Aminoglycosides - D. By enzymatic inactivation
4. MRSA to betalactams- C. By modification of the antimicrobial target sites within the
bacteria
5. Streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis- C. By modification of the
antimicrobial target sites within the bacteria
6. Enterococcus to Vancomycin- C. By modification of the antimicrobial target sites
within the bacteria
7. Rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis- C. By modification of the
antimicrobial target sites within the bacteria
8. Quinolone resistance seen in S.aureus and S. pneumoniae - C. By modification of the
antimicrobial target sites within the bacteria
9. Staphylococci against macrolides and streptogramins - B. Efflux pumps
10. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae against fluoroquinolonesB. Efflux pumps