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International Symposium on Underground Excavation and Tunnelling

2-4 February 2006, Bangkok, Thailand

The State of Affairs of Large Diameter Shield Tunnel Method for


Subway and the Recent Trend of Shield Technology in Japan
Takimoto Kunihiko1, Yanachi Kenichi2
1
2

Civil Engineering Management Division, Kajima Corporation, Tokyo, Japan


Kajima Corporation (Thailand District Office), Bangkok,Thailand

ABSTRACT
Kajima Corporation is an expert in the field of subway construction, based on vast experiences gained
from the construction of Depot for the MRT Chaloem Ratchamongkhon Line in Bangkok, Kingdom
of Thailand. The company also has a very good track record in tunnel shield construction in Japan,
possessing outstanding technology for the construction of large-diameter or noncircular tunnels
particularly for the double track cross sections of subways, expressways, and flood control headraces,
as well as subway structure construction technology by the non-cut-and-cover method. We report
herein subway construction focusing on the Kyoto City Subway Rokujizo project, which utilized a
rectangular cross-section shield for the standard double track, and the Osaka City Subway project,
which adopted a three-face shield, etc., and describe the non-cut-and-cover method, which was used to
cut the ground between two large-diameter shield tunnels. Other characteristic shield technologies in
Japan are also introduced.

1. INTRODUCTION
Urban traffic congestion has intensified in recent years. With the aim to mitigate traffic congestion,
subways and underground expressways were widely constructed. The shield tunneling method is often
used in the construction of these structures. In this method, ground surface is used only for sinking a
vertical shaft from where the shield machine is introduced and operated. The method basically
eliminates the use of large ground surfaces, thereby minimizing effects on the ground surface.
However, whereas the conventional cross section of shield tunnel is circular in shape, noncircular
shapes are often required for railway stations and for ramps in the case of roads. Although these
sections were constructed with the conventional open-cut method from the ground surface, the
application of the non-open-cut method is now increasingly demanded because of tightened
restrictions on use of the ground surface. We introduce herein case examples of the rectangular shield
and the multiface (MF) shield (three faces) in the vicinity of subway stations. In addition, the current
status of the development of ramp construction technology for underground expressways based on the
non-open-cut method is discussed.

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2. RECTUNGLAR SHIELD SECTION (KYOTO CITY ROKUJIZO SHIELD)


2.1 General
Kyoto, the former and historical capital of Japan for over 1,000 years, began in 1981 to operate the
Karasuma Line which runs 13.7km from south to north as the first subway line. This line was followed
in 1997 by the Tozai Line which runs 12.7km from west to east-south as shown in Figure 1.
2.2 Huge Rectangular Shield Tunnel
The Technical Committee of the Kyoto Municipal Traffic
Bureau continued to discuss carefully about the construction
method for 57m long crossover section just next to Rokujizo
Station and finally decided that it should be built by a
rectangular shield tunnel without the center pillars and that
703m long running (non-crossover) part up to Ishida Station
by a rectangular shield tunnel with the center pillars as
illustrated in Figure 2.
The reasons why the shield tunnel was adopted even for 57m
long crossover section are
Figure 1. Subway map of Kyoto City

(1) the road above the subway has a quite heavy traffic as
a bypass of Route 1,
(2) it has advantages in cost and construction period if the

environmental impact was considered.


The circular shape is, of course, the most popular for the shield tunnel and its design method is well
established through many experiences. A rectangular shape of shield tunnel was, however, employed
to make both of the track level and the ground coverage appropriate. Indeed the total height of the
rectangular tunnel was reduced into almost 2/3 of that in the case of the circular one. The outer
horizontal length of the tunnel section is 9,900mm
while the outer height is 6,500mm.
This huge rectangular crossover section without the
center pillars was surely a worldwide new trial in the
history of the shield tunnel. One of the most difficult
problems in the design of the tunnel segments at this
section was how to confirm the mechanical function
of the rectangular shield tunnel which has no center
pillar.
Figure 2. Two different cross sections

2.3 Rectangular Shield Tunnels in Japan

The non-circular shield tunnel excavated by the closed type machine is rather new. Figure 3 shows the
chronological development of the non-circular shield tunnel in Japan. In the early stage, the 12m2 cross
section of vertically-long elliptical shape was constructed. In the following 10 years, the triplyenlarged cross section of non-circular shield tunnel with 1.6 of flatness ratio (long radius/short radius)
became in practical use. The shield segments were mainly made of steel or were the composite
structure of steel shell and cast concrete. But no reinforce concrete (RC) segment has been adopted for
the case of the rectangular shield tunnel which has no center pillars. The segment thickness of the steel
or composite structure can be, in general, smaller than that of RC segment There are actually some
cases where the ratio of the thickness of segment to the longest diameter is around 5%.

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Figure 3. Development of non-circular shield tunnel in Japan


Through a lot of investigation, the composite type of segments with 500mm of thickness was
considered to be the most appropriate for the crossover section. On the other hand, the segments of the
running section which has the center pillars are made of the ductile cast iron (DC). The top and bottom
segments connected by the center pillars are of the corrugate type DC which is highly rigid while other
segments are of DC with 4 beam-stiffeners. The thickness of the DC segments was designed to be
350mm. No secondary lining was made for both of crossover and running sections. The expected
rigidity and bearing capacity for the composite and the DC segments were confirmed through the
segment-piece test and the assembled-segments test for both types of sections.
Photo 1 shows the assembled-segments test of the composite type. As the test results,
(1) the so-called "spring-beam model" is applicable to the rectangular section when the structural
analysis is done.
(2) the sufficient bearing capacity is assured for both types.

Photo 1. Assembled-segments test on


composite segment rings

Photo 2. Connecting part of two


different sections

Some amount of vertical deformation discontinuity cannot be avoided at the connecting part of
the crossover portion and the non-crossover (running) portion since both types of segments have the
different structural properties. To smoothen such discontinuity, 5 rings of transit interval was placed
by using the composite segments with the adjusting center pillars. Photo 2 shows the connecting part
of two different sections.
2.4 Shield Machine
The geological strata from the surface at the construction area are the alluvium, the upper diluvium
(terrace deposit) and the lower diluvium (Osaka Group) in order. The shield tunnel was constructed
from the south end passing through the upper diluvium to the lower diluvium. The ground coverage is
around 12m while the ground water level is located 2-5m below the surface.

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Most typical shield machine for the rectangular tunnel is of the high density slurry type. Several
excavation methods such as "the multi-axes type", "the swinging type", "the over-cutter type", "the
eccentric cutter type", "the eccentric multi-axes type" and "the cylindrical drum type" are practically
applied. But experiences of long excavation of the non-circular tunnel for the sandy ground were quite
few compared with the circular section since the problems of the reliability of excavation mechanism
and the abrasion of bit cutters were still unresolved. Finally the Wagging Cutter Shied method was
adopted for this tunnel which excavates the ground mainly by wagging a pair of cutter heads within a
limited angle and has a special over-cutting system to excavate the comers of the rectangular section.
Photo 3 shows the front view of the shield machine.
The erector which controlls 6 axes works to assemble the segments. Three shape retainers shown in
Photo 4 are equipped with to reduce the initial deformation of the shield tunnel where no center pillar
is installed.

Photo 3. Wagging Cutter Shied Machine

Photo 4. Shape retainers

2.5 Construction Achievement


The shield machine launched from Rokujizo Station in February 2002. The initial advancement per
day was 1.72m at the crossover section and 3.15m at the running section. The average advancement
per day at the steady state was improved up to around 6m. The following findings were remarked.
(1) The vertical earth pressure at the crossover section was reduced down to the half of the predicted
value after removing the shape retainers as shown in Figure 4.
(2) On the other hand, the magnitude of the deformation was close to the predicted value. This is
considered to be due to the displacement gap between the adjacent segments which was ignored in the
analysis.
(3) The earth pressure and the member forces of the DC segments were almost close to the predicted
ones.
(4) The mechanical conditions of the composite segments and the DC segments were stable with the
high safety factors

Figure 4. Earth pressure at the crossover


section(after removing the shape retainers)

Photo 5. Completed crossover section


(March, 2004)

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3. TRIPLE MULTI-FACE (MF) SHIELD METHOD (OSAKA BUSINESS PARK STATION)


3.1 Outline
The "MF shield construction method" that allows a cross-section of partially overlapping circles to
excavate tunnels was developed and employed for a double MF in 1985. The triple MF shield method
is an expansion of the double MF, using three revolving cutters to excavate while constructing a triple
MF segment with two rows of pillars inside as it moves forward. This method was adopted for the
construction of the Osaka Business Park (OBP) station for the first time ever in April of 1995.
This station is west of the OBP district which is between two Class A rivers in the North-South
direction and it also crosses under a 7.1m sewerage tunnel separated by 90cm and IMP building.
The station length is 155m and the platform is 135m while the length of the station lies in a space of
107m between vertical shafts. The platform level is roughly 32.5m below surface and was the deepest
station (at the time) in the Osaka subway system. The upper half of the tunnel has an N value over 50
which is a compact sand bed (Os-6) while the bottom half is a clay layer with an N value of 8-25 (Oc5) and the ground water level is at the GL-20m level and the permeability coefficient is k=2 x 10-2cm/s.
3.2 Issues and Measures for the Application of the Triple MF Shield
3.2.1Considerations for the Large Flat
Section (Design)
For the lining design, setting the external
pressure (partial earth pressure, etc.) and the
appropriateness of analysis methods is an
issue. The former was evaluated through
measurements by sensitivity analysis while
the latter was given direction with loading
tests before evaluation.
Photo 6. Tunnel lining and structure of the OBP station
3.2.2 Development from Double MF to Triple
MF(Implementation and Project Management)

Photo 7. Triple multi-face (MF) shield


Note: arrow indicates gull section

The concept of the MF shield construction method is


easy to understand, but specific guidelines and
applicable results were virtually non-existent. Under
circumstances where mistakes were not allowed,
investigations through evaluations and component
testing were carried out on control of the shield
machine's attitude, mud management for the 3
independent chambers (the mud chamber behind the
cutters), the management of backfilling the tail void
that was 3 to 4 times more than a single shield, and the
assembly of triple MF segments among other issues.
The issues, measures and implementation results are
shown in Table 1.

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3.2.3 Ground Deformation (Environment)


The danger of cutting face collapse was pointed out as a main concern for difficulties in establishing
the arch in the sandbar for the "gull wing section" of the tunnel's upper half. Also, slack around the
cutting face was a factor for subsidence during excavation. Based on experience with a single circular
shield, the possibility of cutting face collapse was judged to be minor. The ground deformation due to
the latter was estimated to be -7mm and responsive measures included preventive grouting for the
sewerage tunnel and instrumental monitoring.
3.3 Current Reflections
3.3.1Gull Wing Section
Susceptibility occurrence of face collapse at the "gull wing section" was one of the repeated concerns.
Of course, looking from the crossing direction makes it look like the arch will not be formed and
fractures might occur but measurements and shield driving management data did not indicate such
signs. Instead, the backfilling might have contributed to making the earth pressure higher than the
circumference area. As for the stability of the cutting face, the general sense is that there was not a
great difference with a single circular shield, earth pressure concentrated in the "gull wing section" of
the center pillar due to differences in rigidity causing relief in the circumferential area but may cause
50 to l00kPa of partial earth pressure.
Table 1. Construction and management technology that made the application of the triple multi-face
(MF) shield possible

3.3.2 Ensuring the Precision of Shield Production and the Need for Supplementation Technology
The impact of manufacturing precision for the shield machine on positioning control was potentially
large. Experimental measurements during the factory test assembly showed that the form was slightly
twisted in the middle and on either side. The actual behavior resulted in rolling in the opposite
direction of the make of the shield, but was remedied with the over cutting and diagonal pushing
(using the lower right and upper left). The machine's form (distortion) was within 10mm, but
considering the fact that rolling still occurred, it is important to be prepared with several tools to
actively control the attitude.

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4.UNDERGROUND EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGY BY NON-OPEN-CUT METHOD


4.1 Outline
Various construction techniques have been introduced with regard to the non-open-cut method. As a
specific example, there is a method by which small-diameter steel curved pipes are placed as freezing
pipes in the pre-constructed shield to create frozen soil and chemicals are injected into them to create
an robust foundation zone so that the inside could be excavated by the mountain tunneling method.
However, as more tunnels require larger cross sections and depths, soil retaining and waterproofing
with these conventional methods have led to problems in terms of reliability and safety.
Given the above circumstances, we developed a construction method in which the shield tunnel is cut
into segments to enable placement of large-diameter curved steel pipe roofs at intervals of the tunnel
segments to withstand soil pressure/water pressure and to construct a large space inside (Fig.-5).
Although the frosting work method is used for soil retaining and waterproofing of the remaining parts
between the pipe roofs, the frosting range is limited and waterproofing alone is primarily expected.
Therefore, the risk posed by the frosting work method, such as frost heave and loss of adhesiveness, is
reduced. The characteristics of this construction method are as follows:
(1) Through the use of the large-diameter curved pipe roof that is capable of withstanding soil
pressure/water pressure and due to complete waterproofing with frozen soil, a large cross-section
underground space can be constructed by the non-open-cut method.
(2) The large-diameter curved pipe roof can also be constructed unilaterally by passing through the
lining from a pre-constructed shield tunnel or a mountain tunnel by use of a circular or a rectangular
return collection type tunneling machine.
(3) Circular or rectangular steel pipes are used for the large-diameter curved pipe roof, whose radius
and cross section are adjustable and the radius of curvature is variable.
(4) As for ground freezing between large-diameter curved steel pipes, frozen soil of thickness
necessary for waterproofing can be created by use of freezing pipes laid out in any given number at
any given locations.

Creation of frozen soil


Water proofing wall

Large-diameter curved
pipe roof digging

Internal construction

Completion of
service construction

Figure 5. Construction of non-open-cut large underground space in shield tunnel

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4.2 Method for constructing large-diameter curved pipe roof


The construction method for the large-diameter curved pipe roof is shown in Figure 6.
Step 2 Joint between pipe roof segments/placement of
filling concrete

Step 1 Construction of the upper/lower curved pipe roof


Upper part of
curved pipe roof

Large-diameter
boring machine

Jointed pipe roof


Bottom thrusting
equipment

Placing filling concrete


Lower part of
curved pipe roof

Step 3

Step 4

Frosting

tep3

Internal construction following internal

t ep4

cutting/segment
removal

Frozen soil

Secondary lining
Main track

Ramp track

Floor slab

Figure 6. Method for constructing a large-diameter curved pipe roof


4.3 Equipment for construction of large-diameter curved pipe roof
Figure 7 shows the inside of a shielded enclosure constructed by the large-diameter curved pipe roof
method.
In the shielded enclosure made with preassembled segments, (1) the departure entrance and (2) the
lower frame (pipe fixing/position control system) are placed under the ground beam and (3) the bottom
thrusting equipment (to set a boring machine and a pipe roof in proper position for thrusting) is placed
above the ground beam, where (4) a large-diameter curve boring machine and (5) the lower part of the
curved pipe roof segment (divided into segments of a few meters length each) are pushed out so that
drilling/jointing are repeated until they finally reach (6) the end-point entrance room of the ramp shield.
At the end-point entrance, waterproofing is performed with tube seals, etc., that are set on the pipe roof.
Then, the boring machine is withdrawn from the end point or from the departure side after it is
retrieved. The same process applies to the upper segment.

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Main truck shield

Ramp
shield

Bottom
thrusting equipment


Upper
curved pipe roof

Large-diameter
curve boring
machine

Departure

entrance

.
End-point entrance room


Lower
frame

Lower curved pipe roof

Figure 7. Construction image inside enclosure

4.4 Verification experiment


To verify the applicability of the method, a boring experiment was conducted using a full-scale model
of the lower curved large-diameter pipe roof that assumes the specific construction conditions of an
application example (Figure 8), and high reaching accuracy was confirmed.

3500

1500

14208
621

3100

3200

2300

10000

1700
1700

1100
1100

3
3rd
line
8800

2200
670

Thrusting jack

2
2nd
line

2521

1000

500

1
1st
line

5221

1000

3300

Departure
vertical shaft

End-point
vertical shaft

13300

R16 000

R=1 6

300

Reaction
force receiving frame

Bottom thrusting equipment


7731

3100

3098

2402

Steel pipe
10877

8331

8387

3700

Reaction force
receiving frame

150

1100
2500

Thrusting ring

4
4th
line
1700

2200
2200

6600

4@
1200 4800

8800

10400

800

1200
530

5
5th
line

1700

1100

2500
2500

10400

7@
1200 8400

2500
1450

1000

250

150

3750

800

1450

1000

600

1700

1800

1000

5221
1200

2521

1000

500

Bottom thrusting
equipment

500
3850

6000

4600

1000

1300

800

500
6800

2700

2175
500

1275

1950

5000

6500

|
O
a
)

300

2500


812. 8(

1500

1200

2000
300

1500

500

Lower
part frame
1800

600

3500

Entrance

3750

L21
CL 20788

Figure 8. General view of experimental equipment

Photo 8. Experimental setup

4.5 Future development


This method will be adopted in the construction of ramp sections in underground expressways,
scheduled in January 2006.

5. CONCLUSION
Kajima Corporation, based on considerable experiences gained in the construction of subways and
underground walkways, is determined to pursue the development of new technology for the
construction of large underground space by means of the non-open-cut method.

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REFERENCES
Kuzuno,T. ,Takasaki,H. ,Yamada,I., and Nakao,T., 1996. Results achieved in construction of an
underground station beneath a building by slurry type multiface shield machine Proceedings of
the international tunneling 96, Washington, DC, USA, pp.303-309.
Nakamura,H., Kubota,T., Furukawa,M., and Nakao,T., 2003.Unified construction of running track
tunnel and crossover tunnel for subway by rectangular shape double track cross-section shield
machine Tunneling and underground space technology 18, pp.253-262.
Shirai,S., Kan-o,M., Watabe,S., Hujiya,T., Ito,Y., Nakamura,M., Akiyama,H., and Yamamoto, Y.,
2005. Construction of non-open-cut large underground space by the large-diameter curved pipe
roof , Construction Machinery and Equipment No.489 Vol.41 2005, pp.40-43.

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