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A R Y AN S U N M Y T H S

T H E

R E L IG IO N S

OF

O R IG IN

WIT H

AN

IN T R OD U C T ION

M O R R IS

C H A R LE S
AU T

H OR

A M

OF

AR Y

AC

A A
NU

E :

L OF

CL

S S IC

Ir s O R IGIN
'

AN
1

AN D

T R OY ,
N IM S

BY

LIT

T U R E,

IT S A C H IEVE M

N Y
.

KN

889

ER

IG H T

AN D

EN T S

H E

P R E FA C E

ttention of t h e writer h aving been c a lled to


the fa ct th a t a ll Indo Germ a n ic n a tion s h a ve wor
shipped crucied S a viours a n investig a tio n o f th e sub
j c et wa s m a de O ver wh elming proo f wa s obt a ined
th a t the sun myt h s o f t h e a ncien t Ary a n s were the
origin o f the religion s in a ll of the countries which
were peopled by t h e Ary a ns T h e S a viours wor
s h ipped in these l a nds a r e p e r so n i c a ti o n s o f the
T h a t P ag a n
S u n the c h ie f god of t h e Ary a n s
n a tions worshipped a crucied m a n wa s a d m itted by
the F a thers o f the e a rly Christi a n Churc h T h e holy
F a t h er M i n uc i u s Felix i n his Octa vi u s w r i t te n a s
l a te a s A D a n indign a ntly r esents t h e s u pposi t ion
t h a t the sign of t h e cro s s s h ould be considered a s
exclusively a Christi a n symbol a n d represents h is
a dvoc a te o f the Chri s ti a n a rgument a s retorting on

a n ind e l o ppone n t t h us :
As f o r th e a dor a tio n o f
crosses which you obj ect to a g a inst us I must tell
you t h a t we n eith er a do r e c r osses n or desire t h em
Y ou it i s ye P a g a n s w h o wors h ip wooden gods who
T

H E

t h e most likely pe o p le to a dore wooden crosses


a s bei n g p arts o f t h e s a me subst a nce with your dei
ties For w h a t else a re you r e n signs ags an d
st an d ards but crosses gilt a n d b e au ti e d ? Your
V ictorious trophies not only represent a si m ple cross

but a cross wit h a man upon it


T e rtulli a n a
Christi a n F ather of th e second a n d third centuries

writi n g to t h e P ag an s s a ys : T h e origin o f your


gods is derived f rom gures moulded on a cross
All those rows of i m ages on your st a nd a rds a r e
the a ppend ages o f crosses 3 those h an gings on your
st a n d a rds a n d b an n ers a r e the robes of crosses
r
r
l
A
r
i
n
i
s
t
r
0
p
p
in
A
i
n
e
a
h
o
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t
i
a
B
i
s
f
y /
e
( gy
A lexa n der st a tes t h a t t h e tr 0 0 ps o f Porus in t h eir
wa r wit h Alex a n der t h e Gre a t c a rried on t h eir
st a nd a rds t h e gure o f a m a n Justin M artyr in
hi s Di a log u e wit h T ryp h o s ays th a t there exist
n ot a people
Civilized or semi civilized who h a ve
not o ff ered up pr ayers in th e n a me of a crucied
S a viour to the F a ther a n d Cre a tor o f a ll t hi n gs
Eusebius t h e ecclesi a stic a l hist o ri a n s a ys t h a t t h e
n a mes o f Jesus a n d C hr ist we r e both known a n d
h onored a mong t h e a n cie n ts (E a t I st lib i c h a p
We nd S a int P a ul a vowi n g th a t h e was m a de
a minister o f t h e go s pel which h a d been pre a ched
Fo r
to eve ry c r e a tu r e un d e r h e aven ( C o l i
ce n tu r i e s a f te r t h e ti m e a s sig n ed a s t h e birth o f Jesus
are

he wa s not represented a s a m an on a cross T h e


e a rliest r e present a tion of h im wa s a s a l a mb ( H i story
T his custom continued
o
f ou r L er a i n A r t Vol
until th e p o n ti c a te o f Ag a thon (A D
duri n g
the reign o f C onst a ntine P ogo n a tu s By the S ixth
it wa s ord a ined
S ynod o f Const a ntinople ( C a non
th a t inste a d of the a ncien t symbol which h a d been
the l a mb th e gure of a m a n n a iled to a cross
s h ould be represented All this wa s conrmed by
Pope Adri a n I ( Dupuis s Or i gi n of R eli gi ou s Beli ef ;
p 2 5 2 3 a lso Higgins s A n a ea iyp si s Vol I I p
T h e writer m a kes n o cl a im to origin a lity except
ing in the a rr a ngement of this work T h e e n de a vor
h a s been simply to condense wh a t h a s been obt a ined
f rom other works
T h e origin a l intention wa s to give a brie f sk e tc h
with a n a ppen ded list of works f rom which th e m a te
ri a l wa s t aken ; but on m aki n g a n a ddition to t h e
book it wa s d eemed best to give re ferences T h e
re ferences f o r the o rigin a l sketch will be fou n d a t
the en d of the book
T h e writer h a s been f a vored i n h a ving a n In tr o d u c
tion by on e so f amili a r wit h th e subj ect a s M r Ch a rles
M orris a uthor of T ae A rya n R a ce
.

B O S T O N Febr u a ry
,

1 88

T ABLE O F C O N T EN T S

PA G E

LIS T O F B OO KS C O N S U L T ED
A R Y A N S U N M Y T H S T H E O R IGIN
A ppend i x A
A ppendi x B
-

A ppend i x
A ppendi x
Append ix
Appendi x
R e feren ce
I ndex

C
D

21

OF

R E L IGIO N S
I4 7
1 53
1

58

1 59

I66

I7 O

N o te s
18

IN T R O DU C T IO N

s e e m s a t rs t gl a n c e re m a rk a b l e w ith
w h a t re a d i n es s th e T e u to n i c a n d C e lti c t ri b e s
d ro p p e d th e i r a n c es tr a l fa ith s a n d a c c e p t e d
C h risti a n i t y n o w t h ro u g h t h e p e rs u a s i o n s o f a
m issi o n a ry n o w a t th e b i d d i n g o f a c h i e f
But
a fu ll e r s tu d y o f th e s u bj
e c t re n d e rs th e u n u s u a l
e a s e o f th is c o n ve rs i o n m u c h l ess su rp ris in g b y
m a k i n g i t a p p a re n t t h a t t h e y r a t h e r a d d e d t h e
l e a d in g d o g m a s o f C h risti a n i ty t o t h e i r o ld
fa ith s t h a n re p l a c e d th e l a tte r b y t h e fo r m e r
T h e y c e a s e d t o w o rs h i p O d i n a n d t h e l ess e r
d ei ti es a n d b e g a n t o w o rs h i p C h rist t h e V i rgi n
a n d th e s a i n ts ; b u t t h e y i n ves te d th e l a tt e r w ith
m a n y o f th e a ttrib u te s o f t h e fo r m e r re t a i n e d
m o s t o f t h e i r o ld re li gi o u s d o g m a s a n d c e re
m o n i es a n d c o n v e rte d p ri m itiv e C h ris ti a n i t y
q u i t e a s m u c h a s th e y w e re c o n v e rt e d b y i t
T h e c o n v e rs i o n w a s i n d e e d a s m u c h a ch a n g e
o f n a m e s a s o f b e li e fs
T h o u g h th e e th i cs o f
C h ris ti a n it y sl o w l y l e a v e n e d th is s wa r m i n g m a s s
o f b a rb a ris m
t h e th e o l o gy o f th e n e w fa ith
IT

12

b e c a m e so cl os e l y i nte r wo ve n w ith th a t o f th e o ld
t h a t it is n o t e a s y t o th is d ay to s e p a r a te th e m
T h e n in ete e n th c e n tu ry c riti c a l st u d y o f rel i
b
el
i
efs
a n d th e p ro gress o f th e s cie n c e o f
i
u
o
s
g
c o m p a r a tive m y th o l o gy h a v e go n e fa r to w a rds
cl e a ri n g u p th is m y s te ry o f th e p a s t a n d a r e
l e a d i n g th e way to a s ci e n c e o f c o m p a r a tive
th e o l o gy a s s tu d e nts b re a k th ro u gh th e a rti ci a l
b a rrie r o f s a cred n ess w h ic h h a s b e e n r a is e d
a ro u n d th is o r th a t s y ste m o f b el ief a n d d a re
t o q u esti o n w h e re o ld e r stu d e nts d e e m e d it th ei r
d u t y to a d o re
I t is b e i n g m o re a n d m o re
wi d el y h el d th a t n o b el ief c a n b e s a c red th a t a ll
fa ith m u s t res t e ith e r u p o n e vi d e n c e o r b lin d
a cc e p t a n c e a n d th a t th e y wh o b a s e th e i r b e lie f
u p o n a stu d y o f fa c ts a r e fa r s u p eri o r i nte l
le c t u ally a n d c e rt a i n l y e qu a l m o r a l l y t o th o s e
F a ith h a s
wh o a cc e p t d o g m a s u p o n a u th o rity
b e e n c o v e re d w ith a v e i l w h i ch i t w a s d e cl a re d
i m p io u s t o l ift a n d th e v e ry w o rd e x a lte d i n to a
k i n d o f m a gi c fo r m u l a w h i c h was d e e m e d p ow
e r fu l e n o u gh t o m o v e m o u nt a i ns
B u t W h a t is
fa ith c riti c a l l y c o ns id e re d ? I t is ei th e r a n u n
q u esti o n in g a c c e p t a n c e o f th e a ss e rtio n s o f a n
ci e n t b o o ks a n d m o d e rn t e a ch e rs w h ic h t h e
re a s o n i n g p o w e rs o f th e i n d ivi d u a l a re a u to
c r a t i c a lly fo rb i d d e n
t o d e a l w ith ; o r i t is a
i
b el e f re a c h e d t h ro u gh d o u b t a n d q u esti o n
.

I3

th e p e rs is te n t s tu d y o f fa cts a n d t h e fu ll es t
e x e rc is e o f th e i n tel l e c t l n t h e la tte r c a s e i t i s
t h e a ctu a l b e l ie f o f th e i n d ivi d u a l ; i n t h e fo r m e r
t h e b e l ie f o f s o m e b o d y e ls e w h i c h h a s b e e n
i ns ti ll e d i n to th e re c e p ti v e m i n d o f th e d is ci p l e
b e fo re w h o s e s a c re d n e s s e v e r y i n tru s iv e
an d
d o u b t a n d i rre c o n cil a b l e fa c t m u s t b ow th e
h e a d i n w o rs h i p
It
T h is d o g m a i s a re li c o f th e Da r k A ges
i s b a s e d u p o n th e ge n e r a l i gn o r a n c e w h i c h p re
v a i l e d i n a n c i e n t c o m m u n iti e s a n d th e i r re stfu l
d e p e n d e n c e u p o n th e s u p e ri o r l e a rn i n g o f th e i r
te a c h e rs It is u tte rl y o u t o f a c c o rd a n c e w i th
t h e ge n e r a l e d u c a ti o n o f m o d e rn p e o p l es a n d
t h e s p i ri t o f res e a rc h w h i c h is n o w e v e ry wh e r e
a cti v e a n d w h i c h is fa r t o o v i go ro u s t o b e r e
f
e lle d
b
t
h
e
h
i
h
es
t
fe
n
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o
t
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c
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l
y
g
p
g
i n te rd i ct
T h e stu d y o f t h e m y th o l o g i c a l s y ste m s o f
a n ci e n t n a tio ns h a s re v e a l e d m a n y c u ri o u s a n d
u n l o o k e d fo r fa c ts a n d c o rre s p o n d e n c es It h a s
b e e n m a d e a p p a re n t i n t h e rst p l a c e th a t th o s e
m y th o l o gies h a d th ei r o ri gi n i n p ri m itiv e i d e a s
a b o u t th e m o v e m e n ts o f th e h e a ve n l
b
o
d
i
es
y
th e v a ri a ti o n s o f d ay a n d n i gh t s u m m e r a n d
wi nte r a n d o th e r n a tu r a l p h e n o m e n a w h ic h
w e re i n ti m e th ro u g h th e m o d i c a tio n o f h u m a n
i d e a s t r a n sfo r m e d i n to t h e d o in gs o f a th ro n g
.

I4

b ei n gs T h e w o rsh ip p e rs d id n o t k n o w
w h e n c e c a m e th ei r go ds W e w h o c a n a p
p ro a c h th e s u bj e ct w ith o u t p rej u d ic e a n d bi g
o t ry a n d to w h o m m y th o l o gy h a s c e a s e d to b e
s a cre d c an e a sil y t r a c e th ei r o ri gi n a n d p o in t
It
o ut n e a rl y e ve ry s te p o f th ei r u n fo ld m e nt
h a s b e co m e e vi d e n t i n th e s e c o n d p l a c e th a t a
c lo s e a f n it y e x ists b e tw e e n th e m y th ol o gi c a l
i d e a s o f d i ffe re n t a n d o fte n w i d el y s e p a r a te d
c o u n tri es th e res e m bl a n c e e x te n din g n o t o n l y
t o th ei r b ro a d e r fe at u res b u t i n s o m e c a se s t o
th e i r m in o r d e t a ils o f d o g m a a n d b e li ef T h is
c o rres p o n d e n c e i n b el i ef is u n d o u b te d ly d u e to
tw o c a u s e s ; p ri m a ril y t o th e fa c t th a t th e ste p s
o f u n fo ld m e n t o f th e h u m a n i n tel le c t a n d th e
gro w th o f i d e a s h a v e b e e n c lo s e l y s i m il a r i n a ll
c iviliz in g p e o p l es ; a n d s e co n d l y t o th e i nte r
c o u rs e o f trib es a n d n a ti o ns a n d th e o u t o w o f
i d e a s o ve r th e e a rth b y th e s e v e r a l m eth o d s o f
p e a c efu l i n te rch a n ge o f vi e ws w a rl ik e c o n qu es t
a n d fo rcib l e c o n v e rs i o n a n d
p ro p a g a n d is m b y
m iss io n a ry e ffo r ts
T h es e v a ri o u s i n u e n ces
h a ve t e n d e d t o b ri n g i nto s o m e d e gre e o f c o n
fo r m it y th e re li gio u s s y st e m s n o t o nl y o f
E u ro p e A si a a n d A fric a b u t a ls o th o s e o f th e
O ld a n d th e N e w W o rld b etw e e n w h i ch s o m e
c o m m u ni c a tio n v e ry p ro b a bl y e x ist e d i n a n c i e n t
ti m es
of

d e i c

IS

p ri m a ry reli gio u s i d e a s o f a ll p e o p l e s
w e re u n d o u b te d l y m u c h t h e s a m e T h e u n
q u esti o n e d s u p re m a cy o f t h e s u n a m o n g th e
h e a v e n l y b o d i es th e stri ki n g c h a n ge s t o w h i c h
i t wa s s u bj e cte d i n t h e v a ri a ti o n fro m d a y t o
n i gh t a n d fro m s u m m e r t o w i n te r ; i ts l i fe
n
d
ivi
n
its
s
e
e
m
i
s
tru
l
e
n e ce n ce
a
n
b
e
g
gg
g
g
w it h t h e d e m o n s o f s to r m a n d c o l d ; n o t o n l y
e v e r ywh e re e x a l te d th is h e a v e n l y b o d y i nt o t h e
o
s
iti
o
n
k
in
o f th e g o ds i n e v e ry s y st e m o f
o
f
p
g
n a tu re
w o rs h i p b u t ga v e ris e to n u m e ro u s
m y th s w h i c h n e c ess a ri l y i n s o m e m e a s u re c o r
res p o n d e d s i n c e th e y w e re e v e ry w h e r e b a s e d o n
t h e s a m e p h e n o m e n a o f n a tu r e It is t ru e t h a t
n a tu re w o rs h i p w a s n o t th e s o l e p ri m itive re li
i
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e n c e d s y s te m s o f b el i e f p ro m i n e n t a m o n
th
es
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b ein g t h e c u sto m o f a n c es to r w o rs h i p wh i c h
w i d e l y p e rh a p s u n iv e rs a l l y p re v a il e d i n d e
v e lo p i n g n a ti o n s
and
e x e rte d a vi go ro u s i n
u e n c e u p o n u nfo l d i n g re l i gi o n s
M y th o l o gy
h o w e v e r o c c u p i es th e m o s t p ro m i n e n t p o s it i o n
i n t h e gro w t h o f re l i gi o u s b e li e fs A n c es tr a l
a n d o th e r s y ste m s o f w o rs h i
h
v
e
i
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u
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n
c
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a
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re li gi o u s p r a cti c e a n d c e re m o n y t o a m a rk e d
e x te n t b u t h a v e h a d m u c h l es s t o d o w i th th e
o
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T he

16

h is to ry o f th e go ds to w h i c h th e n u m e ro u s
p h e n o m e n a o f n a tu re g a v e ris e O ve r reli gio u s
b eli e f th e s u n h a s e x e rcis e d a d o m i n a n t i n
and
s til l fa i ntl y y et d isti n gu is h a b l y
u en ce
s h in es th ro u g h t h e m o st o p a q u el y o b s c u re o f
m o d e rn th e o l o gi c a l d o g m a s
T h e w o r k t o w h i c h I a m g r a ti e d i n b e in g
re q u este d to a p p e n d t h es e i ntro d u cto ry re m a rks
is d es i gn e d to p o i n t o u t i n d e t a il th e c o rre
s p o n d e n c e s o f re li gi o u s d o g m a t o w h ic h I h a ve
a l lu d e d
H o w w e l l o r il l i t d o es s o m ay b e l e ft
fo r re a d e rs to d e c i d e ; b u t a s a re a d e r h a vi n g
s o m e p re vi o u s a c q u a i nt a n c e w ith th e s u bj e c t
I s h o u l d s ay th a t i t h a s d o n e so re m a r k a bl y
w el l a n d t h a t i t w o u l d n o t b e e a s y to m a k e a
s tro n ge r fu ll e r a n d cl e a re r p res e nt a ti o n o f th e
fa cts i n so l i m ite d a s p a c e T h e s u bj e ct is o n e
w o rth y o f a m u c h m o re e x te n d e d tre a t m e n t
T h e o n l y b o n e o f c o n te n ti o n i n th e w o rk is
its i n cl u si o n o f t h e d o g m a s o f C h ris ti a n i t y
am ong
m y th o l o gi c a l o u tgro w th s
And yet
v e ry fe w o f th es e d o g m a s a r e th e d i re ct fru it
o f C h ris t s te a ch i n gs
V e ry m a n y o f th e m a r e
th e w o rk o f l a te r th e o l o gi a ns wh o w e re i n
u e n c e d b o th b y th e i r o w n re li gio u s e d u c a ti o n
a n d th e d e m a nd s o f th e i r c o n g re g a ti o ns
C h ris
t i a n i ty a ro s e a m o n g th e J e ws a p e o p l e w h o s e
re li gi o u s sy ste m h a d n e ve r b e e n s tro n gl y m y th
,

I7

o l o g ic a l a n d h a d b e c o m e m u c h l es s so i n th e
c o u rs e o f ti m e B u t th e n e w d o ctri n e wa s n o t
It fo u n d its c h i ef c o n
a c c e p te d b y th e J e w s
th e
p e o p l es o f A ry a n o ri gi n
a m o ng
v e rts
G re e k s th e R o m a ns th e T e u to n s th e C el ts
e tc p e o p l e s a m o n g w h o m m y th o l o gy h a d
b e c o m e e x t r a o rd i n a ril y d e v e l o p e d an d w h o m
i t was s i m p l y i m p o ss ib l e to c o n ve r t i n a m a s s
T h e y a c c e p te d C h ris t
t o r a dic a ll y n e w i d e a s
a n d h is m o r a l t e a c h i n gs w i th th e s k il fu ll y o r ga n
i z e d c h u rc h sy s te m o f th e p ri m iti v e C h risti a ns ;
b u t th e i r o l d e r m y th o l o gi c a l b el i e f w a s n o t w o rn
b u t wa s
a s a cl o a k t o b e th ro w n o ff a t w ill
r a th e r a p l a n t w h o s e ro o ts h a d p e n e tr a t e d t o
e v e ry b re o f th e i r b e i n gs a n d h a d b e c o m e a n
i n ti m a t e p a rt o f th e te x tu re o f th e i r m i n ds It
stro n gl y i n u e n c e d th e m o st l e a rn e d a m o n g
th em
W ith th e u n l e a rn e d i t c o n ti n u e d t h e
p re v a l e n t s y ste m o f b e l i e f a n d i ns i n u a t e d i ts e lf
i n to th e d o g m a s o f th e n e w c h u rc h w it h a p o we r
i m p o ss ibl e to re s is t It m ay b e re p e a te d th at
t h e C h ris ti a n th e o l o gy o f to d ay wa s n o t b o rn
w it h C h ris t an d h is a p o stl es Its g ro w t h wa s
T r a diti o n s a ro s e p a rt l y b a s e d o n o ld
s lo w
m yt h s p a rtl y o n m is c o n c e p ti o ns o f C h rist s l ife
a n d t e a c h i n gs
w h i c h a ffe c t e d e v e n t h e w rite rs
o f th e s e v e r a l l i v e s o f C h ris t a n d m o re s tro n g l y
th o s e wh o w e re fa rth e r re m o ve d fro m C h ris t
,

th e v e ry s t a rt l e ge n d a ry d o gm a s o f m y th
o lo gi c a l o ri gin s e e m t o h a v e a ris e n i n th e n e w
c h u rc h t o h a v e b e c o m e t h e r m b e l ie fs o f
c o n gre ga ti o ns a n d to h a v e a ffe c te d t h e m in d s
o f th e o l o g i a ns m u c h m o re th a n t h e y th e m s e lves
w ere a w a re o f A n d a s th e n e w fa ith s p re a d
th ro u gh th e w o rl d i t b e c a m e m o re a n d m o re
i m b u e d wi th o ld t h o u gh t u n til m y th o l o gy b e
c a m e th e w o o f o f th a t s y st e m o f w h i c h m o r a lity
w a s t h e w a rp
C hristi a ni t y p ro p e rl y c o nsi d e re d is n o t a
s y ste m o f b el i ef b u t a s ys te m o f e th i cs C h ris t
t a u gh t n o c re e d H i s l i fe w a s s p e nt i n th e i n
c u lc a ti o n o f l o fty i d e a s o f m o r a l ity
T h e fe w
d o g m a s w h i c h h e d i d a ss e rt a r e fu l l o f evi d e n c e
o f th e i n u e n c e o f th e p re c e d in g H eb re w fa i th
a n d w e re d o u b tl ess t h e o u tc o m e o f h is e a rl y
re li gio u s e d u c a ti o n
M an y of I
N S
u tte r a n c es
h a v e b e e n to rtu re d i n t o c re e ds b u t few o f th e m
b e a r th e i n te rp re t a ti o n s th a t h a v e b e e n l a i d
u p o n th e m H e w a s a m o r a l t e a ch e r p u re a n d
s i m p l e a n d a s a n i n c u l c a to r o f m o r a l i d e a s h e
s t a n d s a t th e s u m m it o f m a nki n d H i s t e a ch in gs
a r e th e s i m p l es t a n d l o fti e st
h is l ife w a s th e
n o b l est a n d m o s t s el f sa c r i c i n g th a t lite r a tu re
B u t fo r th e
a n d h isto r y p res en t to o u r g a z e
d o g m a s o f C h risti a nit y h e is n o t res p o ns ib l e
T h ey gre w u p a fte r h is d e a th th ro u g h th e s l o w
F ro m

BO O
i oni c/
z

F r om

tlze

a u tlzor

KS

na s obta i n ed i nf or m a ti on

A n a ca lyp si s

G If igg i n s, F R A S

r i t lza a
P
Egypti a n Myt h ol ogy
C
j
A n An a lysi s o f th e Hi s t o ri c a l Re c o rd s
o f A n c ient E gypt
A n A n a lys i s o f R eli gi o u s B elie f
Vi o t A m be
A n cient E ccle si as ti c a l Hi st o ry o f S o c
ra te s S ch ol a sti c u s

A n A n a lys i s

of

m er ,
u

an

DD
.

rl

sc u n

An c ient Egypt nder t h e Ph a ra oh s


A n c ient F it h s
d M dern
A n c ient F ith s e m b o died in An c ient
N me
A c ient P gan a d M o d ern Chri sti n
S ym b li m
A n c ient S ym b l Wo r ship
A ntiq itie s f M exi c
A ntiq u itie s o f t h e Jews
A i ti c Re se a r ch e s
A syri a n Di co verie s
B ell s N ew Panth e o n
Bi b le Myth s
B i gr a phie s of Wo rds d t h e H o m e
o f t h e A ry as
B dd h a a d E a rly B dd h i m
B dd h i sm

jonn Ken r i c/

M A

T /z on z a s l u m a n , AI D

T nom a s In m a n , M

T non z a s Im n a n , M

s a

Kz ri gsoor ozcg n
''

L or ri

F la z '
i u s josep nu s

A si a ti c S

oc i et

c
I
Vzlli a zn

D oa n e

an

A r t/z u r L i lli e
f]

T i tcom b,

DD
.

22

C h i p s fro m G r m n W rk h o p
C h ri s ti anity i C h in a T rt a ry a d
E R If
T h ibet
C o ry s An c ient Fragm e t o f the Ph oe
C a rt h agini n B byl oni an
n i ci a
Egypti a n a n d o th er A t h o rs
C ri o s Myt h s o f the M iddle A ge s
Da rwini sm in M o r a l s
E a stern M o n a c h i sm
Egy p ti an B elief a d M o dern T h o u gh t f m e B
Egypti a n Mythol ogy a n d Egypti an
Chri s ti a nity
E cycl op aedi a B rit a nni c a
Eviden c e a s to M a n s Pl a c e in N a t u re
T nom a
o

n s

n,

uc .

on n/i ce

II

If

E LS

F R

l y,

ux e
.

Fa iry T ale s : T h eir O ri gin a n d M e aning f T Bu n ce


F u sa n g
C /za r les G Lela n d
G o d i n Hi s t o ry
C K n on Bu n sen
Hebrew a n d Chri s ti a n Re c ord s
f A Gi l s
Hind u i sm
M on i er V
Vzl/i a m s M A
Hi st ory o f A n cient S a n s crit L iter a
t u re
Hi st o ry of C h in a
Hi sto ry of C o rneli u s T a cit u s
C T it s
Hi st o ry of Her o d o t u s
Hi st o ry of Hind ost a n
Hi st ory o f o u r Lo rd in A r t
M rs
ja m eson a n d
.

ac

Hi st ory of the C on i ct between Reli gi on


a n d S c ien c e
Hi s t ory of th e C onq u e s t o f M exi c o
Hi s t o ry of th e De cline a d Fa ll o f th e
R om a n Em pire
Hi st ory of the Do ctrine o f th e Deity o f
Je sus C hri s t

'

W Dr ap er D D
.

E d wa r d Gi ooon

23

Indi a , An cient

M dern
it T e h s ?

an d

c
ndi a W h t c a
u
Indi a n Antiq u itie s
Indi a n W i sd o m
K o ra n
Le c t u re s on the Hi st ory o f the Jewi sh
C h rch
L e c t u re s o n the O ri gin a n d Gro wt h of
Reli gi o n
L mtu r es o n the O ri gin a n d Gr owth o f
R eli gi o n
L e ct u re s o n the Pent ate u ch a n d M o a b
ite S t one
L e ct u re s o n the S cien c e of L a n gu age
L i fe an d Religi o n o f th e Hind oo s
M a n s E a rlie st Hi st ory
M an u al of B u ddhi sm
M a n u al of M yth ol ogy
M onu m ent a l Chri sti a nity
Mysterie s of A do ni
Mythol ogy a m o g th e Hebrews
Mythol ogy of An cient Gree c e a n d It aly
M yth ol ogy of the A rya n N a ti o n
Myths a n d Myth M akers
Myths a n d Rite s of the B riti s h Dr u ids
Myths o f the M iddle A ge s
Myth s of th e N ew W o rld
N ew Re se a r ch e s in An c ient H ist o ry
N orthern Antiq u itie s
O rient a l Religi ons
Persi a
Pre h i st o ri c T i m e s
Pri m itive C u lt u re
Pr olego m en a of t h e Hi st ory of R e

li gi on

[Wa x M uller
T /z on za s M

[li

on i er

zu r i ce .

/
I
Vzlli a m s, M A

T r a n s by G S

Dea n S

j W

C olen so,

ta n ley

L e P ag e E en ozg
f

C Ga ng ooly
.

R i c/l a r d Ow en

j
S

L n n ay

DD
.

Du n lap

Ig n a z Gold z i ner

o/
zn

F zs e

W C ox

S i r George

a le .

Da v i s

E d wi n

Ba r i ng Gou ld
Da n i el Br i n ton

ev

a m u el

b n son

F r ed e r i ck S nooer l

S ir

L u bbock

o/
zn

E d wa r d /Bu r n ett T y lor

A loer t E e v i lle

24

Reli gi on s f Indi a
Re e r ch e int o th e E rly Hi t ry f
M nkind
h
of
C
er
T
ibet
n
ver
s
i
o
n
l
h
p
n
i t
skrit L lit
the S
R i g Ved S nh it
R m n A tiq itie s
o

s o

-r o

an

S od , t h e S

a -v s a r a

on o f

th e M

an

le s o f An cient Gree ce
T yl o r s Fr a gm ent s
T h e A n cient City
T h e A n gel M e ssi a h o f B u d dhi s t s
s ene s a n d C h ri sti a ns
T h e Arya n R a c e
T h e Celti c Dr u id s
T h e C h a lde a n A cc o u nt o f Gene s i s
T h e C h ine s e
T h e C h ri s t o f Pa u l
T h e De sc ent o f M a n
T h e Devil : hi s O ri gin Gre a tne ss
De ca den c e
T

F ou ca u x

a-

a,

D u n lap

C/z a r les T aylor


Es

E r n est de Bu n sen

T he

Di oge si s

T he

Epi stle

of

P olyca rp

to

th e

G H igg i n s,
Georg e S m i tlz
.

Da v i s

C /z a r les

Da r wi n

an d

Phi

li pp i an s

T he
T he
T he
T he

Essene s
First B o o k o f H erm as
Gn os ti c s a n d their Re m a ins
G ospel of the Infan c y o f Je s u s
.

Gre a t Citie s o f th e An c ient Wo rld


T h e He a then Reli gi o n
T h e Le gend o f S a m so n
T h e L e gends a n d T h e o rie s o f t h e
B ddhi sts
T h e Li f e o f Chri st

T he

Fa r r a r

25

E
bi
L i fe of C onst antine
D i d S t a u ss
T h e Li f e o f Je s Criti c a lly Ex a m ined
T h L i gh t o f A i a
E d wi A
ld
T h e L ily o f Is r a el
L A bbe G bet
Dr I M Wi re
T h e M a rtyrd om o f Je s s of N a z a reth
T h e O ri gin an d Devel p m ent o f R e
li gi o s B elie f
T h e O ri gin o f A ll Reli gi o u s W o r ship
i
Cn l F a
T h e P o e m s o f ZEsch yl s
T r by R P tte M A
T h e Prin ciple s o f S o ci ol ogy
H
be t S p
r
T h e Pr o teva nge li o n
P tev g li
Ap c
T h e R a c e s o f M an
b l
O
P
T h e Reli gi o n of the A n c ient Greeks
e e
T h e Reli gi o n s o f the Wo rld
F D M
i e
T h e R osi c r c i an s
T h e S a c red A nt h o l ogy
M D C w y
T h e S cien ce of R eli gi o n
T h e S e cret o f the E as t
T h e S erpent S ym b o l
E G S q ire
T h e S tr a ti ca ti o n o f L a n gu age
T h e S ym b oli ca l L an gu ge o f A n c ient
Art an d Mythol ogy
by H If IVi l
T h e Vi sh n u P u r a n a
T
T r a vel s in Ge o rgi
Persi a e tc
Si R K P t
T ree a d S erpent W o rsh ip
f me
T ype s o f M a nkind
U p ni sh a ds
Ve ti ge s of the S pirit Hi st ory o f M a S F D lap

T he

u se

av

su

u s.

r no

er

a r es

ro

an

sca r

esc

on

r,

en ce

er

n s

n s.

aur c

on

r a n s.

a,

or er

un

son .

28

th a t th e y saw o r touc h ed o r h e a rd a l i fe which was


like t h eir own i n its consci ou s n ess its j oys a n d its
su ff erings T h e v a ryi n g p h a s es of t h a t li fe w e r e
t h ere for e desc r ibed a s t r uth f u lly a s hu m a n f e e li n gs
or su ff e r ing s a n d h ence eve ry p h a se bec a m e a pict
ure whic h r e m a i n e d i n telligible a s l o ng a s t h e con
d i t i o n s r e m a i n e d un ch a nged
In ti m e however the
co n di t io n s were c h a n ged M e n a dv a nced i n knowl
edge a n d civiliz a tio n a n d no longer tho u ght of
n a ture a s possessing li f e a n d consciousness l ike
their o w n
In a n cie n t times t h ere lived it is supposed on the
h ig h est elev a tio n of Ce n tr a l Asi a a n oble r a ce o f
m e n c a lle d the Ary a n
S p e a ki n g a l a ngu age n o t
yet S a nskrit Greek or Ge r m a n but cont a ining t h e
d i a lects o f a ll t h is cl a n wh ich h a d a dv a n ced to a
st a te o f a gricult u r a l civiliz ation h a d recog n ized
the bonds o f blood a n d s a n ctioned t h e bo n ds o f
T h a t t h e y wor s h ip p ed N a tu r e
m a rr i age
th e

e
a
h
a
su n mo o n sky
rt
c o m p a riso n of a ncien t
r el i gio n s a n d my t ho lo gy i n th e l a n d s peopled by
Ary a n s de m o n s t r a te s T h eir c h i e f o bj ect of a d o r a
t i o n wa s t h e S u n T o t h is r a ce i n t h e i n f a n cy of its
civi l iz a tio n th e S u n wa s n o t a m e r e l u m in a r y bu t a
Cr e a tor R ule r Prese r ver a n d S a viour o f t h e world
As th e r e c o uld be no l i f e o r veget a tion wi th out
lig h t t h e S u n a s a lig h t b r inge r beco m es Cre a tor
and
i f Cre a t or the n R ule r o f t h e worl d t h e
F a the r o f a ll t h i n g s In d r i v i n g a w ay the d a r k
nes s a n d lik e wis e in fe rt ilizi n g the e a r t h t h e S u n
,

29

becomes the preserver a n d kin d protector of all


l iving thi n gs the S a viour o f m a nkind A s the S u n
s o m e ti m es scorches a n d withers veget a tion a n d dries
up the r i v ers he wa s conceive d of as a Destroye r
As C re a tor Preserver a n d Destroyer the S u n
a lso
w a s three pe r sons in one the T r i n i ty
It is v e ry h a rd f or m a n a t the present d ay to re a l
ize the f eeli n gs with which the rst dwel lers on

e a rth looked upon the S u n


T h ink of m a n
s ays

Pro f essor M ii lle r a t the d a wn o f time


Was
not the sunrise to him the rst wonder t h e rst b e
ginning to him of a ll reection a ll thought a ll phi
lo sop h y ? W a s it not to hi m the rst revel a tion the
rst begi n ning of a ll trust of a ll religion
T h e A ry a ns looke d up to the sky a n d g a ve it the
n a m e o f Dy a us f rom a root word whic h m e a n s to
sbi n e ; When o u t o f the f orces a n d f or m s o f n a ture
t h ey f a shioned other gods this n a m e o f Dy a us b e
c a m e Dv a u s P it a r the He a ven F a ther or All
F a t h er T h e e a rt h t h ey worshipped a s the M other
o f Al l
T h ey s a id th a t the S u n wa s the S o n o f the S k y o r
the He a ven F a th er a n d th a t the im m a cul a te vi rgin
t h e E a rth (so m eti m es it wa s the d awn or the n ight)
wa s the M ot h e r o f th e S u n
Henc e we h a ve the
Virgi n o r Vi rgo a s o n e o f the sig n s o f the z odi a c
As the S u n begi n s its a pp a rent a nnu a l n orthw a rd
j ourn ey on th e twe n ty f th of Dece m ber this d ay
wa s s a id to be his birthd a y a n d w a s o bs e rv e d with
gre a t r ej oici n gs O n this d ay the sig n o f th e Virgin
.

is r isi n g on the e a ste rn horizo n the S u n h aving


re a c h ed t h e wi n t e r sol s ti ce
T h e divisi o n o f the rst de c a n o f t h e Virgin rep
resents a be a uti ful i m m a cul a te virgin wi t h o wing
h a ir sitting i n a ch a ir with two e a r s o f corn in h e r
h a n d a n d suckling a n i n f a n t c a lle d Iesus (Jesus in
L ati n ) by so m e n a tion s a n d C h rist i n G r eek (f rom
t h e Greek C h ristos
a n A n ointed O ne a M es s i a h )
T h is i n f a nt d e n o tes th e S u n wh ic h a t t h e m o ment
p r eci se ly w h e n the Pers i a n
o f t h e wi n ter sols t ic e
m agi d r ew t h e h o r o sco p e of th e n e w ye a r wa s pl a ced
e e A PP EN D IX A
S
o n the boso m o f the Virgi n
)
(
T h e zodi a c a l si gn o f Aries wa s a n c ien t ly kno w n
a s t h e L a m b ; c o n se q ue n t ly w h e n th e S u n m a de th e
tr a n sit of th e e q ui n ox u n d e r th is s i g n it wa s c a l l ed
the L a m b o f God
T h e bi rth o f the S u n wa s s a id to be h er a ld e d by a
st a r the M orni n g st a r wh ic h rises i m m edi a tely
be fore t h e Virgin a n d h e r C h i ld
As t h e S u n
a ppe a rs to st a rt f r o m a d a rk a bode it wa s s a id t h a t
he wa s born in a c a ve or du n geon a n d t h e splen
dor of the m orning sky wa s sa id to be the h a lo
As the S u n sc a tte r s t h e d a rk
a round his cr a dle
ness it wa s s a id th a t he would be th e destroye r of
the reigni n g m o n a rc h N ight W a rn ed of t h i s p e ri l
by or a cl e s N ig h t tries to p re v ent the bi r t h of t h e
S u n a n d f a iling i n t h a t seeks to t a ke h is li fe
For
t h is r e a so n it is s a id th a t th e S u n is l e f t on th e b a re
h illside to perish a s h e se e m i n gly r e sts on the e a rth
a t h i s risi n g
H e m eets wit h te m pt a tions on h i s
,

course is beset by foes cl o uds o f storm a n d d a rk


n ess ; but in the struggle which ensues h e is con
the
gloomy
a rmy brok e n a n d rent is sc a t
r
r
o
u
e
q
T h e d a ughters of his f oes the l a st lig h t
t e re d
v a pors w h ich o a t i n the he a vens try i n v a in t o
c las p a n d ret a in h i m but he dise n g a ge s h i m sel f
f r o m the i r e m br a ces ; a n d a s he rep ulses t h e m th e y
w r i th e lose thei r form a n d v a nish T e m p t a t ions to
slot h a n d luxury a re o ffered him i n v a in ; h e h a s
work to d o a n d nothing c a n st ay h i m f r o m doing it
H e tr a vels ove r m a ny l a nds a n d toils fo r t h e benet
o f ot h e rs ; he does h a rd se rvice f o r a me a n a n d cruel
gener ation He is const a n tly i n comp a ny wit h his
the t welve sig n s o f t h e zodi a c
T wel ve Apostles
A s h e a pp r o a ches m idsu m m e r h e a ppe a rs in a ll
his splend o r he h a s re a ched the su m mit o f h i s
c a ree r ; h en ce forth his powe r di m in ishe s a n d he
meets wi t h a n e a rly a n d a violent de a th from which
t h e r e is n o esc a pe W h e n the extreme southern
li m it of h i s course is re a ched h is en em ies d a rk
n ess a n d col d w h ich h a ve sought in v a i n to woun d
him wi n the victory T h e brig h t S u n o f sum mer
is s l a i n crucied in the he a vens a n d pierced by the
spe a r ( th orn o r a rrow) of winter He who h a s per
f or m ed such m a rve llous m ir a cle s he a ling th e sick
a n d r a isi n g th e de a d c a nnot s a ve hi m sel f ; a stern
f a te decrees th a t he m ust die a n igno m inious de a th
A s th e S u n w ake n s t h e e a rth to l i fe afte r the long
sleep of w inter is p a ssed it wa s s a id th a t he r a i sed
He i s cr u cied w i t h o utstretche d a r m s in
t h e de a d
,

the he av ens out stretched to bless t h e wo r ld he


is t ryi n g to s a ve f r o m t h e terro r o f d a rk n ess to
t h e tree o r cro ss It wa s a n a n cient custo m to use
trees a s gibbets fo r crucixion o r i f a rtici a l to
c a ll t h e c r oss a tr ee the tree being o n e o f t h e sym
bols o f n a ture wors h ip w h ich den o ted t h e f r ucti fy
T h e S u n c r ucied wa s t h e
i n g power of t h e S u n
S u n In W i nte r when h is f ructi fyi n g p o wer is gone
Be fore t h e S u n dies he sees a ll h is disciples
his r eti n ue o f lig h t t h e twelve h o u rs of t h e d ay or
t h e twelve m o n t h s of t he ye a r dis a p pe a r in t h e
s a n gui n a ry m el e of t h e clouds o f e v ening ; but t h e
tender m ot h e r a n d th e f a ir m a id e n s h e h a s lo v ed
t h e be a uti f u l lig h ts wh ich u s h th e e a st e r n sky a s
the S u n si n ks in t h e west r e m a i n wit h h im till
the l a s t T h eir te a r s a re t h e te a rs o f dew At his
de a th t h ere is d ar k n e ss over a ll the l a nd
He
descends In t o H e ll or H a des In a n ci e n t ti m es
Hell or H a des wa s a pl a ce n e it h e r o f re w a rd nor
pu n ishme n t bu t wa s si m ply the h o m e o f t h e de a d
good a n d b a d a like t h e word p r i m a r ily sig n i fying
n o t h i n g m ore t h a n t h e h o llo w g r a ve h ol e p it c av
o r other rec e pt a cle wh ic h r e ceives th e d e a d
ern
By the A ry a n s H a de s wa s suppose d t o be i n t h e f a r
w e st w h ic h t o t h e m wa s a l w a ys th e regi o n o f d a r k
n e ss a n d d e a t h
a s t h e e a s t w a s o f l ig h t a n d l if e
O n th e t w e n ty se c o n d o f De c e m b e r t h e S u n e n te r s
t h e sign C a p r icor n u s o r th e Go a t a n d a p p e a r s t o
re m a i n i n th e s a m e p l a ce fo r th r e e d a y s a n d t h r ee
T
w
h
is
n i h ts a n d t h en begi n s to a sce n d
a s s a id
g
,

33

to b e the resurrection o f the S u n f rom H a des o r the


g r a ve At t h e ve rn a l e q u i n ox a t E a ste r th e S u n
h a s be e n b e l o w th e e q u a t o r a n d sudde n ly rises
It ris e s triu m p h a n t ove r th e p o wer s o f
a bove it
d a rk n ess a n d c o ld T h e resurrectio n of the S u n
wa s gener a l ly cel e b r a te d on the t wenty f th o f
M a rch whe n th e ret u rn o f spri n g m a y be s a id to be
t h e result o f the return o f the S u n f rom the lower
or f a r o ff regio n s to w hich it h a d dep a rted
T h ere we r e n umerous sy m bols w hich we re hel d
as s a cre d to the S u n the m ost co mmon be i n g the
sh the la m b th e cross a n d the serpe n t T h e S e r
pent wa s a n emble m o f the S u n w
h e n repre sente d
He
with his t a il in his m outh t hus f or m i n g a circl e
wa s a n e m ble m o f eternity wh e n r e p r e s e n ted a s
c a sting o ff h i s skin ; but w h e n r epre sente d w ith his
de a dly sting he wa s a n e m ble m o f evil When
represente d a s c rucied o n the tree (cross ) the S e r
pent de n oted the S u n in winte r whe n it h a s lost its
f ructi fyi n g powe r
T h e A ry a n s observed v a rious rites a n d c e remonies
a mo n g t h em bei n g B a ptism a n d the s a cr a m e n t o f t h e
Euc h a rist I n deed the doctrine o f T r a n su b sta n ti
a ti o n is o n e o f the most a ncient o f doctrines
Ba p
t i sm wa s held to be a regen er a ting rite ; a n d rivers
a s sources o f f ertility a n d pu ric a tion we re a t a n
e a rly d a te i nvested with a s a cred ch a r a cte r Eve ry
gre a t r ive r wa s suppose d to be pe rm e a te d with t h e
divine essence a n d its w a ters h el d to cle a nse f rom
m o r a l g u ilt a n d co n t a m in a tion
,

34

doctri n es of O rigin a l S i n a n d the F a l len


Conditi o n of M a n we re n o t u n k n o w n to t h e pri m i
tiv e A ry a n w h o in o rder to p ropi t i a te h is gods
a to n e f o r si n s or a ve r t c a l a m i tie s o ff e r ed s a c r i c e s
to t h e m W h e n m e n lived mostly on veget a bles
they o ff e r e d gr a i n s a lt f ru i ts w a te r a n d owe r s ;
but whe n t h ey beg a n to e a t m e a t a n d spices a n d
drink wine t h e y o ffe red t h ese a lso n a tur a lly sup
posi n g t h a t the g o ds would be ple a sed with wh a tever
wa s use f ul o r a gree a ble to m e n
I n t h e co u r se o f ti m e it beg a n to be i m agi n ed
t h a t t h e g ods d e m a n d e d somet h i n g m ore s a c r ed a s
o ff eri n gs or a t o ne m e n ts f o r si n T h is l e d to th e
s a crice o f h u m a n be i n gs a t r st of sl a ve s a n d
t h o s e t a ke n in wa r a n d n a lly of t h eir o wn c h ildren
even th e ir m o st beloved a n d rst born I t c a m e to
be a n ide a t h a t e v e ry si n must h a ve its presc r ibed
an d
t h a t t h e gods would
a m ount o f pu n ishme n t
a ccept t h e li f e o f o n e pe r so n i n a to n e m e nt f o r t h e
si n s of others Fro m t h is a r o se a belie f i n t h e
red e m ptio n f r om sin by t h e su ff e ri n gs o f a Divi n e
I n c a r n a ti o n b y de a th o n the cross o r ot h e r w i s e
Br a nc h e s o f th e A ry a n r a ce migr a t e d to t h e e ast
O n e o f the o ffs h oot s a t t h e w e s t
a n d to t h e west
f ou n de d t h e Persi a n ki n gdo m ; a n o t h er b u ilt At h e n s
a n d L a ce d mm o n a n d be c a m e t h e Gr e ek n a tion ; a
thi r d went on to I t a ly a nd re a r ed the city o n th e
seve n h ill s wh ic h gre w i n to i m pe r i a l R ome A dis
t a n t c o l o n y o f th e s a me r a ce exc a v a ted the silve r
mines o f pre h istoric S p a in ; a n d t h e rst gli m ps e a t
T he

36

t h a t is the r e l a tion betwee n t h e S u n a n d the


e a rt h t h e succession o f d a
a n d night
o
f
s
ummer
y
a n d winter o f stor m a n d c a l m o f cl oud a n d te m pe st
o f golden sunshi n e a n d bright blue sky
A fe w o f t h e Ary a n n a tions h a ve preserve d in
their a n cie nt poetry so m e re m n a nts o f t h e n a tur a l
a we with which the e a rlier dwellers on t h e e a rt h s a w

t he brilli a nt sun slowly rise f rom out the d a rk n ess


of the n ight r a ising itsel f b
its
own
mig
h
t
higher
y
a n d h igher till it stood triu m ph a nt o n t h e a r ch o f
h e a ven a n d then desce n de d a n d s a nk down in its
e ry gl o ry into t h e d a rk a byss of t he he a vi n g a n d

hissi n g se a
O n e o f t h ese n a tio n s is the H indoo
I n t h e h ymns o f the Ved a t h e poet still wo n ders
whethe r t h e S u n will rise ag a i n ; a n d a sks how he
wh y he does not
c a n cl imb the v a ult o f h e a ven
f a ll b a ck why t h ere is n o dust on his p a th

s
It is to the e Vedic hymns w r itte n it is s a id
f rom o n e t h ous a n d to ftee n hund r e d ye a rs be fore
the Christi a n e r a th a t we m ust go f o r the develop
me n t w h ich c h a n ges the S u n f r om a m e re l u m i n a ry
into a C re a tor Prese rve r R uler a n d R ew a rder o f
the w orld i n fa ct i n to a Divi n e o r S upr e m e B e i n g
T hese h ymn s co n t a in t h e ger m story o f t h e Virgin
born God a n d S a viour t h e gre a t bene f a ctor o f m a n
ki n d w ho is n a lly put to de a t h a n d rises a g a i n to
l i f e a n d i m mo r t a lity on the th i r d d ay
I n t h e S a n skrit D icti o n a ry co m pile d more t h an
two t h o u s a nd ye a rs ago we n d a f ull a cc o u n t o f t h e
i nc a rn ate deity Vis h nu who a ppe a red in hum a n f or m
,

37

Vis h n u bei n g m o ved to r elieve the


e a r t h o f h e r lo a d o f m i se r y a n d si n c a m e d o wn
f r o m h e a ven a n d wa s bor n o f th e vi rgi n D ev a ki on
t h e t w e n ty f th o f Dec e m be r
(S e e N O T E
H i s birt h w a s a n n ou n ced i n t h e he a ve ns by his
st a r a n d a c h orus o f De v a ta s celebr a te d w ith song

t h e p r a ise o f Dev a ki
T h e spi r its a n d n y m phs o f
he a ven d a n ce d a n d s a n g ; a n d a t m i d n ight w h e n
the S uppo r t of All wa s born t h e clouds em itte d lo w

ple a sing sou n ds a n d poure d down r a in o f o w e rs


T hough of roy a l descent ( he wa s o f the Y a d a v a
line the ol dest a n d n oblest of I ndi a) he wa s born
i n a c ave his mothe r bei n g o n a j ourney with his
f oster f a ther on their wa y t o the city to p ay h i s
ye a rly t r ibute o r t ax to t h e k ing
At C r i sh n a s birth the c a ve wa s brilli a ntly illu
m i n a te d a n d the f a ces o f his f a ther an d mothe r
emitte d r a ys of glory
T h e divine c h ild wa s re cogn ize d by cowherds
who prostr a te d themselve s bef ore h i m
He was
rece ive d with divine honors a n d presented with
gi fts of s a n d a l wood a n d pe rf u m es S oon af te r hi s
birt h he wa s visite d by the holy prophet N a r e d
who h a d he a rd o f the f a m e of the in f a n t N a r e d
ex a mined the st a rs a n d decl are d C ri sh n a to be of
celesti a l descent
C r i sh n a s f oster f a ther wa s w a rne d by a he a venly
voice to y with the chil d to Gokul a cross the
R iver Jumn a a s th e reigni n g m on a rch K a ns a
sought his li fe
Whe n the R iver Jumn a was
as

C r i sh n a

8
3

re a ched the w ate r s respectf u lly retired on e a ch


side to m a ke way f o r th e tr a n sp o rt a tion o f t h e
c h ild O n t h e m o st a n cie n t H i n doo te m ples a r e
s culpture d r e p r e se n t a ti o ns o f t h e ight a t m idnight
wi th t h e i n f a nt s aviour C ri shn a
I n o r d e r to de stroy C r i sh n a K a ns a orde red the
m a s sa cre o f a ll t h e m a l e i n f a n t s born in h is re a l m
duri n g t h e n ig h t on w h i ch C r i sh n a wa s bor n T h e
story o f the sl a ughter e d in fa nts i s t h e subj e ct of a n
i m me n se sc u lpture i n t h e c a ve te m ple O f El e p h a n t a
T h e a t ro of o f t h is c a ver n te m pl e a n d ev e ry o t h e r
circu m st a n ce connected wit h it p r ov e s t h a t i ts o r i gi n
must be r e f e rr e d to a very re m o te epoch hundreds
o f y e a r s b e f o r e our e r a
C r i sh n a wa s p r ecede d by R a m a w ho wa s born a
short ti m e be fore h is birth a n d w h ose l i f e wa s a l so
sought by K a n s a
It is s a id t h a t C r i sh n a a stoni sh e d his te a c h ers by
his prec o ci o u s w isdo m V a r i o us m i r a cles a r e rel a te d
a s occu r ring in his c h ildhood
so m e of t h em bei n g
si m il a r t o t h o se rel a ted of t h e c h ildhood o f Jesus
C h rist i n t h e A p o c ry p h a l Ne w T e s t a m ent
O n e O f C r i sh n a s rst m i r a cles i n h is m a turity
H e re s tor e d the m a i m ed
wa s t h e h e a li n g o f a lepe r
t h e de a f a n d the bli n d ; b e he a led t h e sick a n d
r aised the d e a d ; h e supporte d t h e w e a k a g a inst t h e
st r ong a n d t h e o pp r e s sed a g a i n st the p o w e rf u l T h e
Hi n d o o s a cre d bo oks tee m wit h a ccount s o f th e
mi r a cles he pe rf o r m ed T h e people crowded his
p a th a n d a dore d him a s a god
,

39
H

e h a d twelve f a vorite disciples who a ccomp a nie d

h is m issio n a ry tr a vel s
A t one ti m e a poor l a me wom a n c a me with a ve s
sel lle d with spi ces sweet sce n te d oils s a nd a l
wood s aff ro n civet a n d other perf u m es a n d
m a ki n g a sign on C r i sh n a s f orehe a d poure d the
cont e n ts o f the vessel upon his he a d
He wa s i n const a nt stri f e with the Evi l O ne in
the e a r ly p a r t of his ministry ; but he overc a me the
T e m pte r a n d i s represente d a s bruising the he a d of
the serpe nt a n d st a nding upon him

He wa s the meekest a n d best tempere d o f

beings
H e pre a ched ve ry nobly a n d sub
He wa s pure a n d ch a ste i n r e a lity ; a n d a s
li m e ly
a lesson o f humil ity he eve n condescended to w a sh

th e f eet o f the Br a hm a ns
C r i sh n a h a d a beloved disciple Arj un a be f ore
whom he wa s tra n s gu re d a n d to whom he s a id

Wh ate e r thou dost perform wh a te e r thou e a test


wh a te e r thou givest to the poor wh a te e r th ou
o ff e r e st i n s a c r ice
wh a te e r thou doest a s a n a ct
o f h o ly prese nce do a ll a s i f to m e
O A rj un a I
a m the gre a t S a ge
without beginn i n g ; I a m the

R ule r a n d t h e All sust a i ner

Ag a i n he s a i d : T he n be n o t sorrow ful ; f rom a ll


thy si n s I will delive r thee T hi n k thou o n me
h a ve f a ith in m e a dore a n d worship m e a n d j oin
t h ysel f in m edit a tion to m e thus sh a lt th ou co m e to
me O A r ju n a ; t h us sh a lt thou ri s e to m y supre m e
a b o de
where n e ither sun n o r m o o n h a th need to
him

on

4O

shi n e f or k n ow th a t a ll the lustre t h ey posses s is

m ine
I a m t h e c a us e o f th e w h o le unive r s e ;
th r o u g h m e it i s c r e a ted a n d di ssol v e d ; o n m e a ll
t h i n g s wit h in it h a n g a n d sus p e n d l i k e pe a r ls u pon
a st r i n g
I a m th e li ght in t h e sun a n d m oo n f a r
f a r b e y o n d the d a rk n ess
I a m th e b r illi a n cy in
a m e t h e r a di a n ce in a ll t h a t s r a di a nt a n d t h e

light o f li g h ts
I a m the sust a i n er o f t h e w o r ld

its f riend a n d L ord ; I a m its way a n d r e f uge


I
a m the Goodness o f t h e good ; I a m B e ginni n g
M iddle End E tern a l T ime th e Birt h t h e De a t h O f

A ll
C r i sh n a wa s c r u ci ed a n d is r epresent e d wit h
h a n gi n g o n a c r os s th e n a il p r ints
a r m s ext e n d e d
bei n g visible in h a nd s a n d f e e t a n d w it h t h e spe a r
wound in h i s side O n e a cc o u n t s p e a k s o f h im a s
h a vi n g been shot in t h e f o ot wit h a n a rro w by a

hunter wh o a fte r w a rds s a ys to h i m : H a v e pity


upon m e who a m con su m e d by m y cri m e f o r t h ou

Fe a r
a r t a ble to consu m e m e
C ri sh n a repli e s :
not thou in the le a st
Go hunte r t h rough my

f a v o r to he a ven the a bode o f the gods


I n t h r e e d a ys h e
C r i sh n a d e sce n ded i n to H ell
rose f r o m t h e d e a d a n d a sce n ded b o dily into h e aven

C ri sh n a s
All me n sa w h i m a n d excl a i m ed L o '
soul a s c e n ds h is n a tive skies '
At h is de a th t h ere c a m e c a l a m ities a n d o m ens o f
every kind A bl a ck circle surrou n d e d t h e m o o n t h e
sun was d a r ke n e d a t n oo n d ay ; th e sk y r a i n ed re
a n d a sh es ; a m es b u r n e d d u sky a n d livid ; de m o n s
,

com mitted depre d a tio n s o n e a rth ; a t su n rise a n d


sunset t h o us a nds o f gures were seen ski r m ishi n g
in t h e s k y a n d s p i r it s w e r e O bser v e d o n a ll side s
C r i sh n a w a s t h e s e c o n d pe rso n i n th e Hi n doo

t h e v e ry su p r e m e B r a h m a ; t h o u g h it b e a
T r i n ity
m y ste ry h o w t h e S upre m e should a ssu m e the f orm
.

of

m an

Vishnu is to come a g a in on e a rth in the l a tte r


d ays a n d will a ppe a r as a n a r m e d w a rrior r idi n g a
winge d w h ite hors e At his a ppro a ch the sun a n d
m oon wil l be d a rke ne d th e e a rth wi ll tre m ble a n d
He is to be
th e st a r s f a l l f r om the r m a m e n t
Judge of t h e de a d a t the l a st d a y
Dev a ki t h e vi rgin m o t h e r O f C r i sh n a was a lso
c a lled A di ti wh ic h i n t h e R i g Veda is the n a m e fo r
the D a wn T h u s the legen d is expl a ine d D ev ak i
is Aditi ; Aditi i s t h e D a wn the D a w n is the Vi rgin
M ot h er ; a n d the S a viour o f m a nki n d w ho i s born
o f Aditi
is the S u n
I n dr a w o r shipped in so m e
p a r t s o f Indi a a s a c r uci e d go d i s r ep r esented in
th e Vedic hym n s a s th e so n o f D a h a n a who is
D a ph n e a personic a ti o n o f th e d a wn
As t h e S u n an d a ll t h e sol a r d eities r ise i n the e a st
it is n o c a use of wonder t h a t Aditi the D awn c a m e
to be c a lled the M oth e r of the Bright Gods th e
Vi rgi n M other who g a ve Birth to t h e S u n the
M o t h e r wi t h Power ful T e rribl e with R oya l S o n s
S t a tu e s o f C r i sh n a a r e to be f oun d in t h e ve ry
olde s t c a ve te m p le s t h ro u ghout I n di a a n d it h a s
bee n pr o ved s a tis fa ct o r il y on the a utho r ity of a
,

42

p a ss age of Ar r i an t h a t t h e wor s h i p of C r i sh n a wa s
p r a ctised i n th e ti m e o f Alex a n der the G r e a t i n a
te m p l e wh ic h still r e m a i n s o n e O f th e m o st f a m o u s
i n I n di a t h a t o f M a th u r a o n th e Ju m n a R iver
C r i sh n a wa s d e ied a b o ut t h e f o u r th ce n t u ry B C
but th e g e ner a l o utli n e o f h is h is tory b e g a n w e a re
t o ld wi t h t h e ti m e o f H o m e r n in e h u n dr e d ye a r s
B C o r m o r e th a n a h und r ed ye a rs be fo r e I sa i a h is
F r o m th e d a te
s a id to h ave liv e d a n d p r o p h esi e d
t h e sto ry o f
O f t h e sec o n d ce n tu r y b e f o r e o u r e r a
C r i sh n a was th e s u bj e ct o f d r a m a t ic r e p r e se n t a ti o n s
s i m il a r to t h ose con n e cted wi th th e f estiv a ls h eld i n
h o n o r o f B a cc h us
T h e m yt h s w h ic h cryst a llized a r ound th e n a m e o f
C r i s h n a a re f o und i n th e v e ry e a rl iest V e dic lite r a tu r e
I n deed t h e Hi n d o o s
a s s o ci a ted w it h ot h e r go ds
h a v e h a d t we n ty fo u r Av a t a r s o r Divi n e I n c a r n a

ti o n s
E v e ry ti m e a s Vis h n u is rep re s e n t e d a s
s ayi n g i n t h e Bb aga va d G i td (th e S ong of tb c M ost

t h a t religio n i s i n d a n ger a n d t h a t ini q ui t y


t r iumphs 1 issue fo r t h fo r the d e fe n ce of th e good
a n d t h e s u p pr ession o f t h e wick e d
f o r t h e e s t a bli sh
m e nt o f ju s t ice I m a n i fe st m y s el f f r o m a ge to a ge
T h e i n c a rn a ti o n o f Vi s hn u i s n ot a t r a n sit o ry m a n i
f e sta ti o n o f t h e d e i t y b ut t h e p r e se n ce a t o n c e
m y stic a n d re a l o f t h e S u p re m e B e i n g in a h u m a n
i n divid u a l wh o i s bot h t r uly G o d a n d t r uly m a n ;
a n d t h i s i n ti m a te u n i o n o f t h e two n a t u res i s co n
c e i v e d o f a s su r vivi n g t h e de a t h o f t h e i n di v idu a l in
w h o m it wa s r e a liz e d
,

44

level of culture were deeply i m pressed by two groups


In th e rst pl a ce : W h a t i s
o f biologic a l p r oble m s
i t t h a t m a kes th e di ff e r e n ce betwee n a livi n g a n d a
de a d pe r son ? Wh a t c a uses w a king sleep tr a n ce
di se a se d e a th ? I n t h e second pl a ce : Wh a t a re
those h u m a n s h a p es which a p p e a r in dre a m s a n d

?
visions
L ooking a t the two gro u ps of p h e n o m

s a ys Edw a rd
e n a the a n cie n t s a v a ge p h ilosop h ers

Burnett T ylor
pr a ctic a lly m a de e a ch help to
a cco u n t f o r t h e ot h e r by co m bi n i n g both in a con
c e p ti o n w h ic h we
m a y c a ll a n a p p a riti o n a l so u l

a ghost soul
T o th e s a v a ge dre a ms possess a
r e a lity w h ic h a civi lized m a n c a n sc a rcely a
r
e
pp
ci ate D u r i n g sleep t h e spi r it se e m s to dese r t t h e
body ; a n d a s i n dre a m s ot h er loc a lities a n d ev e n
othe r worlds a p pe a r to be visited a p a rt o f t h e
person seems to t h e s a v a ge to possess a sep a r a te
existence T h e s a v age believes the events i n his
dre a m s to be a s re a l a s those of his w a king hours
a n d h e n ce h e n a tur a lly f eels th a t he h a s a spirit
w h ich c a n q uit t h e body
T h e H i n doo s believe in a T riune God : Br a hm a
the F a t h e r ; Vi shnu the S on ; a n d S iva the De
str oye r ( S e e N O T E
As m a n a dv a n ced in knowledge a n d bec a me
a w a re o f t h e f a ct t h a t the S u n a lth o ugh h e a ppe a rs
to de st r oy does n ot i n r e a lity but rec o nstruct s a n d
rege n e r a te s t h e e a r t h th e t h ird p e rs o n o f th e T r inity
wa s s a id t o be th e H oly S pi r it a n d wa s sy m b o lized
by t h e dov e T h e s e c o nd person o f t h e T rinity
,

45

c a m e to be c a lle d the Word wisdom o r L ogos


i n t h e G r eek
Br a h m a n ism f rom t h e v e r y e a r lie st ti m es h a d its
i n iti a tory rites w h ich included b a ptis m both by i m
m er s ion a n d spri n kli n g
I n f a n t b a p tis m wa s p r a c
t i s e d the sign o f t h e cross bei n g used a n d a n a m e
be ing give n to the c h ild a t th a t ti m e T h e symbols
h el d a s s a cred by t h e B r a h m a n s the c r oss se r
p e nt dove m itre crosier t r i a n gle tripod tre foil
k e y sh a n d s a cred h e a rt
a r e n o w ve n er a te d
by C h risti a n s w h ile the te a c h i n gs o f Br a h m a n i s m
a r e ve ry simil a r to the f a m ili a r te a chings of t h e N e w
T es t a m ent
T h e f ollowi n g precepts a r e f rom M ah a b
h ar a t a a n I n di an epic p o em written m a ny ce nturie s
be f ore the Christi a n e r a
,

C o nque r a m an who neve r gives by gi fts ; sub


due a n untruthf ul m an by trut h f ulness ; v a n q uis h a n
a n gry m a n by gentleness
; a n d overcom e the evi l
m a n by goodness
.

injure none by thought o r word o r deed to


give t o othe r s a n d be ki n d to a ll t h is is the con
st a n t duty o f t h e good H igh m i n ded m e n d elight
i n d o ing good wit h out a t h o u g h t o f their own inte r
e st ; w h e n they con f e r
benet on others they
a
r e ckon n o t on f a vo r s in return
o

T wo m e n

will here a fte r be ex a l te d a bove the

a
he vens the m an with boun dless power who yet
,

46
f o r be a rs
r

ich

an d

to use it indiscreetly
yet c a n give

an d

he who is n ot

Just h e a ven is not so ple a sed with costly gi f ts


o ffered i n h opes o f f utu re rec o m pe n se a s wit h t h e
mere st trie set a p a rt f rom ho n est g a ins an d s a ncti
e d by f a it h
,

curb the to n gu e a n d moder ate t h e spee ch is


held to be t h e h a r dest o f a ll t a sks T h e words o f
h im w h o t a lk s too volubly h a ve neit h er subst a nce
nor v a r iety
T

Eve n to f oes w h o visit u s a s guests due hospi


t a lity s h ou ld be dis p l aye d t h e tree screens with its
le aves the m a n who f ells it
,

Be fore i n r m i ti e s cree p o e r thy esh be fore de


c ay i m p a irs t h y stre n gth a n d m a rs t h e be a uty o f t h y
li m bs be f ore the E n der w h ose c h a riot e e r is S ick
ness ra stes tow a rds t h ee bre aks up thy f ra gile
la y up t h e only t r e a sure ;
f r a m e a n d ends t h y li f e
do good deeds ; pr a cti se sobriety a n d sel f co n trol ;
a m a s s t h a t we a lth w h ich t h ieves c a nnot a bstr a ct n o r
tyr a nts s e iz e which f ollows t h ee a t de a t h whic h
never w a ste s a w a y nor is corrupted

h is is th e su m of a ll true righ teous n e ss : t r e a t


o t h e r s a s t h ou wo u ld s t t h ys e l f be tre a ted
DO no t h
i n g to t h y n e ig h b o r wh ic h h e re a f te r t h ou w ouldst
not h a v e t h y n e ig h bo r d o to t h ee In c au si n g ple a s
T

47

ure or in giving p a i n in doi n g good or inj ury to


others i n gr a n ti ng o r r e fusi n g a re quest a m a n
obt a ins a prope r rule of a cti o n by look i n g on his
ne ighbor a s hi m sel f
,

A m o n g t h e most a ncie nt tr a dition s o f the Hin


doo s is t h a t of the T ree of L i f e
c a ll e d S bi n a in
the j uice o f which i m p a rted i m m o r
S a n skrit
t a lity T h is tree wa s gu a rded by S pirits
T hey h a d a legend O f P a r a dise which re a ds as
f ollo w s :
-

In the s a cre d mou n t a in M e ru which is p e rp e tu


t h e golde n r ays o f the S u n a n d
a lly clothed i n
whose lo fty summit re a ches into he a ven n o si nf u l
,

ca n ex i st

ma n

It i s g u a r d ed py

d r ea df u l d r ag on

It is a do r n e d with m a ny celesti a l pl a nts a n d trees


a n d is w a tered by f ou r r i ver s whic h the nce sep a r a te
a n d ow to the f our chie f d irections
,

I n th e Ge nesis a ccoun t it is cherubi m who


gu a rde d the G a rden of Ede n a n d t h ey were s u p
posed to be a ngels ; but we a re tol d by a r ecen t
writer th a t t h e che rub is not a n a ngel but a n a n i
m a l a n d a mythologi c a l a n im a l
th a t T h e
at
cherub h a d t h e body of a l ion someti m es t h e he a d
o f a not h er a n i m a l or o f a m a n a n d the wings o f a
bird T h e cherub th a t wa s pl a ce d a t t he G a rde n of
Ede n to keep t h e wa y o f li fe wa s simply a dr a gon
O rigen be li e ved a right a s it is n ow a lmost uni
v e r sa ll
a d m itted
a
th
t
the
stories
f
the
G
rden
o
a
y

48
of

Eden th e Elysi a n Fi e ld s th e G a rde n o f the

Blessed
w h ic h we r e th e a bode o f t h e blessed
w h e re grie f a n d so rro w co u ld n o t a pp r o a ch t h em
where pl ague a n d sic k n ess could n ot touc h t h e m
were founde d o n a llegory T hese a b o d e s of
d e lig h t wer e f a r a w ay i n t h e w e st w h e re th e S u n
goes down beyon d t h e b o u n ds o f t h e e a rt h T hey
were the Golden Isl a nds s a ili n g in a se a of bl ue
tb e bu r n i slzed clou d s
o
a
t
i
n
n
p
I
n
i
t
h
u
r
n
e
i
e
e
e
r
a

g
w ord tne E lysi a n F i elds a r e tb c clou ds a t e ven ti de t h e
picture bei n g suggeste d by t h e i m a ges dr a w n f rom
th e phe n omen a O f su n set a n d twilig h t
T h e Hindoo legend o f the C r e a ti o n is t h a t S iv a
as th e
S up reme Bei n g desired to te m pt Br a h m a
m
w
h
o
a
a
a n fo rm
t
ken
hu
h
d
a n d wa s c a lled S w a y
(
a m b h u ra S o n o f t h e S e l f existent
a n d f or this
)
re a son he d ropped f rom h e a ven a blosso m of the
s a cred g tree
S wa ya m b h u r a instig a te d by his
wi fe S ata r u p a e n de a vors to obt a in this blosso m
t h inki n g i ts possession wi ll rende r him i m m ort a l
an d divi n e ; but when he h a s succee de d in doi n g
so he is curse d by S iv a a n d doo m e d to m isery a n d
degr a d a tion T h e s a cre d Indi a n g tree is endowed
by bot h the Br a h m a ns a n d t h e Buddhists with mys
t e ri ou s signic a nce a s the T ree o f Knowledge or
I ntelligence
T h e Hindoos h a ve a n a ccount of a Deluge simi
la r to the a ccount con t a ine d in Genesis a lso a n
a ccount o f the B a bel Con f u sion o f T ongues
T hey h a ve a legen d th a t correspon ds to the
,

49

Hebrew a ccount o f Abr a h a m a n d Is a a c a n d se v


er a l a cco u n ts o f se a s a n d rive rs b e i n g divided a s
the R ed S e a wa s s a id to be divide d fo r M ose s a n d
the Isr a elit e s to p a ss through
T h ey a lso h a d their S a mso n whose n a me wa s
B a l a R a m a the S tro n g R a m a He wa s worshipped
conj ointly with C ri sh n a ; a n d the two
a t M utr a
were considered a s o n e a v a t a r or inc a rn a tio n of
Vishnu Vishnu bei n g the S u n
T h e H indoo story of S a k ti d e va who was sw a llowed
by a huge sh a n d c a me out unhurt is simil a r to the
Hebrew a ccount of Jon ah sw a llowed by the wh a le
which is undoubtedly a sun myth a n d represents
the S u n being s w a llowe d up by the e a rth
a s it
a pp a rently is when it sets i n the west to be c a st
f o rth by the e a rth a g a in i n the morning
O n e of
the n a m es given to the S u n wa s Jon a a n d the e a rth
is sometimes represented in mythology a s a h uge
sh T h e three d ays a n d three n ights mentioned
i n the a ccount represent the S u n a t the winte r sol
stice whe n it i s a pp a rently st a tion a ry f or t h a t length
o f t ime in the sign C a pri cornus
T h e H indoo s a cred writings rel a te m a ny a ccounts
of the ir Holy O nes being t a ke n up a live into he a ve n
a s the Hebre w Elish a wa s t a ken a n d impressions
o n rocks a r e shown a s their footprints which l a st
touche d the e a rth
Arresting the cou rse of the S u n a s Joshu a is s a id
to h a ve done was a c ommon thing a mong the dis
c i p le s of Buddh a
A h oly Buddhist by the n a me
,

50

M at an g a prevented the S u n a t h i s comm a nd


f r o m ri si n g a n d bisected t h e m o o n
A n I n di a n
f a ble rel a tes th a t t h e S u n stood still to h e a r the
pious ej a cul a ti ons o f A rj u n a a ft e r th e d e a t h o f
of

C r i sh n a

Hindoos a lso h a ve a f able w h ich corresponds


to t h e a ccount o f Ph a r a oh s t w o dre a ms
T h e su n m yth s n a l ly c a m e to be i n te rwove n with
the histories o f e m inent men a s i n the c a se o f the
S a ky a Pri n c e S iddh art h a a fter w a rds c a lled Buddh a

w
h
o
a ys
t
h
e
Enlig
h
te
n
ed
O
n
e
t
h
e
legend
s
le
t
f
(
)
P a r a dise a n d i n m e rcy c a m e do wn to e a rt h bec a use
he wa s lled with co m p a ssion fo r t h e si n s a n d mis
e r i e s O f m a nkind He sought to le a d them in bet
ter p a th s a n d took their su ff erings upon himsel f
t h a t h e m ight expi a te t h eir c r i m es a n d mitig a te th e

pu n i s h m e n t they m ust ot h erwise in e vit ably endure


Budd h a s Inc a r n a tion is s a id to h a ve b e e n a eco m
o ly
t
h
ro
h
t
h
e
H
pirit
l
i
u gh
e
a gency o f
S
s
h
e
d
t
p
Be fore h is birth a h e a venly messenger a p pe a red in a
d re a m to h i s vi rgin m o t h e r M a h a M ay a a n d s a id :

Be h o ld thou sh a lt bri n g f orth a son be a ring the


mystic signs o f Buddh a a scion of roy a l l in e a ge a
son of h ighest kings When he s h a ll le a ve h is
ki n gdom a n d his country to e n te r the st a te of devo
tio n h e s h a l l become a s a crice for th e d wellers of
e a rt h a Budd h a wh o to all m en sh a ll give j
o
nd
a
y

the gl o rious f r uits O f i m m o r t a lity


N
O
E
ee
T
S
(
T h e i m mo r t a ls o f the T u si ta he a ve n decide t h a t
Buddh a sh a ll be born when the Flower st a r m akes
T he

2
5

Buddh a be fore e ntering upon his m ission meets


the B r a h m a n R u d r a k a a m ig h ty pre a cher who
however o ffer s to beco m e h i s disciple S ome of
R u d r a k a s f o ll o wers secede to Budd h a but le a ve
h i m w h en they nd th a t he does n o t observe the
f a sts
Buddh a retires to the solitude o f U ru ve la a n d
f a s ts a n d pr a ys i n the desert till h u n ger f orces h im
to l e a ve h is retre a t After h i s f a st Bu d d h a t akes
a b a th in the river N e r a n a r a
When
he
l
e
a ves the
j
w a te r pu r ied t h e de v a s O pe n the g a tes o f He a ven
a n d cove r h i m with a s h o w e r o f f r a gr a nt owers
During Budd h a s f a st in the d e se rt M a r a the P r i n ce
of
D a r kness a ppro a ches h i m with promises of
we a lt h a n d e a rthly glory Budd h a rej ect s h is o ffers
by quoting p a ss a ges of the Ved a s T h e te mpter
ees ; a n gel s desce n d a n d s a lute Buddh a
Buddh a h a s f re q uent i n terviews with two buddh a s
who h a d preceded him It is in the sh a de of t h e
s a cred g
tree t h a t t h e conversion a n d ordin ation of
Buddh a s rst disciples t a ke pl a ce T h ese disciples
were previously followe rs of R u d r a k a
Be fore
Buddh a a ppoints a l a rger nu mber of a postles h e
selects ve f a vorite disciples o n e of who m is a f ter
w a rd styled the Pill a r o f the F a ith ; a not h er the
Bosom F r ie n d of Budd h a A m o n g the f ollo w ers of
Budd h a t here is a Jud a s De v a d a tta w h o t r ie s to
destroy his m a ster a n d meets with a disgr a ce ful
de at h
Budd h a a ll u des to a n inte rview with several
,

53
f ormer B uddh a s

que stion h i s st a tement :

O nly f orty ye a rs ago you le ft your n a ti ve to w n :


how c a n you cl a im to h a ve seen a ll those s a ints of

old ?
Buddh a expl a ins it by the pre exi ste nce of
his soul
Buddh a w a lks on the R i ve r G a n ges H e he a ls
the s ick by a mere touch of his h an d ; a n d a ccord
ing to W assi lj
e w the M aya n a S u tr a rel a tes the m i r a
cle o f the lo a ves a n d she s Buddh a re pe a tedly
h a s a mir a culous esc a pe f rom the sn a res o f his

a dvers a ries
But he going through the m idst o f

them we n t hi s way
O n ce whe n ridi n g o n his
horse Ka n tak a h i s p a th was strewn with owe rs
thro w n d o wn by D e v a s Buddh a rem a ins homele ss
a n d poor a n d instructs h i s disciple s to tr a vel with
o ut money trusti n g to the a i d o f Providen ce A t
o n e time h a vi n g n o money to
a tm a n who
bo
a
a
p y
ref uses to c a rry him without p ay Buddh a o a ts
through the a i r a cross the stre a m
T o convert cert a in scepti c a l vill age rs he showed
them a m a n w a lking a cross a deep a n d r a pid rive r
W ithout im m e rsing his f e et
A discipl e h a d his f eet
h a cke d O ff by a n unj ust k ing a n d Buddh a cu red
him At his a ppe a r a nce the sick were he a led the
de af cured a n d the blind h a d thei r sight restore d
Even h is disciples perf ormed m ir a cles
T he
brother Of one of t h em being i n i m mi n e nt d a nge r

o f shipwreck i n a
bl a ck storm the f a ct wa s m a de
known to the discipl e by spirits a n d he a t once pe r
f ormed the mi r a cle of tr a n sporting himse l f to the
.

S ceptics

54

deck of the s h ip w h en immedi a t e ly the bl a ck tem


pest ce a sed S eve r a l of Buddh a s di sciple s received
power to exorcise evil spirits T h ey a lso h a d the
gi ft of spe aki n g in f oreign to n gues
S ome of t h e f ollowe rs of Buddh a bei ng i m p ri s
o n e d by a n unj ust e m peror a n a ngel or spirit c a me
a n d O p ened the prison door a n d li ber a ted them
It is re l a ted o f one of his followers th a t his eye
o ff e nded him a n d th a t h e plucked it out a n d c a st it
a way
O ne d ay Buddh a s disciple An a nd a af te r a long
w a lk i n t h e country m eets with a wo m a n o f the low
c a ste o f t h e K md ala s ne a r a well a n d a sks h e r for
some w a ter S h e tell s him wh a t she is a n d t h a t s h e

must n o t come ne a r him He replies M y sister I


a sk not f o r thy c a ste or thy f a mily ; I a sk only f o r a

dra ught of w a ter


S h e a fterw a rds beco m es a dis
c i p le o f Buddh a
It is s aid th a t tow a rds the en d o f his li f e B uddh a
wa s t r a n s gu r e d on M ount P a nd a v a in C e ylon
S udde n ly a a me of lig h t d e scended upon h i m a n d
enci rcle d the cro w n of his h e a d wit h a circl e o f light

H is body bec a m e gl o rious a s a bright golden

im a ge a n d sh o ne a s t h e brig h t n ess o f t h e S u n

His body was divided into t h ree


a n d m oon
p a rts f rom e ach of whic h a r ay o f l ight issued

f orth
It is recorded in t h e s a cre d c a non of the Buddh
i st s t h a t th e mul t itude r eq u i r ed a sign f rom Buddh a
th a t they might believe
,

55

Buddh a delighte d in represe nting him sel f a s


merely a link i n a lo n g c h a i n o f te a c h e r s
H e t a ught h is disciples to h ide t h ei r g o od deeds

f
to l o ve
a n d con f ess t h ei r sin s be ore the w o r ld
trut h a n d h a te t h e l ie H e a lso t a ug h t t h a t a ll m e n
a re brothe rs t h a t ch a rity should be extended to a ll
even to e nemies a n d th a t the motive o f a ll a cti o ns
s h ould be pity or love f o r one s n eighbor H is dis
c i p le s were tol d th a t they m ust re nou nce the world
give up a ll t he ir ri ches a n d e m br a ce pove rty

To
In t h e Buddhist S om a deva is the f ol lowing :
give a way our riches is conside re d t h e most di ffi cult
vi r tue i n the world ; he who gives a w ay h i s r ic h es is
like a m a n who gives a wa y his li fe ; f o r our very li f e
see ms to cling to our r iches But Budd h a w h en his
min d wa s moved by pity ga ve lzi s life like gr a ss fo r

the s a ke of othe rs
Buddh a is reported to h a ve s a id : I now de si re
to turn the wheel o f the excellent la w Fo r this
purpose a m I goi n g to the city of Ben a res to give
light to those shrouded in d a rkness a n d to O pe n the

g a tes of immort a lity to m a n


Whe n his c a reer o n e a rth wa s a bout comi n g to a

close he f oreseeing t h e things th a t would h a ppe n

in f uture times s a id to his discipl e An a nd a


When
I a m gone you m ust not think there is no B uddh a
the discourses I h a ve delivered a n d the pre cept s I
h a ve e n j oined m ust be m y successors or represent

a tives a n d be to you a s Budd h a

Ag a in he s a id : T h ough the he a ve n s were to f a l l


.

'

6
5

to e a rth a n d the gre a t wo r ld be sw a llowed up a n d


p a ss a w a y ; t h oug h M ou n t S u m er a were to cr a ck to
pieces a n d t h e gre a t o ce a n be d r ied up yet A n a nd a

be a ssured the words o f Budd h a a r e true


At the de a th O f Buddh a the e a rth tre m bled the
rocks were split a n d ph a ntom s a n d spirits a ppe a red
He desce nd e d to h ell a n d pre a ched to the spirits of
the d a mned
When Buddh a wa s buried tn e coveri n gs o f t h e
body unrolled t h ems e lves the li d o f his c oi n wa s
O pe n ed by s u pe r n a tur a l p ower s a n d h e a sc e nded
bodily to the celesti a l regions M a r k s o n t h e r o ck s
o f a high m o u n t a in a re s h ow n w h ic h a r e beli e ved
to be the l a st imprint of his footsteps i n this
world
He wa s c a lled th e L ion o f the T ribe of S aky a th e
Ki n g o f R ig h teous n ess t h e Gre a t P h ysici a n the
God a m o n g God s t h e O nly Begotten t h e W o rd t h e
All wise t h e W a y t h e T ruth t h e L i fe t h e Inter
cessor t h e Pri n ce o f Pe a ce t h e Good S h e ph erd the
L ight o f t h e Wo rld t h e A n oi n ted t h e C h r ist the
M e ssi ah the S a viour o f t h e World t h e W ay of
L i fe a n d I m m ort a lity I n deed i n Ceylo n th e n a m e
o f B u ddh a h a s t w elve tho u s a n d sy n o n y m s
W h e n t h e ti m e c a m e f o r h i m to d e p a rt h e to l d
h is d i sciples to n o lo n g e r r e m a i n tog e t h e r but to
go ou t i n co m p a n ies a n d pr o cl a im the d o ctri n es he
to f ound sc h o ols a n d m o n a ste r i e s
h a d t a ug h t the m
build t e m ples a n d p e r fo r m a c t s o f c h a rity t h a t
th ey mig h t O bt a i n m e rit a n d g a in a ccess to t h e
,

57

blesse d abode of N igb a n which he told the m he


wa s a bout to e n ter
T h e eve r fa ith f ul wo m e n were to be f oun d a t the
l a st s cene i n t h e li f e o f Budd h a At his de a t h
one of his disciples f ou n d t h e m a ster s f eet soil e d
a sking the
c a use o f it wa s tol d
an d
a n d wet
th a t a weepi n g wom a n h a d e m br a ce d G a u ta m a s
f ee t shortly be fore his de a t h a n d th a t her te a rs h a d
f a lle n o n h is f eet a n d le ft the m a rks the re
A fter h i s de a th Buddh a wa s ex a lte d to the r a nk
H e wa s m a de e qu a l to Br a h m a ; Demon s
of d e ity
we re powerless a g a in st his word ; a n gels a n d a rh a ts
m i n i s tere d u nto h i m
B u ddh a t aug h t t h e e fc a cy o f vic a rious a tone m ent ;
a h e l l o f re a n d ce a seless tor m ent ; th e e xist e nce
of a prodigious n umber of m a le volent de m ons ; the
virtue o f cel ib a cy ; the merit o f se clu sion a n d a
retire d li f e ; the rej ection of a n cient rites a n d cere
mo n ie s ; the utility of s el f sac ri c e ; t h e v a nity of
e a rt h ly j oys ; the demerit of we a lth ; the depre ci a
tion o f industry a n d the p u rsuit of worldly a d va n
t a ges ; the m erit of mendic a ncy ; the merit o f a b a n
doni n g wi fe a n d childre n ; love of enemies ; p a tience
submission a n d sel f de ni a l ; submission to inj ustice
a n d tyr a nny ; the si n f ul ness o f scepticis m ; a uricul a r
co n fession of sin a n d the wors h i p of s a ints
Buddh a s mercy is comp a red to a r a in cloud
w h ich sho w e rs bles si n gs u pon t h e just a n d u n j ust
E a rthly joys a re co m p a r e d to the gr a ss w h ich
bloo m s to d ay a n d t o m orrow is c a st i nto the re
,

58

rue believers a r e a dvised to g a the r tre a sures which


nei t he r t h ieve s c a n ste a l n or r e a n d w a ter c an
sp oi l Ignor a nt te a chers a r e like n ed to the bli n d
T h e r e pe n t a nt sin n er is de
le adi n g th e bli n d
scribed i n a p a r a ble of a prodig a l so n who w a stes
his subst a nce i n f o r eig n c o untries but a t l a st ret u r n s
to the h o us e of h i s f a ther where a fte r serving a s a
co m mon d a y l a borer th e son is p a rdoned a n d
be co m es h is f a the r s c h i e f heir
T h e n e w r e ligion spre a d extensively a ll over th e
v a st co n tinent of Hi n do st a n ; a n d n a lly a bout
t h ree h u n d r ed ye a rs a fte r B u ddh a s de a th fou n d a n
e n t h u si a stic a n d powe r ful convert i n the pe r son o f a
ki n g c a lled Asok a T h is ru ler wa s i m bued with a
mi ssi o n a ry spirit a n d u n de r h is i n ue n ce some
eig h ty t h ous a n d m issio n a ries went t h r ough out I n di a
J a p a n C e yl o n Persi a B abylo n i a
a n d into C h i n a
S y r i a P a le stine Egypt to th a t ve ry populo u s
Indeed they
a n d i m port a n t e m poriu m Alex a nd r i a
see m to h a v e gone into every co u n t ry to w hich
s h ips c a r a v a n s a n d the ow of com m e r ce g a ve
th em a ccess
Budd h a s represent a tive o n e a rt h is the Gr a n d
L a m a the high priest of t h e T a rt a rs w ho is r e
T h e T a rt a rs
g a rde d a s th e vicegere n t o f G o d
h a ve oecu m enic a l coun cils m o n a st e r ies nunneries
th e divisio n of te m ples i n to a n a ve a n d tr a nsept
pulpit s d a lm a ti c as bell ri n gi n g i n ce n se the censor
sus p e n ded f ro m v e ch a i n s c h a lice s ch a plets ros a
ries c h a n ted s e rvices lit a n ie s a s p e r s io n s with c o n
T

60

th a t he wa s th e O nly Begotten S on o f God w h o h a d


co m e do wn f ro m He a ve n to b e a me di a to r betwee n
T he
G o d a n d m a n to s a ve m e n f rom their sins
t w enty f th o f Dec e m ber wa s s a id to be the d ay on
whic h this God m a n wa s born an d it wa s celebra te d
T h e legen d wa s th a t th e
with gre a t rej oici ngs
w o ndrous in f a nt wa s vis ite d soon a fter hi s mira c
u lou s birth by wise men c a lled m a gi who brought
gi f ts of gold f r a nkincense a n d myrrh
I t wa s
custom a ry fo r the m agi to a scend a high mount a in
a t e a rly d a wn on the t w enty f t h o f Dece m ber a n d
t h ere with their f a ces tu rn ed to t h e e a st to w a it
a nxiously f o r the rst r a ys o f the S u n w h ich they
h a iled with ince n se a n d pr ayer T h e s h epherds a lso
w ere i n t h e h a bit o f p r ostr a ti n g th e m s e lves a n d pr ay
ing to their god the S u n (S e e N OT E
M ithr a s was s a id to be the L ogos a lso the
Anointed o r the C h rist a n d was c a l led the L a mb
of God
His worshippe rs a ddresse d h i m in t h eir
lit a ny const a ntly repe a ting the words : 0 L a m b of
,

G od

tlza t ta be t/z

a w ay

ti le

f
p ea ce

si n s o

tlze wor ld , lza ve

It was b e
li e v e d by the inh abit a nts of Persi a Asi a M inor an d
Armeni a th a t M ithr a s h a d been put to de a t h been
three d ays in Hell a n d h a d risen a g ain f rom the
de a d In their mysteries wa s exhibited the bo dy o f
m a n a pp a rently de a d
who was pres
a young
en tly restored to li fe
His disciples w a tc h e d
his sepu lchre till midnight o n th e twenty fourth of
M a rch with w a ilings a n d in d a rkness when su d
p on

m er cy

us

Gr a n t

tlzy

us

61
d e n ly the

pl a ce would be brilli a n tly illu m in a ted a n d


t h e priest woul d cry : R ejoi ce O sa cr ed In i ti a ted
,

G od i s

you r

wa s

se r pent

H i s dea tb , b i s

r i sen .

i ngs, b a ve w or bed

sa lva ti on

ou r

pa in s

bi s

M i th r a s

sa

er

symbol

thei r myste rious meetings


t h eir ch a pels a n d their ceremony o f initi a tio n
which included B a ptis m a n d the Euch a r is t T h e
f orehe a d o f the ini ti a te was m a rked a t the tim e of
b aptis m with the si gn of the cross
In fa n ts a lso
were b a ptized f or the pur ic a tion o f t h e soul si n
h a ving been i nherite d a n a me bei n g give n to the
child a t th a t ti m e T h e a n c 1 e n t Pe rsi a n s b e lieve d
th a t they were t a inte d with origin a l s i n owing to
the f a ll o f their rst p a rents who were tempted by
the Evil O ne in the f orm o f a se r pen t
I n deed
their legends o f the Cre a tion
of H eden the origi
n a l a bode of m a n
a n d the R ive r o f L i f e ar e a l most
ide n tic a l with the a ccount o f the C re a tion a n d G ar
den o f Ede n con t a ine d i n Ge ne sis T hey h a d a
legen d o f a Deluge a n d a lso a legen d th a t is simil a r
to the Hebrew sto ry o f Jon ah ( S ee A PPE N D IX D )
T h e sto r y o f t h e W a r i n H e a ven wa s k n own to
the m ; a n d wa s simply a myth which represe n ted
the conict between d ay a n d n ight sunshine a n d
storm
T h e doctrin e o f the M illenn ium wa s f a mili a r to

a time whe n
them
the de a d
a s they believed

would be r a ised a n d the se a return a g a in the

rem a ins of the dep a rted


At this time the de a d
M i th r i a n s h a d

T he

62

we re to be j udge d be fore a n a sse m b le d world a n d


the righteous sep a r a ted f rom th e wicked
T h ese doct r in e s were cont a i n ed in the Zen d
A vest a (t h e L ivi n g Word ) w h ic h j u dgi n g f ro m its
l a n gu a ge is s a id by Pro f essor M ii lle r to be olde r
th a n th e cunei fo rm inscriptions of Cyrus ( B C
T h e Persi a n s believe th a t Zoro a ste r t h e founde r o f
their religion received t h is Book of the L aw f rom
the L ord in t h e m idst O f t h un ders a n d lightni n gs
W h ile
a s he pr a yed one d a y on a high mount a i n
t h e King Of Pe rsi a a n d the people we r e a sse m bled
together Zoro a st e r c a m e down f rom t h e m o unt a in
unh a r m ed b r ingi n g with h i m t h e B o ok o f t h e La w
T h e points o f rese m bl a nce between this a ccount of
the Persi a n s a n d the l a ter a ccount o f the Hebrew
M oses bringi n g the T a bles o f the Law f rom
M oun t S in a i
a re very striking
If we turn to t h e Egypti a n s we s h a ll nd th a t
the Ary a n sun myt h s bec a m e t h e f ou n d ati o n o f their
religion a lso O ne of their n a m es f or the S u n was
O siris T h e f a cts rel a ting to th e inc a rn a tio n bi r th
li fe a n d d e at h o f O siri s a re ve ry simil a r to t h ose i n
the lege n ds of the H indoo a n d P e rsi a n su n gods
I t wa s s a id t h a t h e was born on the twenty fth of
Dec e m be r a n d t h at he wa s th e so n o f S e b a n d N eit h
w h o se co m m o n a p p ell a tion wa s t h e L ady
or N ut
At th e birth O f O si r is a v o ic e
o f t h e S yc a m o r e

wa s h e a r d pr o cl a i m i n g
T h e R uler o f a ll th e

e a rt h is b o rn
L ike ot h er su n gods h e m e t wi th
tempt ations over w hich h e triu m p h ed but wa s
,

63

n a lly con q uere d by his foes At the a n nu a l f esti


v a l i n e a rly spring w h ic h c o m m e m or a te d h is su ffe r
i n g s a n d tr a gic a l de a t h t h er e wa s a speci e s o f dr a m a
in w h ic h the p a r t i c u l a rs w e r e ex h ibit e d wit h loud la

m
a
e
n
t
ti
n
His
i
ge
covered a s we re th ose i n
m
a o s

a
the t e m p le wit h bl ck veils wa s c a rried in a pro
cession T h e M o ur n i n g S ong whose pl a inti ve tones
were n oted by He rodotus a n d h a s bee n co m p a re d
to th e M iserere su n g in R om e wa s f ollowe d i n
t h ree d a ys by the l a ngu a ge of triu m ph His tomb
w a s ill u m i n a ted a s i s t h e Holy S epulchre a t J e r u s a
lem a n d fo r thous a nds of ye a rs it wa s the obj e ct O f
pious pilg r i m a ges (S ee N O T E
H is worship wa s u nive rs a l t h roughout Egypt
whe r e he wa s g ra te f ully r eg a rded a s t h e gre a t
exe m pl a r of sel f s a c r i c e in givi n g his li fe f o r o t h e rs
a s t h e M a n i feste r of Good as the O pen er of
T r u th a n d a s bei n g f ull of good n e ss a n d truth
T h e Egypti a n Book o f t h e De a d the oldest B ible i n

the world repre se nts h i m a s seeing a ll t h ings

he a ring a ll thi n gs a n d noting the good a n d evil

dee d s o f m e n
O n the most a n cient Egypti a n
m onu m ent s h e is represented a s Judge o f the De a d
se a ted o n h i s throne o f j udgmen t be a ring a st a ff
a n d c a r r ying the cr u x a n sa ta (the most com m o n
f orm o f t h e cross) with the S t A nd rew s cross on
hi s bre a st T h e se sculptures were contempo r a ry
wi t h t h e building o f th e p yr a m ids w h ich were built
c e n t u r i e s be fore Ab r a h a m is s a id to h a ve been bo rn
O s i r is wa s represent e d wi th th e t r e foil (the le a f o f
.

64

the Vil a or Bel tree w h ich i s triple i n form) on hi s


he a d t h a t bei n g o n e of t h e a n ci e n t sy m b o l s of th e
As s e c o n d p e r
tb r ee i n on e m y s te r y th e T ri n i t y
In o n e
s o n o f t h e T rini t y h e wa s c a ll e d th e Wo r d
o f t h e s a cre d books o f t h e Egy p t i a ns occ u r s t h e

f ollo w ing :
I know the m yst e ry o f t h e D ivin e
Word ; th e Word of th e L ord o f All w h ic h w a s t h e

T h e Word is t h e rst per son a f ter


m aker of it
h i m s e l f uncre a ted i n nite ruli n g over a ll t h ings

t h a t were m a de by h i m
T h e m o n o g r a m of O si r is is X a n d P in co m bi n a
ti o n a n d is n o w u sed a s th e m o n ogr a m of Jesus
C h r ist His sy m b o l is t h e s e rpe n t wh ich wa s t h e
e a r lie st symbol o f Jesus ce n t u ries l a ter A m o n g
th e m a ny h ieroglyp h ic title s w h ich a cco m p a ny t h e
gure of O siris o n the w a lls o f temples a n d tombs
a r e L ord o f L i f e R esurrected O n e Eter n a l R u le r
M a ni fester o f God F u l l o f G o odness a n d T rut h
T here wa s gre a t s ple n dor o f ritu a l in the Egyp
ti a n religion i n cludi n g gorge o u s r obes m itr e s ti a r a s
w a x t a pers processio n a l services a n d lus t r a ti o ns
T h e priests wore white surplic e s a n d w ere s h orn
a n d be a rdless
T he r e were a lso spri n kling s of h oly
w a te r T h e rite of B a ptism wa s obs e rved wit h th e

a
th e
sign o f the cro ss a n d a lso t h e Euch rist
s a cred c ak e bei n g e a ten af t er it h a d been con se

cr a ted by the priest a n d m a de ve r it a ble e sh of


his es h
T h e su n moon a n d ve pl a n e ts we re
e a c h o f the m a ssig n ed a d a y o f t h e week the
seve nth d ay being S a tur n s Day a n d kept a s a holy
-

55

Immort a lity of the S oul wa s b elie ve d in


a n d wa s a ve ry a nci e nt doctrin e ; f or o n a m onu
m ent th o us a nds o f ye a rs ol d is the epit a ph :
M ay

t h y s o ul a tt a i n to t h e C re a tor of a ll m a nkind
L ike the Buddhists t h e a ncient Egypti a ns w ere
f a m ili a r w ith the W a r in He a ven m yth a n d the T ree
of L i fe myt h
N ei th th e mother of O siris was worshipped as
the Holy Virgin the Gre a t M othe r ye t a n Im m a cu
l a te Virgin T h ere wa s a gr a nd celebr a tion held
in he r h o n or c a lle d t h e Fe a st of L am ps which h a s
come down to the present ti m e a s C a ndle m a s Day
or th e Puric a tion of the Virgin M a ry
Horus a n other Egypti a n n a me f o r the S u n wa s
s a id to h a ve been born o f the im m a cul a te virgi n
Isis (th e M oon ) on the t w e nty f th of December
O n t h is d ay th e e ffi gy of t h e i n f a n t Ho r us lying in a
m a n ger wa s ex h ibited a m id gr e a t r ej oicings Being
of
roy a l descent h i s li f e wa s sought by T yphon
a rkness
o r nigh t
an d
d
i
n
co
sequence
he
n
wa s
(
)
brought up secretly on the isle of Buto L ike other
sun gods he wa s tempted but wa s not v a n quished
He is represented in Egypti a n a rt a s overcoming
th e Evil S erpent a n d st a n ding triu m ph a ntly upon
him
I t wa s s a id th a t h e pe rforme d m a ny m i r a cles
a m ong t h e m the r a isi n g o f th e de a d
H e wa s n a lly
sl a i n a n d d escen ded i n t o Hell I n three d ays he
rose f rom the de a d a n d a s ce n ded into H e a ven His
de a th a n d resurr e cti o n we r e celebr ated with gre a t
pomp H e wa s c a ll e d t h e R oy a l Good S hepherd
T he

d ay

66

L o rd o f L i fe O n ly B e g o tte n S a viour the An o i n ted


o r t h e Ch r ist ; an d wh e n represe n ted a s Ho r us S n eb
the R edee m er H e is gene r a lly re p resented a s a n
in f a n t i n th e a r m s o f his m o t h er I sis o r s i t ti n g o n
he r k n ee ; a n d in m a ny o f t h ese represe n t a tio n s
both th e mother a n d c h ild a re bl a ck As t h e S u n
see m i n gly r e sts on the e a rt h a t h i s risi n g it wa s s a id
t h a t h e wa s sitting in t he la p o f his m ot h e r ; a n d a s
th e e a rth is bl a ck o r d a rk be f ore t h e rising o f the
S u n t h e mot h er a n d child were represented a s
bl a ck ( S e e A PPE N D IX E )
T h e m ost a n cient pictures a n d st a tues in It a ly a n d
o th e r p a rts of Europe o f w h a t a re su p posed to be
re p resent a tion s o f t h e Virgin M a ry a n d th e i n f a n t
J esus a r e bl a ck T h e i n f a n t go d in t h e a rms o f h is
bl a ck mothe r wi th w h ite eyes t e et h a n d dr apery is
hi m sel f per fectly bl a ck T h e i m ages a re a dorn e d
with jewels a n d in some c a ses the Virgin is crowned
T h e expl a n a tion o f t h ese
with a triple crow n
e a rly represent atio n s of the Virgin M a ry a n d in f a n t
Jesus
bl a ck yet c rowned a n d covered with j ewel s
is th a t they a re of pre Christi a n origin ; they a re
Isis a n d Horus a n d perh ap s in some c a ses D e
v ak i a n d C ri sh n a
b a ptized a new I n m any p a rt s
o f It a ly a r e to be see n pictu res of the Holy F a m ily
the groundwo rk o ft e n o f go ld
of gre a t a nti q uity
T h e se pictures r e present th e mother with a child on
T h e L am b
h e r kne e a n d a little b o y by h er side
is ge n e r a l ly se e n i n t h e pict u r e T h e y a re i n sc r ib e d
Deo S oli a n d a r e r e prese n t a tions of Isis a n d Horus
.

68
b een

visite d by othe r th a n the a nnu a l b e n e c e n t


ove row of t h e N il e I n de e d Ph a ra o h Kh ou f ou
ch e ops wa s buildi n g his pyr a m id a ccordi n g t o
Egypti a n chronicle w h e n the wh ole wo r l d wa s u n der
t h e w a ters of a u n ivers a l Deluge a ccordi n g t o
Hebrew chronicle T h e Egyp ti a ns h ave no a cc o u n t
of the destruction of Ph a r a o h a n d h i s a r m y in th e
R e d S e a or o f t h e other circ u m st a n ces a ttending
the Exodus f rom Egypt We n d i n Egypti a n his
tory th a t a t o n e ti m e the l a nd o f Egypt was in fecte d
wit h di se a se ; a n d t h roug h th e a dvice o f t h e s a c r ed
scribe P h r i ti p h an te s t h e ki n g c ause d the in f ected
people t o be driven out o f t h e cou n try T h e i n
f e c te d people w e r e the b rick m a ki n g sl a ves k n o w n
a s t h e Chil dr e n of Isr a e l who were i n f ected with
leprosy
T h e m ost n o ble o f the m we nt u n der C a d
m u s a n d D a n a us to Greece but th e gre a te r nu m ber
f ollowe d M oses a wise a n d v a li a nt le a der to P a les

t ine
S e r a pis was a nother Egypti a n sun god whose f o l
lowe r s w e re c a ll ed Cb r i sti a n s a n d Bis h ops of Ob r i s t
In Greci a n f a ble the re a r e m a ny s aviou rs
T h e su n go d Hercules son o f Zeus (t h e sky) a n d
A lc m e n e wa s bor n like the othe r s aviours on the
twe n ty f th of December the triple nig h t a s the
Greeks n a me d t h e wi n ter solstice
At h is birth
Zeus the God of gods sp ake f ro m H e a ven a n d
s a id : T his d ay sh a ll a child b e born of t h e r a ce of
Perseus who s h a l l be th e m ig h tiest of t h e so n s o f

men
W h ile a n i n f a nt i n his cr a dle He r a t h e l i fe
.

69

long

He rcules sent two serpe nts to st r a n gle


h i m b u t he kill e d th e m T h e p o s ition o f t h e sp h e res
o n t h e twenty f t h o f D e ce m ber s h o ws the z o di a c a l
s ig n o f t h e S e r p e n t a i m i n g a t a n d a l m ost touc h i n g
t h e Vi rgi n wh o h a s the child I e s u s in h er a r m s i n
th e constell a t io n Virgo ( S e e A PP END IX F )
Hercules wa s s a id to h a ve been sw a llowe d by a
h u ge s h (in o n e a ccount it is a d ag) a t Jopp a the
pl a ce w h e re t h e H e brew Jo n a h wa s s a id to h a ve been
sw a llowed by a wh a le Hercules re m a ine d in the
s h t h ree d ays a n d three n ig h ts ( the winte r solstice )
a n d c a m e out un h urt wi t h t h e excep tion o f being
shorn O f his locks T h e S u n is s h o rn o f his locks by
wint e r
An a bund a nce O f h a i r a n d a lo n g be a rd
a r e mythologic a l a ttributes o f the S u n
de n oting its
r ays ( S e e N OT E
M a ny of the exploi t s of Hercu les a re simil a r to those
a ccredited t o t h e Hebrew S a mso n
S a mson s de a th
re m i n ds us o f H e rc u les wh o die d a t t h e winter
sol stice i n t h e f a r west whe re h is two pill a rs a re
set up to m a rk h i s w a nderings S a mson a l so died
a t t h e t wo pill a rs ; but th e y
we re n ot the Pill a rs
o f t h e World
but those which supported a gre a t
b a n q ueti n g h a ll a n d a f e a st wa s bei n g held in
h o n or o f D ago n the sh god T h e S u n wa s i n the
sign of t h e W a term a n when S a mson the sun god
die d S am son wa s o n e o f th e n a m es of th e S u n the
n a me signi fying t h e s u n ny a s wel l a s the str ong
Hercules rose f rom t h e f u n e r a l pile a n d a scended
i n to he a ve n i n a cloud a mid pe a l s o f thunde r A t
foe

of

'

70

his de ath Iol a (the


h a ired D a wn ) a g a in st a nds
by his side che e r i n g h i m to t h e l a st T h en o n ce
mo r e the f a ce of He r cul e s ush e d w i th a d e e p j oy

a n d h e s a id :
Ah I o l a b r ightest o f m a ide n s th y
voice sh a ll chee r m e a s I sink do w n in t h e sleep
o f de a th
I saw a n d loved t hee i n the brig h t
m or n i ng ti m e ; a n d n o w a g a in thou h a st co m e i n tb c
even i ng f a ir a s the so f t clouds which g a ther a roun d

the dyi ng S u n
T h e bl a ck m ists we re spre a di n g over the sky; but
still Hercules sought to g a ze o n t h e f a ir f a ce o f

Iol a a n d t o com fort he r i n her so r row


Weep

not Iol a he s a id ; m y toi l is do n e a n d now i s


t h e ti m e o f rest I sh a ll see t h e e a g a in in t h e
bright l a nd w h ich is n ever trodde n by the f eet o f

N ig h t
T hen a s t h e dying god ex p ired da r bn ess
w a s on tb c f a ce of tb e ea r tb ; f rom the high
He a ven c a m e down the thick cloud a n d the din
o f t h e thunder cr a s h ed through the a i r
He rcules wa s s a id to be sel f p ro duced th e Gener
a tor an d R uler o f a ll t h i n gs a n d t h e F a t h er of T ime
He wa s c a lled the S aviour a n d the words H e rc u
le s the S aviour were e n gr a ve d on a ncient co in s
H e wa s a lso c a lled th e O nly
a n d m onuments
Beg o tte n a n d the U n ive r s a l Word He wa s s a id to
h a ve bee n r e a bs o rbed i n to God
T h e story o f H e rc u le s was k n own in t h e isl a nd of
T h a sos by t h e P h oe n ici a n colo n y settled t h ere ve
centu r ies be fo re t h e G r eeks k n e w of it ; yet its
a ntiquity a mo n g t h e B a byloni a n s a nted a te s th a t
fai r

1
7

He i s ide n tic a l with I zdub a r th e B a byloni a n lion


killer
T h e a n cie n t Greeks h a d a t r a di t i o n o f the
Isl a n ds of th e Blessed t h e Elysiu m on t h e b o r
d e rs o f the e a rth a bou ndi n g i n eve ry c h a r m o f
li f e a n d t h e G a rde n o f the Hespe r id e s t h e P ar
i n w hic h grew a tre e be a ring th e golde n
a dise
I t wa s gu a rded by three
a p p les o f I m m ort a lity
nym ph s a n d a se rpent or dr ago n th e e ver w a tch
I t wa s o n e o f the l a bors o f He rcule s to
fu l L a d o n
g a t h e r so m e o f these Apples of L i fe Whe n he a r
rived a t the G a rde n he f ou n d it gu a rded by a
dr agon A n cient m ed a llions represe n t a tree with
He rcule s h a s g a th
a se rp e n t t wi n e d a rou n d it
ered a n a ppl e a n d n e a r him st a nd the thre e
ny m phs c a lled t h e Hesperide s
T h e su n god Dionysius ( B a cchus) son of Zeus a n d
the V irgin S emele d a ughter o f C a dmus King o f
T h ebes wa s born o n th e twenty f th of Decembe r
As h e wa s desti n e d to bring ruin upo n C a d m us he
was by the o r der of th a t m on a rch co n ned in a
chest a n d thro w n into the N ile
L ike M oses he
wa s rescued a n d a dopte d
He per forme d m a ny
mir a cles a mo n g them being t h e turni n g o f w a ter
into wi n e He h a d a rod w it h w h ic h he coul d pe r
f orm mi r a cles a n d wh ic h h e coul d ch a n ge i nto a ser
pent a t ple a sur e He crosse d th e R ed S e a dry shod
a t the h e a d o f h i s a rmy
He divided the w a te r s o f
the r ive r s O ron tes a n d H yd a sp e s by t h e touch o f his
rod a n d p a ssed throug h them dry shod By the s a me
,

2
7

he drew w a ter f ro m t h e rock ; a n d wh e r


ev e r he we n t t h e l a n d o w e d wit h wi n e m ilk
It i s s a id th a t while m a rchi n g wit h h is
a n d h o n ey
e n j oye d the lig h t of the S u n
a r m y i n I n di a he
when t h e d ay wa s S pent a n d it wa s d a r k to ot h e r s
L ike M os e s B a cchus wa s represente d a s horned
H e wa s c a l led the L a w giver h is l a ws be ing written
ee
T
N
O
E
s
t
n
o
e
S
o n two ta bles o
(
f
It i s rel a ted th a t o n o n e occ a si o n P a n th e u s King
o f T h ebes se n t h is a tt e n d a nts to seize B a cc h us
the V a g a bond L e a der o f a F a ctio n a s he c a lled h im
T h i s t h ey were u n a bl e to d o a s h is f o llowers were
too nu m erous T h e y succeeded ho wever in c a p
turi n g o n e o f h is disciple s w h o wa s led a w ay a n d
shut up f a st i n p r is o n ; but w h ile t h ey were getting
re a dy t h e i n st r u m e n ts of exe cutio n t h e pris o n doors
c a m e open o f t he i r own a ccord a n d t h e ch a ins f ell
f ro m his li m bs a n d w h e n they looke d f o r hi m h e
w as n o where to be f o u n d
B a cc h u s was c a lled the S l a in O ne th e S i n Be a rer
th e On ly B e g o tten S o n the S a vi o u r a n d t h e R e
H i s d e a t h re surrec t i o n a n d a sce n sio n we r e
de em er
c om m e m or a ted in e a rly sp r i n g by f e stiv a l s si m il a r
i n c h a r a cter t o th o se hel d by th e Persi a ns Egypti a n s
C h a ld e a ns a n d others
T h e ir
T h e G r e e ks h a d their H oly M ysteries
Eleusi n i a n M yste r ies or the S ac ra m e nt o f t h e i r
L o r d s S upper wa s t h e mo st a ugust o f a ll their
ceremonies It wa s celeb r a ted every fth ye a r i n
honor of Ceres the goddess of corn who in a lle
m i gh tywa n d

73

l a ngu age b a d g i ven tb em b er esb to ea t ; a n d


B a cchus t h e god of w i n e who i n like sense b a d
T
h
ese
myste
r
ies
were
n tb em b i s blood to d r i n b
i
e
v
g
a cco m p a nied with r ites w h ic h were co n side red to be
T h roughout t h e w h ol e ce re
a n expi a tion o f sin
mony the n a m e of their Go d was m a ny ti m e s r e
w
a s not o n ly exhib
His
brig
h
tness
or
glory
e
a
e
d
t
p
i te d to the eye by the r ays w h ich surroun de d his
H
but w a s m a de the
n a m e (or his monogr a m I
peculi a r theme of their triumph a nt exult a tion T h e
monogr a m of B a cchus I H S is now use d a s the
monogr a m of Jesu s Christ a n d is wrong fully sup
posed to st a nd fo r jesu H om i n u m S a lva tor or In
i
l
r
ca
o
g

oe

no

stories of Prometheus Achilles a n d M ele a


gros represe nt the short l ive d S u n
Ixion boun d
on the wheel wa s the god S o l crucie d in the
T h e crucied dove worshippe d by the
he a vens
a ncients w a s n one othe r th a n the crucie d S u n
as
it is well kno wn t h a t the a n cie nts personie d th e
S u n a s f e m a le a s well a s m a l e
T h e a ncient Etrusc a ns worshipped a Virgin
M other a n d S on the l a tte r represented in pict
ures in the a rms o f his mothe r T his wa s the
goddess N utri a T h e goddess Cybele wa s a nother
Virgin M other a n d wa s c a lle d Quee n Of He a ve n
a n d M other o f God
T h e G a lli now used in the
churches o f It a ly were a n ciently used in the wor
ship of Cybele
T hey were c a lled Ga lli a m bu s a n d
were sung by h e r priests
O ur L a dy Day o r the
T he

74

Day o f the Blessed Vi rgin

of

t h e R om a n Church

r st dedic a te d to Cybele
T h e a nci e nt S c a ndi n a vi a n s h a d a sun god or
S a viou r B a ldur the Good son of t h e Al f a de r O din
or Woden ( He a ve n) a n d the Virgin goddess Frigg a
B a ldur wa s sl a in by t h e sh a rp thorn o f winter de
scended into Hell a n d rose a g a in to li fe an d i m m or
t a lity T h e goddess Frigg a was worsh i pped a n d t h e
night o f the gre a test f estiv a l of a ll the ye a r a t the
winte r solstice wa s c a l led M ot h e r nig h t
T h e S c a ndin a vi a ns worshipped a triu n e God a n d
consecr a ted one d ay in the w eek to h im t h e d ay
be i n g c a l led to t h e prese nt time O din s or Woden s
T h ey obse rved the
d ay which is our We dnesd a y
rite of B a p t ism T hey h a d a l e gend of a n Ede n
or Gol den Age w h ich l a ste d until the a rriv a l of
wo m a n out of J otunheim the r e gion of gi a nts
T hey a lso h a d a legend o f a deluge f rom whic h
o n ly one m an a n d his f a mily esc aped by me a ns of a
b a rk
T hey h a d a lege n d corresponding to the
Hebrew story of D a vid a n d Goli a th in which their
h er o T hor (the S u n ) throws a h a m m e r a t H u n gn i r
striki n g h i m in the f orehe a d T h e h a mmer wa s a
cross T hey a lso worshipped a god c a lled Frey
w h o was f abled to h a ve been killed a t the winter
s o lstice by a bo a r (winter) ; therefore a bo a r wa s
now
a n n u a lly o ffered a t the gre a t f e a st o f Y ule
c a lled Ch r ist m a s ( S e e N OT E
'
T h e an cient Germ a n s worshipped a virgin mothe r
child
T h e Virgin s n a me wa s O st ar a o r
an d
wa s

'

6
7

ments in the Gre a t Absolute


He wa s the ori g i
n a l a n cestor o f the prime bre a th o f li f e a n d g a ve

f orm to t h e he a ven s an d th e e a rth


He d e sce n ded
to e a rth a n d wa s born of a virgin bl a ck i n co m pl e x

ion a n d d e sc ri b e d a s m a rvellous a n d be a uti fu l a s

j a spe r
When hi s mission of be n evolence wa s
n ishe d on e a rt h he a scended bodily i n to t h e P a r a
dise a bove S ince then he h as been wo rshipped a s
a god a n d splendid te m ples h a ve been erecte d to
him H e t a ught the doctrin e of O ne God who i s
a lso a T rin i ty
H is disciples a re c a lled He a venly
T e a chers
Wh a t is now known as the E a ste r
celebr a tio n wa s observe d i n C h i n a a n d c a lle d a
Festiv a l of Gr a titude to T ien (S e e N OT E t o )
T h e C h inese h a ve in their s a cred books a story

del icio u s
of a Golden Age an d a mysterious

g a rden whe rein grew a tree be a ring apple s of

im m ort a lity gu a rded by a winged serpent c a lled a


D ragon T h e g a rden wa s moistened by f our rivers
whic h owe d f ro m a source c a lled the F o u n t a in of
I mmort a l ity O ne of the rivers wa s c a lled the R iver
In this bliss f ul abode there was no
o f t h e L a mb
c a l a mity sickness or de a th
I n one of the Chinese s acre d volumes c a lled the
Chi Ki n g it is written
.

'

All was s u bj ect to m an at rst but a wom a n


threw us into sl a very T h e wise husb a nd r a ised up
a bulw a rk o f w a l ls
but the wom a n by a n a m bitious
desire f o r knowledge demolished them O ur m isery
,

77

did n ot come f rom He a ven but f rom a wom a n


Ah u nh appy P OO S e e '
S h e lost t h e hum a n r a ce
thou k i n d le d st the re th a t consu m es us a n d w h ich
is every d ay a ug m enting
O ur misery h a s l a ste d
m a ny ages T h e worl d is lost Vice over ows a ll
things like a m ort a l poison
.

Chinese h a ve a lege nd of the S u n st a nding


still an d a legend of the Deluge Account s of t h e
a re
a scent to He a ven o f holy men without de a th
T hey bel i eve th a t in
f ound in their mythology
the l a tter d ays t h e re w ill be a m il len niu m a n d th a t a
divine m a n will est a blish himsel f on e a rth a n d
everywhere restore pe a ce a n d h a ppiness
From
ti m e i mme m ori a l the Chinese h a ve worshipped a
T h e m other is c a lle d
virgin mothe r a n d c h ild
S hin moo or th e Holy M o the r a n d i s represe n ted
T a pe rs
with r ays of glory surroun ding her he a d
kept co n st a ntly burni n g be fore h e r i m a ges
a re
which a r e elev a te d i n alcoves behin d the a lt a rs of
their temples
I n the m yth ologic a l system s of Am eri c a a virgin
born god o r s a viou r wa s not l ess cle a rly recognized
th a n in those o f the O ld Worl d A m ong the s a v a ge
tribes his origin a n d ch a r a cter were f or obviou s
r e a sons
much con fused ; but a mong the m ore a d
van c e d n a tions he occupie d a well d e n e d positio n
T h e M exic a n sun god o r s a viou r Qu e tz a lc o a tle
born in th e l a n d of T ul a n in An ahu a c wa s the son
of T ezc a tlipoc a
the S upreme G o d of the a ncient
T he

78

M exic a ns a n d the virgin S oc h i q u e tz al wh o wa s


wors h ipped a s the Virgin M ot h e r th e Queen of
He a ve n T ez c a tlipoc a w a s styled X i u le ti cu tle a n
epithet sig n i fyi n g the L ord of He a ve n (Xi u letl
sig n i e s blu e ; a n d t h ere fore was a n a me which th e
M exic an s g a ve to He a ven )
Q u e tz a lc o a tle s birt h wa s he r a lded by a st a r an d
t h e M or n i n g st a r wa s his sy m bol He t a ug h t met a l
lurgy a g r iculture a n d th e a r t of gove rnment He
wa s t e m p te d by the Devil a n d a f orty d a ys f a st
wa s observed by his di s ciples
He wa s put to de at h
by EOp u c o a n d die d f or t h e si n s of m a nk ind af ter
h a ving been pl a ced o n a be a m O f wood with hi s
He wa s represented in so me
a r m s outstret ched
inst a n ce s a s crucied in sp a ce in the he a vens wi thin
a circle o f ninetee n gures th e nu m ber o f the me /
to n ic cycle a serpent ( th e serpent w h en r ep re
sented i n connection with a crucixion denoting
e vil d a r kne ss a n d w inter) bei n g in the picture
He wa s occ a sion a lly represe n ted a s crucied b e
twee n two ot h e r victi m s T his denote d th e thre e
qu a lities or person a lities of the S u n a s Cre a tor
the T ri n ity I n othe r
S a viour a n d R econstructor
pictu r es h e i s crucie d on a cross of Greek form
wi t h t h e impressio n s o f n a ils on the f eet a n d h a nds
a n d with t h e body str a n gely covered with suns
In
t h ese pictures m a ny of the gures h a ve bl a ck f a ces
a n d t h e vis a ge o f Qu e t z a lc o a tle is str a n gely distorted

At t h e de a t h o f Qu e tz a lco a tle the S u n w a s d a rk

ened a n d with h e ld he r light


He de scende d into
,

'

79

Hell a n d rose f ro m the de ad His de a th a n d resur


rection we r e celebr a ted i n e a rly spring w h en victims
were n a iled to a cross a n d shot with a n a r row
T h e cross wa s s a id to be the T ree o f N utri
men t or T ree of L i f e epithets a ppli e d by th e
R o m a n C a t h olics to the cross T h e rite o f B a ptism
wa s observed a n d wa s believed to cle a nse f rom sin
In f a nts were b a ptize d th a t sin which t a inte d the
c h ild be f ore the found a tion o f th e world might be
w a she d a w a y a n d the child be born a ne w T h e
s a cr a me n t o f the Euch a rist wa s O bse rved t he bre a d
being m a de of co r n me a l mixed with blood ; which
a f ter consecr a tion by the priest
w a s given to the
people a s the esh of their S a viour (S ee N OT E
T h e M ex ic a n ide a o f the S up r e m e God wa s sim
i la r to the Hebrew
L ike J e h ov a h T ezc a tl ipoc a

N O m an
dwelt in the m idst of thick d a rkness
e ver sa w h i s f a ce fo r he a ppe a re d only a s a sh a de
Whe n he desce nded upon the M ount o f T ezc a tepe c
d a rkness ove rsh a dowe d th e e a rth while re a n d
w a ter in mingle d stre a ms owe d bene a th his f eet
a n d f ro m the sum m i t
H e wa s omn iprese nt a n d
om n iscient a being of a bsolute pe rf e ctio n a n d pe r
f e c t purity
T h e M exic a ns p a id h i m gre a t rever
ence a n d a dor a tion a n d a ddresse d him i n their

pr aye rs a s L ord whose serv a nts we a r e


I n the a nn a ls o f the M exic a n s the rst wom a n
whose n a me wa s t r a n sl a te d by the old S p a nish

write rs the wom a n of ou r es h is a l wa ys re p re


sented a s a cco m p a nie d by a grea t m a l e serpent w h o
.

80

seems to be t a lking to her By the M exic a n s she i s


c a lled s extli w h ich s ig n i e s e yes bl ind wit h a sh es
By si n ni n g sh e l o st P a r a dise her cri m e bei n g th e
plucki n g o f r oses c a lled Frut a del a rb a l
t h e f ruit
o f the tree
T h ey decl a re t h a t they a r e still un a ble
to l oo k up to he a ven on a ccoun t o f t his f a ll
T h e a ncient M exi c a ns h a d a tr a d i ti o n o f a deluge
f rom w h ich a person corresponding t o N o a h wa s
s aved with six ot h ers in a n a rk w h ic h l a n ded on
a mount a i n a bird being se nt out to a scert a in when
the w a ters h a d subsided T h ey a lso h a d a legend
o f the building of a tower whic h would r e a c h to t h e
skies thei r obj ect being to see wh a t wa s g o i n g on i n
He a ven a n d a lso to h a ve a pl a ce O f re fuge in c a se
T h e gods beheld with wr a th
o f a n other d eluge
this edice th e top of which wa s ne a ring the clouds
it w h ich
a n d they hurled re f rom he a ven upon
t h rew it down a n d kille d m a ny o f t h e workmen
T h e work w a s then discontinued a s e a ch f a mily
inte reste d in t h e b u ildi n g o f the to w e r re ceived a
l a n gu age o f its o wn a n d the builders could not
u n derst a nd e a ch othe r
T h e a n ci e nt M exic a n s
pointed to the ruins o f a tower a t Cholul a a s evi
dence of the trut h o f their story
T h e disciple s o f Q u e tz a lc o a tle expected his secon d
a dvent
He tol d t h e i n h a bit a nts o f C h ol u l a th a t he
would return to govern t h e m T h is t r a dition wa s
deeply cherished by t h e m a n d when t h e S p a ni a rds
with Cortez a t their he a d c a me to subdue t h e l a nd
t h e M exic a n s implicitly believed th a t Qu e tz a lcoa tle
.

'

81

returni n g bringing his te mple s (the ships) with

wa s
h im

nnunci ation o f the Vi rgin S oc h i q u e tz a l wa s


t h e subj ect of a M exic a n h i e r oglyphic In this she
is r eprese n ted a s receiving f ro m t h e a m b a ss a d o r or
T his brings to m i n d the
a n g e l a bu n c h o f o w ers
lotus t h e s a cred pl a nt o f the E a st which is pl a ce d
in the h a n ds o f P a g a n a n d C h risti a n m a donn a s
T h e resurre ction of Qu e tz a lc o a tle i s represente d i n
hie roglyphics T h e cross was a very s a cred symbol
with the M exic a n s
He a ven they loc a ted in the S u n a n d the blesse d
were per m itte d to rev e l a mongst lovely clouds

T here w a s a hell f o r the wicked a n d a sort of quiet

li m bo fo r those who were i n n o way distinguishe d


Amongst their pr ayers or i nvoc a tions we re the
f or m ul a s
Wil t thou blot us out 0 L ord f orever ? Is this
pun ishment intende d not f or ou r re form a tion but f o r

?
our destruction
Ag a in : Imp a rt to us out of
thy gre a t m ercy th y gi fts w h ich we a re not worthy

to receive through ou r o wn merits

Keep pe a ce with a ll
Be a r i n j urie s with

humility ; God who sees will a ve n ge you


T hese

were a mong thei r m a xi m s


C lothe the
Also :
n a ke d a n d f ee d the hungry wh a teve r priv a tion s it
m ay cost thee ; f o r rem ember their esh i s like

thine
A S p a nish writer rem a rks th a t the D evil
h a d posi tively t aught the M exic a n s the s a me t h ings
which God h a d imp a rted to Christendom
T he

82

M exic a n te m p les teoca lli s o r Houses o f

God
we re very n u m e r ous th e re bei n g seve r a l
h u n d r ed s i n e a ch o f the princip a l citi e s of t h e king
dom
T he r e w e re l o ng pr o c e ssi o ns of priests a n d
nume r ous f es t iva ls of u n u su a l s a cred n ess a s well a s
a p p r o pri a te m onthly a n d d a ily ce l e b r a tions o f wor
ship T h e g r e a t ci t i e s were d ivided into districts
e a c h of w h ic h wa s pl a ced u nder t h e ch a rge of a sort
o f p a roc h i a l clergy who regul a ted every a c t o f relig
ion within their pr e cinct s a n d who a dmi n istered the
r ites o f C o n f essi o n a n d Absolution
T h e f orm o f
a bs o lution cont a ined
a mo n g other things the f o l
lowi n g
T he

O h merci ful L ord thou w h o k n owest the secrets


O f a ll h e a rts let t h y f orgivenes s a n d f a vor desce n d
like t h e pure w a te r s of H e a ven to w a sh a w a y t h e
st a ins f r o m t h e so u l T h ou k n owest t h a t this poor
m a n h a s sinned not f rom his o wn f ree will but f rom
the inue nce o f t h e sin unde r which h e was born
,

M a y a s o f Y uc a t a n h a d a virgin born go d
correspo n di n g entirely w it h Q u e tz a lc o a tle i f he wa s
not indee d the s a me under a nother n a me
T he
M uysc a s o f Colombi a h a d a simil a r god who wa s
t h e inc a rn ation o f the Gre a t F a ther w h o se so ve r
T he
e i gn ty a n d p a te r n a l c a re h e e m ble m a tized
inh abit a nts of N ic a r agu a cl a imed th a t the s o n of
their p r i n cip a l god c a me do w n to e a rth a n d i n
st r ucted t h e m T here wa s a corre spo n di n g ch a r
T he S un
a cter i n t h e tr a dition a ry history o f Pe ru
T he

84

ncient C h a ldees believed in a celesti a l vir


gi n to who m the erring si n ner coul d a ppe a l S h e
wa s r e pre se n t e d a s a mot h er with a c h ild in h er
T h e a ncie n t Assyri a ns a n d B abylo n i a ns wor
arm s
shipped a godd e ss m o the r a n d son T h e m o th er s
n a m e wa s M ylitt a a n d the son wa s T a m m u z or
Ado n is the S a viou r who wa s worshipped a s the
M e di a tor T a m m u z wa s bor n on the twe nty fth
o f Dece mber a n d like other sun gods su ff ered a n d
T h e a ccounts o f his de a th a r e c o n i c t
wa s sl a in
O ne however st a tes t h a t h e wa s crucied
i ng
He descended into Hell ; he rose f rom the de a d on
the t h ird d ay a n d a scende d into He a ve n His wor
shippers c elebr a ted a nnu a lly i n e a rly spring a
f e a st in commemor a tion of his de a th a n d r e su r r e c
tion with the utmost displ ay An im age intended
a s the represent a tion of their L ord wa s l a id o n a
bier a n d bew a iled in mo urn f ul ditties ; precisely as
the R om a n C a tholics at the present d ay l a ment the
de a th o f Jesus in t h eir Good F r id ay m a ss Duri n g

the ce re m ony the priest murmured : T rust ye in


your L ord f o r the p a ins which he endured our sal

T his im age wa s c a r ried


v ation h a ve procured
with gre a t solemnity to a tomb T h e l a rge wound
in t h e side wa s shown j ust a s centu r ies l a ter the
woun d wa s displ ayed w h ic h Christ received f rom the
spe a r thrust (S e e N O T E I
A f ter the a tte nd a nts h a d f or a long time bew a iled
th e de a th of t h is ju st per son he wa s a t length
understood to be restored to li fe to h a ve exp e ri
T he

85

resurrection sign ied by the re a dmission


T h e people t h e n excl a imed
H a il to the
o f lig h t

Dove '
the R estore r o f L ig h t
T h e wors h ippers of T a m muz believe d i n the
T r ini t y obse r ved the rite of B a ptism a n d the s a cr a
me n t of the bre a d a n d win e T h e symbol of t h e
cro ss wa s h o n ore d by the a n cient B abyloni a ns an d
is found on their o ldest monume nts
T h e Ch a lde a ns h a d thei r M e m r a o r Word o f
God cor r esponding t o the Greek L ogos In their
or a cles the doctrine of the O n ly Begotte n S o n 1
A O (a s Cre a tor) is pl a inly t a ught
T h e B a byloni a ns h a d a myt h Of the Cre a tion
a n d F a ll o f M a n which is a lmost ide ntic a l with the
As they h a d this
a ccount cont a i n e d In G e nesi s
a ccount f teen hundred ye a rs or more be fore the
Hebrews h e a rd of it t h e a ccoun t in Gen esis wa s
unquestion a bly t aken f rom the B a byloni a n s C unei
f orm inscriptio n s discovered by M r George S mith
o f the British M useum show conclusively th a t th e
B a bylo n i a ns h a d this m yth two thous a nd ye a rs
be fore the ti m e a ssigne d a s the birth of C hrist
T h e myth a ppe a r s to be a co m bin a tion o f the
ph a ses of sun worship which denoted the gene r a ting
power of the S u n (S e e N OT E
T h e B a byloni a n s h a d a n a ccount o f a deluge
which wa s ve r y si mil a r to the H e bre w a ccount
T h is wa s a lso on the terr a cott a t a blets discove re d
by M r S mith ; an d is supposed to be a sol a r myt h
written a pp a rently w ith a View to m a ke a story
e n ce d

86

tting to the sign of the z odi a c c a lled A qu a r ius


T h e C h a lde a n s w e r e skilled a stro n o m ers a n d it is
s a id they a sserted th a t wheneve r all the p la nets
met i n t h e sign C a pricornus the whole e a rth must
be ove r w h elmed wi t h a del u ge of w a ter
T h e B a byloni a n s h a d a legen d f the Buildi n g
the T ower of B a bel whic h a nted a tes t he
of
Hebrew a ccou n t A tower in Ba b mi a whi ch wa s
evidently built f or a stronomic a l purposes a ppe a rs to
h a ve been the f oun d a tion fo r th e legend T his was
a lso described on the terr a cott a t a blets discovered
by M r S m ith T h e to wer wa s c al led the S t ag g s
S e ve n _p h e re s ; a n d e a c h o n e o f t h e se
of t h e
st a g e s wa s consecr a ted to th e S nn M 02 9 S a turn
Jupit e r M ars Ve n us a n d M ercury N eb u c h a d o
n a z a i s ays of it in his cylinders
,

buildi n g n a m ed the S t a ges of th e S even


B abel]
S pheres w h ic h w a s the towe r o f Bo r si p p a [
He h a d com
h a d been built by a f o r m er ki ng
n o t nish its he a d
orty
two
cubi
t
s
but
did
f
l
e
e
d
t
p
From the l a pse o f t i m e it h a d beco m e ruined
M e rod a ch my gre a t L ord inclined my he a rt to
rep a ir the b uildi n g
T he

here is not a word in these cylinders touching


the c o n fusion o f tongues or o f a nythi n g pert a i n ing
t h ereto It a ppe a rs f rom other s ources th a t t h e
word B abel which i s re a lly Bab il (th e G a te o f God)
was erro n eously sup p osed to be f rom t he root ba ba l
to conf u se ; a n d hence a rises the mystic a l ex
T

87

th a t B abel wa s a pl a ce where hu m a n
spe e ch be c a m e con f used
T h e a ncie n t B a byloni a n s h a d a legend so m e two
t h ous a n d ye a rs B C of a m ighty m a n Iz d u b a r w h o
Fro m thi s l e ge n d t h e H e br e ws
wa s a lio n S l ayer
T he
prob a bly obt a ine d their story o f S a m son
legend is wit h out doubt a sun myt h T h e Assyr
i a n s worsh i pped a sun god n a med S a ndon who wa s
believed to be a li on kille r a n d wa s f requently
gured a s struggli n g with the lion or st a n ding upon
the sl a in li o n
T h e C h a lde a n s h a d a n a ccount o f one Z e rb a n
r i cb i n g old
w
h
ich
correspo
n ds in m a ny respects
(
)
to t h e a ccount of Abr ah a m T h e Assy r i a n s h a d a n
a ccount o f a W a r in He a ve n
w h ic h wa s like th a t
desc r ibed in the Book of En oc h a n d the A poc a lypse

I t seems s ays M r George S m ith f rom the


indic a tions i n the inscriptions [th e cunei form ] th a t
t h e r e h a ppe ned i n the interv a l between 2 0 0 0 a n d
1 8 0 BC
a
gener
a
l
collection
by
h
e
B
byloni
ns
a
t
a
5
[
]
o f the developme nt of t h e v a rious tr a ditions o f the
C re a tio n Flo od T ower of B a be l a n d other si m il a r
le ge n ds T h ese lege n ds were h owever tr a dition s
be f ore they were com m itte d to writing a n d were

com m o n i n some f or m to a ll th e country


T h e Hebrews undoubte dly be c a m e f a mili a r with
these l e gends of the B a byloni a n s duri n g thei r c ap
ti v i ty in C h a lde a
a n d a f terw a rds wrote
the m a s
their own hi story
It is a f a ct demo n str a te d by history th a t whe n
n a ti o n
l
a
p

88

one n a tion of a ntiquity c a me into cont a ct with


e a ch a dopte d the other s m yths W i th out
a n ot h e r
h e s i t a tion T h e tenden cy of myths to repr o du ce
t h e m selves with di ff erences only of n a mes a n d
l o c a l colo r in g becomes especi a lly m a ni fest a s we
pe r use th e lege n d a ry h istoryp f a n ti q u i ty
It is s a id of the a nc i ent Hebrews th a t they a dopte d
f orms terms ide a s a n d myths o f ot h er n a tions
with whom they c a m e in cont a ct a n d c a st t h em a ll
in a peculi a r J ewish religious mould

T h e O pinion th a t th e P gan r e lw
i
were
cor
on
s
g
a
r u p ti o n s of the religion o f the O ld T est a me nt o n ce
s u pported by m en of h igh a u t hority a n d gre a t le a rn

ing is now i n the words o f Pro f essor M ii lle r a s


completely surre n de red a s t h e a tt e mpts of expl a i n ing

Greek a n d L a tin a s the corruptions o f Hebrew


T h e Hebrew wa s a S e mi ti c r a ce a n d c o n sequently
h a d inherited none of t h e Ary a n myths a n d leg e n ds
From the time o f M o ses til l the ti m e of the
prophet Hezeki a h a pe riod of se ve n h undred y e a rs
or more the Hebrews were i d ohate rs as their records
T h e se r pent wa s revere n ce d a s the He a ler
S how
of the N a tion ; t h ey worshipped a bul l c a lled Api s
a s did t h e
Egypti a ns ; t h ey wors h ipped the sun
moon st a rs a n d a ll t h e h osts o f h e a ven ; they wo r
shippe d re a n d kept it bu rn ing on a n a lt a r a s d i d
t h e Pe rsi a ns a n d othe r n a tions ; t h ey wors h ipped
stones revered a n o ak tree an d bowed down to
im a ges ; th e y w o r shipped a vi rgin m ot h e r a n d
chil d ; they worshipped B a a l M oloc h a n d C h e m osh

89
a n d O ff e re d up hu m a n
n
a me s given to t h e su n )
(
s a c r ices to the m after which i n some inst a nces
T h e Hebre w s only beg a n to
t h ey a t e the victi m
t h eir gfp ss S yr i a n idol a tries af t er their
ab a n d o n
E a ste rn c a ptivity T h en a lso they beg a n to coll a te
t h e lege n d s t h e y h a d a c q u ired a n d writ e wh a t
they te r mhistory
I t wa s not u ntil thi s time th a t
t h e d og m
as a bout S at a n the a ng els M ich a el U rie l
Y a_r N igg p the RebeLA n gels the B a ttle in He a ven
the Im m o rtg lity of th e S Ou l a n d the R esurre ction
o f the D e a d , were introduce d a n d n a tur a l ize d a mong
the Je w s
T h e theory th a t m an wa s origin a l ly cre a ted a per
f eet being a n d is n ow o n ly a f a l len a n d d e pr a ve d
remn a nt o f his origin a l sel f mu st be a b a n d o n ed
wit h t h e belie f th a t the a ccount o f t h e cre a tio n in
Ge n esis wa s not a revel a tion dire ct f rom God to the
Heb r ews
With the a b a ndonment o f this theo ry the whole
O rt h odox sche m e m u st be a b a n done d ; fo r u pon thi s
T he
myt h the t heo logy o f Chr i stendom is built
doctrine s of the I nspir a tion of the S cripture s the
F a l l o f M a n his T ot a l Depr a vity the In c a rn a tion the
Ato n e m e n t t h e Devil Hell
in f a ct the entire th e
ology of t h e C h risti a n c h urch f a l l to pieces with
t h e i n a ccur a cy o f t h i s story
According to Ch r isti a n dogm a the In c a rn a ti on o f
C h rist h a d beco m e ne cess a ry o n a ccount o f S i n
which wa s introduced into the w o rl d by the F a ll o f
T hese two dogm a s c a nnot be sep a r a te d
M an
If
,

'

'

90

there wa s no F a ll there wa s no need of a n Atone


ment a n d n o R edee m er wa s r e quired
Jesus Christ s a ves m e n a s h e h e lps the m by his
te a chings a n d ex a mple to live pure a n d u prigh t
lives
As f a r a s we c a n j udge Jesus himsel f did not a s
sert th a t he wa s e qu a l to or a p a r t of t h e S upre me
God I ndeed wh e never occ a sion a rose he a s serted
his in feriority to the F a the r He m a de h i m sel f i n
f e r i o r in knowledge w he n h e de cl a red th a t o f th e
knew
d ay a n d h our of t h e Judgment
neithe r the a ngels in H e a ve n n o r the S o n n o o n e
except the F a t h er He m a de hi m sel f i nf erior i n
power when he s a id th a t se a ts on h i s r ight h a nd a n d
o n h is le f t in the Ki n gdom o f He a ven were a
hi s
to give He m a de himsel f in ferior in vi rtue when
he d e su e d a cert ain m a n not to a ddress him a s
G ood M as te r f o r there wa s none good b uL od
a ll t h ings
T h e words o f his pr a yer a t Gethsem a ne

i m ply th a t all things we re not


a r e pos s ible unto thee
possible to h imsel f w h ile its conclusion n o t w h a t I

wil l but wh a t thou wilt indic a te s sub m ission to a

s uperior T h e cry of a gony M y God '


M y God l
why h a st th o u f o r s a ke n m e i would h a v e bee n q ui t e
unme a n i n g i f t h e pe rso n f ors a ken a n d the person
f ors aki n g h a d bee n o n e a n d the s a me
A S w a s the c a se wit h S a ky a M uni a n d m a ny
ot h e r s t h e su n m yths were incorpor a ted i n to the
histo ry o f Jesus C h r ist
T here i s m uc h circu m st a nti a l evidence to S ho w
,

92

they woul d h a ve others d o to t h em T hey lived in


co m munities o r mon a ste r ies a n d h a d a ll thi n g s in
co m m o n m erely appointi n g a stew a rd to m a n age the
co m mon b ag
T h e y a dvoc a ted ce lib a cy but h a d no law prohibit
ing m a rri a ge ; though i f a n y a mong them wedded
t h ey were o blige d to enter a nother cl a ss of the
brotherhood T heir nu m bers w e re continu a lly b e
ing a ug m ented by a dditions f rom outside Whe n
a person wis h ed to e n t e r t h e co m m u n ity
he wa s
t a ke n u pon tri a l ; a n d i f a pp r o ved he wa s obl iged
to t ake a n o a t h th a t he woul d fe a r God a n d be j ust
tow a rds a ll men He s old a ll t h a t he posses sed
a n d g a ve the proceeds to the brot h er h ood
T hey
resembled i n thei r h a bits a n d customs a f r a t e rn i t y
of monks o f a wo r ki n g r a t her th a n a mendic a nt
orde r T hey were a ll upon the s a m e level the
exercise of a u t hority one over a not h er being pro
h i b i te d
T hey a bhorred sl a very a n d c a lled no m an
on e a rth M a ster yet they se r ve d o n e a nother
When going upon m issions of mercy they provided
neithe r silver nor gold but depe nde d entirely upon
the h ospit a lity of ot h e r member s of the brothe r h ood
When goi n g upon perilo us j ourneys they took
we a pons o f de f ence but repudi a ted o ffensive wa r
T hey a bj ure d swe a ring
T hey conversed on such
p a rts o f philosophy only as concerned God a n d
m a n a n d co n versed not a t a ll on secul a r subj e cts
be f ore th e r i sing of the S u n but pr aye d devo utly
with their f a ces t u rn eL u h tu ag : T h ey did not
.

93

up tre a sures on e a rt h a n d despised money


f a m e a n d ple a su res a s th ey thought these things
h a d a tende n cy to m oha m en to e a rthly e n j oy
T hey c o n si d
m ents a pecul i a rly Buddhist tene t
ered the use o f oi n tment a s d e li n g which wa s ce r
T hey g a ve th a nks
t a i n ly not a Hebr a ic doctrine
be fore a n d afte r e a ting ; a n d bef ore ente r ing the
re fe ctory they b a thed in pure w a te r a n d put o n
white g a r m ents T h ey a te only enough to sust a i n
li fe
T hey pu t the gre a te st stress upon being
mee k a n d lowly in he a rt a n d commended the poo r
in spirit t hose who hu n ge r a n d thirst a fter right
e ou sn e ss
the me rci ful the pure i n he a rt a n d the
pe a ce m a ker
T h e Essenes co m bined the he a ling O f the body
with th a t of t h e soul ; a n d the Greek n a me by
which they were kno w n T h e r a p e utae ( Essene is th e
Assyri a n word f or T h er a peutae ) signies b ea ler o r
d octor a n d desig n a te d the se ct a s pro f essi n g to be
e nd o we d wit h the m ir a culous gi f t of h e a ling more
especi a lly with respe ct to dise a se s of the m ind
T hey did not o ff er a nim a l s a crices but strove to

present their b o d ies a living s a crice holy a n d

unto God
It wa s their gre a t a i m to
a ccept a bl e
beco m e so pure a n d holy a s to be temples of t h e
H o ly S pi r it a n d to be a ble to prop h esy T h ey
reve r e n ced M ose s a n d h a d respect fo r the S a bb a th
T hey pr a ctised e n dur a n ce a s a d u ty a n d bore a ll
to rtures with e qu ani m ity T hey f ully bel ieve d in a
f uture st a te of existen ce in which the soul liber a ted
la y

94
f rom

the body mounts upw a rds to a P a r a dise where


there a re no stor m s no c o ld n o i n t e n se h e a t a n d
where a ll a re co n st a ntly r e f r e shed by ge n tle oce a n
breez es Pliny t e lls us t h a t the us ages of the Esse n es
di ff ered f rom t h ose o f a ll othe r n a tions
It will be evident to t h ose f a m ili a r with the Gos
pels th a t the tenets o f the Essenes a n d the te a ch
ings of Jesus a re a l m ost iden tic a l
Jesus d i ffe re d
f rom th e m however in some respects a s a n y l a rge
n a ture is a p t to di ffer f rom o t h ers He r e pg i i a te d
T h ey w e r e a s zti c s
t h e extr e me s of t h e Essen es
g
but he a te a n d dr a n k t h e good things of li fe T hey
considere d themselves d e le d by cont a ct with those
less holy th a n the m selves ; but he a ssoci a ted with
public a ns a n d sinne rs
Eve ry Jew wa s obl ige d to be a m ember of one of
the three sects n a m e d above an d it is but n atu r a l
to suppose th a t Jesus would h a ve been more in
sym p a thy with the Essenes th a n with the othe r two
Jewish sects It is a signic a nt f a ct th at he tre
uently
rebuked
the
a
dducees
n
d
P
h
a
risees
but
S
a
q
never denounced the Essene s
As we h a ve see n the Essenes were a scetics an d
celib ates w h ile t h e purely M os ai c o f Jews were
n eithe r
It is t r ue th a t f a sti n g is occ a sion a lly m e n
ti o n e d i n the O l d T est a ment a s a sig n o f g r ie f or
but n eve r a s a me a ns o f g a i n i n g
of a b a se m ent
s a lv a ti o n in a f utu r e li fe f o r i m m o r t a lity wa s
unknown t o M oses an d th e Je w s ; while celib a cy is
eve ry wh ere spoke n of in t h e O ld T esta ment as a _ _
,

95
mi sfor t une ,

an d

an

bund ance

of

wives i s r eg arded

pro of
T h e Jews were encour a ged in h aving a plur a lity
o f wives but they were nowhe r e directed or r e co m
mended to live o n ch a rity T h e Priests a n d L evites
were n ot ordered to go a bout the country expounding
or te a ching the La w Consequently when a sceti
c i sm pre a ching a n d celib a cy beg a n to be a dvoc a ted
between the ti m e o f An ti obh us a n d c u s the inf er
ence is th a t they were intro duce d f rom without a n d
by those o f the only religion which inculc a ted them
a s a rticles o f f a ith a n d pr a ctice
I t a ppe a rs si n gul a r t h a t there s h ould be no men
tion of the Essenes in t h e N e w T est a ment consider
ing the f a ct th a t the other two J ewish sects were so
f requently spoken o f
T his c a n only be a ccounted
fo r on the gro und th at th e multitude o f re fere n ces i n
t h e N e w T est a me n t to a cl a ss c a ll ed the Brethre n
re fer to the Essenes T h e Esse n es were a brother
h o od a n d kne w e a ch ot h er a s brethren a s the Fre e
a i m descent f ro m th e E s senes do a t
who
cl
W
the present d ay We a r e told th a t the disciples were
rs t c a lled Christi a ns a t Antioch T h ey must h a ve
h a d a n a me previous to th a t a n d we know they a d
dressed e a ch other a s bret h re n

As De Qui n cey s ays :


If t h e Essenes were not the
e a rly C h ri sti a ns in disguise then was Christi a nity
a s a b n ow ledge t a ug h t i n depen dently o f C hrist
na
y
1
i n opp o sition to C h rist
T h is would expl a in the
a

as

'

i s t ori cal

an d

Criti ca l E ssays p
,

1 16

Bost on

: 18

53

6
9

very si n gul a r f a ct th a t Josephus h a s not mentioned


C hr ist or t h e e a r ly Christi a n s T h e Esse n es dis
a p p e a red f rom histo r y s h rtly a f ter the ti m e a s s i gned
o
as t h e crucixion o f C hr i s t a n d it i s supposed t h a t
t h ey h a ve come down in h i st o ry a s C hr i sti a n s Eu
s e bi u s Bishop o f C aes a re a t h e c e l e br a ted eccles i a s t i
c a l h isto r i a n consid e r ed t h e m C hr isti a n s
H e s ay s :
I t is very likely t h a t th e c o m m ent a r ies [S c r iptures ]
w h ic h w e re a m o n g t h e m [th e Esse n es ] w e re t h e
G o spel s a n d t h e w o r k s o f th e a p os t le s a n d cert a in
exp o sitions o f t h e a n c i e n t prop h ets suc h a s p a rt ly
t h a t Epistle u n t o t h e H e b r e w s a n d a lso t h e ot h er
1
Epi stles of P a ul do c o nt a i n
Eus e bius i n quoti n g f rom P h ilo concerning the
Esse n es see m s to t a ke it f or gr a nted th a t t h e y a n d
t h e C h risti a ns we r e o n e a n d t h e s a me a n d fro m t h e
m a nner i n which h e writes it would a ppe a r t h a t it
He s a ys t h a t Philo
wa s gener a lly u n derstood so

c a l led t h em w or shippers a n d concludes by s ay


ing : But whether he h i m sel f ga ve them t h is n a me
or whether a t the beginni n g t h ey were so c a lled
when a s yet the n a me o f Christi a ns wa s not every
where published I think i t not needf ul curiosity to
2
s i ft out
Ep i p h an i u s a Christi a n bishop a n d writer o f the
f ou r th century in spe aking of the Essen es s ays :
T hey w h o believed on Christ we r e c a lled J e ssaei [or
Essenes ] be fore they were c a lled Christi a ns T hey
1 Hi s t E ccl
lib 2 ch xvii L o nd on 1 63 7
2
Ibid
.

97

derived th e ir constitution f rom the signic a tion o f


the n a me Jesus whic h i n Hebrew signies t h e s a m e
1
a s T h era p e u t e s th a t i s a s aviour or physici a n
God frey Higgins s ays

E ssenes were c a lle d p h ysici a n s o f the soul


or T h e r ap e u tm bei n g resident both i n J u d ze a a n d
Egyp t they prob a bly spoke o r h a d their s a cred
b o oks in C h a ldee T h ey we r e Py th agor ea n s a s i s
pr o ved by a ll their forms ceremonies a n d doctrines
a n d they c a lled t h em selves sons o f Jesse
If the
Pyth a gore a n s or C o n e n o bi tae a s t h ey were c a lled
by J am bli c u s were Budd h ists the Essenes were
Budd h ists T h e Essenes c a lled Koi n obi i l ived in
Egypt on the l ake o f P are m b ole or M a ri a in m on
a ster i es
T hese a r e the very pl a ces in which we
f ormerly found the Gym n osop b i sts or S a m a nea n s or
Buddhist priests to h a v e lived which Gym n osophists
a r e pl a ced a lso by Ptolemy i n northe a stern Indi a
T hei r [
the Essene s ] p a rishes chu r c h es bishops
priests de a cons f estiv a ls a r e all identic a lly the s a m e
h
a d a postolic f ounders
the
C
h
risti
h
e
y
a ns
T
a
s
[
]
the m a n ners which disti n guis h ed the i m medi a te a pos
tles o f Christ scriptures divinely i n spired th e s a me
mode of interpreti n g them which h a s
a llegoric a l
sin ce obt a ined a m ong Christi a ns a n d the s a me o r
der o f per forming public worship T hey h a d m is
s i o n a ry st a tions
or colonies of their com m unity
est a blished in R ome Corint h G a l a ti a Ephesus
T he

Doane Bible
,

M yths p
,

42 6

ew

Y ork :

883

8
9

Philip p i Coloss e a n d T he ss a lo n ic a precis e ly such


a s w e re
th o s e to
a n d i n the sa m e ci r cu m s t a n ces
w h o m S a int P a ul a ddr e sse d h is le t t e r s i n t h ose
pl a ces
Al l t h e ne m o r a l doct r ines wh ich a r e
a n d I doubt
a t t rib u ted to the S a m a rit a n N a z a r it e
n ot j ustly a ttributed to him a re to be found a mong
1
t h e doctrines o f t h e a scetics
,

In re ference to this subj ect Arth ur L illie s ays


,

is a sserted by c alm thi n kers like De a n M anse ]


th a t w it h i n t w o g e n e r a ti o n s of t h e ti m e o f Alex a nder
the Gr ea t t h e m issio n a ries o f Budd h a m a de t h eir
T h is t h eo r y is c o nrmed
a ppe a r a nce a t Alex a n d r i a
in th e e a st by t h e Asok a m o nu m e n ts in th e west
by P h ilo He expressly m a int ain s the identity in
cre e d o f th e h igher Jud a ism a n d th a t of t h e Gym
n o so Phi sts o f I ndi a who a bst a ined f rom the
s a cri

c e o f li v i n g a ni m a ls i n a word the Buddhists


I t would f o llow f rom t h is th a t t h e p r iestly r e ligio n s o f
B a byloni a P a lestine Egypt a n d Greece we r e u nder
mined by c e rt a in kind r e d m ystic a l s ocieties org a n
i z e d by B uddh a s m ission aries u n der th e v a rious
N e o Pyth a gore a ns
n a m es o f T h e ra p e u tes Es s enes
N eo Zoro a stri a ns etc
T h us Buddhis m prep a red
2
the way for C h risti a nity
It

We nd S a int P a ul the rst Apostl e of the Gen


tiles a vo wing th a t h e wa s m a de a minister o f the
,

1
2

A n a calyp si s ,

B uddha

and

i p 747 v ol ii p
E a rly B uddhi sm p vi
v ol

L ondo n 1 82 7
Lo ndon 1 88 1

43

IOO

M essi ah h a d been a pplied to G a ut a m a Buddh a who


predicted th a t a not h e r Av at a r would come upon e a rth
in six h undred ye a rs a fter his de a th T h is ti m e h ad
ne a rly expired ; so Jesus of N a z a reth wa s procl a i m e d
a s t h e expected M essi a h by these Bu d dhist Je w s
a n d t h e sun myths were
inter w oven with his re a l
history Jesus unquestion ably possessed a n a ture
a s divine a s it is possible f o r a hu m a n bei n g to pos
sess or h e w o uld n o t otherwise h a ve bee n received
as t h e An ge LM e s s ra h by a sect so pure an d h oly as
were the Esse n es
Justin M a rtyr in h i s di a logue with T ryph o s ays
th a t t h ere exist not a peopl e civilized or se m i civi
li z e d wh o h a ve n o t o ff ered up p r a yers in the n a m e
o f a crucied S a viour to the F a ther a n d Cre a tor of
1
a ll things
Eusebius s ays t h a t the n a mes of Jesus a n d Christ
2
were both know n a n d honored by the a ncients
T h e R ev R obert T aylor, in writing upon this
subj ect s ays :
-

Wh a t short o f a n a bsolute surrender of all pre


te n ce to a n existence distinct i ve a n d sep ar a te f rom
forg o tten n ever to b e
P ag a nism is t h a t never to b e
overlooked a n d I a m sur e n ever to b e a nswered c a
s h op
Bi
h
i
t
e Christi a n s ] M elito
t
u la ti o n o f t h eir [
p
in wh ich i n a n a pology delivered to the
o f S a rdis
e m pe r o r M a rcus Antoninus in the ye a r 1 7 0 h e com
-

1
2

i s t E ccl lib i
Ibid
H

ch

iv

IO I

pl a in s of cert a in a nnoy a nces a n d vex a tions which


Christi a ns were a t th a t time subj ected to a n d for
which he cl a i m s redress f rom the j ustice a n d pie t y
o f t h a t e m pe r or : rst on t h e s co r e t h a t n o n e o f h is
a ncestors h a d ever persecuted t h e pr o fe sso r s o f the
C h risti a n f a ith ; N ero a n d D o m iti a n only w h o h a d
been e q u a lly h o stile to their subj ects of a ll p e r su a
si o ns h a ving bee n disposed to bri n g th e Christi a n
doctrine into h a t red a n d even tb ei r decrees h a d
been reversed a n d their r a sh en te rprises rebuked
by the godly a nce stors of Ant o ni n us h imsel f
And secondly t he good bishop cl a i m s the p a tron age
o f the emperor for t h e Christi a n religion which h e
c a lls ou r p b i losop by o n a ccoun t o f its b i gb a n ti q u i ty
a s h a vi n g been i m ported f rom countries lying beyo n d
the limits o f the R o m a n e m pir e i n the reign o f his
a ncestor Augustus
who foun d its i m port a tion om i
l
n ous of good fo rtune to h is govern m ent
,

i t Au gustine s ays : T h a t in our tim es is the


C H R IS T IAN R E L IGION which to know a n d f ollo w is
the m ost sure a n d cert a in he a lth c a lled a ccordi n g to
t ha t n a me but not a cc o rding to the t h ing itsel f of
whic h it is t h e n a m e ; f or the thi n g itsel f which is
n o w c a lled
the C H R IS T IA N R E L IG IO N re a lly was
known to the a ncie n ts n or wa s w a nting a t a n y time
f rom the beginn ing of t h e hu m a n r a ce u n til the time
when Christ c a me i n the esh f rom whence the true
religion which h ad previously existed beg a n to be
S

a n

Die ge si s

2 49

B o st o n :

1 8 72

1 02

c a lled Cbr i sti a n ; a n d t h i s in o u r d ays is th e C h ris


ti a n rel igi o n n o t a s h a vi n g been w a nti n g in former
ti m es but a s h a vi n g in l a ter t imes received t h is
1
n am e
Eus e bius th e g r e a t ch am pion O f Christi a nity

a d m its
th a t th a t w h ich is c a lled the Christi a n
religi o n is n eit h er new nor st r a n g e but i f it
be l aw ful t o testi fy the truth wa s known to the

a ncient s
Am m o n i u s S a ccus (a Gre e k p h il o s o p her f ou n der
o f t h e N e o p l a t o nic s c h o o l ) t a ug h t t h a t C hr is t i a nity
a n d P a g a ni s m wh en rig h tly u n d e r stood di ff er in n o
es s e n t i a l p o i n t s but h a d a co m m o n origi n a n d a re
3
re a lly o n e a n d t h e s a me r el i gi o n
Celsu s t h e Epicure a n p h ilosop h er w r o te t h a t
t h e C hr isti a n religion cont a i n s n othing b u t wh a t
Christi a ns hold i n com m o n wi th h e a t h en ; not h i n g
4
new
J u stin e xpl a ins this i n the fo llowi n g m a nner
,

I t h avi n g re a c h ed t h e Devil s e a rs th a t the prophets


h a d fo r et o ld t h a t Christ would com e
he [th e
Devil ] s e t t h e h e a then p o ets to bri n g fo rw a rd a gre a t
m a n y wh o s h o u ld b e c a ll e d so n s o f J o ve [t h a t i s th e
sons o f G o d] t h e D e vil l a yi n g h is sc h eme i n t h is to
get men t o i m agine t h a t the true h i sto ny of Christ

1
si s,
2

3
4

O pera A g tini l i p
p 42
H i t E ccl li b 2 ch v
T yl r Die ge si s p 3 2 9
J stin Ap l 2 S e e B ell
u

us

vo

12

Q uoted in

am

y s tr a ns p

49

yl or s

Bie ge

1 04

Eusebius w h o is o u r c h ie f guide fo r the e a rly his


to r y o f th e C h urc h c o n fesses t h a t h e was by n o m e a ns
sc r upulous to reco r d the w h ole t r ut h c o nce rn ing t he
e a rly Chri s t i a n s in t h e v a rious works w h ich h e h a s
1
le ft behind h i m
Ed wa rd Gibbon spe aking of h i m
s ays :
,

gr a vest of the ecclesi a stic a l h istori a ns Eu se


b i u s h i m s e l f i n directly c o n f ess e s t h a t h e h a s rel a ted
w h a t might redound to t h e gl o ry a n d t h a t h e h a s
s u ppressed a ll t h a t co u ld te n d to th e disgr a ce o f
religion
S uch a n a cknowledg m ent will n a tur a lly
excite a sus p icio n t h at a w r ite r wh o h a s so o pe n ly
viol a ted one of the fund a m ent a l l a w s o f h is t o r y
h a s not p a id a very strict reg a rd to t h e obs e rv a n ce
o f the other ; a n d th e suspicion w ill derive a ddi
t i o n a l credit f rom th e c h a r a cter of Eusebius which
wa s less tinctur e d with credulity a n d more pr a ctised
i n t h e a r ts o f cou r ts th a n t h a t of a lmost a n y o f his
2
conte m pora rie s
T he

Is a a c de C a s aubon t h e gre a t ecclesi a stic al schol a r


s ays
,

It mightily a ff e c t s m e to see how m a ny th e r e we r e


i n th e e a rli e st ti m e s o f th e C h u r c h w h o considered it
a s a c a pit a l ex l o it to l e n d t o h e a ve n ly tru th t h e
p
help o f t h e ir o w n i n ve n ti o n s in order th a t t h e n e w
doct r i n e m ig h t be more re a dily r eceived by the wise
,

E u sebi u s H i s t E ccl ch viii p 2 1


Gibb o n R o m e v ol ii pp 7 9 8 0 P h il adelph i a :
,

1 8 7 6.

1 05

ong the Gentiles T hese o i c i ou s l ies they were


1
wont to say we r e devised fo r a go o d end

am

C aeci li u s,

in the O ct a vius

M i n u c i u s Felix,

of

sa ys

All t h ese f r ag m ents o f cr a ck br a i n ed O pini a try a n d


silly sol a ces pl ayed o ff in the sweetness o f song by
deceit ful [P a g a n ] poets by you to o credulous cre a
tures [t h a t i s t h e Christi a ns ] h a ve been s h a me f ully
re formed a n d m a d e over to your own god
-

F a ustus w r i t ing to
,

S a int

Augu sti n e s a ys
,

Y ou h a ve sub stitut e d your ag a p ae for the s a cri


ce s o f the P a g a ns fo r their idols your m a rtyrs
whom you serve w it h t h e ve r y s a m e honors Y o u
a ppe a se the sh a des o f t h e de a d with w ine a n d f e a sts ;
you celeb r a te the s ol e m n f estiv a ls of the Gen t iles
their c a le n ds a n d t h eir solstices a n d a s to t h eir
m a nners those you h a ve ret a ined wi t hout a n y a l ter a
tio n N othing distinguishes you f r o m th e P a g a n s
except th a t you h o ld your a ssembli e s a p art f ro m
2
th e m
'

'

l e arned Christi a n a dvoc ate M T ur r e ti n i n


describing the st a te o f Ch r i s ti a nity i n the f ourt h cen

tury s ays t h a t it wa s not so much the e m pi r e t h a t


wa s brought over to the f a i th a s the f a ith th a t wa s
T he

Q u oted i n T ayl or s Die ge si p


2 Q o ted by Dr
p er in S cien c e
Y k 1 8 76
1

or

s,

44
an d
.

Reli gi on p
,

48

New

1 06

brough t over to t h e empi r e not the Pag a ns who were


conv e r ted to C h r i sti a nity but Christi a n ity t h a t wa s
1
conv e r te d to P ag a n ism
Edw a rd Gibbon s ays in reg a rd to this m a tter
,

It m ust be con f essed t h a t t h e ministers of t h e


C a th o lic C h urc h i m i t a te d th e p r o fa ne m odel w h ic h
t h ey we r e i m p a tient to dest r oy T h e m ost resp e c ta
ble bis h ops h a d p e r s u a d ed t h e m s e lves t h a t t h e i g
n o ra n t ru stics w o uld m o re c h e er f u lly re n ou n ce th e
sup e r sti t io n s o f P a g a n i sm if t h ey f o u n d some r e
se m bl a n ce so m e c o m pe n s a tio n in t h e bosom o f
C hr i sti a nity T h e religion o f C o n s t a ntine a ch ieved
in less t h a n a cent u ry th e n a l co n q uest of th e R o m a n
e m pi r e ; but t h e victors t h e m selves w e re i n se n sibly
2
subdued by t h e a r ts o f t h eir v a n q ui shed riv als
.

ertulli a n one o f the C h ri sti a n F a th ers (A D


o r igi n ally a P ag a n a n d a t o n e ti m e P r esby t er o f th e
C h risti a n C h u rc h i n A f r ic a re a so n s i n t h e followi n g
m a nner on th e e v idences o f C h risti a nity
T

I nd n o o ther m e a ns to pr o ve mysel f to be i m
pudent with success a n d h a p p ily a fo o l th a n by my
co n te m pt o f sh a m e a s f o r i n st a nce I m a int a i n
t h a t th e S o n o f G o d wa s bo rn W h y a m I not
a sh a med o f m a int a i n i n g suc h a t h i n g ?
W h y but
bec a use it is its e l f a s h a m e ful thing I m a int a i n
t h a t t h e S o n of God died Well th a t i s w h olly
,

1
2

yl r Diege s i s p 50
Gibb Rom e v o l iii p

on ,

1 63

108

I n reg a rd to th e c h a rge of su n wors h ip M r Bon

T h ere were m a ny ci r cu m st a n ces


wick o bse r ves :
t h a t g a ve col o r to the a ccus a tio n since in the second
ce n tury they h a d le ft t h e simple te a ching of J e sus
f o r a ho st of a ssimil a tions wi th sur r ou n di n g P a ga n
myt h s a n d sy m bols S till the de fe n ce m a de by T e r
tulli a n o n e o f t h e F a t h ers o f t h e C h urc h wa s to
say the le a st o f it r a ther obscure
O thers wrote h e
believe the sun to be our go d If t h is be so we
must not be r a n k ed with th e Persi an s ; t h ough we wor
s h ip not t h e su n p a inted o n a p iece o f li n e n bec a use
i n truth we h a v e h i m i n o u r o wn he m isphere L a stly
t h is su sp ici o n a ri s es fr o m h e n ce bec a use it i s well
1
k n own t h a t we pr ay tow a rd t h e q u a r te r o f t h e e a st
T h e Ess e ne s a lw ays tur n ed to th e e a st to pr a y
T h ey m e t o nce a week a n d S p ent th e n ig h t in sing
ing h ym n s e tc u n til the ri si n g o f the sun T hey
th e n reti r ed to t h e ir cel ls a ft e r s a luti n g o n e a n other
Pliny s ays th e Christi a ns o f Bit h y n i a m e t be fore it was
light a n d s a n g hy m ns to Ch r ist a s to a God A f ter
th e ir service they s a l uted one a not h er It is j ust
w h a t t h e Persi a n M agi who were sun worshippers
were i n t h e h a b it of doing
T h ere a r e n o t m a ny circumst a nces more striking
t h a n th a t of C h rist bei n g origi n a lly worshipped under
the for m of a l a mb T h e w o rship o f the constell a
tio n Aries wa s the worship o f th e su n i n his p a ss a ge
2
T h is constell a tio n was c a lled by
through th a t S ign
-

Egypti a n B elie f p 2 8 2
Bible Myths p 5 0 3
,

L ondo n :

8 78

1 09

the a ncients the La m b or th e R a m I t wa s a lso c a lled


t h e S a viour a n d wa s s a id to s a ve m a nkind f rom
their si n s I t wa s a lw ays h o nored wit h t h e a ppell a

ti o n of Dom i n u s or L o rd
I t wa s c a lled by t h e

t h e L a m b o f God w h ich t a ket h a w ay t h e


a ncien ts
T h e devotees a ddressed it i n
sins o f the world
t h eir lit a n y c o n st a n tly r epe a ting the words 0 L a m b
o f God t h a t t a ket h a w a y t he si n s o f t h e world h a ve

mercy up o n u s g r a n t us thy pe a ce
O n a n a ncie n t m ed a l o f th e P h ce n i c i a n s brought
by Dr C l a rk f r o m Citiu m ( a n d described i n his

T r a vels
vol ii c h
this L a m b of God is
described with the cross a n d r os a ry
Y e a rly the sun go d a s the zodi a c a l h orse ( Aries)
wa s supposed by t h e Vedic Ary a ns to die to s a ve a ll
e sh Hence the pr a ctice of s a crici n g horses T h e
gu a rdi a n spirits o f th e P r ince S aky a Buddh a sing
the f ollowing hymn
.

O n ce whe n th ou was t the wh ite h orse


I pity f or the s u ff eri gs o f m
T h ou did s t y a c r o s h e a ven t th e re gi on o f the evil de m on s
T o serve the h a ppine s s o f m a nkind
Perse c ti on s with o t end
Revilin gs a d m any pri sons
De t h a d m rder
T he se h as t th o u s ff ered wit h l ove an d p atien c e
1
o
s
F rgiving thi ne exe c ti o ner
,

an ,
o

Although Buddh a is s aid to h a ve expired pe a cefully


a t the f oot o f a tree h e is n evertheless described as
,

B u ddha

and

E arly B u ddhi sm p
,

93

1 10

su ff e ri n g S a vi o u r wh o wh e n h i s m i n d wa s moved
wi th pity g a v e h is l i fe like g r a ss f o r the s ake o f
1
ot h e r s
T h e oldest rep r esent a ti o n o f J e sus Christ is a
2
g u re o f a l a m b to w h ic h so m eti m es a v a se wa s
a dde d into whic h t h e blood o f t h e l a mb o w ed
A
S i m ple cross w h ich wa s t h e symbol o f etern a l li f e
a m o n g t h e a ncients wa s so m etimes pl a ced a lo n gside
In th e cou r se o f ti m e t h e l a m b wa s p ut
of t h e l a m b
o n th e cros s a s t h e a nci e n t Isr a elit e s h a d p u t t h e
P a sc h a l l a m b ce n t u r ies b e fore Jesus wa s a ls o r ep r e

sented i n e a r ly a r t a s the Go o d S h ep h erd


that
i s a s a y o u n g m a n w i th a l a m b on h i s s h ou ld e r s j
u st
a s th e P a g a n
A p ollo M e rcu ry a n d o t hers were
represented centuries be fore
E a r ly C h ri sti a n a r t such a s t h e h as rel iefs on sa r
c0 p h agi g a v e but o n e soli t a ry incident f rom the story
o f O ur L ord s P a ssion a n d th a t utterly divested o f
O ur L ord is r ep re
a ll ci r cu m st a n ces o f su ff ering
sented a s y o u n g a n d be a uti f u l f ree f rom bonds with
3
no
a ccursed tree
o n his s h oulders
T h e crucixion is n ot o n e o f the subj ects o f
e a rly Ch r isti a ni ty T h e de a th o f our L ord was rep t e
sented by v a rious types but never in its a ctu a l for m
T h e e a rliest inst a nces o f t h e crucixion a re found
in illustra t e d m a n usc r ipts o f v a rio u s c o unt ries a n d
in ivory a n d en a melled im ages S o me of these a r e
a

1
2

M uller S cien c e f Reli gi n p 2 2 4 L ondon


J m e n O L rd in A t ol ii p 1 3 7 L ondon
Ibid
l ii p 3 1 7
M

ax

so

vo

ur

1 87 3

1 8 64

1 12

on

i n del O pponent thus :


AS for the a dor a tion
o f c r o s ses whic h yo u
P
ag a n s
obj
ect
to
a g a in s t u s
]
[
m
C
h
ri
sti a ns
I
us
t
tell
ou th a t we neit h er a do r e
y
]
[
crosses n o r desire t h e m ; you it is ye P a ga n s wh o
wors h ip wooden god s who a r e the m ost likely people
to a dore wooden c r o sses a s bein g p a rts of t h e sam e
s ubst a nce a s your d e ities For w h a t else a re your
e n sig n s a gs a n d st a n d a rds but c r osses gilt a n d
b e a u ti e d ? Y our victorious t r op h i e s n o t o n ly r e p t e
1
se n t a cro ss but a cross w it h a m a n u po n it
T ertulli a n a Chri s t i a n F a ther o f t h e second a n d
t h ird ce n turies i n w riting to th e P a ga ns s ays :
an

origin o f your gods is derived f r o m gures


All t h ose rows of i m a ges o n
m oul ded o n a cross
yo u r st a nd a rds a r e the a pp e nd ages o f crosses t h o se
h a ngi n gs on your st a nd a rds a n d b a nners a re the
2
robes of crosses
T he

It wou ld a ppe a r th a t the crucixion wa s not com


m o u ly believ e d i n a m o n g e a r ly Christi a n s
I t is
cont r a d icted three ti m es in th e Acts o f t h e Apostles

Whom ye sle w a n d h a n ged on a tree ( Acts v


s ays P e ter o f Je su s He st a tes a g a i n ( x 3 9 )
Whom th e y slew a n d h a n g e d o n a t r e e ; a n d r e

pe a ts ( xiii
T hey to ok h i m d o wn f r o m t h e tree

T h ere is no c ru c i x
a n d l a id him in a s e p u lc hr e
ion a s commo n ly u n d e rstood i n t h ese st a teme n ts
.

1
2

ylo r Die ge si s pp 1 98 1 99
B on wi ck Egy p ti a n B elie f p 2 1 7
T

1 1

O utside of the N e w T e st a m en t there is no evi


denc e wh a tever in book i n scription or mo n u m ent
th a t Je sus wa s ei th er scourged or crucied u n der
P o n ti u s Pil a te Joseph u s T a ci t us Pli n ius Phil o nor
a n y o f t h eir c o n tempor a rie s h a ve re f e r red to the f a ct
In
o f t h is crucixion or exp ress a n y belie f th ereon
t h e Je w ish T a l m ud Jesus is n o t re f erred to a s the
1

crucied o n e but a s th e h a nged o n e


Elsewhere
2
it is n a rra ted th a t he wa s stoned to de a th
S a int Ire n ze u s (A D
o n e of the most cele
b r a te d m o st respected a n d most quoted o f the
Ch r isti a n F a thers tells us on th e a ut h ority of his
m a ster Polyc a rp who h a d it from S a int Jo h n h i m
sel f a n d f r om others th a t Jesus was n o t crucied a t
the ti m e st a ted in the Gospels but th a t h e lived to
be n e a rly fty ye a rs old
T h e f ollowing is a portion of th e p a ss age
,

As the chie f p a rt of thirty ye a rs belo n gs to youth


a n d every one wil l con fess h i m to be such till th e
fo r tieth ye a r ; but f r om the fortieth he declines i n to
old age w h ic h our L o r d [Jesu s ] h a vi n g a tt a i n ed he
t a ught us the G o spel a n d a ll th e elders who in Asi a
a ssembl e d w ith J o h n t he di s cipl es
o f t h e L ord tes
t i fy ; a n d a s Jo h n h i m s e lf h a d t a ugh t them
An d
?
he [John ] rem a i ned wi th th e m till the ti m e o f
T r aj a n
And some of the m sa w not only John but
,

Wi se T h e M a rtyrd om
2 Ibid p 1 0 6

of

Je su s

of

N aza ret h p
,

1 00

1 14

other Apostles an d he a rd t h e s a me thing f rom them


1
a n d be a r the s a me testimony to t h is revel a tion
,

In Jo h n viii 5 6 Jesus is m a d e to say to t h e Jews :


Your f a ther Abr a h a m rej o iced to se e m y d ay ; a n d
T h e n s a id th e Je w s u n to
he s aw it a n d wa s gl a d

him : T h ou a rt n o t yet f ty ye a rs old a n d h a st


t h ou seen Abr a h am
If J e sus wa s t h en only t h irty
or t h ere a bouts t h e Jews would n a tur a lly h a ve s a id

T h ou a r t not ye t f or ty y e a rs o f a ge
T h ere wa s a tr a d ition a m o n g t h e e a rly C h risti a n s
th a t Ann a s wa s h ig h p r iest w h e n Jesus was crucied
N o w An n a s
T h is is evident f r o m the Acts ( iv
2
or Anni a s wa s n o t h ig h p ri e st u n til th e ye a r 4 8 A D
T h ere fo re i f J e sus was crucied a t th a t time h e
must h a ve been a bout f ty ye a rs o f age I t is true
t h ere was a no t her An n a s h ig h p r iest a t Jerus a le m
but th a t wa s when Gr a tus wa s p r ocur a t o r of Jud ae a
so m e twelve or fteen ye a rs be fore P o ntius Pil a te
3
held the s a m e o i c e
A ccording to Dio C a ssius Plut a rch S tr abo a n d
ot h ers there existed i n the tim e o f He r od a m o n g th e
R o m a n S yri a n h e a t h e n a wides p r e a d a n d d e e p sym

p a t h y f o r a c r ucied Ki n g o f the Jews


T h is wa s
t h e you n g e st son of Aristobulu s the h e roic M acc ab e e
I n the ye a r 43 B c we n d this young m a n
Ah
in P a lesti n e cl a i m ing t h e crown his c a use
t i go n u s
.

1
2

Q oted in A n a c lyp si s ol ii p 1 2 1
J ep h A tiq itie bk xx c h v p
Ibid bk xvii c h ii p 3
u

os

u s,

s,

1 16

cru cixio n conside r ed it to h a ve b een in som e mysti c


wa y perh a ps wh a t might h a ve been c a lled sp i r i tu
a li ter
a s it is reg a rded in the R evel a tion
b u t n ot
w i t hst a nding t h e d iff ere n t O pinion s th ey h e ld t h ey
a ll denied t h a t th e Christ did re a lly die in t h e liter a l
a ccept a tion o f t h e term on the cross
M r King in
spea king of th e Gnostic Christi a ns s ays :
,

heir chie f doctrines h ad been hel d for centu ri es


b e fore in m a ny o f the cities i n Asi a M inor T here
i t i s prob a ble they rst c a me into existen ce as
M y stce upon the esta blishment o f direct interco u rse
wi th Indi a under the S eleucid ae a n d Ptolemies T h e
college of Ess enes a n d M ega b yz ae a t Ephesus t he
O phites of T hr a ce t he Cret a ns o f C rete a re a ll merely
b ra nches of one a n tique a n d common religion an d
1
th a t ori gin ally Asi a tic
T

ever a l of the texts o f the Gos pe l histories were


quoted with gre a t pl a usibility by th e Gnos tics in
support o f t h eir d oc trines
T h e sto ry o f J e sus
p assi n g t hrough the midst o f the J e w s w h en th e y
were abo ut to c a st h im he a dl o n g from t h e bro w o f a
hill ( L uke iv 2 9
a n d w h en t h ey were goi n g t o
were not e a s ily
stone him (John iii 5 9 ; x 3 1
re fu ted
T he re a re th ose who consider Jesus Chri st n o t a s
a pe rson but as a S piritu a l pri nciple pers onied by
t h e Essenes as t he a ncie n ts perso n ied the su n
a n d g a ve to it a n experience si m il a r to t h eir o wn
1 K in
g Gn o s ti cs p I
S

117
1

According to J osephus a n d Philo the Essene doc


tri n es were kept secret wit h th e g r e a t e s t possibl e
c a re T h e m embers o f t h e brot h e rh ood wer e a d
m i tte d into the a ss e m bly o n ly a f t er a thre e ye a rs
n ovi t i a te a n d t h ey were t h en not only swo r n to
secrecy but were sworn a lso n ot to co m m it a n y p o r
tion of t h eir doctrine to writing except i n a ll e go r y

f o r th e y
it ;
a s t h ey received
a n d sy m bol ism
were inst r ucted only by m e a ns o f a llegories an d sym
boli o repr e sent ations It was their custom to a s
semble a n d liste n to interpret a tions o f the Hebrew
s a cred writi n gs f rom the elders a mong them In re
g a rd to this pr a ctice Philo s ays
,

And these expl a n a tio n s o f the S a cred S criptures


a r e d e liver e d by m ystic exp r e s sio n
s in a ll e gories fo r
the whol e o f the LAW a ppe a rs to t h e se m en to r e
se m ble a livi n g a n i m a l a n d its e xp r ess comm a n d
ments see m to be th e B O D Y a n d t h e invisible m e a ni n g
und e r a n d lying be n e a t h th e pl a in w o r ds r e se m bles
the S O U L i n which the r a tion a l soul begins most ex
c e lle n tly to contempl a te w h a t belongs to itsel f a s in
a mirror beholdi n g in these very words the exceed
ing be a uty of the senti m ents a n d u n foldi n g a n d ex
pl a i n ing the symbols a n d bri n gi n g the secret m e a ning
to the lig h t o f a ll w ho a r e a bl e by the light o f a
,

J osep h u s A ntiq u itie s bk ii 8 al so Wa rs bk x iii


1
Phil o on the Virt u o u s being a l s o Free ( Boh n s e d v ol iii
a l s o F r a gm ent s
pp 5 2 3 et
a n d E ss a y o n the
(v o l
C onte m pl a tive Li fe ( ol
1

ee

1 1

light intim atio n to perc e ive w h a t is u n seen by


is visible

wh a t

I n a n ot h er pl a ce the Essenes a r e s a id to t ake up


t h e S a cred S c r ipture s a n d p h ilosop h iz e conc e rn i n g
t h e m i n vestig a ti n g th e a ll e g o ries of t h e i r n a t i o n a l
p h ilosophy since th ey lo o k up on t h ei r lite r a l e x
pressions a s sy m b o ls o f so m e secret m e a n i n g o f
n a ture inte n ded to be co n veyed by thos e gu r a tive
expres sio n s
T h ey a r e s a i d a l so to h a ve writings o f a ncient
men wh o h a vi n g b e en t he fo unders o f o n e sect or
a n o t her h a ve le f t be h i n d th e m m a n y m e m o r i a ls o f
th e a llegoric syste m o f writi n g a n d expl a n a tio n
a n d they i m it a te the ge n er a l f a shion o f t h eir sect so
t h a t they d o n o t occ u py t h e m s e lves solely i n con
t e m p la ti o n but they lik ew ise com p ose ps a lms a n d
h y m ns to God in every kind of metre a n d melody
1
i m a gin able
In the Vi si on s Com m a n ds a n d S i m i li tu des of H er
m a s o n e o f t h e A p o c ryp h a l N ew T est a m ent books
t h a t wa s disc a rd e d by th e At h a n a s i a n C o u n cil but

we
which wa s pr e viously a ccepted by C hr i sti a n s
nd th e La w o f G o d sp oke n o f a s th e S o n o f God
I n t h e eig h t h S i m i li tu de a m ystic a l s h ep h erd i s i n
t ro d u c e d a s expo u ndi n g a Vision in these words
,

his g re a t tree w h ich covers the pl a ins a n d moun


t a ins a n d a ll o f the e a rt h i s t h e LAW O F G O D pub
T

Hit c h c o ck C h ri st t h e S pirit pp
,

34 37

1 20

r a ces were to c all brother wa s not to be too closely


a ssoci a ted with the p a rticul a r line a ments o f a n
one
y
S a int J ohn the b e loved disciple could lie on the
bre a st o f J esus wit h a ll the f reedom o f f ellows h ip
but n ot even he h a s le f t a word to i ndic a te wh a t
m a nner o f m a n wa s t h e Di v in e M a ster a fter th e e s h
We a r e there fore l e ft to i m agi n e the expression most
betti n g the ch a r a cter of h im w ho took upon himsel f
o u r likeness
a n d looked a t the woes a n d si n s o f
1
m a nkind through the eyes of our mort a lity
.

'

R ev M r Geikie s ays in his L i fe

T he

Ch r i st :

of

N o hint is given in the N ew T est a ment of C h rist s


a ppe a r a nce
a n d the e a rly Church in the a bsence o f
a ll guiding f a cts
h a d to f a ll b a ck o n im agi n a tion
In t h e rst ye a rs the Christi a n Chu r ch f a ncied its
L ord s vis a ge a n d f o r m m a rred m ore th a n those of
other men ; a n d th a t he m ust h ave h a d no a ttr a e
tion s o f person a l be a uty Justin M a rtyr (A D 1 5 0
1 60
a ttr a ctive
spe
ks
f
him
a
without
be
a
ut
or
a
o
s
)
y
n ess
a n d o f m e a n a ppe a r a nce
Clement o f Alex
dri a (A D 2 0 0 ) describes h i m a s of a n u n i n viting
a pp e a r a nce a n d a lmost repulsive
T ertulli a n (A D

200 2 1 0
a r y hum a n
s
ys
he
not
even
o
r
di
n
a
h
a
d
)
be a uty f ar less he a ve n ly O rigen (A D 2 3 0 ) went
so f a r a s to s ay th a t h e wa s s m a ll in body a n d de
f o r m ed a s wel l a s lo w b o r n a n d th a t his o n ly be a uty
2
wa s i n h i s so u l a n d li f e

1
2

Hi t ry of O r L o rd i
Geikie Li fe o f C h ri s t
u

s o

Ar t ,

v ol

v o l.

i p
.

i p
.

151

121

O n e o f the f a vorite w ays of depicting h i m n a lly


c am e to be under th e gure of a be a uti ful a n d a dor
a ble yout h o f a bout fteen or eighte e n ye a rs o f a ge
be a rdless with a sweet expression of counten a n ce
a n d long a n d a bu n d a n t b a i r ow i ng over b i s sb ou ld er s
His brow is so m e t imes encircl e d by a di a d em or
b a nde a u like a you n g priest of the P a g a n go ds t h a t
is i n f a ct th e fa vorite gure O n sc u lptured s a r
Ch r is t is
c O p h agi , in fresco p a intings a n d m o s a ics
t h us represented a s a gr a ce ful youth j ust a s Apollo
wa s gured by the P a g a ns a n d a s a ngels a re
1
rep r esented by Christi a n s
T h e following letter a ddressed to th e sen a te o f
R om e is s a id to h a ve been writte n by Publius L en
tulus R om a n Procur a tor o f J u dma in th e reign of
T iberius C msa r
,

ppe a red in these d ays a m a n of ex


tr ao r d i n a ry virtue n amed J E S U S C H R IS T who i s yet
l ivi n g a m ong us a n d by the people gene r a lly a c
c e p te d o f a s a proph et but by some he is c a lled the
S O N O F G O D He r a ises the de a d a n d cures a ll m a n
ner of dise a ses A m a n t a ll a n d comely o f st a ture
with a very reverend counte n a nce such a s the b e
holders c an n ot but love a n d f e a r ; his h a ir of th e
color o f a chestnut f ul l ripe a n d pl a in down to his
e a rs ; but f ro m th ence downw a rd m ore o rient of
color w avi n g a bout his shoulders I n the m idst of
his he a d goeth a se a m o r p a rtition of his h a ir after
T

here

h as

J P Lu ndy M on u m ent a l Chri sti a nity p


.

1.

122

the m a nner o f the N a z a r i tes ; his forehe a d very pl a in


a n d s mooth his f a ce wi th out spot or wrinkle be a uti
f u l wit h a comely red his nose a n d mouth so f ormed
th a t nothing c a n be found f a ult with h is be a rd
so m e w h a t thick a gree able to t h e h a ir o f h is he ad
f
gre
n o t of a n
a t length but forked i n the midst
o
y
his eyes blue cle a r a n d quick
a n ino ffe n sive lo o k
In reproving he is severe i n a dmonishi n g courteous
but m ixed wit h
a n d f riendly ; ple a s a nt in speec h
gr a vity
I t c a nnot be remembe r ed th a t a n y h ave
see n h i m l a ug h but m a ny h a ve observed him to
weep
In propo r tion o f body w e ll s h a ped a n d
re st of
a m a n f o r singul a r be a uty exceeding the
1
m a nkin d
,

It Will be observed th a t the reddish waving a bun


d a nt h a ir resembles the sun gods n e a rly a ll of them
bei n g represented with a n a bund a nce of long wa v
ing r ed or yello w h a ir denoting the r ays of the
sun
T h e Imperi a l R ussi a n Collection bo a sts o f a he a d
I t is a
o f Christ whic h i s s a id to be very a ncient

ne int aglio on emer a ld M r Ki n g s ays of it : It


is re a lly a he a d o f S er ap i s seen in f ront a n d crowned
with Persi a boughs e a sily mist a ken fo r thorns t h ough
the bushel on th e he a d l e a ves no doubt a s to t h e re a l
2
person age

s ays M r King th a t
T here c a n be no doubt
,

1
2

Vern on G allery o f B riti sh Art N o


King s G n osti cs p 1 3 7

T he

xxxv n I

1 24
1

being the L i fe to come


T hey cert a inly a dore d
th e cross with pro f ound vener a tion
T his s a cred
sy m bol is to be f ound on m a ny o f t h eir a ncient
monu m ents some o f w h ich m ay be see n a t the
British M useum In th e L ondo n U niversity a cross
upon a C a lva ry is to be seen upon the bre a st of
one of the Egypti a n mu m mies M a n y o f t h e Egyp
ti a n im ages hold a c r oss in t heir h a nd T h ere is
o n e now ext a nt o f the Egypti a n S a viou r
Horus
holding a cr oss in his h a n d a n d he i s rep r ese n ted
a s a n in f a nt on his mot h er s k n ee wi t h a cross on
2
the b a ck of the se a t they occupy
T h e commonest o f a ll the Egyp ti a n crosses the
When
cr u x a n sa ta wa s a dopted by the C hr isti a ns
the S aviour O siris is repr e se n ted holdi n g out the
it sig n ies t h a t t h e person
cr u x a n sa ta to a mort a l
to w h om he presents it h a s put off mort a lity a n d
8
entered o n the li fe to come
T h e Greek cross a n d the cross o f S a int Antho n y
A gu r e o f
a r e a l so f ound o n Egypti a n monu m ents
a S h a ri f ro m S i r G a rd n er Wilkin s on s book ( g 1 4 )
h as a n eckl a ce r o und h is thro a t f ro m whic h d epends
Anoth e r Egypti a n c ross which i s
a pecto r a l cross
a pp a r e n tly i n te n d e d f o r a L a tin cr o ss r i sing out o f
like th e m e d i aava l e m ble m o f cor i n cr u ce
a h e a rt

is the h ieroglyph o f goodness


cr u x i n cor de
1 H i f E ccl
ii ch 2 9
2 R
P Kni gh t A n c ient A t a d Myth l gy p 58
3 C ri
Myt h p 3 8 5
4 H
M g zine N S v o l xv
M W t p in Gentle m n
p 80
,

ou s
.

s,

es ro

o o

1 25

ncient Egypti a n s were i n th e h a bit of putting


a cross o n t h eir s a cred c a kes j ust as Christi a ns o f
t h e pre s f d ay o n Good Frid a y T h e pl a n o f t h e
ch a mber o f so m e Egy pti a n s e pulchres h a s t h e f orm
T h e cross wa s wor n by E gypti a n wom en
of a cross
a s a n orn a ment a s it is wor n t o d a y by C h risti a ns
T h e ensig n s a n d st a nd a rds c a rried by th e Persi a ns
during t h eir w a rs with Alex a nder t h e Gre a t ( B C
1
f
f
o
a
were
de
in
the
orm
cross
m
a
3 3 5)
S i r R obert Ker Porter i n h i s very v a lu a ble work
2
entitled T r a vels i n Georgi a P er si a A r m en i a a n d
A n ci en t Ba bylon i a gives a repres ent a tion o f a b a s
rel ie f o f very a ncient a ntiquity w h ich he f ou n d a t
N a s h i R ou sta m or the M ount a in of S epulc h res It
represents a comb a t between two horsemen Ba
h a r a m Gour one o f the old Persi a n kings a n d a
T a rt a r pri nce
B ab a r a m Gour is i n t h e a c t of
ch a rgi n g h is opponent with a spe a r a n d be h in d h i m
sc a rcely visible a ppe a rs a n a lmost e ff a ced f o r m
w h ich must h a ve been his st a nd a rd be a rer as t h e
ensign is very pl a inly to be seen T his ensign i s a
cross T here is a n other rep r ese n t a tion o f the s am e
subj ect to be seen i n a b a s relie f which shows th e
st a nd a rd be a rer a n d his cross ensign very pl a i n ly
T his b a s relie f b e longs to a period when the Ars a
c e d i a n k ings gover n ed Persi a
which wa s withi n a
century after the t ime o f Alex a nder an d conseque n tly
s
more t h a n two centuries B o
'

T he

'

B onwi ck Egypti a n B elie f p


P 5 2 9 pl xvi
,

2 17

2
.

V ol 1
.

54 5

pl xxi
.

1 26

R obert a lso fo und a t t h is pl a ce sculptures cut


in t h e s o lid rock wh ic h a r e i n t h e for m o f crosses
T hese bel o n g to t h e e a r ly r a ce o f Pe r si a n m on a rc h s
whose dyn a sty ter m in ated under the sword o f Alex
1
At th e foot of M ount N a kshi
a n der t h e Gr e a t
R aj a b he a lso f o un d b a s relie fs a m o n g which were
two gures c a r rying a cross st a nd a rd I t is coev a l
wit h t h e scul p tur e s f ound a t N a shi R o u sta m an d
t h ere fo r e belongs to a period be fore Alex a nder s
inva sion
T h e a ncie n t B a byl o n i a ns ho n o r ed t he cross a s a
re l i gious symbol It is found o n t h eir oldest m o nu
Anu a deity w h o st o o d a t th e h e a d o f
m e n ts
B a bylo n i a n mythology h a d a cross for h is S ign or
sy m bol It is a l so the symbol o f the B abyl o ni a n
2
a ngs on the bre a st o f T i la th
l
A
cross
h
B
a
o
d
g
g
P i le se r in t h e coloss a l t ablet f ro m N i m r o o d n o w in
A n ot h er king fr o m t h e ruins
t h e B r i t ish M u se u m
o f N i n e v e h we a rs a M a ltese cr os s on h is bosom ;
of
N is r oc h c a r r ies a n
a n o t h er f r o m the h a ll
and
emble m a tic n eckl a ce to w h ic h a M a ltese cross is
3

T h e cr u x a n sa ta wa s a lso a s a c r ed sym
a tt a c h e d
bol a m o n g the B abyl o ni a n s I t occurs repe a tedly on
their cylinders bricks a n d ge m s
T h e c r o ss h a s been h o n ored i n Indi a f r o m tim e
im m e m o r i a l a n d wa s a sy m bol o f m ysterious sig
n i c a n c e i n Br a h m inic a l ico n ogr a phy
I t wa s the
S ir

Pl xvii
Egypti a n B elie f p 2 1 8
B o n o m i N ineveh a d i ts Pa l a ces pp
.

03

3 33

40 4

1 28

M r Do an e in h i s Bi ble lli y tb s (p 1 8 6 g
gives a r e prese n t a tion o f a pre Christi a n crucix o f
Asi atic o r igi n w h ich is evide n tly i n tended to rep
resent t h e Hi n d o o crucied S aviour C ri sh n a t h e

P ardoner o f S ins a n d Liber a t o r f rom t h e S e rp e nt


1
Pl a te n u m ber viii s a m e p age i s wit h
o f De a th
out doubt C r i sh n a crucied Inste a d of t h e cro wn
o f t hor n s usu a lly p u t o n t h e h e a d o f t h e C h risti a n
S a viour it h a s t h e turreted coron e t o f the Ephesi a n
Di a n a
In t h e e a rlier copies o f M oor s H i n du P a n tb eon
a re to be seen r e present a tio n s o f C r i sh n a ( a s Wit
tob a) with m a rks o f h oles i n bot h feet a n d i n o t h ers
Figure vi h as a ro u n d h ole
o f holes in t h e h a nds
i n t h e side T o the coll a r h a n gs t h e emblem o f a
h e a rt
T h e monk Georgius in his T i beti n u m A lp b a betu m
p
h
a s given pl a tes o f a crucied god wor
(
shipped a t N ep a l T h ese c r u c i xe s were to be seen
He c a lls
a t t h e cor n e r s o f ro a ds a n d on eminences
it the god I n dr a
N o s oo n er is I n dra born t h a n h e spe aks to hi s
L ike Ap o llo a n d a ll ot he r sun gods h e h a s
m ot h er
a
n in
s
m
o
f
like
the
h
e
is
possessed
ld
e
n
l
c
b
o
o
n
d
a
g
scrut a bl e wisdo m He is a ls o bo rn of a virgi n
t he
2
D a wn C r i sh n a a n d I ndr a a r e one
.

Child Progre ss

d on :
2

87 1

C o x,

Lond n
o

of

Reli gi o u s Ide a s

v ol

i p
.

72

L on

Arya n Myth ol ogy

1 870

v ol

pp

88 , 3 0 4 ;

v ol

ii p
.

I3 1 .

1 29

gods were gener a l ly s a id to spe ak to their


mot h ers a s soon a s they were born T his m yt h wa s
woven into t h e li f e o f Buddh a a n d the Ap ocryp b a l
lVew T esta m en t m a kes the s a me st a tement in reg a rd
1
to C h rist
P Andr a d a 1a C r oz i u s one o f the rst Europe a n s
w h o went to N ep a l a n d T h ibet i n spe aking of the
god w hom t h ey w orshipped there Indr a tells us t h a t
t h ey s a id h e S p i lt h i s blood fo r the s a lv a tion o f the
hum a n r a ce a n d t h a t h e wa s pierced through the
body wit h n a ils He f urther s a ys th a t a lth ough they
do not s ay h e su ffe red th e pen a lty o f the cross yet
2
they nd n evertheless gu r es o f it i n t h eir books
M on sieur G u ign i a u t i n his R eligi on de l A n ti q u i t
tel ls us th a t t h e de a th o f C r i sh n a is very di fferently
rel a ted O ne tr a ditio n m akes h im perish o n a tree
3
to which h e wa s n a iled by the stroke o f a n a rrow
Dr I n m a n s ays :
C r i sh n a w h ose h isto r y so
closely resembles our L ord s wa s a lso lik e h im i n
4
his bei n g c r u c i e d
O n the p r omontory of Indi a i n the S outh a t T a n
j ore a n d i n the N orth a t O ud e or Ayo u d i a wa s
fo u rid the wo r ship o f the cr u ci e d god B a ll a j i or
W i ttob a T h is god W h o wa s b e li eved to h a ve bee n
a n in c a r n a tion o f Vish n u wa s represented with h oles
5
in his h a n ds a n d side
T he

s un

1
2

the G ospel of the I fa n cy of C h ri s t


Q u o ted in Hi ggin s s An a ca lyp si s v o l ii p 1 1 8
Ibid v o l i p 1 44
A n cient F a it h s v o l i p 4 1 1
L ondon 1 8 7 2
Higgin s A n a calyp si s v ol i p 1 47
S

ee

cross h as bee n a n obj ect of pro found vener a


tion a mo n g t h e Budd h ists f r om th e e a rliest ti m es
O n e i s t h e s a cred swa sti ca It is seen o n Buddhist
zo d i a cs a n d is on e o f t h e symbols i n th e Asok a i n
1
It is t h e sect a ri a n m a rk o f t h e J a i n s a n d
s c r i p ti o n s
t h e di stinctive b a d ge o f t h e sect o f X a c a J ap o n i e u s
T h e V a i sh n av e s o f I n di a h a ve a lso t h e s a m e s a cred
2
sign
Acco r di n g to Art h ur L illie t h e only C h ris ti a n
3
m
s
a
s
cros in t h e C a t co b s is t h i Budd h ist sw a stic a
T h e cross is a d o red by t h e f ollo w e r s o f the L am a
o f T h ibet
T h e Budd h ists a n d indeed a ll of the
s e cts o f I n di a m a rked t h ei r f o l lo w ers on the he a d
wit h t h e S i gn o f t h e cr oss T h is cere m o n y wa s u n
doub t edly p r a cticed by a l m ost a ll h e a t h e n n ations
T h e resembl a nce between the a n cie n t reli gio n o f
T h ibet a n d t h a t o f the Christi a n s h a s bee n noticed
by m a ny Europe a n t r a vell e r s a n d m i ssion a ries a m ong
who m m ay be m en t i o ned P et e G re b i llo n P ere Grue
ber Hor a ce de la P a o n B O rv i lle a n d M l Ab b
Hu c
M r Do a n e gives us a represent a tion of the C ruci
1
e d D o ve w orshi p p ed by the a ncients
the sun o f
n oond a y c r ucied in th e he a ve n s w h o in the words

o f Pi n d a r ( 5 2 2 B
i s seen writ h ing on his wi n ged
5
wheel i n the hig h e s t he a ve n
T he

K ing Gn o sti cs p 2 3
2
B u ddha a n d E arly B u ddhi sm pp 7 9 2 2
3 Ibid
p 227
1
B ible Myths p 48 5
5 T h
e Ext a nt O de s o f Pind a r tra n sl a te d by Erne s t Myer s
A p 59
L ond on : 1 8 74
1

his brings to mi n d the doctrine o f cert a in Chris


ti a n heretics ( so c a lled ) wh o m a i nt a ined t h a t J esus
Christ wa s crucied in t h e he a vens
T h e cruci e d Ia o
Divine Love personi e d) is
the crucied Ado n is or T a m m uz ( the J ewish Ad o n a i )
the S u n who wa s put to de a th by t h e wi ld b o ar o f
Aries
one of t h e twelve s i gn s in t h e zodi a c T h e
crucixion of Divine L ove is o ften f ound a m ong
the Greeks Her a or J uno a ccordi n g to the Ili ad
wa s bou n d with f etters an d suspended in sp a ce b e
twee n he a ven a n d e arth Ixion Prometheus a n d
1
Apol lo of M iletus were a ll cr uc i e d
T h e story o f t h e crucixion o f Prometheus wa s a l
le go r i c al for Prometheus wa s only a title o f the sun
expre ssing providence or f oresight where fore his b e
ing crucied in the extremities of th e e a rth signied
origin al ly no more th a n th e re striction of the power
2
of the sun duri n g th e winter m on ths
A gre at number of the sol a r heroes or sun gods
a r e forced to endure being bound which indic a tes
3
the tied u p power of the su n i n winter
Ach i lle u s a n d M e le a gr o s represent a like the short
l ived sun w h ose course is o n e o f toil for others end
ing in a n e a rly de a th a fter a series of wonderf ul
victories a lt ern a ting with periods o f d a rkness a n d
T

ee

S m it h

87 6
3

of

Greek

an d

Rom an B i ogr aphy

Mythol ogy u nder ar t Her a


K ni gh t An cient A r t a d Mythol ogy p

and

Di cti on a ry
.

88

New York

G oloz i h e r , H

ebrew Myth ol ogy p


,

406

Lond on :

87 7

33

gloom
In the t a les of the T roj a n wa r it is re
l a ted of Ac h i lle u s th at he expires a t the S k a i a n or
wes t ern g a tes of e ven i n g H e is sl a in by P a ris who
here a ppe ars a s the P a ni or d ark power who bl ots
out the sun f rom the he a ven
We h a ve the C ru c i e d R ose which is illustr a ted
in the j ewel of the R osicruci a ns T his j e w el is
f or m ed o f a tra nsp a rent red stone with a red cross
o n one side a n d a red rose o n the other ; thus i t is a

T h e R ossi o r R osi cruci a n s ide a


crucied rose

concerni n g t h is emblem a tic red cross s ays H a r


gr a ve Jennings i n his E story of tb c R osi cr u ci a n s

prob a bly c a me f rom the f a ble o f Adonis bei n g


2
ch a nged into a red r o se by Venus
T h e emblem of the T empl ars is a red ros e on a
cross When it c a n be done it is surrounded wi t h
a glory a n d pl a ced o n a c a lv a ry
T h is is the N a u
rutz N a tsi r or R ose o f Isu r e n o f T a mul o r S h a ron
or t h e Wa ter Rose the L ily P a d m a Pen a L otus
3
crucied i n the he a vens fo r the s a lv a tion o f m an
T h e pri n cip a l silver coin a m o n g the R o m a n s c a lled
t h e den a rius h a d on o n e side a perso n ic a tion o f
R om e a s a w a rrior with a h el m et a n d on th e reverse
a ch a r iot dr a wn by f our horses
T h e driver h a d a
cross st a nd ard in one h a n d T hi s is a represent at ion
o f a den a rius of the e a rliest kind which wa s rst
1

'

G W
.

1 8 70
2

C o x, T

le s

of

An cient Gree ce p xxxii


,

T he
Ibid

Rosi cru ci ans p


,

2 60 .

London :

1 8 79

London

34

T h e cross wa s u sed on the r o ll o f


coi n ed 2 9 6 B c
t h e Ro m a n sol d ie ry a s the S ign of li fe T h e l a b a rum
X a n d P in co m bi n a tion
o f Co n st a nti n e wa s the
w h ic h wa s the m on ogr a m o f t h e Egypti a n S a vi o ur
2
O s i r is o f Jupiter A m m o n a n d a f terw a rds of C h rist
8
T h e mo n og r a m o f M ercury wa s a cross
T he
m o n og r a m o f the Egypti a n T a ut wa s fo r m ed by
1
t h ree crosses
T h e m onogr a m o f S a turn wa s a
c r oss a n d a r am s ho r n it wa s a lso a monogr a m o f
5
Ju p i t e r T h e m o n og r a m of Venus was a c r o s s a n d
6
T h e P h oe n ici a n Ast a rte t h e B a byloni a n
a ci r cle
Ba l F r ey a Holder a n d Ap h rodit e all h a d t h e s a m e
7
m o nog r a m
An ov a l se a l of white ch a lcedo n y e n gr a ved in the
.

'
e m oi r es

de l A ca dem i e

Belles L ettr es ( vol

r oya le

des In scr ip ti on s

et

subj ect a st a n ding


gure bet w ee n t wo s t a rs b e ne a t h w hich a r e h a ndle d
crosse s Ab o ut th e h e a d o f the deity is the tri an gle
or sy m bol o f t h e T r i n ity T h is se a l is sup p osed to
be Ph oenici a n T h e P h oe n ici a ns a lso reg a r ded t h e
cros s a s a s a cred S ign T h e goddess Ast a rte th e

moo n
the presiding divinity over the w a tery ele
ment is represented on the coins of Byblos holding
h as

as

Cham bers Encycl op aedi a ar t Den ari u s


2 Celti c Dr u ids
p 1 2 7 ( Lond on :
an d Bon wi ck s
Egypti a n B elie f p 2 1 8
3 Ibid p 1 0 1
4 Ibid p 1 0 1
3 Ibid p 1 2
5 Ibid p 1 2
7
7
7 Bon wi ck s E ypti an B elie f p 2 1 8
a
l
so
o
x
A
ry
a
n
M
C
;
y
g
th ology v o l ii p 1 1 5

36

cco m p a nies the d e ity i n t h e s a me m a n n er a s the


h a n dl e d c r oss is a ssoci a ted wit h th e Persepolit a n
B a byl o nis h a n d Egyp ti a n god s it is s u pposed th a t it

h a d t he s a m e s ig n ic a tion o f
L i f e E t ern a l
It is
a lso t h oug h t th a t it symbolized regener a tion through
w a ter O n B a bylonis h cylinders i t is gener a lly em
ployed in conj uncti o n wi t h th e h awk or e agle eit h er
se a ted on it or ying a bove it T h is e agle is N is
roch whose eyes a re a lw ays owi n g with te a rs for
the de a th o f T a m muz I n Greek ico n ogr a phy Zeus

a
the he ven
is a ccomp a nied by th e e agl e to
symbolize th e cloud On sever a l P h oe n ici a n or u n
cert a i n coi n s of Asi a M inor the e ag le a n d the cross
o toget h er
T
f
h
h
er
e
ore
it
is
t
ought
th
t
the
cross
a
g
1
m ay symbolize li f e restored by r a in
An inscription i n T h e ss a ly i s a cco m p a nied by a
c a lv a ry cross a n d Gre e k c r osse s o f e q u a l a r m s a dorn
C r o s se s o f di ff erent s h apes a re
th e tomb o f M id a s
c o m m on o n a ncie n t ci n er a ry urn s i n It a ly T hese
fo r m s occur u n der a b e d o f volc a n ic t u fa on t h e
Albion M o unt a n d a re of remote a nt i quity
a

But lo n g be fore the R om a ns lo n g be fo re the


Etr u sc a n s there lived i n th e p la i n s of N orth ern It aly
a peo p le t o w h o m t h e c r oss wa s a relig i o us sy m bol
the S ign bene a th w h ich t h ey l a id th e i r de a d to rest
a pe o pl e o f wh o m h isto ry t e lls n ot h i n g k n owing
n o t their n a m e
but o f w h o m a n tiqu a r i a n rese a rc h
,

3 63

ee
.

B ari n g G o u ld s C u ri ou s Myth s
L ondon : 1 8 72
-

of

th e

M iddle

Age s,

I3

le a rned this t h a t they liv e d i n ignor a nce o f the


a rts o f civiliz a tion t h a t t h e y d welt in vill a g e s built on
pl a t for m s over l a kes a n d t h a t t h ey trusted i n the
cross to gu a rd a n d m a y be to r e vive t h eir loved
1
ones whom t h ey com m itted to the dust

h as

ncient cemeteries of Vill a nov a n e a r Bologn a


a n d G o la se c a on th e pl a te a u o f S omm a a t the ex
tr e m i ty o f L ak e M a ggio r e S ho w conclusively th a t
a bove a t h ous a n d ye a rs be fore Christ the cross wa s
2
a lre a dy a religious e m ble m of f requent employment
T h e most a n cient coins o f t h e G a uls were circul a r
with a cross in t h e m iddle l ike l ittle wheels a s it
were with four l a rge pe rf or a tion s T h at thes e
r ou elles were n o t d e signed to represent wheel s is a p
p a re n t from there bei n g only f our spokes pl a ced a t
right a n gles M oreover when the coins of the Greek
type took t heir pl a ce th e cross wa s continued a s th e
3
orn a ment a tion of the coin
T h e r e verse o f the coins o f the V olcm T ectos ages
who inh a bited t h e gre a ter portion of L a nguedoc wa s
i m pressed with crosses their a n gles lled with pel
l ets so like those on the silver coins o f the Edw a rds
t h a t were it not for the q u a lity o f th e m et a l one
would t a ke these G a ul ish c o in s to be th e prod u ction
T h e Le u c I who inh a bited the
o f the M iddle Ages
cou n try rou nd the modern T oul h a d simil a r coins
T he

1
2

C u ri o u s Myth s p 3 64
De M or ti lle t Le S i gne de
,

P ari s 1 866
3 C u ri o u s Myth s p
:

8
4
3

la

Cr o ix a vant le Chri sti a ni sm e

13

N e r P ris
Choisy R oy wa s discovered a G aul
ish coin representing a h e a d in b a rb a rous i m ita ti o n
o f th a t o n a Greek med a l a n d t h e reve r se occupied
by a serpent coiled round t h e circu m ference e n clos
ing two birds Between these birds is a cross wit h
pellets a t the end o f e a ch li m b a n d a pellet in e a ch
1
a n gle
A si m il a r coin h as been f ound in numbers n e a r
Ar th e n ay i n L oiret a s well a s ot h ers of a n a logous
type
O ther G a ulish coins be a r the cross o n both
obverse a n d reverse About two h undred pieces of
this description were fo und in 1 8 3 5 i n t h e vill age of
C r e m i at sur Y en n e a r Q ui m per in a brow n e a rt h en
u r n with a shes a n d ch a rco a l in a rude kistv a en o f
stone blocks pr o vi n g th a t the cross wa s used on
the coins in Armoric a a t the ti m e when inci n e r ation
2
wa s pr a ctised
Just a s the S a int George s cross a ppe ars o n the
G a u lish coins so does the cr o ss cr a mpo n n e o r
T h o r s h a m m er a ppe a r on the S c a ndin a vi a n m oneys
I n ploughing a eld n e a r Bor n hol m in Fye n i n
oi n s
o f s ever a l
1 83
discovery
w
m
a
de
gold
c
a
a
s
5
civ i li
a n d orn a m e n ts belongi n g to a n ci e nt D a n i s h
T h ey were i m pressed wit h a f o ur f oot e d
z a ti o n
hor n ed be a st girthed a n d moun ted by a monstr o u s
hu m a n h e a d intended in b a rb a r ic f a s h ion to r e p
resent t h e rider I n f ro n t o f the h e a d wa s t h e sign
o f T h or s h a m m er
S om e o f t h ese specime n s ex
h i b i te d likewise t h e n a m e o f T hor in R u n es
a

le

at

C u ri

ou s

Myth s p
,

3 49

2
.

bi

I d

0
5

1 40

m a gic a l sign i n connection with storms of wind


T h e Germ a n p e a s a nt r y use t h e S ign o f
a n d r a in
t h e c r oss to d ispel a t h under stor m th e c r oss bei n g
used bec a use it resembles T hor s h a m m e r T h o r
being t h e T hundere r For the s a m e re a son bell s

we r e o f ten m a rked with th e fyl fot or cross of


T hor especi a lly where the N orse settl ed as in
L incolnshire a n d Y orkshire T hor s c r oss is on the
bells o f Appleby S cothern W a ddingh a m Bishop s
N ort on a n d B a r kwit h a lso t h ose o f H a thers age in
Derbyshire M exboroug h in Y orkshire a n d m a ny
more
T h e fyl f ot is the s a c r ed sw a stic a of the Buddhists
a n d th e symbol o f Buddh a
T h e e a rly Ary a n n a
tio n s c a lled the cross a r a n i Its two a rms w ere
n a m ed
r
b
t
a
m
a a n d sw a stic a
T hey were merely
a
p
t wo pieces o f wood with h a ndles a n d by rubbing
toget h er they kindled the s a cred re agn i
Fro m p ra m a tb a comes the Greci a n m yt h o f Prome
theu s wh o stole t h e re o f he a ve n f rom Zeus in a
h ol lo w st aff a n d kindled the divine sp a rk o f li fe in
m an f o rmed o f cl a y
Hence i n worshippi n g the
cross th e Ary a ns were but worshippi n g the elemen t
as a

re

1
.

O n the reverse o f a coin found a t U ga i n is a c r oss


o f equ a l a r m s wit h a circle a t t h e ex tremity o f e a c h
a n d t h e fyl fo t i n e a c h circl e
T h e s a m e peculi a r gure occurs on coi n s o f S yr a
,

W B Wil son
N e w Y o rk : 1 888
1

T he

Cr oss

A n c ient

an d

M oder

n,

1 1

141

cuse Corinth a n d Ch a lcedon a n d is f requently em


ployed o n Etrusc a n ciner a ry urns
I t a ppe a rs on
t h e dress o f a fossor a s a sort o f b a dge o f his o ffi ce
1
on one o f the p a intings in the R om a n C a t a combs
2
T h e cross wa s f o un d a mong the r u ins o f Pompeii
In the depths of t h e f orests of Centr a l Americ a
is a ruined city P a lenque f ounded a ccordi n g to
tr a dition by Vot a n in the n inth centu ry be fore the
Christi a n e r a T h e princip a l building i n P a le n que
is the p a l a ce T h e e a stern fa ca de h a s fourteen doors
O pening on a terr a ce with b a s relie f s between them
A noble tower rises a bove the courty a rd in the
centre I n this building a r e sever a l sm a ll temples
or ch apels with a lta rs st a nding At th e b a ck of one
o f these a lt a rs is a sl a b o f gypsum
on w h ich a r e
sculptured two g u res st a nding on e on e a ch side o f
a cross to which one is extending h is h a nds with an
o ff eri n g o f a b aby or a monkey T h e cross is sur
rounded with rich f e a ther work a n d orn a ment a l ch a ins
T h e style o f sculpture a n d the a ccomp a nyi n g
hieroglyp h ic i nscriptions le a ve n o room f or doubting
i t to be a he a then represent a tion Above t h e cross
i s a bird of peculi a r ch a r a cter perched like the e agle
o f N isroch o n a cross upon a B a bylonish c linder
y
T h e s a me cross is represented o n old pre M exic a n
M S S a s i n the Dresden Codex a n d th a t i n the pos
session of Herr Fej
rv ary a t th e end o f which is a
coloss a l cross i n the midst of w h ich is represented
,

'

C u ri ou s Myths p 3 5 4
Pent ate u ch Ex am ined v ol vi p
,

1 1

1 42

ble e ding deity a n d gur e s s t a n di n g r ound a T a u


1
cross upon whic h i s perc h ed th e s a cr e d bird
A very ne a n d h igh ly poli sh ed cross which was
t aken f ro m the Inc a s wa s pl a ced i n th e R o m a n
2
C a t h olic c a th e dr a l a t Cusco
T h e cross wa s used in the north o f M exico
It
occur s a mongst the M i xte c a s a n d i n Qu e re d a r o
S iguenz a m entions a n Indi a n cross which wa s f ou n d
in t h e c a ve of M ixtec a B aj a Amo n g t h e ruins o n
t h e isl a nd of Z ap u te r o in L ak e N ic ar a gu a were
a lso f o u n d old crosses reverenced by the I n di a ns
White m a rble crosses were f ound o n the isl a nd o f
I n th e S t a te of O oxac a
S t U llo a on its discov e ry
t h e S p a ni a rds fou n d t h a t woode n crosses were erected
a s s a cred symbols so a lso i n A u a to lc o a n d a mong
g
the Z ap a te c a s T h e cross wa s ve n er a ted a s fa r as
Florid a on o n e side an d Cibol a o n the oth er I n
S outh Americ a the s a m e sign was considered sym
b oli c al a n d s a cred
It wa s revered in P a r agu ay
Am o ng th e M uysc a s a t Cum an a the cross was re
g arded with devo tion a n d wa s believed to be e n
dowed with p ower to drive aw ay evil spirits ;
consequently n ew born children were pl a ced under
3
the sign
T h e cross wa s the centr a l obj ect in the gre a t
temple C ogam es
a

Kle m m K ultu rge sch i chte v 1 42 I43


2 Hi
2
in
A
n
ly
i
o
l
ii
p
v
a
a
s
s
s
c
3
p
gg
3 S e e li s t o f a u t h o ritie s in M ii ller
Ge schi chte der Am eri
pp 3 7 1 42 1 498 499
k a n i sh e n U r r eli gi o n en ( B a sil
1

1 48

n ce i ve a n d bri ng forth ; i n o ther words th at she sh all


F r om
give birth to the G od S u n like the Virgin o f S ai s
thi s ide a ar e derived the pi ctu re s whi ch ar e deline a ted in
the sphere of the M agi of whi ch Abu lm az a r h as given u s
a de sc ripti o n
a n d o f whi c h Kirker
S eld o n the fam ou s
P i c R oger B a c o n A lbert the Gre a t Bl a en S tof e r a n d
a g re a t m a ny o ther s h a ve sp oken
We a r e extra c t i ng here

the p assage fro m Abu lm a z ar


W e see sa ys Abu lm a z ar

i n the r s t de ca n o r in the rs t ten de ree s of the S i n


g
g
o f the Vir in a cco rdin
g
g to the tra diti o n s o f the a n c ient
Pers ia n s Ch a lde a n s E gypti a n s o f Herm e s a n d of [Escu
lap i u s a y o u n g m a iden c a lled i n the Per s i a n la n u a e
g g
S ec le n i d o s de Da r z a m a a n a m e whe n tra n s l a ted int o
A ra bi a n by th a t o f A d e r e n e d e s a s i gnie s a c h a s te pu re
a n d i m m a cu l a te vir in
f
a h a nd s o m e u re
ree
ble
o
a
a
g
g
g
c o u nte n a n c e l o n
h
a ir a n d m o de s t m ien
h
h
ld
S
e
o
s
i
n
g
her h a nd two e a rs o f corn ; sh e s it s o n a thr o ne ; sh e
n ou ri she s a n d su ckle s a b a be whi c h s om e ca ll J e su s a n d

the Greek s ca ll Chri s t


T h e Per s i a n s phere p u bli s hed
by S caliger a s a s e qu el o f hi s n o te s o n M a nili u s give s
a b o u t the sa m e de s c ripti o n o f the c ele s ti a l Vir i n ; b u t
g
there i s n o m enti o n m a de of the c hild wh i c h sh e su ckle s
It pl a c e s a l o n gs ide o f her a m a n whi c h ca n o nly be B o ote s
c a lled the fos ter fa ther o f the s o n o f the V irgi n I s i s o r o f
H or u s
T h e S u n i s neither b o rn n or d o e s it die ; b u t i n the
rel a ti o n whi c h the da ys engendered by i t h a ve with the
nights there i s in thi s w o rld a pr ogre ss ive gra d a ti o n o f i n
whi c h h as o ri gin a ted so m e very
c re a s e a n d de c re a s e
ingeni ou s c ti o n s a m o ngs t the a n c ient the o l ogi a n s T hey
ha ve a ssi m il a ted thi s genera ti o n thi s peri o di ca l in c re a se
a n d de c re a s e o f the cl a y to th a t o f m a n wh o a fter h a ving
b een b orn gr own up an d r e ache d m anh ood de genera te s

co

'

'

1 49

n ally a rrived at th e term of th e


ca reer a ll o tted to h i m by N a t u re to tra vel over T h e G o d
o f Day per so nied in the sa c red a lle go rie s h a d there fo re
he h ad h i s cra dle
t o su b m i t t o the wh ole de s t i ny o f m a n
He was a c hild a t the winter sol s ti c e a t
a n d h i s t om b
the m om ent when the d a ys beg in to gr o w U nder thi s
fo r m they exp osed h i s i m age in the a n c ient te m ple s i n

o rder t o re c eive the h o m age o f h i s w o rs hipper s ;


be

the day being the n the s h o rte s t


s a y s M a c r ob i u s
c au s e

T hi s i s the c hild
thi s god see m s to be yet a feeble c hild
o f the m y s terie s he wh os e i m a ge was br ou ght o u t fr o m
the re ce sse s of their sa n c tua r i e s by th e E gyp ti a n s every
ye a r o n a certa in d ay
T hi s i s the c h i ld o f whi c h the go dde ss o f S a i s cl a i m ed
to be the m o ther i n th a t fa m o u s in s c ripti o n wh e re the s e
w ord s cou ld be re a d : T h e fr u it whi c h I h a ve brought

T hi s i s the feeble c hild b o rn i n the


fo rth i s the S u n
m id s t o f the d a rke s t ni ght o f whi c h thi s Virgi n o f S ai s
wa s del i vered a b ou t the wi nter s o l sti c e ac cordi n g t o
Pl u ta r c h
In a n a n c ient Chri s ti a n w ork ca lled the Cb r on i cle of

W a t ch h ow E gyp t
A lexa n d r i a o ccu r s the foll owing :
h a s c o n s tru c ted the c hild birth o f a virgin a n d the birth
o f her so n wh o was exp o s ed in a c rib t o the a d o ra ti o n o f

e
B
on w i cb s Egypti a n Beli e
her pe ople
p
S
e
(
f
T h e S u n being the o nly redee m er o f the evil s whi c h
winter pr o d u c e s a n d pre su m ed i n the sacerd o ta l c ti o n s
t o be b o rn a t the so l s ti c e m u s t re m a in yet three m o nth s
m o re i n the in feri o r re gi o n s in the re gi o n s a ff e c ted by evil
a n d d a rkne ss a n d there be su bje c t t o their r u ler be fo re i t
m ake s th e fa m ou s p a ssage o f the vern a l e q u in o x whi c h
a ssu re s i ts tr i u m ph o ver ni ght a n d whi c h renew s the fa c e
T hey m u s t there fo re m ake h i m live d u rin g
of t he e a rth

an d

d e cr ease s u ntil

he

h as

''

50

th at ti m e exp osed to a ll the i n rm i ti e s o f m o rta l li fe


u ntil he h a s re su m ed the ri ht s o f divinity in h i s tri u m ph
g
S
e
( e Or igi n of A ll R elig i on s pp 2 3 2
In the n a ti o n a l libr a ry there i s a n A r a bi a n m a nu script
co nta inin g the twelve s ig n s
deline a ted a n d co l o red in
whi c h i s a you ng child a l o ngs ide of the Virgin bein g
repre sented i n ab ou t the sam e s tyle as our Virgin s a n d
like a n E gypti a n I s i s a n d her so n

In the r s t de ca de o f the Virgi n ri se s a ma id ca lled


i n A ra bi c A d e ren e d esa
th a t i s p u re i m m a cu l a te virgin
grac e fu l in perso n ch a r m in g i n cou nten a n c e m o de s t i n
h a bit with l oosened h a ir h olding i n her h a nd two e ar s o f
whe a t s i tting u p o n a n e m bro idered thr o ne n u r sing a b oy
A
a n d ri ghtly feeding h i m i n the pl a c e ca lled H ebr a ea
b oy I sa y n am ed I e ssu s by c ert a in n a ti o n s w hi ch s i gnie s

I ssa wh om they a l so call Chri st i n Greek


K
r
her
i
c
(
'd ipu s E gyp ti cu s )
T h e c ele s ti a l Virgi n was repre se n ted in the I ndi a n
z o di a c o f S i r Willi a m J o ne s with e a rs o f co rn i n o n e h a nd
In Kir c her s z odi a c o f Her m e s
a n d the l o t u s i n the o ther
In o ther pl a ni sphere s o f the
sh e h a s corn i n b o th h a nd s
Egypti a n prie st s sh e ca rri e s e a r s o f c o rn in o n e h a nd
In R om a n C a th o li c
a n d the in fa nt H o ru s in the o ther
c ou ntrie s s h e i s gener ally repre s e nted with the c hild i n o n e
h a nd a n d the l o tu s or lily in the o ther In M on tfau co n s
w ork ( v ol ii ) sh e i s repre sented a s a fe m al e n u rsing a
c hild with e a r s o f c o rn in her h a nd a n d the le gend IA o
A st a r i s a t her he a d T h e
S h e i s s e a ted o n c l ou d s
re a din g of the Greek letters from r i ght to le ft sh ow thi s to

i
b
l
e M ytb s pp 4 74
be very a nci ent
B
(
M r C ox tell s u s ( A rya n M ytb s v ol i p
th a t
with sca rc ely a n ex c epti o n a ll the n a m e s by whi c h the
Virgin go dde ss o f the A kr op oli s was kn own p o int to the
a ll

2
5

ven like the wind H i s li ght i s p ower fu l


m o ther the D a wn give s h i m th e be s t s h ar e
w orship am ong m e n
is

an d

hi s

rst

th e

the R i g Ved a he i s sp oken of as str e tching ou t hi s

arm s
i n the he a ven s to ble ss th e w orld a n d to re scu e

i t from the terr o r o f d a rkne ss


All o f the S u n go d s fo r sake their h o m e s a n d Virgi n
m o thers a n d w a nder thr ou gh di ff erent c ou ntrie s d o ing
m a rvell ou s things
F in ally a t the end of their ca reer the
m o ther fr om wh om they were p a rted l o n g be fo re i s by
their s ide to c heer the m in the i r l as t h ou rs Al so the
tender m a idens a r e there the be au ti fu l li ghts whi c h u sh
the E as tern sky as the su n s ink s in the We s t T h e S u n
i s fre qu ently sp oken of as h a ving been b o rn o f the d u sky
m o ther the e a rly d a wn being d a rk or d u sky
T h e M exi ca n Virg in go dde s s S och i qu e tz al the H old
i n g u p o f R o s e s i s repre s ented by Lo rd Kingsb o r ou gh
a s re c eivi ng a b u n c h o f o wer s fr om the e m b assa d o r in
the pi c t ure of the a nn u n c i a ti o n T hi s brings to mi nd a
cu ri o u s tra diti o n o f th e M a h o m e ta n s re spe c ting the b i rth
T hey s a y th a t he wa s the l a s t o f t h e pr ophet s
o f Chri s t
wh o was s ent by G o d to prep a re the way for M a h o m et
a n d th a t h e was b o rn o f the Virgi n by the s m elling o f a
r ose ( An ti qu i ti es of M exico vol vi p p 1 7 5
In

APPE N DI X
L E GENDARY LIF E O F

THE

TH E

UDDHA

ND IA N

AN D IT S

OD IAC

R E LAT ION

TO

very pr o m i nent p art in


the legend a ry li fe o f B u ddha i s very evident B u ddh a was
b orn o n Chri st m as d ay the new birth o f the su n T h e
z o di aca l s ig n for De c e m ber i s a n eleph a nt i ssu ing from a
M a k a ra or L evi a th a n L evi a th a n i s o n e of the sy m b ol s of
the rs t perso n of the tri a d T h e eleph a nt ( M ar tta n da of
the R i g Ved a) i s the sy m b o l of hi s son the sol a r G od m a n ;
there fo re B u ddh a com e s to e a rth in the fo r m o f a n ele
ph a nt W e a r e t old th a t i n spring when a ppe a rs the c on
B
hi
the
u nder
s tell a ti o n V i sa kh a ( A pril M a y
o
d
sa
t
w
a
)
the a ppe a ra n c e of a y ou ng white eleph a nt o f si xde fen c e s
with a he a d the co l or o f coc hine a l with t u sk s S hining like
hi
s o r a n s a n d li m b s
per
e
t
in
e
ntered
the
ri
ht
o ld
f
c
g
g
g
s ide o f h i s m o ther M a li a M aya ; a n d sh e by m e a n s o f a
dre am was co n sc i ou s of the fa c t T h e ni ght o n whi c h the
Bo d h i sa twa entered hi s m o ther s s ide o n th a t sa m e night a
h uge white l o t u s springing from the w a ters a n d p a rting
th e e a rth for s i xty ei ght m illi o n s o f yoga n as [
a y o a na i s
g
s eve n m ile s ]
r ose u p in to the m iddle o f the w o rld o f
Bra h m a T hi s l o t u s o nly the gu ide of m e n [Bod h i satwa]
a n d Br a h m a a r e a ble to re c eive
A ll th a t there i s o f li fe
a n d c re a tive e ssen c e i n the three th ou sa nd
re
a t th ou
g
sa nd w orld s [
the e a rth ] i s asse m b led i n the d ewdr op s o f
th i s migh ty l otus
T

H A T the B u ddhi s t z odi a c pl a y s

i s4
V er y

rly i n B u ddh a s caree r the R i sh i or B rah m i n


A sit i ( the co n stell a ti o n A qua ri u s the W a ter m a n) p a ys h i m
a vi sit a n d i m m edi a tely u p o n h i s pre s ent a ti o n be in s to
g
weep weep s be ca u se he i s old a n d stri cken in ye a rs
a n d c o n s e qu ently will n o t live t o s ee a ll the m a rvel s the
in fa nt i s t o perfo r m N a nd a a n d U pa n a n d a ( the c o n stel
l a ti o n P is ce s the two c r ossed sh or s erpent s o f Bu d
d hi s m the si gn S w as ti ca) the two he avenly s erpent s sym
b ol s of the fa ther a n d m o ther of the u niverse m a ni fe s t the m
s elve s a l so a t a n e a rly peri o d
It i s to be o b served th a t
M aya the Virgin o f the sky a t the m om ent of B u ddh a s
birth m idnight De c e m ber 2 5 was j u s t ri sing a b o ve the
h o riz o n i t being the beginning o f the new so l a r revol u ti o n
T h e c ele s ti a l m o ther die s i n s even d a ys in a ll the I ndi a n
epi cs a n d go e s u p to he aven s i m ply be ca u se the su n h a d
e ntered A qu a ri u s a n d Virgo i s ri sin g u p in the he a ven s
T wo th ou sa nd ye a r s be fo re Chri s t the su n p assed the e qu i
n ox u nder T au ru s b u t a t the ti m e o f B u ddh a s birth i t
p assed i t u nder A r ie s Hen c e the sol a r h ors e with the
B u ddhi s t A rie s) i s
t wo s e r pent s u p o n hi s he a d ( the
B u ddha s sym b o l A s M a ka ra w ith A rie s in h i s m ou th
wa s the c ele s ti a l s i gn i n P a le s tine a t the d a te o f Chri s t s
birth A rie s i s h i s sym b o l a l so
T hi s expl a in s the a tte m pt m a de to kill the S u n go d by a
wi cked king ( Bi m b a s r a in the Ch i ne s e vers i o n) When
the su n i s in A rie s the B u ddhi s t S h aft of de a th ( S agit
t a rins) i s j u s t ri s ing ab ove the h oriz o n a t m idni ght
Whil s t in the e ar lier m a n s i o n s o f h i s ca reer the s even
R i shi s ( U rsa M aj or ) are ne a r the z o di acal m o n a rch Hen c e
the R i shi s a t the pl oughing fe s tival the di sp u te with the
R i shi s e tc
When the S u n king a pproache s the p a ir ( Ge m ini ) he h as
O n the m eridi a n a t m idni ght
to prep a re for m a rri age

ea

T h e fan cy

of

the

6
5

m yth m on ge r

m
n
e
dousl y exerci sed
re
i
by the s ign Virgo S uj a t a with the r i c e a n d m ilk of i m
m o rt a lity i s pl a inly Virgo
M fi ya the Qu een o f He a ven
c o m e s a l so d own in a n epi s o de o f the T ibeta n ver s i o n t o
T h e tree repre s ent s the m a n s i o n Virgo
co m fo rt her s on
i n s o m e B u ddhi s t z odi a cs
T h e b apti sm of the Prin c e
brings i n tree w a ter w o m a n all the i ntri ca te sym b oli sm
o f the su bje c t ; a n d th a t there m ay be n o m i s t a ke a ll the
he a venly go d s ar e brou ght in i n a n o ther epi sode to
a d m ini s ter the Ab hi sh ek a o r fo r m a l ri te
T h e B u ll i s in
the ascenda nt when the su n i s i n Virgo Hen ce a l so
the cow s w i th th eir cele sti al m ilk A fter h i s b apti sm the
the tri a d sym b ol ; so B u ddh a i s
su n re a c he s the M a ni

as
O Ble ssed T R IN IT Y ' T h e s erpent
a ddre ss ed
M u n ch ali n d a twi ne s r ou nd h i m a n d fo rm s a ca n o py o ver
T h e tree over s h a d o w s hi m
He shi ne s like
h i s he a d
the S u n
S co rpi o is repre sented by w om a nly te m pter s by e a rthly
the di se as e o f the sou l A nd as the z o di acal
a ppetite
king a d m it s of n o riv a l ne ar h i s thro ne he v a n qu i she s a n d
co nverts P a p i yan ( S agitta ri u s) a l s o called M ar a or De a th
T hen the Ch a kra va rtin t u rn s the C ha kr a o f Dh a rm a the
T h e white eleph a nt h a s h i s new birth i n
s piritu a l z o di a c
C a pri co rn h i s wh ole birth a ccording to the B u ddhi s ts
He m a r che s a l ong the
a n d c o m m en c e s the sp i ritu a l li fe
H i s p a th in
wa y o f whi c h B u ddhi s t s m a ke s o m u c h
In the old z o di a c the bl oo dy
fa c t i s the p a th o f he a ven
d u ali sm were a cc entu a ted
F rom a b ove
sac r i c e a n d
the su n p assed the e qu in ox u nder A rie s a n d so
2 0 00 B C
the so l a r h or se in I ndi a a n d the r am or l am b in the We st
died for the w orld o n c e a ye a r A t the au tu m na l e qu in ox
the O siri s the O rpheu s the White H o rs e entered the
w i n try h al f ye a r i m aged by the a n c ien ts as the re al m s of
.

57

Pl uto H en ce the gr eat Aswam edha ( h orse sacri fi ce ) of


the A rya n s A t th e spri ng e qu i n ox ( E aster) the su n
h aving bee n wep t o ver by virgin s r os e aga i n Bu t as
B u ddh i sm wa s a pr o te s t aga in s t the an i m al sac ri c e the
s t o ry of the sp i r i tu a l a w a ken i ng of a n a sc et i c wa s su b sti
A ll thi s di sp ose s I th i nk o f M S ten er t s the o ry
tu te d
th a t B u ddha never lived A new su n m yth h a d to b e
m a de for B u ddh a a n d n o t a B u ddh a fo r a sun m yt h
.

( Bu d dba

a nd

E a r ly

Bu dd/ti sm , pp

1 1 0- 1

APPE N DI X C
UDDHA

AS

R E F O RM E R

F IVE h u ndred an d s i x ty ye ars be fore Chri s t a reli gi ou s


re for m er appe a red in Benga l B u ddh a
T h e foll o win g ar e s o m e o f the re su lt s d u e to the sojou rn
o f thi s m a n u p o n e a rth
1
T h e m ost fo r m id a ble prie s tly tyra nny th a t the
w orld h a d ever seen c ru m bled a wa y be fo re h i s a tta ck an d
the fo ll ower s were p a ra m ou nt i n I ndi a fo r a th ou sa nd ye a rs
2
T h e i n s tit u ti o n of ca ste was a s sa iled a n d o ver
t u rned

m
a
P
ly
y wa s for the rs t ti m e pro n ou n c ed i m
o
3
g
m o r a l a n d s l a very c o nde m ned

W o m a n fr o m being c o n sidered a c h a ttel a n d a


4
be a st o f b u rden was fo r the rs t ti m e co n s idered m a n s
e q u a l a n d a ll o wed to devel op her spiri t u al li fe
All bl ood shed whether with the kni fe o f the prie st
5
o r the sw o rd o f the co n q u er o r wa s ri gidly fo rbidden

6
Also for the rs t ti m e i n the religi ou s hi s t ory o f
m a nki nd the a w akeni n g o f the spirit u a l li fe o f the indi
vid u a l wa s su b s titu ted for reli gi o n by the b o dy co rp ora te
It i s c e rta in th a t Bu dd ln wa s the rs t t o pr ocl a i m th a t d u ty
wa s t o be sou ght i n the etern al prin c iple s o f m o ra lity a n d
j u s ti c e a n d n ot in a ni m a l sacri c e s a n d l o ca l fo rm a litie s
invented by the fa n cy o f prie st s

T h e prin c iple o f reli gi ou s prop aga ndi sm wa s for


7
the r s t ti m e i ntro d u ced with i ts two gre a t i n s tr u m ent s

a n d Ea r l
ddb
o
u
the m i ssi on a ry a n d the pre acher
B
y
(
Bu d db i sm pp v vi )
.

I6O

O rm u zd th e G od of L i ght a n d of the good pr i n ci ple


in form s Z o roas ter th a t he h ad gi ven to m an a pl a c e of

If I h a d n o t given h i m thi s
delight a n d a b u nd a n c e
pl a ce o f deli ght n o o ther being w ou ld h ave d o ne so T hi s
pl a c e wa s ca lled Bi r en whi ch a t the be ginning was m ore
be au ti fu l th a n all the w orld whi ch m y p ower h ad ca lled
i nt o exi s ten ce N o thing cou ld e qu al the be au ty of thi s
deli ght fu l pl a c e whi c h I h a d gra nted I wa s the rst wh o
a c ted a n d a fterw a rd s P e t i ar e
whi
h
A
hri
m
n
the
c
i
s
a
r
o
[
b a d prin c iple ] : thi s P e ti ar e A hri m a n full o f de a th a n d
m ad e in the river the gre a t
A dder the
c o rru pti o n
m o ther o f win ter whi c h c o n ge aled the w a ter the e a r th

a n d the tree s
It i s evident th a t the qu e sti o n here i s o nly of the phys
i ca l a n d peri o di ca l evil whi c h the e a rth experien ce s
a nn u a lly by the retre a t o f the S u n whi ch i s the s o u r c e o f
li fe a n d o f li ght for all th a t l i ve o n th e fa c e o f the gl obe
T h e cosm ogo ny co nta in s t h ere fo re o nly a n a lle go ri cal
pi c t u re o f the phen om en a o f N a t u re a n d of the in u en c e
o f the c ele s ti a l s i gn s ; be ca u s e the s erpent or the gre a t
A dder whi c h u sher s winte r int o the W orld i s like the
B ala n c e o n e o f the c o n s tell a ti o n s pl a c ed o n the b ou n
d a r i e s whi ch s ep a ra te the d om ini o n o f the t wo prin c iple s
o r i n o ther w o rd s i n the pre s ent in s ta n ce o n the e qu in o x
o f a u tu m n
T hi s i s the c ele s ti a l S erpent or the S ta r S e rpen t
It i s
i n the he a ven s th a t A hri m a n i s m a de to c reep a l ong u nder
the for m o f a s erpent T h e Bou n d esb o r the Gene si s of

the Pers i a n s h old s the fo ll owing l a ngu age :


Ahri m a n
the prin c iple o f Evil a n d o f D a rkne ss he from w h om all
the evil i n thi s w orld i s pr oc eeding penetra ted i nt o He a ven
u nder the fo rm o f a s erpent a cco m p a nied by Dew s o r ba d

Genii wh os e o nly b u sine ss i s to de s tr oy A nd in a n other


,

1 61

pl ac e w e re a d : A nd when the b a d Geni i de sol ate d the


w orld a n d when the S t ar S erpent m a de it s el f a r oa d b e
tween He a ven a n d E a rth or in o ther w o rd s whe n it r os e

e tc
o n the h o riz o n
N o w a t wh a t ep o c h o f the a nn u a l rev ol u ti o n ri se s the
o n the h o riz o n with
c ele s ti a l S erpent u nited t o the S u n
th a t l u m in a ry ? When the S u n h a s a rrived a t the co n
s tell a ti o n o f the B a l a n c e o ver whi c h the c o n s tell a ti o n o f
the S erpent i s extended in o ther w ord s a t the s eventh
S i gn c ou ntin g fr o m the La m b o r a t the s i g n u nder whi ch
a s we h a ve s een a b o ve the M ag i h a d xed the c o m m en c e
m ent o f the rei gn o f the evil prin c iple a n d the i n tr o d u c
ti o n of Evil i nt o the U niver se

in
says M r D u p u i s
T h e co sm ogo ny of the J ew s
In i t the
tr od u c e s the S erpent wi th a m a n a n d a w o m a n
S erpe nt i s m a de t o s pe a k ; b u t o n e feel s th a t thi s i s p e
cu li a r t o the O rie nta l geni u s a n d bel o n gs to the c h a r a c ter
T h e fou nd a ti o n o f the the o l ogy i s a b s o
o f the a lle go ry
It i s q u ite tr u e there i s n o m enti o n m a de
lu te ly the sa m e
by the J ews a b ou t the S erpent h aving intr o du ced winter
whi c h de str oyed a ll the ble ss ings o f N a tu re ; bu t it i s sa id
there th a t m an fel t the ne c e ss ity of co vering hi m s el f a n d
th a t he wa s co m pelled to till the gr ou nd a n opera ti o n
whi c h i s perfo r m ed in a n d whi c h c o rre sp o nd s to a u t u m n
It i s n o t sa id th a t it w as a t the s eventh th o u sa nd o r u nder
the s eventh S i gn whe n the c h a nge h a ppe ned in the s itu a
ti o n o f m a n ; b u t the a c ti o n of the goo d pri n c iple i s there
divided int o si x ti m e s a n d it i s o n the s eventh th a t i ts re s t
o r the c e ssa ti o n o f i ts energy i s pl a c ed a s well a s the fa ll
o f m a n i n the s e a s o n o f fru it s a n d the intr o d u c ti o n o f the
Evil by the S erpent the fo r m o f whi c h was t a ken by the
b a d prin c iple o r the Devil in o rder t o te m pt the rs t
T hey x the l oca lity o f the sc e ne i n the sa m e
m ort a l s

1 62

coun tri es wh ich are com pri sed u nde r th e n am e of E i ren


o r I ra n a n d t o wa r d s the s ou r c e s o f the
re
t
r
er
a
i
v
s Eu
g
p h ra te s T i gri s P h i so n or o f the A ra xe s : o nly in s te a d o f
Bire n the Hebrew c opyi s ts h a ve p u t Eden as the t wo
lett e rs r a n d d i n tha t l a nguage h ave a re m arkable re se m

bl a n ce
T hi s c osm ogo ni ca l ide a h as been e xpre ss ed by the M agi
i n a n o ther for m
T hey su pp os e th a t fr om ti m e with ou t
end or fr om eternity a li m ited peri o d h as been cre a ted
whi c h in c e ssa ntly renew s itsel f T hey divide thi s peri o d
int o twelve th o u sa nd sm all p a rt s whi c h they call ye a rs in
a lle go ri ca l s tyle
S i x th ou sa nd o f the s e frac ti o n s bel o ng
to the prin c iple o f G oo d a n d the o ther si x t o th a t of Evil ;
a n d th a t there m a y be n o m i s ta ke they m a ke e a c h o n e o f
the s e m ille s i m al divi s i o n s o r e ach o n e th ousa nd co rre
sp on d to o n e o f the s i g n s thr ou g h whi c h the S u n m a ke s
th e tra n s it d u rin g e a c h o n e o f the twelve m o nt hs
T he
r s t on e th ou sa nd they say c orre sp o nd s to the Lam b
the s e cond to the B u ll the third to the T win s e tc
U nder the s e rs t s i x s i gn s o r u nder the s i gn s o f the rs t
s i x m o nth s o f the e q u in o c ti al ye a r they pl a c e the rei gn
an d
a n d the b e n e ce n t a c ti o n o f the pri n c iple o f L i ght
u nder the o ther s i x s i g n s they pl a c e the ac ti o n o f the prin
It i s a t the s eventh S i g n c o rre sp o ndin g to
c i p le o f Evil
the B a l a n ce o r a t the rs t o f the s i gn s of a u tu m n o f the
s e aso n o f fr u i ts a n d o f winter th a t they pl a c e the c om
T hi s
m e n ce m e n t o f the rei gn o f D a rkne ss a n d o f Evil
rei gn l as ts till the ret u rn o f the S u n to the s i gn of the La m b
whi ch corre sp o nd s to the m o nth of M a r c h a n d to E as ter
T hi s i s the fou nd a ti o n o f their the o l ogi ca l sy s te m a b ou t the
di s trib u ti o n o f the o pp osin g fo r ce s of the t wo prin c iple s
to the a c ti o n o f whi c h m a n i s su bje c t d u rin g e a c h sol a r
rev ol u t i o n ; thi s i s the tree of G ood a n d Evil ne a r whi ch
,

'

1 64

It i s then ,

when fe cu n de d by the i m m orta l an d spiritu al


( i n telligen t) a c ti o n of the re E ther a n d by the he a t o f
the S u n o f the e qu in oc ti a l La m b th a t E a rth be com e s a
deli ght fu l a b o de for m a n
Bu t when the S t a r o f da y re a ching the B a l a n c e a n d the
Cele s ti a l S erpent or the s i gns of au tu m n p a sse s int o the
o ther he m i sphere
then i t c o ns i gn s ou r re gi o n s by i ts
retre a t to the h a rd ship s o f winter to the i m pet u ou s wind s
a n d to all the deva s ta ti o n s whi c h the de s tru c tive Geni u s
o f D ar kne ss co m m it s in the w o rld
T here i s n o m o re
h o pe for m a n ex cept the retu rn o f the S u n to the S ign o f
S pri ng o r to the L a m b being the rs t o f the s i gn s
T hi s
i s the R edee m er whi c h he expe c t s
T h e Hebrew d o c t o r s the m s elve s a s well a s the Chri s
ti a n d oc t o r s agree tha t the b ooks whi c h we a ttrib u ted to
M ose s were written i n the a lle go ri ca l s tyle th a t they fr e
ently
repre
s ent q u ite a di ff erent m e a nin
u
q
g th a n the liter a l
s en s e w o u ld indi ca te a n d th a t it w ou ld le a d to fals e a n d
a b su rd n o ti o n s o f the Deity i f we s h ou ld h o ld o n to the
rind whi c h covers sa c red s c ien c e It is prin c ip ally the
rs t a n d s e co nd c h a pters o f Gene si s th a t they h a ve
ac kn o wled ged to co nt a in a hidden a n d a lle go ri c a l s en s e
o f whi c h they sa y we m u s t ca re fu lly a b s ta in fr o m g iving
the interpre ta ti o n to the vu l ga r M a i m o nide s the wi se s t
o f the R a bbie s s a y s :
,

We m u s t n o t u nders ta nd or t ake in a literal sen se


wh a t i s written i n the b ook o n the c re a ti o n n or fo rm o f
i t the s a m e ide as whi c h a r e p a rti c ip a ted by the generality
o f m a nkind ; o therwi s e o u r a n c ient sage s w o u ld n o t h a ve
s o m u ch re c o m m ended to u s t o hide the re a l m e a nin g o f
it a n d n o t to li ft the a llego ri ca l veil whi c h covers the tru th
W h en t aken i n i ts l i teral sen se th a t
c o nt a ined therein
,

1 65

work gi ves th e m ost ab su rd a n d m ost extravaga n t i d e a s


Wh oso ever sh ou ld divine i ts tru e m e a n i ng
o f the Deity
T hi s i s a
ou ght to t a ke gre a t c a re i n n o t div u l gi n g i t
m a xi m repe a ted to u s by a ll ou r sage s prin c ip a lly c o n c ern
It
i n g the u nders ta ndin g of the w o rk o f the s i x d a y s
i s p os s ible th a t s om eb o dy e i ther thr o u gh hi m sel f o r by
m e a n s o f the li ght o bta i ned fr om o ther s m ay su cc eed to
divine i ts m e a ning ; then let hi m be s ilent or if he spe a k s
o f i t let i t be d o ne o nly i n a s veiled a m a nner a s I d o
le aving the re m a inder to be gu e ssed by th ose wh o ca n
he a r m e
.

M a i m o nide s a dd s th a t the e ni gm a ti ca l t alen t wa s n ot


pe cu li a r to M ose s o r to the J ewi s h d o c t ors bu t th a t they
held it i n com m o n with a ll the wi s e m e n of a nti qu ity
Phil o a J ewi sh writer held the sam e opini o n o f the
c h a ra c ter o f the sa c red b o o k s o f the H ebrew s
h
see
i
s
(

tre a ti s e o n the A lleg or i es)


It i s a c kn o wled ged by a ll
sa y s O r i ge n e s
th a t everything there i s wrapped u p u nder

the veil o f eni gm a a n d p a ra ble


Au gu s tine i n h i s Ci ty
o
f God ackn owled ge s th a t m a ny pe ople saw in the in c i
de nt of Eve a n d the S erpe nt a s well a s in the terre s
tri a l P a ra di s e o nly a n a lle go ri ca l c ti o n ( S ee Or i gi n
,

A ll R eli gi ous Beli f , p p

2 1 9 , 2 2 6.

APPE N DIX E
TH E

L E GEND O F

T HE T

RAVELS O F

IS IS

OR

THE

OON

n c ient E gypti a n s a ssoci a ted the M o o n in the u n i


versa l a d m ini s tra ti o n o f the W orld with the S u n a n d i t i s
the fo rm er whi c h pl a y s the p a rt o f Is i s i n the sa cr ed fable
kn o wn a s the hi s t o ry o f O s iri s a n d Is i s We a r e in fo rm ed
by Di o d oru s of S i cily tha t the rs t inh a bita nt s o f E gypt
while a d m iring the s pe c ta cle o f the he a ven s a n d the wo n
d e r fu l o rder o f the w o rld th o u ght to per c eive in he a ve n
t wo prin c ip a l a n d etern a l c au se s o r t wo gra nd divinitie s
a n d o n e o f the m they c alled O s iri s o r the S u n a n d the
T hi s i s c o nr m ed by P o rphyri u s
o ther I s i s or the M o o n
C h aer e m o n a n d by o ther a u th o r s
T h e le gend o f O s iri s
a n d I s i s h a s c o m e d own to u s i n a m u til a ted fo r m a n d the
fo ll o wing i s wh a t Pl u t a r c h su pp o s e s i t t o h a ve been :
A fter h i s ret u rn fr om h i s tra vel s i n E gypt O siri s wa s
invited by T yph o n h i s br o ther a n d riva l t o a b a n qu et
He wa s p u t to dea th by the l a tter a n d h i s b o dy thr o wn

T he S u n
i nt o the N ile
s a y s Pl u t a r c h
o ccu pied the n
the s i gn of the S c o rpi o n a n d the M oo n wa s full ; the
l a tter was there fo re in the s ign o pp os ite to the S c orpi o n ;
in o ther w o rds in the B u ll whi c h lent i ts fo rm to the
e q u in oc ti a l vern a l S u n o r to O s iri s be ca u se a t th a t r e
mo te peri o d the B u ll was the s ign whi ch c o rre sp o nded to

the e q u in ox o f spring As soo n a s I s i s wa s in fo rm ed o f


the de a th o f O s iri s sh e went i n se a r ch o f h i s b o dy S he
i s in fo r m ed by c hildre n th a t the c o i n co nt a ining the b o dy
T

H E a

1 68

terr o r Is i s t ook the o lde s t o n e w ith her a n d e m b arked


o n b oa rd o f a ve ssel t a kin g with her the pre c i ou s c o fn ;
bu t t o w a rd s m o rnin g a s o m ewh a t s tro ng wind h aving ri sen
it m a de her s t op su ddenly I s i s
o n the river Ph ae dr us
retire s a side a n d su pp osing hersel f a l o ne sh e open s the
c ofn a n d pre ss in g her lip s o n th os e o f her h u sb a nd
sh e
ki sse s a n d bedew s h i m with her te a rs T h e y ou ng prin c e
w h om sh e h ad br ou gh t al o ng with her a pproac hed her
s te a lthily fr om behind with as little n o i se as p oss ible a n d
T h e go dde ss per c eived it a n d
s pied her m o ve m ent s
tu rning a rou nd su ddenly sh e give s h i m su c h a terrible
l ook th a t he die s o f terro r
S h e e m b a rk s a ga i n a n d
re tu rn s to Egypt ne a r her s o n O ru s ( H o ru s) wh o wa s
br ou ght u p a t B u t os a n d sh e dep os it s the c o rp s e i n a r e
tired pl ac e T yph o n h a ving go ne h u nt i n g a t night di s
a n d h a vin
c o ver s the co ffi n
g re cognized the co rp s e he
c u t s i t int o fo u rteen pie c e s whi c h he thr ow s a r ou nd in a ll
dire c ti o n s T h e go dde ss h a vin g seen i t go e s to c olle c t
the se s ca ttered pie c e s S h e b u rie s e a ch o n e in the pl ac e
where sh e h a d fou nd i t H owever o f a ll the p a rts o f the
b o dy o f O siri s the o nly o n e whi c h sh e cou ld n ot nd was
th a t o f genera ti o n In pl a c e o f i t s h e su b stitu te s the
ph a ll u s whi c h wa s i ts i m age a n d whi ch wa s co n se crated
to the m y s terie s
S o m e ti m e a fterw a rd s O si ri s re tu rned fr o m the i n fernal
regi o n s to the re scu e o f h i s s on O ru s an d pla ced h i m in a
H e m ou nted h i m s om e say o n
c o nditi o n to de fe nd h i m
T yph o n was va n qu i shed ; Is i s
a h o r s e o ther s o n a w o l f
let h i m e sca pe O ru s felt indign a nt o n th a t a ccou nt a n d
t ook fr om h i s m o ther her di a de m ; bu t M er cu ri u s gave
her in i ts pl ace a hel m et i n the sh a pe of a b u ll s he a d
D up u i s give s com p ara tive pi c t u re s of the le gend an d the
the he aven s fr om th e ti m e w he n th e su n has
s ta te o f
.

I5 9

he m i sphere a n d le ft to the M o o n then fu ll th e


rei gn o f the l o ng nights u nt i l the ti m e when i t rep asse s
to o u r c li m e s
i
o
i
e
n
S
e
O
r
g
pp
(
f A ll

q u itted

ou r

99

APPE N DI X F
AN

E XP LANAT ION O F T H E HE RAC LE ID , O R O F T H E S AC RED


POE M ON T H E T WE LVE M ONT H S AN D ON T H E S U N ,
WO RS H IPPED U NDER T H E NAM E O F HE RCULE S
.

p a ri so n of the le gend of Hercu le s


wi th the co n s tell a ti o n s whi ch pre side o ver the twelve
e e Or i i n o A ll R eli i on s pp
m o nth s i s fr o m D u p u i s
S
(
g
f
g
T

H E

foll owing

co m

87

Wh a tever m ay h a ve been the opini o n s a b ou t Her cu le s


he was su rely n ot a petty Gre ci a n prin c e ren owned for h i s
r o m a nti c a dve nt ure s It i s the m ighty l u m ina ry whi ch
the divinity whi ch
a ni m a te s a n d fru cti e s the u nivers e
h as bee n h o n o red everywhere by the ere c ti o n o f te m ple s
a n d a lt a r s a n d c o n s e c ra te d in reli gi o u s s o n g by a ll n a ti o n s
F ro rn M er oe i n E thi op i a a n d T hebe s in U pper E gypt to
the Briti sh I sle s a n d to the s n ows o f S cythi a ; from a n cient
T a pr ob a ne a n d P a li b o th r a i n the I ndie s to C a diz a n d the
s h o re s o f the A tl a nti c O c e a n ; fr om the fo re s t s of Ger m a ny

ss in gs of
f
i
the
b
rnin
nd
s
L
a
wherever
the
ble
sa
o
b
u
to
y
g
the S u n were experien c ed there the w or ship o f Her cu le s
i s fou nd e s t a bli shed there ar e su ng the gl ori ou s deed s o f
thi s invin c ible G od M a ny cent u rie s be fore the ep och
wh i ch i s a ssi gned to the so n o f A l cm en a or to the sup
p osed he ro of T i ryn thi a a s the ti m e when they m a de hi m
l i ve Egypt Ph oeni c i a
whi c h su rely did n o t b o rr ow their
h
d
a d ere c ted te m ple s t o the S u n u nder
s fr om Gree c e
o
g
the n a m e of H erc u le s a n d had ca rri ed hi s w o rship to th e
,

'

1 72

e viden t th at if Her cul e s i s the S u n a s i s sh ow n by


the a b ove c ited au th oritie s the fa ble o f the twelve l a b o rs
i s a so la r fa ble whi c h ca n h a ve re feren c e o nly to the twelve
m o nth s a n d to the twelve s i gn s o f whi c h the S u n tra vel s
T hi s in feren c e s h a ll be co m e a
o ver o n e i n e a c h m o nth
de m o n s tra ti o n by the com p ari so n whi c h we s h all m a ke o f
e a c h o f the l ab o rs with e a ch o n e of the m o nth s or with
the s i gn s a n d co n s tell a ti o n s whi ch m ark the d i vi s i o n of
ti m e in th e he aven s d u ring e a ch o f the m o nth s
A m o ngs t the di er e n t ep oc h s a t whi ch fo rm erly the ye ar
bega n th a t of the su m m er sol s ti c e was o n e of the m ost
re m a rka ble It wa s on the retu rn o f the S u n to thi s p o int
th a t the Greek s xed the c eleb ra ti on o f their O lym pi c
fe as t s the e s ta bli sh m ent o f whi c h was a ttrib u ted to Her
c u le s ; thi s wa s the o ri gin o f the m o s t a n ci ent e r a o f the
Greek s We sh a ll there fo re x the dep a rture o f the S u n
H er cu le s there in i ts a nnual rou te T h e s i gn o f the
L i o n d om i c il of th a t s ta r whi c h furni she s it with i ts a ttri
b u te s ha ving fo rm erly occu pied th a t p o i nt
hi s rs t
l ab o r s h all be h i s vi c t ory o ver the L i o n ; a n d i t i s indeed
the o n e whi c h h as been pl ac ed a t the he a d of a ll the o thers
Bu t be fo re we s h all c o m p a re m o nth for m o nth the
s erie s o f the t welve l a b or s wi th th a t o f the s t a r s whi c h
determ ine a n d m ark the a nnu a l rou te o f the S u n i t i s well
t o o b serve th a t the a n c ient s in o rder t o re gu l a te t heir
s ac red a n d ru ra l cal end a rs e m pl o yed n o t o nly the s i gn s o f
the z o di a c bu t m ore fre qu ently also re m a rk able s ta rs
pl a c ed ou t side of the z odi ac a n d the va ri ou s co n s tell a
ti o n s whi ch by the ir ri sing a n d s ettin g i ndi ca te the pl ace
T h e pr oof o f thi s will be fo u nd
o f the S u n i n e a c h s i gn
i n the F a stes of O vid in C ol u m ell a a n d c hie y i n the
a n c ient ca lend a r s whi c h we h a ve p u b li shed as a s e qu el to
ou r l a rger w ork
It i s

I7 3

CA LENDAR

PO E M
T IT L E OF T H E F IR S T CAN T O OR
F IR S T M O N T H
O F T H E F IR S T LA B O R
Passage o f th e S u u nde r th e Vi c tory o f Hercu le s over th e
si g o f th e c ele sti a l L i o n c alled Ne m e a n L i o n
th e L i o n o f N e m e a xed by the
th e m or ning o f th e
setti n g i
Ing en i lu s or th e c o n stell a
ti on o f th e c ele sti al Herc u les
.

cu

ECO ND MO N T H

ECO ND L AB OR

enters th e si gn o f Hercu les stays th e L erne a n


the Virgin m arked by th e to tal Hydra the h e a ds o f w h i ch gre w
a ga in wh il st h e i s c ra m ped in
settin g o f the c ele sti a l Hyd ra
h i s l ab or by a craw sh or C a n
c a lle d th e L erne a n Hydra th e
h e a d o f wh i ch i ses a ga i n in cer
th e m or nin g with th e C a n ce r
T he S un

H IR D MO NT H

H IR D LAB OR

Pa ssage of th e S u n a t th e A Centau r give s h ospitality


to He r c u le s ; hi s gh t with th e
c om m en c e m ent o f A u t um n to
th e si gn o f th e B a l a n c e xed Cent a u rs for a c ask o f wine ;
b y th e r i sin g o f th e c ele sti al v i c t o ry o f Her cu le s over th e m ;
Centau r th e sam e wh ose h os h e sl ays a te rri ble wild B o ar
li
s
h
c
i
t
t
cu
o
T
h
s
a
Her
le
en
yed
i
w
i
h devastated th e elds o f
y
j
p
Erym an thi a
c o n stell a ti o n i s r epre sented i n
th e He aven s with a le a the r b o t
tle lled with wine a n d a
thyr su s a d or ned w ith vine
le aves a n d grape s i m age o f
T h en
th e se a so n s pro d u c t
r i se s i n th e evenin g th e c ele s
ti a l B e ar ca lled by oth ers th e
B o ar a n d th e ani m a l o f Ery
m a nth i a
,

I74

FOU RT H MO NT H

FOU RT H LAB OR

e n ters th e si gn o f T r i um ph of H e rc u les over a


th e S c orpi on xed by th e se t
Hi d with golde n h orn s a n d
ting o f Ca ssi ope a c o nstell a ti o n feet of bra ss wh i ch Hercule s
wh i c h wa s for m erly r epresented t ook o n th e se ash ore wh ere it
was r ep o si n g
by a Hind
T h e S un

FIFT H MON T H

F IFT H LAB OR

enter s th e S i gn o f He r c u le s gives ch ase n e ar


th e S a gitt a i s c o n se cr a ted to S tym p h a li
to th e B ird s o f th e
th e go dde ss Di a n a wh ose te m
S tym ph ali a n La ke wh i ch a e
ple wa s a t S tym ph ali a in wh i ch r epre ente d in N o 3 in th e
th e S tym p h a li a n b ird s were to m edal s o f Pe r i n th u s
be seen T h i s p ass ge i s xed
by th e r i sin g o f th ree birds
th e Vu lt r e th e S wa n a n d th e
Eagle pier ced by th e arrow
o f He rc u le s
T h e S un

r u

a,

S IXT

H MO NT H

S IXT

H LABOR

Her cu les c le an s th e stables


Passage o f the S un to th e
o f A u gi a s th e so n o f th e S u n
S i gn o f th e G oa t o r th e C apr i
o r a cco rdin g to o t h ers th e s n
th e son o f N ept u ne a c
c or n
f Nept u ne
He m ake s th e
c o rding to so m e a d gr a nd so n
to th e S u n a c c o rding to o th ers rive r Pene us r un th r ou gh it
T h i s p ssa ge i s m a rked by th e
settin g o f th e r iver o f th e A q u a
r i u s wh i c h ows u nder th e sta
ble o f th e Ca pri co r n a d th e
f wh i ch i s i n th e h a ds
s ur e
th e r ive r
of
o f A r i ste us
son
Pen e us
,

1 76

ti n g of An drom eda o r o f th e m agn i cent gi rdle an d liber


c ele sti a l
W o m an a n d o f h er a te s a M a iden exp osed to a
Gi rdle ; by th at o f th e Wh ale ; Wh ale o r a S e a m onste r like
by th e r isi n g of M edu sa a n d th e on e to wh i ch An drom eda
by th e setting o f th e Q u ee n th e d a ugh ter of Cassi ope was
C assi ope
exp osed
,

ENT H M O N T H

EN T H LAB O R

le aves th e ram o f He r cu le s a fte r his voyage


Ph r ixu s a n d enters th e si gn o f with th e Argo n a u ts in or der to
th e B u ll T h i s tra n sit i s m a rked c nq u er th e R a m r et u r n s to
f Ori o n wh o He spe r i a to m ake th e co nqu e st
b y the setting
wa s i n l ove with th e A tl a ntide s o f th e Oxe n o f Ge ryo n ; h e
a l so kill s a ty a n ni c a l Pri c e
o r Plei a de s ; b y th a t o f B oo te s
wh o per se cu ted th e Atl antide s
th e drive r o f th e Oxe n o f Ic a
a n d a r ive s i
Italy a t th e h ou se
r us ; by th a t o f th e r iver Eri
da n u s ; by th e r i sing o f th e o f Fa u n us at th e r i sing of th e
A tl a ntide s a n d by th a t o f th e Plei a des
Goa t the wi fe of Fa u n u s
T h e S un

ELEVEN T H MO N T H

ELEVEN T H LAB OR

enters th e S i gn o f Hercu les conqu ers a t e rrible


th e T win s wh i ch tr a n sit i s i n
Dog the t a il o f wh i ch w as a
di c te d by th e setting o f th e S erpent a n d th e h e a d o f wh i ch
D g Procyo n by th e c o sm i c a l wa s bri stling w ith se r pents ; h e
fol de fe a t s a l so Cygn u s or th e
r i si g o f th e Gre a t Dog
l o wed by th e stretch ing o t o f Pri n ce S wa n at th e ti m e i n
th e Hydr a a n d by th e ri sing i n whi ch th e Do g st a r sc or ch e s
th e evenin g o f th e c ele sti al th e Ea r th with i ts r e
T h e S un
,

S wan

TW

ELF T H MO NT H

W EL FT

H LAB OR

enters th e S i gn o f Her c u le s travel s in Hespe i a


th e C a n c er wh i ch c orresp o n d s i n o rde r to ga th er Gol d en Ap
with th e l ast m onth indi c a ted ple s gu arded by a Drago
T h e S un

n,

1 77

etting o f th e S tre a m
o f th e Wa term a n a n d o f th e
Centau r ; by th e ri sing o f th e
S h ep h e r d an d hi s S heep a t
the tim e wh e n th e co nstell a
ti o n o f th e Hercu le s Ingeni en
lu s i s desc endi n g t owa rd s th e
o cc ident a l regi o n s called H e s
peri a ; fo ll owed by th e Pol ar
Drago n th e gu ardi a n o f th e
Apple s gr owin g in th e gar
den o f th e Hesperide s ; wh i ch
drago n h e p u ts u nder hi s feet
a s m rked in th e spher e
an d
wh i ch fa ll s ne ar hi m t owards
th e setting
by th e

wh i ch in our sph ere s i s ne ar


th e p o le ; a c cor di n g to o th ers
to c ar ry o ff sh eep with a G o lden
Flee ce He i s prep aring to
m ake a sa cri c e a n d p u ts on a
r obe dyed i n th e bl oo d o f a
Cent au r wh o m h e h a d sl a in a t
th e p assage o f a r ive r
By
thi s r ob e h e i s c o n su m ed with
re ; h e dies an d ends th u s hi s
m ort a l ca reer in o rder t o r e
su m e h i s y ou th in He a ven an d
to e nj
oy th ere i mm or t ality
,

80

ri ce I ndi a n A nti qu itie s v ol i pp 1 2 5


1 2 7 ; v ol iv
p
T o d H i s t o ry o f R aj
a p ou ta n e p 5 8 1
3 7 2 ; L o nd o n 1 8 67
C o len so T h e Penta te u c h Ex am ined v ol iv p 1 5 3
Cha m bers En cy cl op ae di a ar t Cheru bi m S m ith C o m
prehen si ve Di cti o na ry of the Bible a r t Che rubi m
Prie s tley C o m p a ri so n of the I n s titu te s of M ose s with the
H ind oos a n d O ther A n c ient Na ti o n s pp 3 549 ; N orth
u m b e r la n d
1 7 99
F ergu sson T ree a n d S erpent W orship
p 1 3 ; L o nd o n 1 8 68 Wa ke Ph a lli c i sm i n A n c ient R e
ligi o n s pp
Ba r i n g G ou ld L e gend s o f the
46 4 7
P a tri a r c h s a n d Prophets p 1 48 ; N ew Y o rk 1 8 7 2 M au
ri c e H i s t ory o f H indu st a n v ol i p 40 8 ; v ol ii pp 2 2 7
Child Pr ogre ss of R el igi ou s I de as v ol i p 3 ;
ci s eq
M ah abh ara ta
,

NOT E
p a n pp

F or

acc o u

nts

B u ddh a

of

s ee

a-

Cher r ol
-

I7 8 , 2 1 4 , 2 5 , 3 5 5 ,
6 1 , 63 , 69 8 2 , 8 1 , 97 , 1 1 3
,
9
2 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 4,
L
t
xiv
xv
e w, p
u s , pp
8
o
,
,
;
3 74 ; W ass e lj
5
9
13 0 ;v , p
1 06
B u n s en , T h e A ngel M e ss i a h , pp 4 54 8 ;
.

Lo nd o n 1 8 80 M i i lle r A n I ntr o d u c ti o n to the S c ien c e


a s tern M o n a r c hi s m
pp
2 44
H
E
o f R eli i o n
2
8
a rdy
g
pp 6 62 2 3 0 ; L o nd o n 1 8 60 H a rdy T h e L e gend s a n d
T he o rie s o f the B u ddhi s t s c o m p a red with Hi s t o ry a n d
Be al R o
S c ien c e pp 40 5 0 5 2 1 3 4 ; L o nd o n 1 8 66
m a nti c H i s t o ry o f B u ddh a pp 2 442 5 6 ; L o nd o n 1 8 7 5
R hys D a vid s B u ddhi sm pp 3 6 5 3 1 2 9 2 0 4 ; L o nd o n
1 79 ;
L illie B u ddh a a n d E a rly B u ddhi sm pp 68
1 88 1
L o nd o n 1 8 8 1 Le fm an n pp 2 1 5 1 1 2 4 B u ddhi s t Birth
pp 69 7 4 1 1 3 M ara KOp p en v ol
S t o rie s v ol i
pp 8 8 94 1 1 4 S eydel pp 1 63 2 8 1 Dh am m ap a d a
vii pp 3 3 3 3 4 H u c s T ra vel s Bu r n ou f Di vya
vo l
O swa ld S e cret o f the E a s t pp 1 3 5 1 3 7 ;
Av a d ern a
B o s to n 1 8 8 3 Fo u cau x p 3 0 4 S u tta N ap a th a v ol iii
.

81

H i ggin s A n aca l yp s i s v ol ?
Fa ble p 43 2 ; B os to n 1 8 7 0
Bu l n ch Age
p 1 59
D oa ne Bible M yth s pp 2 0 2 3 7 1 A s i a ti c R e s e a r che s
pp 2 8 5 2 86 King G n osti cs a n d their R e m a in s
v ol iii
p 1 67 ; Lo nd o n 1 884 M ah vagga p 1 6 G ath a pp
Pl a th v ol ii p 2 F u m a n A n c ient F a ith s
5 3 1 43 1 65
N ew Y o rk 1 8 7 6 M ii lle r A
a n d M o dern pp 8 2 ci seq
H i s t o ry o f A n c ient S a nscri t L itera tu re ; L o nd o n 1 8 60
Fergu s so n T ree a n d S erpent W o rship pp 5 6 1 1 3 ; Lo n
B u n sen T h e A ngel M e ss i a h p 3 3 ; L o nd o n
d o n 1 8 68
p

1 1

St

H il a ire p

44
of

1 8 80

N O T E 4 For a ccou nt s o f M ithra se e Lu ndy M o n u


D u pu i s
m e nt al Chri s ti a ni ty p 1 67 ; N ew Y o rk 1 8 7 6
T h e O ri gin of A ll R eli gi ous Belie f pp 2 46 2 4 7 ; tra n s
fr o m the F ren ch N ew O rle a n s 1 8 7 2
H iggin s A n a
p 2 1 8 ; vol ii pp 5 8 5 9 65 99 R en a n
ca lyp si s v ol i
Hibbert L e c t ure s p 3 3 B o nwi ck E gypti a n Belie f p
2 40
King Gn os t i cs a n d their R e m a in s pp 47 5 1
H iggi n s Celti c Dr u id s p 1 63 ; L o nd o n 1 8 2 7 Ch i ld
Pr ogre ss o f R eligi ou s I de as v ol i pp 3 2 7 2 2 7 9 T h e
A ngel M e ssi a h p 2 87 C olen so T h e Penta te u c h Ex
iv p 1 5 3 ; Lo nd o n 1 863
D oa ne B i bl e
v ol
a m in ed
M yth s 3 7 6 B u n ce Fa iry T ale s p 1 8 ; N ew Y ork 1 8 7 8
D u nl a p M y s teri e s of A d o n i p I3 9 ; Lo nd o n 1 86 1 Bar
i n g G ou ld Legend s o f the P a tri a r ch s a n d Pr ophet s pp 1 7
M ii ller A H i st ory of A n c ient S a n
1 87 2
1 8 ; N ew Y o rk
A si a t i c R e se a r che s v ol v
sc rit L iter a t u re pp 40 5 ci seq
p 2 7 0 Will i am s H i nd u i sm pp 2 4 1 7 6 2 1 4 R awli n
W e stropp A n ci ent S y m b ol W or
so n H er o d o t u s p 1 7 1
M illler Chip s fr om a Ger m a n W o rk sh op
s hip pp 2 5 4 7
ii pp 2 7 7 2 90 ; Lo nd o n 1 87 6 Kni ght A n ci en t
v ol
A rt a n d M yth ol ogy p 1 5 6 ; B osto n 1 87 6
.

1 82

NOT E

nt s o f O siri s H o ru s Is i s N ei th a n d
S a ra p i s s ee the foll owin g a u th o ritie s : Pri c h a rd A n A n a ly
s i s o f E gypti a n M yth o l ogy pp 5 5 1 0 9
B o nwi ck E gyp
1 86 2 61
2 8 7 3 96 4 0 4 4 1 2
R en ou f
ti a n Belie f pp 1 40
R eli gi o n of A n cient Egypt pp 8 3
Kenri
c
k
A
n
ient
c
3
9
E gyp t u nder the Ph a ra o h s v ol i pp 2 83 4 2 4 ; N ew
Y ork 1 8 5 2 H iggin s A n a ca lyp s i s v ol i pp 1 3 8 3 0 4 ;
pp 99 1 0 2 M au ri c e I n d i a n A nti qu itie s v ol i
v ol i i
p 1 2 7 ; v ol ii pp 1 4 2 1 9 Ra wlin so n Hibbert L e c tu re s
p 1 0 5 T h e H i st ory o f Her o d o tu s b o ok ii pp 1 7 0 1 7 1
N ew Y ork 1 8 7 1 B a ring G ou ld L egends o f the P a tri a r ch s
p 1 9 S ep th e n e s T h e R eli gi o n o f the
a n d Pr o phet s
A n c ient Greek s p 2 1 4 ; tra n s fr om the F ren ch ; L o nd o n
King G n os ti cs a n d their R e m a i n s p 7 1 n o te
1 7 88
p 1 0 9 Dra per H i s t o ry o f the C o n i c t between R eli gi on
C o ry A n c ient
a n d S c ie n c e pp 4 7 4 8 ; N ew Y o rk 1 8 7 6
F ragm ent s pp 8 0 8 1 ; L o nd o n 1 8 7 6 T h e H i s t ory o f
C o rneli u s T a c it u s b oo k v c h iii ; L o nd o n 1 83 1 K ni ght
A n c ient A rt a n d M yth ol ogy p 98 ; N ew Y ork 1 8 74
G old z i h e r M yth ol ogy a m o n g the Hebrew s pp 2 2 1 2 7
R a wlin so n T h e R e
3 2 0 3 2 2 3 92 44 6 ; L o nd o n 1 8 7 7
L ond on
li gi o n s o f the A n c ient W o rld pp 1 7 et seq
F ergu sso n T ree a n d S erpent W orship p 5
I nm a n
A n c ient F a ith s e m b o died i n A n c ient N a m e s v ol i p
i i pp 2 84 679 7 67 8 3 1 ; L o nd o n 1 8 7 2
1 5 9 ; v ol
S q u ire s T h e S erpent S ym b ol pp 3 9 7 8 ; N ew Y o rk
O ort Bible for Le arners v ol i p 3 0 1 ; B os t on
1 85 1
M ii lle r O ri gin a n d Gr owth of R eli gi o n p 1 3 0 ;
1 87 8
L o nd o n 1 8 7 3 C ox T h e M yth ol ogy of the A ry a n N a ti on s
pp 1 1 5 1 2 5 1 5 7 ; L o nd o n 1 8 7 0 D u p u i s T h e
v o l ii
O ri gin of A ll R eli gi o n s pp 7 3 2 5 6 2 63 3 97 Child
Pr ogre ss o f R eligi ou s I de as pp 2 5 7 2 5 9 R en ou f T h e
S t o ry o f A n c ien t E gypt pp 3 4 3 5 ; N ew Y ork 1 8 87
5

F or

accou

84

M yth ol ogy of A n c ient Gree c e p 2 1 5 ; N ew Y ork 1 843


King Gn o sti cs a n d the i r R e m a in s pp 4 8 70 Pri ch ard
A n A n a ly sis of E gypti an M yth ol ogy pp 49 5 o 7 5 9 5
1 13
1 19
G ile s Hebrew a n d Chri s tia n R e cord s p 86 et
1 853
se
L
o
nd
o
n
S
cra
te
s
E
c
le
i
ti
l
H
i
t
ry
o
c
s
as
ca
s
o
;
q
b ook v ch xxii Lo nd o n 1 63 0 Higgins A n a ca lyp s i s
pp 2 3 72 43 T a yl o r Diege s i s pp 2 1 4 2 3 2 Du
vol i
p u i s O ri gin o f A ll R eli gi ous Belie f pp 2 3 72 5 7 Lu ndy
M o nu m enta l Chri sti a nity p 3 99 Du nl ap M y s terie s of
A d o ni pp 94
x
6
C
T
h
M
yth
l
y
the
A
ry
o
e
o
o
f
a
n
o
9
g
N a ti o n s v ol i pp 8 4 1 0 7 ; v ol ii pp 47 4 8 Child
Progre ss o f R eli gi ou s I de as v ol i p 2 1 4 I n m a n A n
Fa ber
c ient F a ith s a n d M o dern p 3 0 4 ; N ew Y o rk 1 8 7 6
O ri gin o f P aga n I d ol a try vol i p 44 3 ; F ergusso n T re e
a n d S erpent W o r ship pp 1 0 1 3
3 1
.

N O T E 7 For a ccou nts of B acchu s see D u pu i s O ri gin


1 75
2 57
H iggin s
8 0
o f A ll R eli gi ou s Belie f pp
3 52
Ana ca lyp s i s v o l i pp 2 2 1 3 0 5 3 2 2 3 2 8 ; v ol i i pp 1 9
Pri c h a rd A n A n alys i s o f Egypti a n M yth ol ogy pp 3
1 02
1
I
1
1
yl
r
Die
e
i
pp
0
T
a
o
s
s
2
8
2 12 213
2 1 63
7
7
g
9
Hym n s of O rphe u s King Gn os ti c s a n d their R e m a in s
p 49 O ort B ible fo r L e a rners v ol iii p 67 Bell s
P a nthe o n v ol i p 1 1 8 ar t B acch u s M o nt fau con
Fa ber
l A n ti qu i t Expli q u e v ol i p 2 1 1 ; P a ri s 1 7 2 2
O ri gi n o f P aga n I d ola try v ol i p 443 I n m a n A n c ient
F a ith s a n d M odern p 3 0 4 ; L o nd o n 1 8 7 6 Bu l n ch
C o x T a le s o f
Age o f F a ble p 2 2 0 ; B o s t o n 1 8 7 0
A n c ient Gree c e p xxxi i ; L o nd o n 1 8 7 6 H i ggin s Cel
1 82 7
B o nwi ck Egypti a n
t i c Dru id s p 1 2 7 ; Lo nd o n
Belie f p 2 1 2 ; L o nd on 1 8 7 8 L u ndy M o nu m enta l Chri s
D u nl a p Ve s ti ge s of the S pirit Hi s t ory of
t i a n i ty p 1 2 5
T ayl or Ele us i ni a n an d
M a n p 2 1 7 ; N ew Yo rk 1 85 8
.

B acchi c M ys ter i e s
A n c ient W orld

85

Ra wlin so n

R eli gi o n s

T he

the

of

N O T E 8 For a ccou nt s of the S ca ndin avi a n god s a n d


G
dde
N
o rthern A nti q u itie s
old z i h er
ss e s s e e M a llet
o
g
M yth ol ogy a m o ng the Hebrew s p 4 3 0 Kni ght A n c ient
A rt a n d M yth o l ogy p 8 5 Ch am b ers E n cyclop ee di a a r t
Y u le Bul n ch Age o f Fable
.

N O T E 9 F or accou nt s of O stara a n d th e A n c ie n t
D ru i d s se e Hi ggin s A n a calyp s i s v ol ii pp 5 9 99 1 0 8
Ch am bers E n cy cl op aedi a ar t E as ter Du p u i s
2 59
1 0 9
O rigi n o f All R el igi ou s Belie f pp 2 3 7 2 5 7 H iggin s Celt i c
Dru id s p 1 63 ; T ayl or D iege s i s pp 1 67 1 84 Lu ndy
M o nu m enta l Chri s ti a nity p 1 67 F o rl o ng R ivers of L i fe
p 3 5 5 Lo nd on 1 883 Bu l n ch
o r F a ith s o f M e n vol i
Age o f F a ble
.

N O T E 1 0 For au th oritie s o n Ch i n a se e S e m ed o H i s
t o ry o f Chin a p 2 89 T h o rnt o n H i st ory of Chin a v ol i
pp 3 0 1 3 7 ; L o nd o n 1 844 Hi ggin s A n aca lyp s i s v ol ii
p 2 2 7 Child Progre ss R eli gi ou s I de a s v ol i pp 2 0 6
2 10
C olen so Penta te u c h Ex am ined v ol i v p 1 5 2
B a ring G ou ld L e ge n d s of the P a tri a r c h s a n d Prophet s
p 2 8 D oa ne Bible M yth s p 1 4 Gross T h e He a t hen
R eli gi o n p 60 ; B os to n 1 8 5 6 C u tz laff s Voyages p 1 5 4
Le gge T h e R el igi o n s of Ch i n a
.

N O T E 1 1 For a cc ou nt s o f Que tz alcoa tle see Kings


b orough M exi ca n A nti q u itie s v ol vi pp 5 1 66 1 67
1 76 2 2 0
Am berly R eligi ou s
3 6 1 3 69 ; L o nd o n 1 8 3 1
Bel i e f pp 49 et seq ; N ew Y o rk 1 8 7 7 ; S qu ire s T h e S e r
pent S y m b o l pp 1 6 1 1 7 5 ; Brint o n M yth s of the N ew
.

86

W orl d pp 95 1 8 0 1 8 1 2 0 3 2 0 4 ; N e w Yo rk 1 868
Lu ndy M o nu m ent a l Chr i s ti a nity p 3 93 I n m a n A n cient
Fa ith s an d M o dern pp 3 3
Bar
3 7 ; N ew Y ork 1 8 7 6
i n g G ou ld L e gend s o f the P a tri ar c h s a n d Pr ophet s p I1 9
W e str opp A n c ient S y m b ol W orship
H u m b oldt R e
s e a r c he s v o l i
p 9 1 L o nd o n 1 8 1 4 Pre sc ott H i st o ry
p 60 ; Phil a delphi a
of the C o n q u e s t of M exi c o v ol i
1 8 73
F ergu sso n T ree a n d S erpent W orship p 3 7 ; Lo n
d o n 1 868 A cos t a T h e N a t u ral a n d M o ra l H i s t o ry of the
I ndie s p 5 1 3 ; L o nd o n 1 60 4 F o rl o ng R ivers o f L i fe
v ol i
pp 94 1 43 2 42 ; v ol ii pp 94 490 499 5 0 1
R eville T h e N a tive R eli gi o n s of M exi co a n d Peru
.

N O T E 1 2 F or a ccou nt s o f I ndi a n S a vi ou rs see S qu ire s


S c h ool c r a ft N o te s o f the
S erpent S y m b o l pp I8 7 1 92
I roqu o i s F orlon g R ivers of L i fe v ol i pp 496 497 5 0 1
.

N O T E 1 3 For accou nt s of T a m m u z or A d o ni s ( A d o n ai
i n Hebrew ) see Pri c h a rd A n c ient E gypti a n M yth o l ogy
pp 64 66 King Gn osti cs p 1 0 2 C ox T h e M yth ol ogy
pp 84 1 1 3 1 2 5 I n m a n
v ol ii
o f the A ry a n R ac e
A n c ient Fa ith s e m b o died i n A n c ient N a m e s v ol ii pp
Lu ndy M o nu m enta l Chri sti a nity pp 2 1 6 2 2 4
2 13
3 50
D oa ne Bible M yth s p 2 2 0 C olen so L e c tu re s pp 2 97
Hi ggin s A na ca lyp si s v ol ii pp 99 1 1 4 C olen so T h e
Penta te u c h Exa m ined v ol i p 1 1 5 App Du p u i s
O ri gi n of A ll R eli gi ou s Belie f pp 1 6 1 2 3 3 T ayl or
D ie ge s i s pp 1 621 64 Gr oss T h e He a then R eligi o n p
D u nl ap Ve s ti ge s o f the S piri t Hi s t ory of M a n p 2 1 6
2 87
D u nl a p T h e M ys terie s of A d oni p 2 3 D u nl a p S od the
M illle r In
S o n o f the M a n pp vi i 3 9 ; L o nd o n 1 86 1
1 86
Ezekiel
tr od u c ti o n t o the S c ien c e o f R eli gi o n p
viii I4 ; J ere m i a h xliv 1 6 2 2 Kin g G n osti cs p 9 1
.

IN DE X

Ab r a h a m , 49 , 63 , 8 7
A c h ille s , 7 3 , 1 3 2 , I3 3

A sok a , 5 8, 9 1 , 9 8,
A u g a s, 1 74

A c h yu ta ,

diti

1
5

1 4 8, 1

ra

51

'
1
6
8

79 5 5
B rah m a. 44 . 4 8: 5 7: 1 2 7: 1 5 3
B u ddh a , 49 5 9, 98 . 1 00 . 1 09.
)

74

57

1 1

Cassi ope 1 75
Cere s 72
Ch a ndragu pt a
Ch em osh 88
C h r i st 3 0 5 6

2,

1 0 9.

4 9, 8 6,

5 5,

1 40 .

I 0
5

91

2,

6o , 66, 68,

1 48 ,

c r i sh n a :
I5 4

Asit a , 5 1 ,

6
2
8
8
.
.
.
9
5

3 01

i sto bu l u s 1 1 4
u na 3 9
A rj
50
A ru sh a 1 5 1
A rya n s 2 8 2 9
,

58

4 8 , 4 9, 5 4, 9 1 . 9 3 :

C a dm u s 7 1
Capri c or nu s

Ar

1 0 8)

9 7:

A r i ste u s,

B u ddh i sts

43

l cm ene 68 1 70
A lex a nde r 4 2 9 8 1 2 5 1 2 6
A l go nq u in s 8 3
A n a nda 5 4 5 6
A ndr om ed a 1 76
Api s 8 8
A qu a i u s 86 I5 4 1 74 1 7 5
Ar ie s 3 0 1 0 8 1 3 2 I5 4 1 5 6

87

A i th r a ,

don i 1 3 2
A d o i s 84 I3 2 1 3 3
A f si ab I63
Aga th o n 1 1 1
Agni 1 2 7 1 40
A h ri m a n 1 5 9 1 65
,

B a al 88
B abel 4 8 80 86
B a c ch u s 7 1
73
B al a Ra m a 4 9
B ald u r 74 1 3 9
B a ll aji 1 2 9

41
A d e r e n e d e sa ,
,

13 0

3 7 4 3 , 4 9
-

0:

66)

1 90

c r o ss: 3 2- 3 4 : 40 : 4 5 : 63 : 741
1
1
0
8
1
2. 1 1 5.
.
.
.
.
9
99
9
s
7
1 2 4- 1 4 3

Frey 74
F r i gg
74
.

a.

C r u ci e d . 3

33

1-

G t m 5 7 1 00
Ge yo 1 76
G eth sem a ne 90
Gn osti cs 1 1 5

40 . 7 3 . 7 8.

au a
r

Cyb ele
Cyr ene

73

74

75

a,

n,

G o li a h , 74

Gym n

Dah a n a 4 1
Da n a e 1 5 1
Daph n e 4 1
Da vid 74
Del u ge 4 8 6 1 6 7 68 74 7 7
.

o so

ph i sts

9 7,

Hebre ws 8 8 89
Hell o H a de s 3 2

Dev a d a tta 5 2
Devaki 3 7 4 1 66 1 5 1
DEVI] 4 3 78 8 1 8 9 1 0 2
,

1 03

0
7

1 77

1 68

Di a n a 1 74
Di o m ede s I75
Di o nysi u s 7 1
Dove . 4 s 8 5 I3 0

Her
0
Herc le s 68
1
1
7
5
H m er 42
H ru s 65 66 1 2 4
u

6
0
,
,
9
5
a , 68

3 3 , 4o , 5 6,
6 5 , 74 . 79. 84 . 89

I4 S ,

0
5 ,

n c ar na ti on

8 3 , 89

Ea ster 75 76 1 62
Eden 4 7 6 1 74 76
,

Ed u e s, 8 3
sh a , 4 9

Eli

Io k aste,

85 ,

62

uo

1 2 8, 1 2 9

15 1

r q is

Io

83

Isa a c , 4 9
Isa a h , 4 2

Eo p u co , 7 8

Indr a , 4 1 ,

3 4, 4 2 , 4 9, 5 0 , 8 2 ,

Essenes 9 1 1 00 1 0 8
Eu ch a ri st 3 3 5 9 6 1
,

1 1

1 19

i s 65 6 7 I4 8 1 5 0
Ixi o n 73 1 3 1 1 3 2
Izd ub ar 8 7
Is

64 , 7 2 ,

69

1 66

7 9. 8 5

Je s s 3 0 6o
Je su s Ch ri t
u

Fa u n u s

I7 6

FI
S 1} , 3 3 , 4 5 , 4 9, 69 :

s4s

55

89

69 ,
3 8,

1 2 2 , 1 2 7,

1 4 8 , I5 O

66, 8 4, 8 5 ,

1 2 9,

I3 2 ,

1 3 4,

1 92

S akya S u h a ,

I5 5

S am son , 4 9, 69, 8 7
S an d o n , 8 7
.

5 6,

S e m ele , 7 1
S e r api s, 68,

74

S a n d rac o ttu s, 9 1
S avi o u r , 2 8, 3 6, 4 1 , 4 3 , 5 1 , 5 6,
66 79, 84, 1 00 , 1 2 7, 1 2 8
1

S c orpi o,

ien 7 5 76
T e fo il 4 5 63
T i a gle 4 5 1 3 4
T i n ity 2 9 4 1 44
T

78 , 8 3

85,

I3

ip od 4 5
T yph o n 1 68
T

64 74 769
1 56

4,

1 0 7, 1 2 2 , 1 2 3

S iddh arth a , 5 o, 9 1
S iva , 44 , 4 7, 4 8, 1 2 7

U p a n a n d a,
U ri e l , 8 9

oc h i

t
z a l,
u
e
q

S om a, 4 7
a t a, 1 6
S uj
5

I5 4

8 81,

1 52

Virgi

n: 2

9: 3

O:

6
1
6
3 : 4 : 5 84;

S wasti ca ,

Vi sh

1 3 0 , 1 40 , 1 5 4, I5 5

S wayam b h u r a , 4 8

3 6: 3 7: 4 1 1 4 2 : 44 ) 49 2

n u;

1 2 9. Iss

W i ttob a

l m u d I1 3
T a m m u z 84 8 5 1 3 2 1 3 6
T a u r u s I5 4
T ez c a tlip o ca 7 7
79
T h a so s 70 I7 1
T h er a pe u tae 93
98
T hese u s 1 5 1
T h or 74 1 3 8 1 3 9 1 40
T

1 29

a r,

Y le
u

89

74

e t b an

87

3 6,

151

Z o m o , 83
Z o oas r, 62 ,

1 60

Z e u s, 68 ,

te